Make – Wearable Electronics – Design, prototype, and wear your own interactive garments

Make – Wearable Electronics – Design, prototype, and wear your own interactive garments
اسم المؤلف
Kate Hartman
التاريخ
6 ديسمبر 2023
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167
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Make – Wearable Electronics – Design, prototype, and wear your own interactive garments
Kate Hartman
Table of ContentsConductive Thread . 38
Properties of Conductive Thread 39
Working with Conductive Thread . 40
Types of Conductive Thread . 40
Conductive Fabric 40
Properties of Conductive Fabric . 41
Working with Conductive Fabric 42
Types of Conductive Fabrics . 42
Other Conductive Materials . 43
Conductive Yarn 43
Conductive Fiber . 44
Conductive Felt . 44
Conductive Ribbon . 44
Conductive Fabric Tape . 45
Conductive Hook and Loop . 46
Conductive Paint . 46
Everyday Stuff 46
Choosing Conductive Materials . 47
Experiment: Wearable Circuits . 48
What’s Next 49

  1. Switches . 51
    Understanding Switches 51
    Poles and Throws . 52
    Types of Switches . 53
    Off-the-Shelf Switches 53
    Tactile Buttons 54
    Latching Buttons . 54
    Toggle Switches 54
    Slide Switches 55
    Microswitches 55
    Tilt Switches 55
    DIY Switches 56
    Sandwich Switch . 56
    Contact Switch . 58
    Bridge Switch . 61
    Pinch Switch 62
    Other DIY Switches . 62
    Experiment: Social Switches . 63
    Conclusion . 64
  2. E-Textile Toolkits . 65
    LilyPad . 65
    Modules 66
    Experiment: Let’s Get Twinkly . 68
    vi Make: Wearable ElectronicsExperiment: Let’s Get Tiny . 69
    Flora . 70
    Modules 70
    Aniomagic 71
    Modules 71
    Experiment: Let’s Get Sparkly . 72
    Thinking Beyond . 76
  3. Making Electronics Wearable 77
    Why Wear It 77
    What Makes Something Wearable . 77
    Comfort 78
    Durability 79
    Usability 81
    Aesthetics 82
    Designing a Wearable . 82
    Choosing a Form . 82
    Choosing Materials . 86
    Choosing Components . 86
    Creating a Layout . 86
    Iterative Design . 88
    Experiment: Eight-Hour Wearable . 89
  4. Microcontrollers . 91
    Hardware . 92
    Software . 95
    Hello World . 98
    Experiment: Gettin’ Blinky . 100
    Digital Output . 101
    The Circuit 101
    The Code 102
    Power . 103
    Experiment: Morse Code Messages 103
    Digital Input . 104
    The Circuit 105
    The Code 106
    Experiment: Button as Controller . 107
    Analog Input 108
    The Circuit 108
    The Code 109
    Experiment: Sensor as a Switch 110
    Analog Output 110
    The Circuit 110
    The Code 111
    Experiment: Sensitive System 111
    Table of Contents viiWhat’s Next . 112
  5. Sensors . 113
    Working with Sensors . 113
    Getting to Know Your Sensor 113
    Voltage Divider Circuit . 115
    Communicating with I2C 116
    Working with Sensor Data . 117
    Thresholds 117
    Mapping 119
    Calibration 120
    Constraining 121
    Smoothing 122
    Experiment: Wooo! Shirt . 122
    What to Sense . 124
    Flex . 124
    Force 126
    Stretch 127
    Movement, Orientation, and Location 128
    Heart Rate and Beyond 131
    Proximity 133
    Light 135
    Color 136
    Sound 137
    Temperature 138
    DIY Sensors . 141
    Experiment: Body Listening 142
    Other Sensors . 143
  6. Actuators . 145
    Light 145
    Basic LEDs . 145
    Addressable LEDs . 149
    Fiber Optics . 153
    Electroluminescent Materials 158
    Experiment: Be Safe, Be Seen 162
    Sound . 163
    Buzzers . 163
    Tones . 165
    Audio Files 168
    Experiment: Wearable Instrument 171
    Motion 172
    Vibrating Motors 172
    Servo Motors 174
    Gearhead Motors 177
    viii Make: Wearable ElectronicsExperiment: Shake, Spin, or Shimmy . 187
    Temperature 188
    Fans 188
    Heat 190
    Experiment: It’s Gettin’ Hot in Here . 191
    Conclusion 191
  7. Wireless . 193
    Bluetooth . 193
    Experiment: Communicating with Bluetooth . 194
    Hello XBees . 200
    Configuring XBees . 200
    Experiment: XBee and Arduino . 206
    Experiment: XBee Direct Mode . 210
    Other Wireless Options 212
    Thinking Beyond 212
    Appendix A. Tools 213
    Appendix B. Batteries 221
    Appendix C. Resources . 229
    Appendix D. Other Neat Things 233
    Appendix E. Microcontroller Options 241
    Index 247

Other MicrocontrollersSymbols

  • (plus sign), positive side of a
    component, 8
  • (minus sign), negative side of
    a component, 8
    3D printing, 239
    A
    AC (alternating current)
    converting DC to, 161
    working with, 162
    accelerometers, 129
    analog and digital, 129
    Flora, 70
    LilyPad, 67
    accuracy (sensors), 114
    actuators, 145–191
    in Aniomagic toolkit, 72
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    light, 145
    addressable LEDs, 149
    basic LEDs, 145
    electroluminescent materials, 158
    fiber optics, 153
    incorporating into a
    wearable, 162
    motion, 172
    experiment, shake, spin,
    or shimmy, 187
    servo motors, 177
    vibrating motors, 172
    sound, 163
    buzzers, 163
    playing audio files, 168
    tones, 165
    wearable instrument experiment, 171
    temperature, 188
    climate-controlled wearable experiment, 191
    fans, 188
    heat, 190
    Adafruit Industries
    Arduino IDE and Flora NeoPixels, 150
    Flora e-textile toolkit, 70
    Getting Started with Flora
    guide, 96
    LED Ampli-Tie project, 153
    Adafruit Wave Shield, 168
    Adafruit_NeoPixel() command,
    151
    aesthetics, considerations for
    wearable electronics, 82
    alligator clips, 35
    advantages/disadvantages
    of alligator clip circuits,
    32
    connecting to a sandwich
    switch, 58
    constructing a circuit with,
    13
    analog input, 108
    circuit for, 108
    Index 247
    Indexcode for reading, 109
    sensor as a switch experiment, 110
    analog input/output, sensitive
    system experiment, 111
    analog output, 110
    circuit for, 110
    code, 111
    analog versus digital inputs,
    108
    analogRead() command, 109
    analogWrite() command, 111,
    186
    Aniomagic, 71
    features distiguishing it
    from other e-textile toolkits, 71
    Let’s Get Sparkly experiment, using Sparkle Kit,
    72
    anode, 8
    Arduino, 241
    (see also microcontrollers,
    options)
    Adafruit’s version of the
    IDE, 150
    Bluetooth radios for use
    with, 194
    boards, 92
    compatible tools enabling
    palyback of audio files,
    168
    defined, 92
    LilyPad Arduino 328, 241
    Products and Specs Comparison pages, 92
    programming for Bluetooth
    light sensor example,
    198
    programming LilyPad for
    Bluetooth wireless communications, 195
    programming to control
    gearhead motor, 185
    sensor data, sending via
    XBees to a computer,
    206
    Servo library, 175
    software, 95
    Blank sketch, 96
    Gettin’ Blinky experiment, 100
    guides to environment
    and syntax, 98
    screen areas, 97
    sketches, 97
    Arduino Fio, 206, 245
    connecting a light sensor,
    207
    preparing circuit with light
    sensor, 208
    programming, 207
    soldering FTDI headers, 206
    Arduino Micro, 245
    Arduino Uno, 93, 245
    pins performing pulsewidth modulation, 110
    AT commands, 202
    entering in CoolTerm, 203
    Audience Jacket Tutorial, 209
    audio file playback, using to
    create wearables, 170
    audio files, 168
    B
    base pin, NPN transistors, 178
    batteries, 221
    as power source, 2
    choosing a battery or battery pack for your
    project, 226
    connecting to LilyPad Arduino Simple, 103
    for XBees Direct Mode, 211
    in series and parallel connections, 7
    types of, 221
    battery holders, 222
    CR2032 battery holder, 27
    in electroluminescent designs, 161
    in LilyPad, 67
    blowback voltage, 179
    Bluetooth, 193
    communicating sensor data
    to computer, 194
    pairing on a Mac, 196
    pairing on a Windows
    machine, 197
    preparing Bluetooth circuit to pair, 196
    preparing LilyPad Simple
    Power board, 194
