Make – The Maker’s Manual – A Practical Guide to the New Industrial Revolution

Make – The Maker’s Manual – A Practical Guide to the New Industrial Revolution
اسم المؤلف
Andrea Maietta and Paolo Aliverti
التاريخ
12 أكتوبر 2023
المشاهدات
283
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Make – The Maker’s Manual – A Practical Guide to the New Industrial Revolution
Andrea Maietta and Paolo Aliverti
Table of Contents
Preface ix
PART I. The World of the Maker

  1. Who Are the Makers? . 3
    The Culture of Reuse 3
    We Are All Designers 4
    Not Only Digital . 4
    The Maker 5
  2. The Origins of the Movement . 7
    The Culture of Sharing 7
    The Triumph of Technology . 8
    The Fab Labs 8
    The Spread in the Media . 9
  3. A New Revolution? . 11
    The Introduction of Computers . 11
    The Power of Information 12
    From Bits to Atoms . 12
    The Rebirth of the Economy 13
    PART II. Realizing an Idea
  4. Can Creativity Be Learned? 17
    Neurophysiology for the Uninitiated 17
    iiiThe Learning Process 18
    Techniques for Creativity . 19
    Lateral Thinking . 19
    Making Associations . 19
    Experimenting 19
    Networking . 19
    Generating Alternatives . 19
    Changing the Assumptions 20
    Shifting the Boundaries of the Problem . 22
    Pseudorandom Input 22
  5. From Idea to Project . 23
    Design 23
    The Design Process 24
    The Problem Definition 25
    The Requirements . 27
    Decomposition 28
    Evaluating Alternatives 29
    Aesthetics in Design . 32
    You’ve Got to Try, Try, and Try.. 33
    Eventually You Can Do It…Even Twice, Three Times . 34
  6. Project Management . 37
    What Is a Project? 37
    The Project Manager . 38
    Management of a Project 39
    The List of Activities 39
    The Gantt Chart 41
  7. Try, Fail, and Pick Yourself Up! 45
    Business Plan 45
    Abstract . 45
    Product (or Service) . 45
    Marketing Plan 46
    Operating Plan 46
    Management and Organization 46
    Assets . 46
    Financial Plan . 46
    Ready for Success? . 46
    Wrong Assumptions . 47
    Success, This Time for Real . 49
    iv The Maker’s ManualCustomer Development . 49
    The Business Model Canvas 51
  8. Financing Your Work . 55
    Classic Funding Sources 55
    The Friends and Family Network . 55
    The Bank 55
    Alternative Solutions . 56
    Local and Regional Economic Development 56
    The New Angels . 56
    Venture Capital 56
    Crowdfunding . 56
    Beyond Financing 57
    Bootstrapping . 57
    What’s the Right Solution? . 57
  9. Collaboration . 59
    The Importance of the Net . 59
    An Open Process . 60
    Distributed Intelligence 60
    A New Protection 61
    Bits, Bytes, and Atoms . 62
    PART III. From Bits to Atoms
  10. Managing Project Files . 65
    Distributed Design . 65
    Git and GitHub . 66
    Creating a New Project 66
    The Three Areas of the System . 68
    Installing Git Locally . 69
    The Workflow 70
    Not Only Trees Have Branches 73
  11. This Is Not a Pipe 77
    Manufacturing Processes 77
    Starting from Bits 78
    Software 78
    OpenSCAD 79
    Hello, World! 80
    Beyond Cubes . 80
    Table of Contents vVariables 81
    Move Slightly! . 82
    Lazy Is Good! 82
    Other Transformations . 84
    Expanding OpenSCAD . 87
  12. 3D Printing . 89
    How Does It Work? . 90
    Materials 90
    3D Printers 91
    MakerBot . 92
    Kentstrapper 92
    WASP . 92
    The Workflow 93
    Corrections 93
    Slice It Up! . 95
    Setting Up the Printer . 95
    Operating the Printer 96
    What If You Don’t Have a Printer? 98
  13. Milling 99
    CNC Machines . 99
    Designing with a CNC . 102
    Software . 103
    CAD Software 103
    CAM Software 103
    Control Software . 107
    Where Do We Turn? . 107
  14. Laser Cutting . 109
    Lasers 109
    Laser Cutters . 109
    Models 112
    PART IV. Giving Life to Objects
  15. Electronics and Fairy Dust 123
    Hello World! 123
    What You Need 123
    A First Circuit . 124
    Current, Voltage, and Resistance 125
    vi The Maker’s ManualCircuits and Components . 128
    Circuits 128
    Components . 128
    Creating a Circuit . 135
    Measurements . 137
    Ohm’s Law . 139
  16. Arduino . 141
    What Is Arduino? . 141