    sending light sensor data, 198
    soldering headers to
    Bluetooth Mate, 195
    radios for use with Arduino,
    194
    Bluetooth Mate Gold, 194
    Bluetooth Mate Silver, 194
    soldering headers to, 195
    without headers, 195
    board type, setting in Arduino,
    99
    breadboards, 37
    advantages/disadvantages
    of breadboard circuits,
    32
    constructing a breadboard
    circuit, 18
    bridge switches, 61
    Buechley, Leah, 65
    buses, 37
    buttons
    button as controller experiment, 107
    latching buttons (tactile
    on/off buttons), 54
    LilyPad push button, 67
    tactile buttons as momentary switches, 54
    248 Indexbuzzers, 163
    electromagnetic, 163
    simple circuit, 164
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    piezoelectric, 165
    with microcontroller, 164
    C
    cable replacement technique,
    212
    calibration, 120
    cameras, 219
    cathode, 8
    Charlieplexing, 148
    chat test with XBees, 205
    Chiclet Board (Aniomagic), 71
    circuit boards
    Arduino, 92
    uploading programs to,
    99
    choosing for wearable electronics, 86
    LilyPad modules versus, 66
    printed circuit boards
    (PCBs), 239
    circuit diagrams, 2
    basic circuit with battery
    and LED (example), 2
    LED circuit with switch, 51
    circuit symbol for basic switch,
    51
    circuits, 1–33
    Arduino Fio with light sensor connected via alligator clips, 208
    circuit design software, 101,
    240
    connecting speaker or piezoelectric buzzer to an
    Arduino, 165
    constructing, 11
    advantages and disadvantages of different
    types, 32
    alligator clip circuit, 13
    breadboard circuit, 18
    conductive fabric circuit,
    30
    conductive thread circuit, 25
    protoboard circuit, 22
    wire circuit, 14
    with hard or soft materials, 86
    DC motor circuit layout, 178
    electroluminescent, 162
    essential concepts, 2
    Flora NeoPixels, multiple
    NeoPixels, 151
    for electromagnetic buzzers, 164
    for microcontroller analog
    input, 108
    for microcontroller analog
    output, 110
    for microcontroller digital
    input, 105
    for servos, 175
    for XBee Direct Mode, 210
    layout in wearable electronics, preventing shorts, 80
    learning more about, 11
    microcontroller digital output, 101
    modularity, in wearable
    electronics, 81
    protoboard transistor circuit, 179
    resistors, 5
    series and parallel, 6
    using a multimeter, 8
    conductivity test, 9
    continuity test, 9
    measuring current, 11
    measuring resistance, 10
    measuring voltage, 10
    voltage divider, 115
    wearable circuits experiment, 48
    closed switch, 52
    clothing, hacking for wearables, 83
    coatings, providing spot insulation in wearable electronics, 80
    collector pin, NPN transistors,
    178
    color
    conductive fabric, 42
    conductive thread, 39
    purple LilyPad modules, 66
    thermochromic materials,
    236
    color charts for resistors, 6
    color sensors, 136
    Flora, 70
    comfort of wearable electronics, 78
    placement of components,
    79
    size, weight, and shape of
    components, 78
    comments in Arduino, 98
    compartment boxes, 216
    conductive fabric, 40
    advantages/disadvantages
    of conductive fabric circuits, 33
    comparison of different
    types, 42
    creating a circuit with, 30
    intended uses, 44
    properties of, 41
    working with, 42
    conductive fabric tape, 45
    conductive felt, 44
    conductive fiber, 44
    conductive hook and loop, 46
    conductive materials, 35–49
    alligator clips, 35
    breadboards, 37
    choosing, 47
    conductive fabric, 40
    conductive thread, 38
    other, 43
    protoboards, 37
    Index 249repurposing everyday stuff,
    46
    resources for, 229
    wearable circuits experiment, 48
    wire, 35
    conductive paint, 46
    conductive ribbon, 44
    conductive thread, 38
    advantages/disadvantages
    of conductive thread circuits, 33
    Aniomagic basic circuit
    with, 73
    comparison of types available in small quantities,
    40
    constructing a circuit with,
    25
    intended uses, 44
    LilyTwinkle circuit made
    with, 69
    multiple Flora NeoPixels
    sewn with, 151
    nonconductive thread providing insulation for, 80
    properties of, 39
    using to construct conductive fabric circuit, 32
    working with, 40
    conductive yarn, 43
    conductivity, testing, 9
    conductors, 2
    conferences and events, 231
    connections
    diagram for LilyTwinkle, 69
    Flora NeoPixels, 150
    servo motors, 175
    connector type (sensors), 113
    connectors, 222
    for electroluminescent materials, 161
    in LilyPad, 67
    in LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    94
    constraining sensors, 121
    contact points for switches, 56
    contact switches, 58
    continuity, 8
    checking, using a multimeter, 9
    CoolTerm, 200
    configuring XBee B, 204
    putting XBee into Command Mode, 203
    setting up to configure
    XBees, 202
    typing AT commands, 203
    crocodile clips (see alligator
    clips)
    current, 4
    excessive, 4
    measuring with a multimeter, 11
    D
    datasheets, 4
    finding for components, 5
    DC (direct current), 162
    converting to AC, 161
    delays, setting in Arduino programs, 100
    desoldering tools, 214
    digital fabric printing, 238
    digital versus analog inputs,
    108
    digitalRead() function, Arduino, 106
    digitalWrite() function, Arduino, 102
    diodes, 8, 178
    adding to protoboard transistor circuit, 184
    DIY sensors, 141
    DIY switches, 56
    DIY Wearable Technology documentation, 142
    documentation tools, 219
    durability of wearable electronics, 79
    insulation, 80
    modularity, 81
    protection of circuits, 81
    strain relief, 79
    E
    e-textile (electronic textile), 65
    e-textile toolkits, 65–76
    Aniomagic, 71
    Let’s Get Sparkly experiment, 72
    constructing circuits with
    hard and soft materials,
    86
    Flora, 70
    modules, 70
    LilyPad, 65
    Let’s Get Tiny experiment, 69
    Let’s Get Twinkly experiment, 68
    modules, 66
    tutorials on, 231
    electroencephalography
    (EEG), 133
    electroluminescent materials,
    158
    aesthetics of, in wearables,
    160
    starter kits for working
    with, 162
    tape and panels, 159
    wire, 158
    working with, system concepts, 161
    electromagnetic buzzers, 163
    3V, panelmount and with
    wires, 163
    electromyography (EMG), 132
    electronics supplies, 229
    electronics tutorials, 231
    250 Indexelse clause in if statements,
    107
    emitter pin, NPN transistors,
    178
    end-glow fiber optics, 153
    Ethernet cable, 37
    example sketches (Arduino),
    97
    experiments, xiii
    F
    fabric, 218
    (see also conductive fabric)
    digital fabric printing, 238
    fans, 188
    using in climate-controlled
    wearable, 191
    fiber optics, 153
    handling fiber-optic fabric,
    156
    incorporation through
    weaving, examples, 154
    LEDs as light sources, 153
    manufactured fiber-optic
    fabrics, 155
    flat-nosed pliers, 214
    flex sensors, 124, 141
    factors to consider when
    choosing, 124
    positioning and protecting,
    125
    flexibility (conductive materials), 48
    floating pins, 105
    Flora, 70
    modules, 70
    sensors communicating
    with I2C, 116
    working with, 96
    Flora Color Sensor, 136
    Flora Gemma, 244
    Flora Lux Sensor, 136
    Flora Main Board, 244
    Flora RGB Smart NeoPixel, 149
    multiple pixel example, 151
    one NeoPixel example, 150
    tutorial, 151
    force-sensing resistors (FSRs),
    126
    forms of wearable electronics,
    82
    forward voltage (Vf), 4
    Fritzing circuit design software, 101
    FSRs (force-sensing resistors),
    126
    FTDI board (5V), 95
    FTDI drivers for operating systems, 95
    G
    galvanic skin response (GSR),
    132
    gearhead motors, 177
    controlling, 185
    examples of, in wearables,
    186
    gloves with conductive fingertips, modifying to make
    contact switches, 59
    glow-in-the-dark materials,
    234
    GPS
    Flora GPS module, 71
    in wearables, 130
    ground, 2
    grouped wire, 36
    GSR (galvanic skin response),
    132
    GUI (graphical user interface),
    Aniomagic toolkit, 71
    H
    hacking wearables, 82
    hardware (Arduino), 92
    heart monitors, 132
    heart rate sensors, 131
    heat gun, 215
    heat shrink nonconductive
    tubing, 16
    using to attach LED to fiberoptic bundle, 156
    heat, actuator providing, 190
    heating pads, 190
    using in climate-controlled
    wearable, 191
    Heatit, 189
    “Hello World” programs, 98
    helping hands, 24, 214
    hiding electronics in wearables, 82
    hoodies, hacking for wearables, 83
    I
    I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit),
    116
    Flora Lux Sensor, 136
    if statements (Arduino), 107
    infrared (IR) sensors, 134
    inputs, 104
    Instructables, 80
    insulation
    conductive materials, 48
    conductive thread, 39
    heat shrink, 16
    in wearable electronics, 80
    nonconductive thread providing in wearables, 80
    insulators, 3
    Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C),
    116
    Flora Lux Sensor, 136
    inverters, 161
    iron, 217
    iron-on conductive fabric, 30,
    42
    ironing conductive fabric, 31
    Index 251L
    lasercutting, 238
    latching buttons, 54
    layers and linings, providing
    insulation for conductive
    fabrics, 80
    layout, creating for wearable
    circuits, 86
    Learning Page (Arduino website), 98
    learning, resources for, 229
    LEDs, 8
    addressable, 149
    multiple pixel example,
    151
    one NeoPixel example,
    150
    use of Adafruit NeoPixels
    with LilyPad Pixel
    Board, 154
    attaching to fiber-optic
    bundle, 156
    basic, 145
    controlling, 146
    lighting in multiple colors, 148
    packaging types, 146
    blinking, beating, fading, or
    breathing with LilyTiny,
    69
    connecting a LilyPad LED to
    LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    101
    determining polarity, 8
    fiber optic light source, 153
    finding forward voltage
    and current required on
    datasheet, 4
    in Flora Smart NeoPixels
    module, 70
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    in series and parallel circuits, 7
    lighting with LilyTwinkle, 69
    wearing, 149
    with alligator clip connections, 14
    light boards (Aniomagic), 72
    light sensors, 135
    connecting sensor to Arduino Fio, 207
    Flora Lux Sensor, 70, 136
    for analog input, 108
    reading values, 109
    LilyPad, 67
    photocell, 135
    sending data via Bluetooth
    to a computer, 198
    working with data from,
    117
    light-emitting diodes, 8
    (see also LEDs)
    LilyPad, 65
    differences from traditional
    circuit boards, 66
    Let’s Get Tiny experiment,
    69
    light sensor, 108
    modules, 66
    ProtoSnap LilyPad Development Board, 96
    sewable microcontrollers,
    241
    LilyPad Arduino, 93
    LilyPad Arduino 328, 241
    LilyPad Arduino Simple, 93,
    242
    battery connections, 103
    circuits connecting speaker
    or piezoelectric buzzer
    to, 165
    connecting a LilyPad LED
    to, 101
    controlling LEDs, 146
    digital input circuits, 105
    FTDI drivers, 95
    LEDs connected in parallel,
    102
    pins performing pulsewidth modulation, 110
    setting as Arduino board
    type, 99
    with digital input and output, 107
    with light sensor, 109
    with LilyPad Vibe board,
    173
    with panelmount 3V electromagnetic buzzer, 164
    LilyPad Arduino SimpleSnap,
    242
    LilyPad Arduino USB, 243
    LilyPad Arduino with FTDI
    board, programming, 195
    LilyPad Button board, 164
    LilyPad Buzzer, 165
    LilyPad MP3 board, 168
    connecting components for
    audio file playback, 168
    programming as MP3 player, 170
    LilyPad Pixel Board, using Adafruit NeoPixel library, 154
    LilyPad Protoboard Small, 179
    assembling the transistor
    circuit, 182
    preparing for transistor circuit, 180
    LilyPad Simple Power board,
    194, 210
    LilyPad Temperature Sensor,
    139
    LilyPad TriColor LED, 148
    LilyPad Vibe board, 172
    LilyPad XBee, 200, 206
    preparing to use for configuring XBee radios, 201
    LilyTiny, 69
    LilyTwinkle, 68
    load, 2
    loop() function, 98
    252 IndexM
    Mac computers
    Bluetooth pairing on, 196
    Bluetooth serial port, 199
    magnetic modules, 3
    maintained switches, 53
    map() function, 119
    mapping, 119
    materials, 233
    (see also conductive materials)
    acting as variable resistor,
    141
    glow-in-the-dark, 234
    moldable, 237
    reflective, 233
    shape memory, 236
    thermochromic, 236
    materials research, 231
    measuring tools, 218
    meshes, conductive, 47
    microcontrollers, 91–112
    analog input, 108
    circuit, 108
    code, 109
    sensor as a switch experiment, 110
    analog input and output,
    sensitive system experiment, 111
    analog output, 110
    circuit, 110
    code, 111
    Aniomagic microcontroller
    modules, 71
    Arduino hardware, 92
    Arduino software, 95
    buzzer with, 164
    comparison chart, 245
    digital input, 104
    code, 106
    digital input and output,
    button as controller experiment, 107
    digital output, 101
    circuit, 101
    Morse Code messages
    experiment, 103
    power, 103
    Gettin’ Blinky experiment,
    100
    Hello World Arduino program, 98
    LilyPad options for, 66
    options, 241
    parts, 91
    working with the Flora, 96
    microphones, 137
    microSD card, preparing and
    connecting to LilyPad MP3
    board, 168
    microservos, 174
    microswitches, 55
    modularity in wearable electronics, 81
    modules, 65
    Aniomagic, 71
    Flora e-textile toolkit, 70
    in LilyPad toolkit, 66
    moldable materials, 237
    momentary switches, 53
    tactile buttons, 54
    Morse Code messages experiment, 103
    motion, 172
    shake, spin, or shimmy experiment, 187
    using gearhead motors,
    177
    using servo motors, 174
    using vibrating motors, 172
    motors
    gearhead, 177
    servo, 174
    shake, spin, or shimmy experiment, 187
    small motors suited for
    wearables, 172
    vibrating, 172
    using transistor board
    with, 186
    movement, sensors for, 128
    multiaxis tilt switches, 55
    multimeters, 215
    conductivity test, 9
    continuity test, 9
    measuring current, 11
    measuring resistance, 10
    measuring voltage, 10
    tutorials on, 230
    using, 8
    multiplexing, 148
    N
    needle threader, 216
    needles, 216
    for sewing with conductive
    thread, 25
    New function, 97
    normally closed (NC) momentary switches, 53
    normally open (NO) momentary switches, 53
    NPN transistors, 178
    O
    ohm symbol (Ω), 4
    ohms, 4
    Ohm’s law, 4
    online learning resources, 230
    open function, 97
    open switch, 52
    operating systems
    Arduino software on, 95
    FTDI drivers for, 95
    optical programming, Aniomagic Sparkle Board, 71
    organza, converting to conductive fabric, 47
    output (sensors), 115
    Index 253outputs, 104
    P
    pads, 23
    pancake motors, 172
    panels, EL, 159
    starter kits for, 162
    parallel circuits, 7
    LilyTiny LEDs in, 70
    part numbers, xiv
    perf boards (see protoboards)
    petals (LilyPad), 66
    phone cable, 37
    photocells, 135
    piezoelectric buzzers, 163, 165
    pinch switches, 62
    pinMode, setting in Arduino,
    102, 106
    pins
    analog output, 110
    floating, 105
    for fabric, 217
    functions in LilyTiny, 69
    functions on transistor
    module, 185
    in Aniomagic Sparkle
    Board, 72
    in LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    94
    outputs and inputs, 104
    pitches, 167
    placement of wearable electronic components, 79, 87
    plating (conductive fabric), 42
    pliers, flat-nosed, 214
    Polar heart rate monitor, 132