    The Software Structure . 142
    The Simplest Sketch 142
    How to Upload a Sketch in Arduino . 144
    Interacting with the Physical World . 145
    Shall We Switch It On? 146
    Not So Fast… 146
    Pardon Me, You Were Saying? . 146
    Where Do You Store Your Data? . 147
    Only When I Say Go… 148
    …Even Two, Three Times! 149
    Beyond Digital . 152
    Some Exercises to Try 158
  17. Expanding Arduino 159
    Reading the World: Sensors . 159
    Thermistors 159
    Photoresistors 160
    Other Kinds of Sensors . 160
    Changing the World: Actuators 161
    Buzzers 161
    Servos . 162
    Strong Currents 163
    Shields . 164
    Smart Textiles 164
  18. Raspberry Pi 167
    Component Check! . 167
    Getting Started . 169
    Basic Shell Commands . 171
    Operations on Files and Directories . 172
    Redirection 173
    The World of the Superuser . 174
    Table of Contents viiMonitoring Hardware 174
    The Graphical User Interface 175
    Python . 176
    GPIO . 177
    Hello World 177
    A Flashing Python! . 179
    Button, Button . 181
    Arduino and the Raspberry Pi . 182
  19. Processing 185
    Your First Sketch 185
    Let’s Get a Move On! 188
    How Many Circles? 190
    I’ve Got the Power! 192
    Programming with Cartoons 192
    Classes and Objects 193
    I Want…a New One! 194
    OK, but What Should I Do with It? . 195
    Using a Drop . 195
    Raindrops Keep Fallin’ on My Head… . 196
    Processing, Meet Arduino! 198
    Libraries . 198
  20. The Internet of Things 201
    Physical Computing 201
    This New World . 201
    Where to Put the Data? . 202
    From Ivrea to Rome: Flyport . 202
    Raspberry Pi on the Net . 203
    Features of a Service 206
    Index 207
    Index
    Symbols
    123D Design software, 78, 93, 110
    3-axis CNC machines, 100, 102
    3D Hubs i.materialise, 98
    3D printing
    basic printer operation, 89
    benefits of, 90
    detailed printer operation, 90
    economic impact of, 13
    increased access to, 13, 89
    material selection, 90
    object creation with, 77
    online printer reviews, 93
    online sources for, 98
    printer selection, 91
    technologies available, 89
    workflow
    considering tolerances, 93
    correcting defects, 93
    G-code translations, 95
    model creation, 93
    object finishing, 98
    printer operation, 96
    printer set-up, 95
    3D scanners, 93
    3DTin design software, 79
    = (equals sign), 149
    == (double equals sign), 149
    A
    acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
    (ABS), 90
    actuators
    buzzers, 161
    purpose of, 161
    servo motors, 162
    Adafruit, 129
    additive manufacturing, 77
    aesthetics, 32
    affordances, 33
    Alexander, Christopher, 33
    ampere (A), 125
    angel investors, 56
    animation, 188
    Arduino
    applications for, 141
    benefits of, 142, 201
    development of, 141
    IDE for, 142
    shields for, 164
    sketches
    adding conditions, 148
    adding contingencies, 146
    adding pauses, 146
    adding repetitions, 149
    basic syntax, 142, 144
    control structure, 148
    data storage with variables,
    147
    defining pin behavior, 145
    for analog sensors, 152
    LED blink program, 143
    practice exercises, 158
    premade examples, 143
    pulse-width modulation,
    156
    serial monitor, 155
    switching on/off, 146
    uploading, 144
    verifying, 144
    software structure, 142
    using with Processing, 198
    using with Raspberry Pi, 182
    vs. Raspberry Pi, 167
    wearable textiles and, 164
    working with actuators,
    161-163
    working with sensors, 159-161
    working with strong currents,
    163
    ARPANET project, 12
    arrays, 190
    art, generative, 78
    artifacts, definition of, 23
    artisans, 59
    assets, 46
    associations, creative thought
    through, 19
    assumptions, changing, 20
    Autodesk 123D Catch, 93
    207Autodesk 123D Make, 110
    Autodesk Fusion 360, 103
    B
    BCM numbering, 180
    biological factors of design, 32
    bitmap images, 112
    Blender design software, 78
    bootstrapping, 57
    boundaries, shifting, 22
    Bowyer, Adrian, 91
    branches, 73
    breadboards, 136
    bridging, 97
    buffers, 199
    build-measure-learn cycle, 49
    business model canvas, 51
    business plans
    abstract section, 45
    assets section, 46
    business model canvas, 51
    financial section, 46
    for startups, 47
    management/organization
    section, 46
    marketing plan section, 46
    operating plan section, 46
    pitfalls of traditional, 46
    product/service section, 45
    purpose of, 45
    buttons, 134
    buzzers, 161
    C
    CAD software, 103
    CAM software, 103
    capacitors, 133
    carving, types of CNC, 102
    cathodes, 130
    circuits
    creating a basic, 124
    creating with breadboards, 135
    creating with matrix boards,
    137
    hydraulic model , 128
    LED blink program, 123
    measuring current and voltage,
    137
    power source, 124, 137
    class methods, 198
    classes, 193
    CNC machines
    applications for, 100
    benefits and drawbacks of, 107
    building your own, 108
    CAD software for, 103
    CAM software for, 103
    control software for, 107
    designing with, 102
    desktop versions, 99, 107
    drivers and encoders in, 101
    materials milled, 100
    milling heads, 100
    outsourcing, 107
    subtractive manufacturing
    with, 77, 99
    variations of, 100
    collaboration
    benefits of distributed
    intelligence, 60
    challenging aspects of, 60
    craftsperson guilds, 59
    Creative Commons licenses, 61
    of digital information, 62
    (see also project files)
    role of Internet in, 12, 59
    collective intelligence, 59
    color, vs. colour, 190
    committed files, 68
    company structure, 46
    components
    basic tools for, 135
    buttons and switches, 134
    capacitors, 133
    datasheets, 128
    diodes, 134
    LEDs, 130
    obtaining, 129
    overview of, 129
    part numbers/markings, 128
    resistors, 131
    symbols and diagrams for, 130
    trimmers/potentiometers, 132
    Computer Aided Design (CAD), 78
    computer numerical control (CNC)
    (see CNC machines)
    concept selection matrix, 30
    conductors, 125
    control structure, 148
    craftspeople, 59
    Creative Commons licenses, 61
    creative techniques
    experimentation, 19
    generating alternative
    solutions, 19
    lateral vs. vertical thinking, 19
    making associations, 19
    mind maps, 20
    networking, 19
    overturning assumptions , 20
    pseudorandom input, 22
    role of learning in, 18
    role of neurophysiology in, 17
    shifting boundaries, 22
    sources of creativity, 17
    crowdfunding, 56
    Cupcake 3D printer, 92
    current, 125, 137, 163
    CVS, 66
    D
    DARPA (Defense Advanced
    Research Projects Agency), 12
    datasheets, 128
    debugging, in Python, 176
    decomposition approach, 28
    design
    aesthetics in, 32
    definition of, 23
    design patterns, 33
    distributed, 65
    for laser cutting, 119
    form and function in, 29
    objective of, 23
    software for, 78
    with CNC machines, 102
    die-cutting machines, 77
    DigiKey, 129
    digital models
    correcting defects in, 93
    creating, 78
    208 Indexobtaining, 93
    diodes, 134
    direct observation, 27
    distributed design, 65
    distributed intelligence, 60
    distributed version control, 66
    divide et impera (divide and
    conquer), 39
    Do It Yourself (DIY) technology, 7
    dominant ideas, 26
    double equals sign (==), 149
    Dougherty, Dale, 9
    drawtext command, 87
    drivers, 90
    E
    e-textiles, 164
    EBITDA plan, 46
    Economic Development
    Corporations, 56
    electroluminescence, 130
    electromechanical calculators, 12
    electronics
    alternative view of, 123
    circuits, 128, 135
    components, 128-135
    current, 125
    electricity basics, 125
    Hello World application, 123
    measuring electricity, 137
    Ohm’s law, 139
    resistance, 127
    safety issues, 127
    voltage, 126
    voltage dividers, 133
    electrons, 125
    elegance, 30
    Element 14, 129
    EMC2 LinuxCNC, 107
    endmill tool, 100
    ENIAC computer, 12
    Enigma machine, 12
    Eno, Brian, 22
    enterprise philosophy, ix
    entrepreneurs, new approach of,
    ix
    equals sign (=), 149
    evaluating alternatives, 29-32
    events, 192