    polarity, 8
    determining for LEDs, 8
    poles, 52
    power, 2
    for Bluetooth radio, 194
    for microcontroller digital
    output, 103
    for servos, 174
    power source, 2
    printed circuit boards (PCBs),
    239
    programming
    Arduino, 98
    for Aniomagic Sparkle
    Board, 73
    projects, xiii
    protection for wearable electronic circuits, 81
    protoboards, 37
    advantages/disadvantages
    of protoboard circuits,
    33
    constructing a protoboard
    circuit, 22
    LilyPad, 67
    ProtoSnap LilyPad Development Board, 96
    prototyping boards (see protoboards)
    proximity sensors, 133
    pull-up or pull-down resistors,
    105
    pulse sensors, 131
    pulse width modulation
    (PWM), 110
    in RGB LEDs, 148
    R
    radios
    Bluetooth, for use with Arduino, 194
    XBees, 200
    rapid prototyping techniques,
    238
    3D printing, 239
    digital fabric printing, 238
    lasercutting, 238
    printed circuit boards, 239
    reflective materials, 233
    resetting Aniomagic Sparkle
    board, 75
    resistance, 4
    determining using Ohm’s
    law, 4
    measuring with a multimeter, 10
    of conductive materials, 48
    of conductive thread, 39
    resistor apps for smartphones,
    6
    resistors, 5
    color bands displayed on, 5
    force-sensing resistors
    (FSRs), 126
    LEDs in parallel circuit with
    resistors, 7
    pull-up or pull-down, 105
    variable, 115
    resources, 229
    books on wearable electronics, 229
    conductive materials, 229
    general electronics supplies, 229
    online learning resources,
    230
    sewing gear, 229
    revealing electronics in wearables, 82
    RGB LEDs, 148
    ribbon cable, 36
    RN-41 chip, 194
    RN-42 chip, 194
    rounded edges, LilyPad
    boards, 66
    Roving Network’s RN-42 chip,
    194
    S
    safety glasses, 213
    sandwich switches, 56
    Save As function, 97
    Save function, 97
    scissors, 217
    screwdrivers, 215
    254 Indexsensitivity (sensors), 114
    sensors, 113–143
    body listening experiment,
    142
    color sensors, 136
    communicating data wirelessly via Bluetooth to
    computer, 194
    communicating with I2C,
    116
    DIY, 141
    flex sensors, 124
    Flora, 70
    getting to know, 113
    heart rate and other biometrics, 131
    electroencephalography
    (EEG), 133
    electromyography
    (EMG), 132
    galvanic skin response
    (GSR), 132
    in Aniomagic toolkit, 72
    light sensors, 135
    (see also light sensors)
    LilyPad parts, 67
    movement, orientation,
    and location, 128
    accelerometers, 129
    GPS, 130
    proximity sensors, 133
    sending data via XBees to a
    computer, 206
    sound sensors, 137
    stretch sensors, 127
    temperature sensors, 138
    voltage divider circuit, 115
    Wooo! Shirt experiment,
    122
    working with data from,
    117
    calibration, 120
    constraints, 121
    mapping, 119
    smoothing, 122
    thresholds, 117
    sequencers
    in electroluminescent circuits, 162
    programming EL sequencer, 162
    Serial Monitor function, 97
    serial monitor in Arduino
    light sensor readings on,
    199
    microcontroller analog input in, 109
    using to display input to
    the microcontroller, 106
    serial port, setting in Arduino,
    99
    Serial.begin() command, 106
    Serial.println() command, 106
    series circuits, 6
    servo motors, 174
    Arduino Servo library, 175
    attachments, 174
    microservos, 174
    power, ground, and signal
    connections, 175
    programming Arduino to
    control, 176
    setup() function, 98
    sew holes, 25, 66
    sew tabs, 66
    in LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    94
    sewable LilyPad modules, 66
    sewing
    EL (electroluminescent)
    wire, 158
    resources for, 229
    tools for, 216
    tutorials on, 230
    sewing conductive fabric, 42
    sewing with conductive
    thread, 27, 39
    hand sewing, 40
    nonconductive thread providing insulation, 80
    using a sewing machine, 40
    shape memory materials, 236
    shape, size, and weight (sensors), 114
    short circuits, 3
    from conductive fabric, 42
    preventing when using
    conductive thread, 40
    reducing in wearable electronics, approaches to,
    80
    untrimmed conductive
    thread tails leading to,
    29
    side-glow fiber optics, 153
    silver-plated nylon thread, 39
    single pole double throw
    switches (see SPDT
    switches)
    single pole single throw
    switches (see SPST
    switches)
    sketches, 97
    Blank Arduino sketch, 96
    Blink, Arduino example, 98
    code details, 102
    Gettin’ Blinky experiment, 100
    uploading, 100
    LilyPad MP3 test sketch,
    168
    most basic sketch, Bare
    Minimum, 98
    slide switches, 55
    small snips, 215
    Smart NeoPixels module
    (Flora), 70
    smoothing, 122
    social switches experiment, 63
    soft circuitry
    creating a layout for, 87
    using conductive fabric, 30
    using conductive thread, 25
    soldering
    tutorials on, 15, 230
    wire circuit example, 14
    soldering irons, 213
    solid core wire, 36
    Index 255sound, 163
    buzzers, 163
    playing audio files, 168
    tones, 165
    wearable instrument experiment, 171
    sound sensors, 137
    in Aniomagic, 72
    source voltage (Vs), 4
    SparkFun Electronics, 65
    EL Sequencer, 162
    SparkFun MP3 Shield, 168
    Sparkle Board (Aniomagic), 71
    Sparkle Kit (Aniomagic), 72
    SPDT switches, 52
    speaker cable, 36
    speakers, 165
    circuit connecting speaker
    to LilyPad Arduino Simple, 165
    for audio file playback, 168
    connecting to LilyPad
    MP3 board, 169
    SPST switches, 52
    stainless steel thread, 39
    strain relief, 79
    stranded wire, 36
    stretch (conductive fabric), 42
    stretch sensors, 127
    strip.setPixelColor() command,
    151
    strip.show() command, 151
    substrate (conductive fabric),
    42
    supplier codes in part numbers, xiv
    surface mount LEDs, 146
    surface resistance (conductive
    fabric), 42
    switches, 51–64
    bridge, 61
    contact, 58
    in microcontroller digital input circuit, 105
    latching buttons, 54
    LilyPad parts, 67
    making your own, 56
    microswitches, 55
    other DIY switches, 62
    pinch, 62
    poles and throws, 52
    sandwich, 56
    sensors acting as, 110
    slide, 55
    social switch experiment,
    63
    tactile buttons, 54
    testing, 59
    tilt, 55
    toggle, 54
    types of, 53
    symbols in circuit diagrams, 2
    T
    tactile buttons, 54
    tape, EL, 159
    temperature
    actuators providing heating
    or cooling effect, 188
    climate-controlled wearable experiment, 191
    fans, 188
    heat, 190
    temperature sensors, 138
    LilyPad, 67
    terminal program (CoolTerm),
    200
    testing
    switches, 59
    user testing wearable electronics, 81
    thermistors, 139
    thermochromic materials, 236
    thickness
    conductive fabric, 42
    conductive thread, 39
    thin LilyPad circuit boards,
    66
    third hands, 24
    thread, 218
    (see also conductive
    thread)
    three-axis accelerometers, 129
    thresholds, 117
    through-hole LEDs, 146
    throws, 52
    tilt switches, 55, 128
    toggle switches, 54
    tone() function, 166
    tones, 165
    circuits for, 165
    code for, 166
    tutorials and examples for,
    167
    toolkits, 65
    tools, 213–219
    transistors, 177
    functionality in Heatit tool,
    189
    functions of pins on transistor module, 185
    NPN Bipolar Transistor
    (PN2222) and TIP120
    Power Darlington Transistor, 178
    NPN transistors, pins and
    their functions, 178
    protoboard transistor circuit, 179
    using in fan actuator, 189
    using in heating pad actuator, 190
    trimming conductive thread
    tails, 29
    tripods, 219
    Troubleshooting page (Arduino website), 100
    U
    ultrasonic sensors, 134
    Upload function, 97
    usability of wearable electronics, 81
    256 IndexUSB Bluetooth dongle, 193
    USB mini-B cable, 95
    V
    variable resistors, 115
    developing a material that
    acts as, 141
    variables, 102
    Verify function, 97
    vibrating motors, 172
    completely enclosed (pancake motors), 172
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    using transistor board with,
    186
    with exposed heads, 172
    voltage, 4
    changes in, simulation by
    analog output pins, 110
    finding difference between
    source voltage and forward voltage, 4
    measuring with a multimeter, 10
    preventing blowback voltage, 179
    voltage divider circuit, 115
    voltage drop, 7
    W
    wearable circuits experiment,
    48
    wearable electronics, xi, 77
    collaborating with others to
    produce, 86
    designing, 82
    choosing a form, 82
    choosing components,
    86
    choosing materials, 86
    creating a layout, 86
    eight-hour wearable experiment, 89
    iterative design process,
    88
    making wearables, 84
    factors to consider, 77
    aesthetics, 82
    comfort, 78
    durability of circuits, 79
    modularity, 81
    protection, 81
    usability, 81
    future of, 212
    why wear it, 77
    wearables blogs, 231
    weight (conductive fabric), 42
    welted piping, EL wire, 158
    Windows systems
    Bluetooth pairing on, 197
    Bluetooth serial port, 199
    wire
    advantages/disadvantages
    of wire circuits, 32
    as conductive material, 35
    constructing a wire circuit,
    14
    grouped, 36
    solid core, 36
    stranded, 36
    types of, 36
    wire strippers, 15, 214
    wireless, 193–212
    Bluetooth, 193
    communicating with,
    194
    LilyPad XBee, 68
    other wireless options, 212
    XBees, 200
    chat test experiment,
    205
    configuring, 200
    sending Arduino sensor
    data to a computer,
    206
    using XBee Direct Mode,
    210
    X
    XBee Explorer, 202
    XBees, 200
    chat test experiment, 205
    configuring, 200
    XBee A, 202
    XBee B, 204
    other ways to use with Arduino, 209
    using to send sensor data
    to a computer, 206
    using XBee Direct Mode,
    210
    assembing the circuit,
    210
    configuring the XBees,
    210
    connecting, 211
    troubleshooting, 211Symbols
  • (plus sign), positive side of a
    component, 8
  • (minus sign), negative side of
    a component, 8
    3D printing, 239
    A
    AC (alternating current)
    converting DC to, 161
    working with, 162
    accelerometers, 129
    analog and digital, 129
    Flora, 70
    LilyPad, 67
    accuracy (sensors), 114
    actuators, 145–191
    in Aniomagic toolkit, 72
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    light, 145
    addressable LEDs, 149
    basic LEDs, 145
    electroluminescent materials, 158
    fiber optics, 153
    incorporating into a
    wearable, 162
    motion, 172
    experiment, shake, spin,
    or shimmy, 187
    servo motors, 177
    vibrating motors, 172
    sound, 163
    buzzers, 163
    playing audio files, 168
    tones, 165
    wearable instrument experiment, 171
    temperature, 188
    climate-controlled wearable experiment, 191
    fans, 188
    heat, 190
    Adafruit Industries
    Arduino IDE and Flora NeoPixels, 150
    Flora e-textile toolkit, 70
    Getting Started with Flora
    guide, 96
    LED Ampli-Tie project, 153
    Adafruit Wave Shield, 168
    Adafruit_NeoPixel() command,
    151
    aesthetics, considerations for
    wearable electronics, 82
    alligator clips, 35
    advantages/disadvantages
    of alligator clip circuits,
    32
    connecting to a sandwich
    switch, 58
    constructing a circuit with,
    13
    analog input, 108
    circuit for, 108
    Index 247
    Indexcode for reading, 109
    sensor as a switch experiment, 110
    analog input/output, sensitive
    system experiment, 111
    analog output, 110
    circuit for, 110
    code, 111
    analog versus digital inputs,
    108
    analogRead() command, 109
    analogWrite() command, 111,
    186
    Aniomagic, 71
    features distiguishing it
    from other e-textile toolkits, 71
    Let’s Get Sparkly experiment, using Sparkle Kit,
    72
    anode, 8
    Arduino, 241
    (see also microcontrollers,
    options)
    Adafruit’s version of the
    IDE, 150
    Bluetooth radios for use
    with, 194
    boards, 92
    compatible tools enabling
    palyback of audio files,
    168
    defined, 92
    LilyPad Arduino 328, 241
    Products and Specs Comparison pages, 92
    programming for Bluetooth
    light sensor example,
    198
    programming LilyPad for
    Bluetooth wireless communications, 195
    programming to control
    gearhead motor, 185
    sensor data, sending via
    XBees to a computer,
    206
    Servo library, 175
    software, 95
    Blank sketch, 96
    Gettin’ Blinky experiment, 100
    guides to environment
    and syntax, 98
    screen areas, 97
    sketches, 97
    Arduino Fio, 206, 245
    connecting a light sensor,
    207
    preparing circuit with light
    sensor, 208
    programming, 207
    soldering FTDI headers, 206
    Arduino Micro, 245
    Arduino Uno, 93, 245
    pins performing pulsewidth modulation, 110
    AT commands, 202
    entering in CoolTerm, 203
    Audience Jacket Tutorial, 209
    audio file playback, using to
    create wearables, 170
    audio files, 168
    B
    base pin, NPN transistors, 178
    batteries, 221
    as power source, 2
    choosing a battery or battery pack for your
    project, 226
    connecting to LilyPad Arduino Simple, 103
    for XBees Direct Mode, 211
    in series and parallel connections, 7
    types of, 221
    battery holders, 222
    CR2032 battery holder, 27
    in electroluminescent designs, 161
    in LilyPad, 67
    blowback voltage, 179
    Bluetooth, 193
    communicating sensor data
    to computer, 194
    pairing on a Mac, 196
    pairing on a Windows
    machine, 197
    preparing Bluetooth circuit to pair, 196
    preparing LilyPad Simple
    Power board, 194
    sending light sensor data, 198
    soldering headers to
    Bluetooth Mate, 195
    radios for use with Arduino,
    194
    Bluetooth Mate Gold, 194
    Bluetooth Mate Silver, 194
    soldering headers to, 195
    without headers, 195
    board type, setting in Arduino,
    99
    breadboards, 37
    advantages/disadvantages
    of breadboard circuits,
    32
    constructing a breadboard
    circuit, 18
    bridge switches, 61
    Buechley, Leah, 65
    buses, 37
    buttons
    button as controller experiment, 107
    latching buttons (tactile
    on/off buttons), 54
    LilyPad push button, 67
    tactile buttons as momentary switches, 54
    248 Indexbuzzers, 163
    electromagnetic, 163
    simple circuit, 164
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    piezoelectric, 165
    with microcontroller, 164
    C
    cable replacement technique,
    212
    calibration, 120
    cameras, 219
    cathode, 8
    Charlieplexing, 148
    chat test with XBees, 205
    Chiclet Board (Aniomagic), 71
    circuit boards
    Arduino, 92
    uploading programs to,
    99
    choosing for wearable electronics, 86
    LilyPad modules versus, 66
    printed circuit boards
    (PCBs), 239
    circuit diagrams, 2
    basic circuit with battery
    and LED (example), 2
    LED circuit with switch, 51
    circuit symbol for basic switch,
    51
    circuits, 1–33
    Arduino Fio with light sensor connected via alligator clips, 208
    circuit design software, 101,
    240
    connecting speaker or piezoelectric buzzer to an
    Arduino, 165
    constructing, 11
    advantages and disadvantages of different
    types, 32
    alligator clip circuit, 13
    breadboard circuit, 18
    conductive fabric circuit,
    30
    conductive thread circuit, 25
    protoboard circuit, 22
    wire circuit, 14
    with hard or soft materials, 86
    DC motor circuit layout, 178
    electroluminescent, 162
    essential concepts, 2
    Flora NeoPixels, multiple
    NeoPixels, 151
    for electromagnetic buzzers, 164
    for microcontroller analog
    input, 108
    for microcontroller analog
    output, 110
    for microcontroller digital
    input, 105
    for servos, 175
    for XBee Direct Mode, 210
    layout in wearable electronics, preventing shorts, 80
    learning more about, 11
    microcontroller digital output, 101
    modularity, in wearable
    electronics, 81
    protoboard transistor circuit, 179
    resistors, 5
    series and parallel, 6
    using a multimeter, 8
    conductivity test, 9
    continuity test, 9
    measuring current, 11
    measuring resistance, 10
    measuring voltage, 10
    voltage divider, 115
    wearable circuits experiment, 48
    closed switch, 52
    clothing, hacking for wearables, 83
    coatings, providing spot insulation in wearable electronics, 80
    collector pin, NPN transistors,
    178
    color
    conductive fabric, 42
    conductive thread, 39
    purple LilyPad modules, 66
    thermochromic materials,
    236
    color charts for resistors, 6
    color sensors, 136
    Flora, 70
    comfort of wearable electronics, 78
    placement of components,
    79
    size, weight, and shape of
    components, 78
    comments in Arduino, 98
    compartment boxes, 216
    conductive fabric, 40
    advantages/disadvantages
    of conductive fabric circuits, 33
    comparison of different
    types, 42
    creating a circuit with, 30
    intended uses, 44
    properties of, 41
    working with, 42
    conductive fabric tape, 45
    conductive felt, 44
    conductive fiber, 44
    conductive hook and loop, 46
    conductive materials, 35–49
    alligator clips, 35
    breadboards, 37
    choosing, 47
    conductive fabric, 40
    conductive thread, 38
    other, 43
    protoboards, 37
    Index 249repurposing everyday stuff,
    46
    resources for, 229
    wearable circuits experiment, 48
    wire, 35
    conductive paint, 46
    conductive ribbon, 44
    conductive thread, 38
    advantages/disadvantages
    of conductive thread circuits, 33
    Aniomagic basic circuit
    with, 73
    comparison of types available in small quantities,
    40
    constructing a circuit with,
    25
    intended uses, 44
    LilyTwinkle circuit made
    with, 69
    multiple Flora NeoPixels
    sewn with, 151
    nonconductive thread providing insulation for, 80
    properties of, 39
    using to construct conductive fabric circuit, 32
    working with, 40
    conductive yarn, 43
    conductivity, testing, 9
    conductors, 2
    conferences and events, 231
    connections
    diagram for LilyTwinkle, 69
    Flora NeoPixels, 150
    servo motors, 175
    connector type (sensors), 113
    connectors, 222
    for electroluminescent materials, 161
    in LilyPad, 67
    in LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    94
    constraining sensors, 121
    contact points for switches, 56
    contact switches, 58
    continuity, 8
    checking, using a multimeter, 9
    CoolTerm, 200
    configuring XBee B, 204
    putting XBee into Command Mode, 203
    setting up to configure
    XBees, 202
    typing AT commands, 203
    crocodile clips (see alligator
    clips)
    current, 4
    excessive, 4
    measuring with a multimeter, 11
    D
    datasheets, 4
    finding for components, 5
    DC (direct current), 162
    converting to AC, 161
    delays, setting in Arduino programs, 100
    desoldering tools, 214
    digital fabric printing, 238
    digital versus analog inputs,
    108
    digitalRead() function, Arduino, 106
    digitalWrite() function, Arduino, 102
    diodes, 8, 178
    adding to protoboard transistor circuit, 184
    DIY sensors, 141
    DIY switches, 56
    DIY Wearable Technology documentation, 142
    documentation tools, 219
    durability of wearable electronics, 79
    insulation, 80
    modularity, 81
    protection of circuits, 81
    strain relief, 79
    E
    e-textile (electronic textile), 65
    e-textile toolkits, 65–76
    Aniomagic, 71
    Let’s Get Sparkly experiment, 72
    constructing circuits with
    hard and soft materials,
    86
    Flora, 70
    modules, 70
    LilyPad, 65
    Let’s Get Tiny experiment, 69
    Let’s Get Twinkly experiment, 68
    modules, 66
    tutorials on, 231
    electroencephalography
    (EEG), 133
    electroluminescent materials,
    158
    aesthetics of, in wearables,
    160
    starter kits for working
    with, 162
    tape and panels, 159
    wire, 158
    working with, system concepts, 161
    electromagnetic buzzers, 163
    3V, panelmount and with
    wires, 163
    electromyography (EMG), 132
    electronics supplies, 229
    electronics tutorials, 231
    250 Indexelse clause in if statements,
    107
    emitter pin, NPN transistors,
    178
    end-glow fiber optics, 153
    Ethernet cable, 37
    example sketches (Arduino),
    97
    experiments, xiii
    F
    fabric, 218
    (see also conductive fabric)
    digital fabric printing, 238
    fans, 188
    using in climate-controlled
    wearable, 191
    fiber optics, 153
    handling fiber-optic fabric,
    156
    incorporation through
    weaving, examples, 154
    LEDs as light sources, 153
    manufactured fiber-optic
    fabrics, 155
    flat-nosed pliers, 214
    flex sensors, 124, 141
    factors to consider when
    choosing, 124
    positioning and protecting,
    125
    flexibility (conductive materials), 48
    floating pins, 105
    Flora, 70
    modules, 70
    sensors communicating
    with I2C, 116
    working with, 96
    Flora Color Sensor, 136
    Flora Gemma, 244
    Flora Lux Sensor, 136
    Flora Main Board, 244
    Flora RGB Smart NeoPixel, 149
    multiple pixel example, 151
    one NeoPixel example, 150
    tutorial, 151
    force-sensing resistors (FSRs),
    126
    forms of wearable electronics,
    82
    forward voltage (Vf), 4
    Fritzing circuit design software, 101
    FSRs (force-sensing resistors),
    126
    FTDI board (5V), 95
    FTDI drivers for operating systems, 95
    G
    galvanic skin response (GSR),
    132
    gearhead motors, 177
    controlling, 185
    examples of, in wearables,
    186
    gloves with conductive fingertips, modifying to make
    contact switches, 59
    glow-in-the-dark materials,
    234
    GPS
    Flora GPS module, 71
    in wearables, 130
    ground, 2
    grouped wire, 36
    GSR (galvanic skin response),
    132
    GUI (graphical user interface),
    Aniomagic toolkit, 71
    H
    hacking wearables, 82
    hardware (Arduino), 92
    heart monitors, 132
    heart rate sensors, 131
    heat gun, 215
    heat shrink nonconductive
    tubing, 16
    using to attach LED to fiberoptic bundle, 156
    heat, actuator providing, 190
    heating pads, 190
    using in climate-controlled
    wearable, 191
    Heatit, 189
    “Hello World” programs, 98
    helping hands, 24, 214
    hiding electronics in wearables, 82
    hoodies, hacking for wearables, 83
    I
    I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit),
    116
    Flora Lux Sensor, 136
    if statements (Arduino), 107
    infrared (IR) sensors, 134
    inputs, 104
    Instructables, 80
    insulation
    conductive materials, 48
    conductive thread, 39
    heat shrink, 16
    in wearable electronics, 80
    nonconductive thread providing in wearables, 80
    insulators, 3
    Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C),
    116
    Flora Lux Sensor, 136
    inverters, 161
    iron, 217
    iron-on conductive fabric, 30,
    42
    ironing conductive fabric, 31
    Index 251L
    lasercutting, 238
    latching buttons, 54
    layers and linings, providing
    insulation for conductive
    fabrics, 80
    layout, creating for wearable
    circuits, 86
    Learning Page (Arduino website), 98
    learning, resources for, 229
    LEDs, 8
    addressable, 149
    multiple pixel example,
    151
    one NeoPixel example,
    150
    use of Adafruit NeoPixels
    with LilyPad Pixel
    Board, 154
    attaching to fiber-optic
    bundle, 156
    basic, 145
    controlling, 146
    lighting in multiple colors, 148
    packaging types, 146
    blinking, beating, fading, or
    breathing with LilyTiny,
    69
    connecting a LilyPad LED to
    LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    101
    determining polarity, 8
    fiber optic light source, 153
    finding forward voltage
    and current required on
    datasheet, 4
    in Flora Smart NeoPixels
    module, 70
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    in series and parallel circuits, 7
    lighting with LilyTwinkle, 69
    wearing, 149
    with alligator clip connections, 14
    light boards (Aniomagic), 72
    light sensors, 135
    connecting sensor to Arduino Fio, 207
    Flora Lux Sensor, 70, 136
    for analog input, 108
    reading values, 109
    LilyPad, 67
    photocell, 135
    sending data via Bluetooth
    to a computer, 198
    working with data from,
    117
    light-emitting diodes, 8
    (see also LEDs)
    LilyPad, 65
    differences from traditional
    circuit boards, 66
    Let’s Get Tiny experiment,
    69
    light sensor, 108
    modules, 66
    ProtoSnap LilyPad Development Board, 96
    sewable microcontrollers,
    241
    LilyPad Arduino, 93
    LilyPad Arduino 328, 241
    LilyPad Arduino Simple, 93,
    242
    battery connections, 103
    circuits connecting speaker
    or piezoelectric buzzer
    to, 165
    connecting a LilyPad LED
    to, 101
    controlling LEDs, 146
    digital input circuits, 105
    FTDI drivers, 95
    LEDs connected in parallel,
    102
    pins performing pulsewidth modulation, 110
    setting as Arduino board
    type, 99
    with digital input and output, 107
    with light sensor, 109
    with LilyPad Vibe board,
    173
    with panelmount 3V electromagnetic buzzer, 164
    LilyPad Arduino SimpleSnap,
    242
    LilyPad Arduino USB, 243
    LilyPad Arduino with FTDI
    board, programming, 195
    LilyPad Button board, 164
    LilyPad Buzzer, 165
    LilyPad MP3 board, 168
    connecting components for
    audio file playback, 168
    programming as MP3 player, 170
    LilyPad Pixel Board, using Adafruit NeoPixel library, 154
    LilyPad Protoboard Small, 179
    assembling the transistor
    circuit, 182
    preparing for transistor circuit, 180
    LilyPad Simple Power board,
    194, 210
    LilyPad Temperature Sensor,
    139
    LilyPad TriColor LED, 148
    LilyPad Vibe board, 172
    LilyPad XBee, 200, 206
    preparing to use for configuring XBee radios, 201
    LilyTiny, 69
    LilyTwinkle, 68
    load, 2
    loop() function, 98
    252 IndexM
    Mac computers
    Bluetooth pairing on, 196
    Bluetooth serial port, 199
    magnetic modules, 3
    maintained switches, 53
    map() function, 119
    mapping, 119
    materials, 233
    (see also conductive materials)
    acting as variable resistor,
    141
    glow-in-the-dark, 234
    moldable, 237
    reflective, 233
    shape memory, 236
    thermochromic, 236
    materials research, 231
    measuring tools, 218
    meshes, conductive, 47
    microcontrollers, 91–112
    analog input, 108
    circuit, 108
    code, 109
    sensor as a switch experiment, 110
    analog input and output,
    sensitive system experiment, 111
    analog output, 110
    circuit, 110
    code, 111
    Aniomagic microcontroller
    modules, 71
    Arduino hardware, 92
    Arduino software, 95
    buzzer with, 164
    comparison chart, 245
    digital input, 104
    code, 106
    digital input and output,
    button as controller experiment, 107
    digital output, 101
    circuit, 101
    Morse Code messages
    experiment, 103
    power, 103
    Gettin’ Blinky experiment,
    100
    Hello World Arduino program, 98
    LilyPad options for, 66
    options, 241
    parts, 91
    working with the Flora, 96
    microphones, 137
    microSD card, preparing and
    connecting to LilyPad MP3
    board, 168
    microservos, 174
    microswitches, 55
    modularity in wearable electronics, 81
    modules, 65
    Aniomagic, 71
    Flora e-textile toolkit, 70
    in LilyPad toolkit, 66
    moldable materials, 237
    momentary switches, 53
    tactile buttons, 54
    Morse Code messages experiment, 103
    motion, 172
    shake, spin, or shimmy experiment, 187
    using gearhead motors,
    177
    using servo motors, 174
    using vibrating motors, 172
    motors
    gearhead, 177
    servo, 174
    shake, spin, or shimmy experiment, 187
    small motors suited for
    wearables, 172
    vibrating, 172
    using transistor board
    with, 186
    movement, sensors for, 128
    multiaxis tilt switches, 55
    multimeters, 215
    conductivity test, 9
    continuity test, 9
    measuring current, 11
    measuring resistance, 10
    measuring voltage, 10
    tutorials on, 230
    using, 8
    multiplexing, 148
    N
    needle threader, 216
    needles, 216
    for sewing with conductive
    thread, 25
    New function, 97
    normally closed (NC) momentary switches, 53
    normally open (NO) momentary switches, 53
    NPN transistors, 178
    O
    ohm symbol (Ω), 4
    ohms, 4
    Ohm’s law, 4
    online learning resources, 230
    open function, 97
    open switch, 52
    operating systems
    Arduino software on, 95
    FTDI drivers for, 95
    optical programming, Aniomagic Sparkle Board, 71
    organza, converting to conductive fabric, 47
    output (sensors), 115
    Index 253outputs, 104
    P
    pads, 23
    pancake motors, 172
    panels, EL, 159
    starter kits for, 162
    parallel circuits, 7
    LilyTiny LEDs in, 70
    part numbers, xiv
    perf boards (see protoboards)
    petals (LilyPad), 66
    phone cable, 37
    photocells, 135
    piezoelectric buzzers, 163, 165
    pinch switches, 62
    pinMode, setting in Arduino,
    102, 106
    pins
    analog output, 110
    floating, 105
    for fabric, 217
    functions in LilyTiny, 69
    functions on transistor
    module, 185
    in Aniomagic Sparkle
    Board, 72
    in LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    94
    outputs and inputs, 104
    pitches, 167
    placement of wearable electronic components, 79, 87
    plating (conductive fabric), 42
    pliers, flat-nosed, 214
    Polar heart rate monitor, 132
    polarity, 8
    determining for LEDs, 8
    poles, 52
    power, 2
    for Bluetooth radio, 194
    for microcontroller digital
    output, 103
    for servos, 174
    power source, 2
    printed circuit boards (PCBs),
    239
    programming
    Arduino, 98
    for Aniomagic Sparkle
    Board, 73
    projects, xiii
    protection for wearable electronic circuits, 81
    protoboards, 37
    advantages/disadvantages
    of protoboard circuits,
    33
    constructing a protoboard
    circuit, 22
    LilyPad, 67
    ProtoSnap LilyPad Development Board, 96
    prototyping boards (see protoboards)
    proximity sensors, 133
    pull-up or pull-down resistors,
    105
    pulse sensors, 131
    pulse width modulation
    (PWM), 110
    in RGB LEDs, 148
    R
    radios
    Bluetooth, for use with Arduino, 194
    XBees, 200
    rapid prototyping techniques,
    238
    3D printing, 239
    digital fabric printing, 238
    lasercutting, 238
    printed circuit boards, 239
    reflective materials, 233
    resetting Aniomagic Sparkle
    board, 75
    resistance, 4
    determining using Ohm’s
    law, 4
    measuring with a multimeter, 10
    of conductive materials, 48
    of conductive thread, 39
    resistor apps for smartphones,
    6
    resistors, 5
    color bands displayed on, 5
    force-sensing resistors
    (FSRs), 126
    LEDs in parallel circuit with
    resistors, 7
    pull-up or pull-down, 105
    variable, 115
    resources, 229
    books on wearable electronics, 229
    conductive materials, 229
    general electronics supplies, 229
    online learning resources,
    230
    sewing gear, 229
    revealing electronics in wearables, 82
    RGB LEDs, 148
    ribbon cable, 36
    RN-41 chip, 194
    RN-42 chip, 194
    rounded edges, LilyPad
    boards, 66
    Roving Network’s RN-42 chip,
    194
    S
    safety glasses, 213
    sandwich switches, 56
    Save As function, 97
    Save function, 97
    scissors, 217
    screwdrivers, 215
    254 Indexsensitivity (sensors), 114
    sensors, 113–143
    body listening experiment,
    142
    color sensors, 136
    communicating data wirelessly via Bluetooth to
    computer, 194
    communicating with I2C,
    116
    DIY, 141
    flex sensors, 124
    Flora, 70
    getting to know, 113
    heart rate and other biometrics, 131
    electroencephalography
    (EEG), 133
    electromyography
    (EMG), 132
    galvanic skin response
    (GSR), 132
    in Aniomagic toolkit, 72
    light sensors, 135
    (see also light sensors)
    LilyPad parts, 67
    movement, orientation,
    and location, 128
    accelerometers, 129
    GPS, 130
    proximity sensors, 133
    sending data via XBees to a
    computer, 206
    sound sensors, 137
    stretch sensors, 127
    temperature sensors, 138
    voltage divider circuit, 115
    Wooo! Shirt experiment,
    122
    working with data from,
    117
    calibration, 120
    constraints, 121
    mapping, 119
    smoothing, 122
    thresholds, 117
    sequencers
    in electroluminescent circuits, 162
    programming EL sequencer, 162
    Serial Monitor function, 97
    serial monitor in Arduino
    light sensor readings on,
    199
    microcontroller analog input in, 109
    using to display input to
    the microcontroller, 106
    serial port, setting in Arduino,
    99
    Serial.begin() command, 106
    Serial.println() command, 106
    series circuits, 6
    servo motors, 174
    Arduino Servo library, 175
    attachments, 174
    microservos, 174
    power, ground, and signal
    connections, 175
    programming Arduino to
    control, 176
    setup() function, 98
    sew holes, 25, 66
    sew tabs, 66
    in LilyPad Arduino Simple,
    94
    sewable LilyPad modules, 66
    sewing
    EL (electroluminescent)
    wire, 158
    resources for, 229
    tools for, 216
    tutorials on, 230
    sewing conductive fabric, 42
    sewing with conductive
    thread, 27, 39
    hand sewing, 40
    nonconductive thread providing insulation, 80
    using a sewing machine, 40
    shape memory materials, 236
    shape, size, and weight (sensors), 114
    short circuits, 3
    from conductive fabric, 42
    preventing when using
    conductive thread, 40
    reducing in wearable electronics, approaches to,
    80
    untrimmed conductive
    thread tails leading to,
    29
    side-glow fiber optics, 153
    silver-plated nylon thread, 39
    single pole double throw
    switches (see SPDT
    switches)
    single pole single throw
    switches (see SPST
    switches)
    sketches, 97
    Blank Arduino sketch, 96
    Blink, Arduino example, 98
    code details, 102
    Gettin’ Blinky experiment, 100
    uploading, 100
    LilyPad MP3 test sketch,
    168
    most basic sketch, Bare
    Minimum, 98
    slide switches, 55
    small snips, 215
    Smart NeoPixels module
    (Flora), 70
    smoothing, 122
    social switches experiment, 63
    soft circuitry
    creating a layout for, 87
    using conductive fabric, 30
    using conductive thread, 25
    soldering
    tutorials on, 15, 230
    wire circuit example, 14
    soldering irons, 213
    solid core wire, 36
    Index 255sound, 163
    buzzers, 163
    playing audio files, 168
    tones, 165
    wearable instrument experiment, 171
    sound sensors, 137
    in Aniomagic, 72
    source voltage (Vs), 4
    SparkFun Electronics, 65
    EL Sequencer, 162
    SparkFun MP3 Shield, 168
    Sparkle Board (Aniomagic), 71
    Sparkle Kit (Aniomagic), 72
    SPDT switches, 52
    speaker cable, 36
    speakers, 165
    circuit connecting speaker
    to LilyPad Arduino Simple, 165
    for audio file playback, 168
    connecting to LilyPad
    MP3 board, 169
    SPST switches, 52
    stainless steel thread, 39
    strain relief, 79
    stranded wire, 36
    stretch (conductive fabric), 42
    stretch sensors, 127
    strip.setPixelColor() command,
    151
    strip.show() command, 151
    substrate (conductive fabric),
    42
    supplier codes in part numbers, xiv
    surface mount LEDs, 146
    surface resistance (conductive
    fabric), 42
    switches, 51–64
    bridge, 61
    contact, 58
    in microcontroller digital input circuit, 105
    latching buttons, 54
    LilyPad parts, 67
    making your own, 56
    microswitches, 55
    other DIY switches, 62
    pinch, 62
    poles and throws, 52
    sandwich, 56
    sensors acting as, 110
    slide, 55
    social switch experiment,
    63
    tactile buttons, 54
    testing, 59
    tilt, 55
    toggle, 54
    types of, 53
    symbols in circuit diagrams, 2
    T
    tactile buttons, 54
    tape, EL, 159
    temperature
    actuators providing heating
    or cooling effect, 188
    climate-controlled wearable experiment, 191
    fans, 188
    heat, 190
    temperature sensors, 138
    LilyPad, 67
    terminal program (CoolTerm),
    200
    testing
    switches, 59
    user testing wearable electronics, 81
    thermistors, 139
    thermochromic materials, 236
    thickness
    conductive fabric, 42
    conductive thread, 39
    thin LilyPad circuit boards,
    66
    third hands, 24
    thread, 218
    (see also conductive
    thread)
    three-axis accelerometers, 129
    thresholds, 117
    through-hole LEDs, 146
    throws, 52
    tilt switches, 55, 128
    toggle switches, 54
    tone() function, 166
    tones, 165
    circuits for, 165
    code for, 166
    tutorials and examples for,
    167
    toolkits, 65
    tools, 213–219
    transistors, 177
    functionality in Heatit tool,
    189
    functions of pins on transistor module, 185
    NPN Bipolar Transistor
    (PN2222) and TIP120
    Power Darlington Transistor, 178
    NPN transistors, pins and
    their functions, 178
    protoboard transistor circuit, 179
    using in fan actuator, 189
    using in heating pad actuator, 190
    trimming conductive thread
    tails, 29
    tripods, 219
    Troubleshooting page (Arduino website), 100
    U
    ultrasonic sensors, 134
    Upload function, 97
    usability of wearable electronics, 81
    256 IndexUSB Bluetooth dongle, 193
    USB mini-B cable, 95
    V
    variable resistors, 115
    developing a material that
    acts as, 141
    variables, 102
    Verify function, 97
    vibrating motors, 172
    completely enclosed (pancake motors), 172
    in LilyPad toolkit, 67
    using transistor board with,
    186
    with exposed heads, 172
    voltage, 4
    changes in, simulation by
    analog output pins, 110
    finding difference between
    source voltage and forward voltage, 4
    measuring with a multimeter, 10
    preventing blowback voltage, 179
    voltage divider circuit, 115
    voltage drop, 7
    W
    wearable circuits experiment,
    48
    wearable electronics, xi, 77
    collaborating with others to
    produce, 86
    designing, 82
    choosing a form, 82
    choosing components,
    86
    choosing materials, 86
    creating a layout, 86
    eight-hour wearable experiment, 89
    iterative design process,
    88
    making wearables, 84
    factors to consider, 77
    aesthetics, 82
    comfort, 78
    durability of circuits, 79
    modularity, 81
    protection, 81
    usability, 81
    future of, 212
    why wear it, 77
    wearables blogs, 231
    weight (conductive fabric), 42
    welted piping, EL wire, 158
    Windows systems
    Bluetooth pairing on, 197
    Bluetooth serial port, 199
    wire
    advantages/disadvantages
    of wire circuits, 32
    as conductive material, 35
    constructing a wire circuit,
    14
    grouped, 36
    solid core, 36
    stranded, 36
    types of, 36
    wire strippers, 15, 214
    wireless, 193–212
    Bluetooth, 193
    communicating with,
    194
    LilyPad XBee, 68
    other wireless options, 212
    XBees, 200
    chat test experiment,
    205
    configuring, 200
    sending Arduino sensor
    data to a computer,
    206
    using XBee Direct Mode,
    210
    X
    XBee Explorer, 202
    XBees, 200
    chat test experiment, 205
    configuring, 200
    XBee A, 202
    XBee B, 204
    other ways to use with Arduino, 209
    using to send sensor data
    to a computer, 206
    using XBee Direct Mode,
    210
    assembing the circuit,
    210
    configuring the XBees,
    210
    connecting, 211
    troubleshooting, 211

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