    experimentation, creative thought
    through, 19
    extruders, 90, 96
    F
    Fab Labs, 7, 8, 110
    Farnell, 129
    file management (see project file
    management)
    financial plans, 46
    five whys method, 25
    Flyport, 202
    focus groups, 27
    for loops, 150
    for statements, 187
    forgery, 62
    form and function, 29
    Frankenstein Garage, x
    FreeMill CAM software, 103
    freemium services, 66
    Fritzing, 130
    funding sources
    angel investors, 56
    bank loans, 55
    bootstrapping, 57
    crowdfunding, 56
    Economic Development
    Corporations, 56
    friends and family, 55
    selecting, 57
    venture capital, 56
    fused deposition modeling (FDM),
    89
    G
    G-code, 95, 106
    Gantt charts, 41-43
    Gantter software, 42
    GanttProject software, 42
    genchi gembutsu principle, 50
    generating alternatives, creative
    thought through, 19
    generative art, 78
    Gershenfeld, Neil, 8
    getting help, xi
    Git
    basic workflow in, 69
    branch feature, 73
    detailed workflow in, 70
    installing locally, 69
    project creation, 66
    purpose of, 66
    three stages of work in, 68
    Good-Fast-Cheap triangle, 38
    Grasshopper plug-in, 78
    guilds, 59
    H
    hackerspaces, 7, 110
    Hello World program, 123, 176,
    180, 185
    hypothesis of growth, 49
    hypothesis of value, 49
    I
    i.materialise prototyping service,
    98
    Industrial Revolution
    effect of computers on, 12
    short history of, 11
    infill, 97
    information hiding, 197
    information, increased access to,
    12
    (see also collaboration)
    Inkscape CAD software
    creating a circle in, 113
    creating projects in, 113
    downloading, 112
    for 3D printing, 103
    optimizing files, 118
    tricks for 3D, 119
    tutorials for, 112
    working with images in, 116
    working with text in, 113
    innovation
    importance of, 5
    techniques for, 18
    innovative projects, 35
    input, pseudorandom, 22
    Index 209instances, 193
    Instructables, 59
    insulators, 125
    intellectual property, 61
    Internet
    impact on personal
    manufacturing, 13
    importance to collaboration, 59
    origins of, 12
    Internet of Things (IoT)
    concept of, 201
    features of a service, 206
    networking connections, 202
    physical computing, 201
    publishing data, 202
    Raspberry Pi and, 203
    strength of, 206
    iron triangle, 38
    iteration
    in design process, 34
    in project management, 39
    J
    Jameco, 129
    jumpers, 136
    K
    Kentstrapper 3D printer, 92
    kerf, 118
    Kirchhoff’s current law, 128
    L
    laser cutting
    3D objects and, 119
    applications for, 110
    community resources for, 110
    iterative approach to, 119
    model creation for, 112-119
    online sources for, 110
    possible materials, 109
    reducing costs of, 118
    software for, 110
    tutorials for, 119
    types of cutters, 109
    Lasersaur laser cutter, 110
    latent needs, 27
    lateral thinking, 19
    Lean Startup movement, 49
    learning process, role in creativity,
    18
    LED blink program
    Arduino controlled, 143
    basic circuit for, 124
    capacitors and, 134
    materials required, 123
    vs. Hello World , 123
    LEDs, 130, 165
    legal protection, 61
    licenses, 61
    life projects, 37
    light amplification by stimulated
    emission of radiation (see laser
    cutting)
    light sensors, 160
    LilyPad Arduino , 165
    logical numbering, 180
    loops, 150
    M
    MACH3 for Windows, 107
    MailChimp, 57
    MAKE Magazine, 9
    Maker Faires, 9
    maker movement
    contributions of Neil
    Gershenfeld to, 8
    culture of reuse in, 3
    culture of sharing in, 8, 59
    definition of, ix, 5
    economic impact of, 5, 11-14
    effect of technology on, 4, 8
    MAKE Magazine, 9
    origins of, 7-9
    skills required for, ix, 4
    social aspects of, 9
    MakerBot 3D printers, 92
    MakerShed, 129
    makerspaces, 7, 60, 110
    management plans, 46
    (see also business plans)
    manufacturing process
    3D printing, 77, 89-98
    additive vs. subtractive, 77
    digital model creation, 78, 93
    laser cutting, 109-119
    milling machines, 99-108
    OpenSCAD software, 79-87
    marketing plans, 46
    matrix boards, 137
    matrix of concept selection, 30
    Mebotics Microfactory, 100
    MechSoft FreeMill, 103
    memory, nonvolatile, 142
    Mendel Max 3D printer, 92
    Mercurial, 66
    MeshLab, 95
    MeshMixer, 94
    Microsoft Kinect, 93
    Microsoft Project, 42
    milestones, 42
    milling machines
    benefits and drawbacks of, 107
    CNC, 99
    endmill tool, 100
    manufacturing using, 77, 99
    milling heads, 100
    software for, 103
    mind maps, 20
    minimum viable product (MVP),
    49
    Mintronics: Survival Pack, 124
    modified files, 68
    modularization, 100
    MOSFET (metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect
    transistor), 163
    Mouser, 129
    multimeters, 137
    N
    nano text editor, 176, 181
    needs, latent, 27
    nesting, 118
    nests, 202
    Netfabb Studio Basic, 94
    networking, creative thought
    through, 19
    210 Indexneurophysiology, role in creativity,
    17
    nonvolatile memory, 142
    O
    object-oriented programming
    (OOP)
    borrowing classes, 197
    classes and objects, 193
    concept of, 192
    creating classes, 195
    creating multiple objects, 196
    creating objects, 194
    modifying classes, 197
    objects, 193
    observation, 27
    Ohm’s law, 127, 139
    open source phenomenon
    benefits of, 5
    challenging aspects of, 60
    culture of sharing in, 8, 59
    effect of, ix
    OpenPicus, 202
    OpenSCAD
    basic interface, 80
    benefits of, 79
    combining objects in, 85
    creating 3D objects in, 86
    creating cubes in, 80
    creating ellipses in, 86
    creating spheres in, 80
    exporting models for printing,
    80
    modifying resolution in, 81
    removing objects in, 85
    repeating commands, 82
    rotate function, 84, 86
    scaling object in, 84
    storing information in, 81
    text libraries for, 87
    translate function in, 82
    operating plans, 46
    overhang, 97
    P
    parent-child projects, 9
    patents, 61
    patterns, in project design, 33
    perpendiculars to the plane, 93
    personal manufacturing, 13, 89, 92
    photoresistors, 160
    physical computing, 201
    physical numbering, 180
    piezoelectric transducers, 161
    pivot/persevere phase, 50
    pixels, 112
    Planner software, 42
    Pleasant3D, 94
    polylactic acid (PLA), 91
    polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 91
    Ponoko prototyping service, 98,
    119
    postmortems, in project lifecycle,
    39
    potentiometers, 132
    PowerWASP 3D printer, 92
    predictable projects, 35
    printed circuit boards (PCBs), 137
    Printrbot 3D printers, 92
    Printrun, 96
    problem solving, 23, 60
    Processing
    adding animation with, 188
    animating multiple objects, 190
    comprehensive manual for, 187
    creating a circle with, 188
    creating a line with, 186
    downloading, 185
    Hello World program in, 185
    object-oriented programming
    basic concept of, 192
    borrowing classes, 197
    classes and objects, 193
    creating classes, 195
    creating multiple objects,
    196
    creating objects, 194
    modifying classes, 197
    popularity of, 185
    practice exercises, 200
    repetitive commands in, 187
    responding to events, 192
    sketches in, 185
    using with Arduino, 198
    working with colors in, 190
    working with text in, 186
    product adoption curves, 47
    product development model, 47
    project design
    aesthetics in, 32
    challenging aspects of, 23
    decomposition approach, 28
    definition of design, 23
    design patterns, 33
    evaluating alternatives, 29
    for laser cutting, 119
    iteration in, 34
    listing requirements, 27
    modularization, 100
    predictable vs. innovative
    projects, 35
    problem definition, 25
    process overview, 24
    prototyping, 33
    software for, 78
    with CNC machines, 102
    project file management
    distributed version control, 66
    Git and GitHub, 66-70
    Git’s branch feature, 73
    version control system for, 65
    workflow for, 70
    project management
    basics of, 38
    common project attributes, 37
    common project limitations, 38
    Gantt charts, 41
    importance of, 37
    iron triangle of, 38
    listing activities, 39
    project lifecycle, 39
    risk management, 42
    software for, 42
    project review meetings (PRMs),
    42
    prototyping, 33, 98, 142, 201
    pseudocode, 148, 148
    pseudorandom input, 22
    pulse-width modulation (PWM),
    156
    Python
    accessing the Internet with, 203
    Arduino and, 183
    benefits of, 176
    Index 211calculator operation, 176
    code syntax, 177
    connecting button switches in,
    182
    creating comments in, 177
    creating scripts in, 176
    development environment, 176
    exiting, 176
    GPIO library
    configuring ports with, 180
    controlling LEDs with, 180
    repeating instructions in,
    180
    Hello World program in, 176,
    180
    interpreted language of, 176
    launching, 176
    official documentation for, 177
    Raspberry Pi and, 167
    RPi library
    logical vs. physical
    numbering in, 180
    managing GPIO pins with,
    179
    time library in, 180
    variables in, 177
    vs. other languages, 176
    R
    raft layer, 98
    rails, 136
    Raspberry Pi
    basic shell commands, 171
    benefits of, 167
    component overview, 167
    files and directories in, 172
    GPIO pins, 177-182
    graphical user interface, 175
    initial set up, 169
    Internet access, 203
    monitoring peripherals, 174
    Python interpreter, 176
    redirection, 173
    superusers, 174
    using with Arduino, 182
    vs. Arduino, 167
    raster images, 112
    Redmine software, 42
    relief grooves, 119
    Repetier-Host, 96
    replicating rapid prototyper, 91
    Replicator 3D printer, 92
    repositories, 66
    RepRap printer, 91
    requirements, determining, 27
    resistance, 127
    resistors, 123, 131
    restrictions, in project design, 25
    Rhinoceros design software, 78
    risk management, 42
    Rory’s Story Cubes, 22
    RPi library, 179
    S
    safety issues
    importance of training, 8
    working with electricity, 127
    scanners, 93
    Sculpteo prototyping service, 98
    sensors
    available types, 160
    light, 160
    photoresistors, 160
    purpose of, 159
    temperature, 159
    thermistors, 159
    serial monitor, 155
    servo motors, 162
    Shapeways prototyping service,
    98
    shells, 97
    shields, 164
    Simple Maker’s Kit 3D printer, 92
    sketches, 142, 185
    SketchUp Make design software,
    78
    Slater Technology Fund, 56
    slicing, 95
    smart textiles, 164
    snap-fit joints, 100, 119
    solutions
    evaluating alternative, 29
    finding alternative, 19
    SparkFun, 129
    sponsored funding, 57
    staged files, 68
    stakeholders, 42
    Standard Tesselation Language
    (STL), 78, 80
    static methods, 198
    stepper motors, 90
    Structure Scanner, 93
    subtractive manufacturing, 77
    Subversion, 66
    SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics),
    112
    switches, 134
    system variables, 187
    T
    tacit knowledge, 30
    technical approach, 33
    technology
    benefits of, 4, 8
    DIY renaissance, 7
    effect on Industrial Revolution,
    12
    increased access to, 4, 7, 13
    limitations of, 3
    TechShop, 7
    temperature sensors, 159
    TextGenerator.scad file, 87
    thermistors, 159
    Thingiverse, 13, 61, 93
    time library, 180
    TinkerCAD design software, 79
    tinkerers, 4
    tolerances, 93
    trademarks, 62
    trimmers, 132
    U
    Ultimaker 3D printer, 92
    uncertainty cone, 43
    V
    value propositions, 52
    variable resistors, 132
    212 Indexvariables, 147
    vector graphics, 112
    (see also Inkscape CAD
    software)
    venture capital, 56
    version control system (VCS), 65
    vertical thinking, 19
    visual representations (see
    Processing)
    volt (V), 126
    voltage, 126, 137
    voltage dividers, 133
    W
    WASP (World’s Advanced Saving
    Project), 92
    watertight models, 94
    wearable textiles, 164
    Weebly, 57
    WordPress, 57
    work breakdown structure (WBS),
    39
    wow factor, 30
    X
    Xively, 202
    XML ( eXtensible Markup
    Language), 203
    Y
    YouMagine, 13, 61, 93

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً