Make – Analog Synthesizers – A modern approach to old-school sound synthesis

Make – Analog Synthesizers – A modern approach to old-school sound synthesis
اسم المؤلف
Ray Wilson
التاريخ
10 مايو 2024
المشاهدات
194
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Make – Analog Synthesizers – A modern approach to old-school sound synthesis
Ray Wilson
Published by Maker Media, Inc
Dive hands-on into the tools, techniques, and information for making your own analog synthesizer. If you’re a musician or a hobbyist with experience in building electronic projects from kits or schematics, this do-it-yourself guide will walk you through the parts and schematics you need, and how to tailor them for your needs. Author Ray Wilson shares his decades of experience in synth-DIY, including the popular Music From Outer Space (MFOS) website and analog synth community. At the end of the book, you’ll apply everything you’ve learned by building an analog synthesizer, using the MFOS Noise Toaster kit. You’ll also learn what it takes to create synth-DIY electronic music studio. Get started in the fun and engaging hobby of synth-DIY without delay. With this book, you’ll learn: The differences between analog and digital synthesizers Analog synthesizer building blocks, including VCOs, VCFs, VCAs, and LFOs How to tool up for synth-DIY, including electronic instruments and suggestions for home-made equipment Foundational circuits for amplification, biasing, and signal mixing How to work with the MFOS Noise Toaster kit Setting up a synth-DIY electronic music studio on a budget.
Dive hands-on into the tools, techniques, and information for making your own analog synthesizer. If you’re a musician or a hobbyist with experience in building electronic projects from kits or schematics, this do-it-yourself guide will walk you through the parts and schematics you need, and how to tailor them for your needs. Author Ray Wilson shares his decades of experience in synth-DIY, including the popular Music From Outer Space (MFOS) website and analog synth community.
At the end of the book, you’ll apply everything you’ve learned by building an analog synthesizer, using the MFOS Noise Toaster kit. You’ll also learn what it takes to create synth-DIY electronic music studio. Get started in the fun and engaging hobby of synth-DIY without delay.
With this book, you’ll learn:
The differences between analog and digital synthesizers
Analog synthesizer building blocks, including VCOs, VCFs, VCAs, and LFOs
How to tool up for synth-DIY, including electronic instruments and suggestions for home-made equipment
Foundational circuits for amplification, biasing, and signal mixing
How to work with the MFOS Noise Toaster kit
Setting up a synth-DIY electronic music studio on a budget
Table of contents
Dedication
Preface
How I Got Started
My Electronic Roots
Music From Outer Space
What You Should Know
What’s Next?
Conventions Used in This Book
Using Examples
Safari® Books Online
How to Contact Us

  1. What Is Synth-DIY?
    A Bit of Analog Synthesizer Etymology
    What Can I Build?
    How Far Can I Go?
  2. Tooling Up for Building Analog Synths
    Instrumenting Your Workbench
    The Oscilloscope
    Frequency Response (or Bandwidth)
    Input Channels
    Sensitivity
    What Else Should I Look for in a Scope?
    The Digital Multimeter (DM)
    Multimeter Advanced Features
    Logic Probe
    The Bench Power Supply
    Some Nice-to-Haves
    Second Multimeter
    Capacitance Meter
    Frequency Counter
    Function Generator
    Tips for Reliable Soldering
    Temperature-Controlled Solder Station
    Soldering Tips
    Desoldering Is Important, Too
    Obtaining Electronic Components
    Surplus Parts
    Capacitors
    Capacitors to Keep On Hand
    Resistors to Keep On Hand
    Mechanical Components
    Active Components
    Solderless Breadboarding
    Hand Tools
    Troubleshooting Tips
    How to Minimize Troubleshooting
    Divide and Conquer
  3. Analog Synthesizer Building Blocks
    Three Configurations: Normalized, Modular, and Hybrid
    Voltage Control
    The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    The Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF)
    The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA)
    The Low-Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
    The Keyboard Controller
    The Envelope Generator (EG)
    AR Envelope Generator
    ADSR Envelope Generator
    The White Noise Generator
    The Sample and Hold (S&H)
    Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    The Ring Modulator
    The Voltage Sequencer
    Putting It All Together
  4. Make the Noise Toaster Analog Sound Synthesizer
    Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    Building the Noise Toaster
    Gathering the Parts
    The Bill of Materials (BOM)
    The Noise Toaster Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
    Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    Making the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Making the Noise Toaster Front Panel Legend Overlay
    Installing the Noise Toaster Front Panel Components
    Wiring the Noise Toaster Front Panel Components
    Preparing the Noise Toaster Case
    Wiring the PCB to the Front Panel
    Testing the Noise Toaster
    Testing the White Noise Generator
    Testing the VCO
    Testing the VCF
    Testing the VCA
    Testing the AREG
    Testing the LFO
    Testing the Output Jack
    My Noise Toaster Is Being Sullen and Listless
  5. The Incredible Op Amp
    Op Amps as Amplifiers
    Negative Feedback Demystified
    Op Amps as Comparators
    Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
  6. How the Noise Toaster Works
    The Noise Toaster Schematics
    The Power Supply
    The Attack Release Envelope Generator (AREG)
    The Low-Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
    The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    The White Noise Generator
    The Voltage-Controlled Low-Pass Filter (VCF)
    The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA)
    The Audio Amplifier
  7. Your Electronic Music Studio
    Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s Sound Card
    Introducing Audacity
    The Audacity Interface
    Sound Card Interface Discovery
    Saving Projects
    Exporting Audio Formats
    Transport Controls
    Audacity Tools
    Audacity Edit Toolbar
    Sound-on-Sound Recording
    Audacity Effects
    Effect Tails
    Recording Exercises
    Musique Concrete
    Multitrack Layering
    Multitrack Volume Envelope Layering
    Floobydust
    A. A Field Guide to Op Amp Circuit Applications
    Buffers
    Inverting Buffer
    Noninverting Buffer
    High-Impedance Buffer Follower
    Comparators
    A Basic Comparator
    The Window Comparator
    Signal Mixing
    Simple AC-Coupled Audio Mixer
    Simple Multichannel DC Modulation Mixer
    Simple but Useful Op Amp Oscillators
    Single Op Amp Square-Wave Oscillator
    Two Op Amp Square- and Triangle-Wave Oscillator
    Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Binarily Weighted Resistors or the R/2R Resistor Ladder
    The Binarily Weighted Resistor DAC
    The R/2R Resistor Ladder DAC
    Light Up Your Synth with LEDs
    The Simplest Way to Light an LED
    Isolating the LED Control Source with a Transistor (I)
    Isolating the LED Control Source with a Transistor (II)
    Isolating the LED Control Source with a CD40106 Inverter (I)
    Isolating the LED Control Source with a CD40106 Inverter (II)
    Light an LED Using a Comparator (I)
    Light an LED Using a Comparator (II)
    B. The LM13700
    LM13700 Manufacturers
    LM13700 Chip Details
    Three Examples of LM13700 Circuits
    A Simple VCA Using the LM13700
    A Simple State-Variable VCF
    A Triangle-to-Sine Converter
    C. Working with CMOS Logic Chips
    Logic Chips in Synth-DIY
    CD4013 Dual D Flip-Flop
    CD4011 Quad Two-Input NAND Gate
    CD4001 Quad Two-Input NOR Gate
    CD4066 Quad Analog Switch
    CD4024 Seven-Stage Ripple Carry Binary Counter
    CD4042 Quad D Latch
    CD4094 Eight-Stage Shift Register
    CD40193 Binary Up/Down Counter
    CD4514 4-Bit Latch/4-to-16 Line Decoder
    CD4017 Decade Counter with 10 Decoded Outputs
    CD4067 Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demuliplexer
    CD40106 Hex Inverting Schmitt Trigger
    CD40106 Square Wave Oscillator
    CD40106 Pulse Wave Oscillator
    CD40106 Multiple-Input NAND Gate
    CD40106 Multiple-Input NOR Gate
    CD40106 Positive Edge to Negative-Going Pulse
    CD40106 Negative Edge to Positive-Going Pulse
    CD40106 Narrow Pulse Stretcher
    Index
    About the Author
    Colophon
    Index
    A NOTE ON THE DIGITAL INDEX
    A link in an index entry is displayed as the section title in which that entry appears.
    Because some sections have multiple index markers, it is not unusual for an entry
    to have several links to the same section. Clicking on any link will take you directly
    to the place in the text in which the marker appears.
    Symbols
    9V battery eliminators, The Power Supply
    9V battery snap polarity, Testing the Noise Toaster
    A
    AC mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    AC vs. DC coupling, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    AC-coupled audio mixers, Simple AC-Coupled Audio Mixer
    ADSREG modules (see attack decay sustain release (ADSR)
    envelope generator modules)
    Alien Screamer synthesizer (Magnaval), What Can I Build?
    All Electronics, Gathering the Partsaluminum chassis, Building the Noise Toaster
    aluminum electrolytic capacitors, Capacitors
    amplitude envelopes, The Envelope Generator (EG)
    amplitude modulation, The Ring Modulator
    analog multiplier chips, The Ring Modulator
    analog oscilloscopes, The Oscilloscope–What Else Should I
    Look for in a Scope?
    analog switch (CD4066), A Basic Comparator
    analog synthesizer-DIY, A Bit of Analog Synthesizer Etymology,
    Logic Chips in Synth-DIY
    analog synthesizers
    categories of, Three Configurations: Normalized, Modular,
    and Hybrid
    configuration of, Putting It All Together
    defined, A Bit of Analog Synthesizer Etymology
    voltage control of, Voltage Control
    vs. digital synthesizers, What Is Synth-DIY?analog, defined, A Bit of Analog Synthesizer Etymology
    AR Mod Depth control, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    AREG module (see attack release (AR) envelope generator
    modules)
    arpeggio, The Voltage Sequencer
    Art of Electronic Sound project, Recording Exercises
    Attack control, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    attack decay sustain release (ADSR) envelope generator
    modules, The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA), The Envelope
    Generator (EG), ADSR Envelope Generator–ADSR Envelope
    Generator
    attack release (AR) envelope generator modules, The Envelope
    Generator (EG), AR Envelope Generator , Testing the AREG,
    The Attack Release Envelope Generator (AREG)
    Attack Time control, AR Envelope Generator
    Audacity
    edit tools, Audacity Edit Toolbar
    effect tails, Effect Tailseffects, Audacity Effects
    exporting projects, Exporting Audio Formats
    file formats, Exporting Audio Formats
    interface, The Audacity Interface
    introduction, Introducing Audacity
    Mixer Board, Multitrack Layering
    Mixer Board window, Exporting Audio Formats
    Multi-Tool Mode, Audacity Tools
    saving projects, Saving Projects
    sound card discovery, Sound Card Interface Discovery
    sound-on-sound recording, Sound-on-Sound Recording
    tools/toolbar, Audacity Tools
    transport controls, Transport Controls
    audio amplifiers, The Audio Amplifieraudio interfaces, Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s
    Sound Card
    audio signal mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers, Connecting a
    Project to Your Computer’s Sound Card, Signal Mixing
    B
    banana jacks, Three Configurations: Normalized, Modular, and
    Hybrid
    bandwidth, Frequency Response (or Bandwidth)
    bench power supplies, The Bench Power Supply
    bias/biasing, High-Impedance Buffer Follower
    BIFET input op amps, Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    bill of materials (BOM)
    audio interfaces, Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s
    Sound Card
    Noise Toaster, The Bill of Materials (BOM)
    binarily weighted resistor DAC, The Binarily Weighted Resistor
    DAC
    binary counter (CD4024), The Binarily Weighted Resistor DACbinary up/down counter (CD40193), CD40193 Binary Up/Down
    Counter
    bipolar electrolytic caps, Capacitors
    bipolar power supplies, The Bench Power Supply
    block diagrams
    AC vs. DC coupling, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    ADSR envelope generator module, The Envelope Generator
    (EG)
    analog synthesizer, Putting It All Together
    circles in, The Attack Release Envelope Generator (AREG)
    control symbol, Voltage Control
    keyboard voltage controller, The Keyboard Controller
    Noise Toaster, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    Noise Toaster power supply, The Noise Toaster Schematics
    ring modulator, The Ring Modulator
    sample and hold module, The Sample and Hold (S&H)signal and DC modulation mixers, Audio and DC Signal
    Mixers
    sound card audio interface, Connecting a Project to Your
    Computer’s Sound Card
    VCA module, The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA)
    VCF module, The Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF)
    VCO module, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    voltage sequencer module, The Voltage Sequencer
    white noise generator module, The White Noise Generator
    Buchla, Don, What Is Synth-DIY?
    buffers, Buffers
    bumpers (rubber feet), Preparing the Noise Toaster Case
    Bypass switch, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    C
    capacitance meters, Capacitance Meter
    capacitors, Surplus Parts–Capacitors to Keep On Hand,
    Troubleshooting Tips, Gathering the Parts, The Bill of Materials(BOM)
    carbon film potentiometers, Mechanical Components
    carbon film resistors, Resistors to Keep On Hand
    cases, Hand Tools , Building the Noise Toaster, Preparing the
    Noise Toaster Case
    CD4001 quad two-input NOR gate, CD4001 Quad Two-Input NOR
    Gate
    CD40106 hex Schmitt inverter, Isolating the LED Control Source
    with a CD40106 Inverter (I), CD40106 Hex Inverting Schmitt
    Trigger
    CD40106 multiple-input NAND gate, CD40106 Multiple-Input
    NAND Gate
    CD40106 multiple-input NOR gate, CD40106 Multiple-Input NOR
    Gate
    CD40106 narrow pulse stretcher, CD40106 Narrow Pulse
    Stretcher
    CD40106 negative edge to positive-going pulse, CD40106
    Negative Edge to Positive-Going Pulse
    CD40106 oscillator circuit, The Binarily Weighted Resistor DACCD40106 positive edge to negative-going pulse, CD40106
    Positive Edge to Negative-Going Pulse
    CD40106 pulse wave oscillator, CD40106 Pulse Wave Oscillator
    CD40106 square wave oscillator, CD40106 Square Wave
    Oscillator
    CD4011 quad two-input NAND gate, CD4011 Quad Two-Input
    NAND Gate
    CD4013 dual D flip-flop, Logic Chips in Synth-DIY
    CD4017 decade counter with 10 decoded outputs, CD4017
    Decade Counter with 10 Decoded Outputs
    CD40193 binary up/down counter, CD40193 Binary Up/Down
    Counter
    CD4024 binary counter, The Binarily Weighted Resistor DAC
    CD4024 seven-stage ripple carry binary counter, CD4024 SevenStage Ripple Carry Binary Counter
    CD4042 quad D latch, CD4042 Quad D Latch
    CD4066 analog switch, A Basic Comparator
    CD4066 quad analog switch, CD4066 Quad Analog SwitchCD4067 single 16-channel multiplexer/ demultiplexer, CD4067
    Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demuliplexer
    CD4094 eight-stage shift register, CD4094 Eight-Stage Shift
    Register
    CD4514 4-bit latch/4-to-16 line decoder, CD4514 4-Bit Latch/4-to-
    16 Line Decoder
    cent system, Voltage Control
    center-tapped secondary transformers, Mechanical
    Components
    ceramic capacitors, Capacitors, Capacitors, The Bill of Materials
    (BOM)
    channels, The Voltage Sequencer
    clock rate, The Voltage Sequencer
    CMOS logic chips, How to Minimize Troubleshooting, Working
    with CMOS Logic Chips–CD40106 Narrow Pulse Stretcher
    coax cables, Three Configurations: Normalized, Modular, and
    Hybrid
    comparators, A Basic Comparator, Light an LED Using a
    Comparator (I), Light an LED Using a Comparator (II)component leads, Soldering Tips, Populating the Noise Toaster
    PCB
    composition resistors, Resistors to Keep On Hand
    computer sound card inputs, Connecting a Project to Your
    Computer’s Sound Card
    conductive plastic potentiometers, Mechanical Components
    continuous waveform vs. digital waveform, A Bit of Analog
    Synthesizer Etymology
    continuously variable sound, A Bit of Analog Synthesizer
    Etymology
    contrasting sounds, Musique Concrete
    control knobs, The Bill of Materials (BOM)
    Control Voltage Offset control, The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier
    (VCA)
    control voltages for one octave, The Keyboard Controller
    coupling, AC vs. DC, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    Cutoff Frequency control, Noise Toaster Block DiagramD
    Darlington buffer amplifiers, The LM13700
    DC measurement capability, Frequency Response (or
    Bandwidth)
    DC mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    DC modulation mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    decade counter with 10 decoded outputs (CD4017), CD4017
    Decade Counter with 10 Decoded Outputs
    Decay control, ADSR Envelope Generator
    dedicated comparator ICs, Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    desoldering, Soldering Tips
    desoldering braid (wick), Desoldering Is Important, Too
    diagonal cutters, Hand Tools
    DigiKey, Gathering the Parts
    digital audio workstations (DAWs), Your Electronic Music
    Studiodigital multimeters, The Digital Multimeter (DM), Second
    Multimeter
    digital oscilloscopes, What Else Should I Look for in a Scope?
    digital synthesizers vs. analog synthesizers, What Is SynthDIY?
    digital waveform vs. continuous waveform, A Bit of Analog
    Synthesizer Etymology
    digital-to-analog converters (DAC), Digital-to-Analog
    Conversion Using Binarily Weighted Resistors or the R/2R
    Resistor Ladder–The R/2R Resistor Ladder DAC
    dinks, Multitrack Layering
    diodes, Active Components , Gathering the Parts
    DIP (dual inline package), The Incredible Op Amp
    double-sided PC boards, Soldering Tips
    Draw Tool (Audacity), Audacity Tools
    dual D flip-flop (CD4013), Logic Chips in Synth-DIY
    dual output power supplies, The Bench Power SupplyE
    effect tails (Audacity), Effect Tails
    effects (Audacity), Audacity Effects , Musique Concrete
    eight-stage shift register (CD4094), CD4094 Eight-Stage Shift
    Register
    eight-step sequencer, What Can I Build?
    electronic components, Desoldering Is Important, Too
    (see also tools)
    active parts, Active Components
    audio interface, Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s
    Sound Card
    capacitors, Surplus Parts–Capacitors to Keep On Hand
    mechanical parts, Mechanical Components
    obtaining, Desoldering Is Important, Too
    problems with, My Noise Toaster Is Being Sullen and
    Listless
    resistors, Resistors to Keep On Handsolderless breadboards, Solderless Breadboarding
    electronic experimenter kits, What Can I Build?
    Envelope Generator (EG) modules, Voltage Control , The
    Keyboard Controller–ADSR Envelope Generator
    Envelope Tool (Audacity), Audacity Tools
    exponential frequency response inputs, The Voltage-Controlled
    Oscillator (VCO)
    external connection pads, Wiring the PCB to the Front Panel
    F
    feedback resistors (RFBs), Negative Feedback Demystified, Op
    Amps as Comparators
    film capacitors, Capacitors, Capacitors
    4-bit latch/4-to-16 line decoder (CD4514), CD4514 4-Bit Latch/4-
    to-16 Line Decoder
    frequency counters, Frequency Counter
    frequency response, Frequency Response (or Bandwidth)
    frequency sweep capability, Function Generatorfull-wave rectified dual-analog power supplies, The Bench
    Power Supply
    function generators, Function Generator
    G
    gain formulae, Negative Feedback Demystified, Negative
    Feedback Demystified, Inverting Buffer, Simple AC-Coupled
    Audio Mixer
    gain, setting for buffers, Noninverting Buffer
    gate truth tables, CD4011 Quad Two-Input NAND Gate
    gates, Voltage Control , AR Envelope Generator , ADSR
    Envelope Generator
    glide controls, The Keyboard Controller
    goggles, Troubleshooting Tips
    H
    hand tools, Hand Tools
    hard sync, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    helping hands alligator clips device, Populating the Noise
    Toaster PCBHertz (Hz), The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    hex Schmitt inverter (CD40106), Isolating the LED Control
    Source with a CD40106 Inverter (I), CD40106 Hex Inverting
    Schmitt Trigger
    high impedance, Negative Feedback Demystified
    high-impedance buffer follower, High-Impedance Buffer
    Follower
    high-level signals, How to Minimize Troubleshooting
    hobby knives, Hand Tools
    hybrid synthesizers, Three Configurations: Normalized,
    Modular, and Hybrid
    hysteresis (positive feedback), Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)–
    Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    hysteresis zone, Positive Feedback (Hysteresis), Positive
    Feedback (Hysteresis)
    I
    input channels, Input Channels
    input resistor (RIN), Negative Feedback Demystifiedinputs, Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s Sound Card
    integral stereo panning mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    integrated circuit (IC) removers, Hand Tools
    integrated circuit (IC) sockets, Populating the Noise Toaster
    PCB
    integrated circuits (ICs), Active Components , The Bill of
    Materials (BOM), Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    inverting buffer gain formula, Negative Feedback Demystified
    inverting buffers, Negative Feedback Demystified, Inverting
    Buffer
    J
    Jameco Electronics, Gathering the Parts
    JFET transistors, Active Components
    joining clips (Audacity), Musique Concrete
    joystick controls, The Keyboard Controller
    K
    keyboard controllers, Voltage Control , The Keyboard Controllerkeyboard voltage modulation, The Voltage-Controlled Filter
    (VCF)
    knobs, Mechanical Components
    L
    leads, soldering, Soldering Tips, Populating the Noise Toaster
    PCB
    LED ring clips, Installing the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Components
    LEDs, Installing the Noise Toaster Front Panel Components , A
    Basic Comparator, Light Up Your Synth with LEDs–Light an
    LED Using a Comparator (II)
    legato, ADSR Envelope Generator
    legend overlays, Making the Noise Toaster Front Panel Legend
    Overlay
    LFO Mod Depth control, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    LFO modules, Voltage Control , The Low-Frequency Oscillator
    (LFO) , Testing the LFO, The Low-Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
    line input, Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s Sound Cardlinear control voltage inputs, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO)
    LM13700 Dual Transconductance Op Amp
    chip details/pin descriptions, LM13700 Chip Details
    manufacturers, The LM13700
    schematic, The LM13700
    triangle-to-sine wave converter, A Triangle-to-Sine Converter
    used as state-variable VCF, A Simple State-Variable VCF
    used as VAC, Three Examples of LM13700 Circuits
    logic chips, How to Minimize Troubleshooting, Working with
    CMOS Logic Chips–CD40106 Narrow Pulse Stretcher
    logic probes, Logic Probe
    low note priority, The Keyboard Controller
    Low-Frequency Oscillator (LFO) modules (see LFO modules)
    M
    Magnaval, Bernard, What Can I Build?, How Far Can I Go?Make: Electronics (Pratt), What You Should Know
    Manual Gate button, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    MFOS (Music From Outer Space), Music From Outer Space
    MFOS 16-Step Sequencer, The Voltage Sequencer, CD40193
    Binary Up/Down Counter , CD4514 4-Bit Latch/4-to-16 Line
    Decoder , CD4067 Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demuliplexer
    MFOS Noise Toaster (see Noise Toaster)
    MFOS Sound Lab Mini-Synth, My Electronic Roots, A Simple
    State-Variable VCF
    MFOS Vari-Clock module, CD40193 Binary Up/Down Counter
    MFOS Voltage Quantizer, Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using
    Binarily Weighted Resistors or the R/2R Resistor Ladder
    MFOS Web SFZ Helper application, Floobydust
    MFOS website, Music From Outer Space, Active Components
    Mixer Board (Audacity), Multitrack Layering
    mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    Mod Depth control, Noise Toaster Block DiagramMod Source switch, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    modular analog synthesizers, How Far Can I Go?, Three
    Configurations: Normalized, Modular, and Hybrid, Putting It All
    Together
    modulation inputs, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    modulation wheels, The Keyboard Controller
    mono keyboard controllers, The Keyboard Controller
    Moog, Robert, What Is Synth-DIY?
    Mouser Electronics, Gathering the Parts
    Multi-Tool Mode (Audacity), Audacity Tools
    multichannel DC modulation mixer, Simple Multichannel DC
    Modulation Mixer
    multichannel oscilloscopes, Input Channels
    multichannel signal mixers, The Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF)
    multimeters, The Digital Multimeter (DM), Second Multimeter,
    Testing the Noise Toastermultiple-input NAND gate (CD40106), CD40106 Multiple-Input
    NAND Gate
    multiple-input NOR gate (CD40106), CD40106 Multiple-Input
    NOR Gate
    Multitrack Layering exercise, Your Electronic Music Studio,
    Multitrack Layering
    Multitrack Volume Envelope Layering exercise, Your Electronic
    Music Studio, Multitrack Volume Envelope Layering–Multitrack
    Volume Envelope Layering
    Music From Outer Space (MFOS), Music From Outer Space,
    Active Components
    Musique Concrete exercise, Your Electronic Music Studio,
    Musique Concrete–Musique Concrete
    Mute control (Audacity), Sound-on-Sound Recording
    N
    N-Channel JFET transistors, Active Components
    narrow pulse stretcher (CD40106), CD40106 Narrow Pulse
    Stretcher
    needle-nose pliers, Hand Toolsnegative edge to positive-going pulse (CD40106), CD40106
    Negative Edge to Positive-Going Pulse
    negative feedback, Negative Feedback Demystified
    noise level, Sensitivity
    Noise Toaster
    AREG module, The Attack Release Envelope Generator
    (AREG)
    audio amplifier, The Audio Amplifier
    bill of materials (BOM), The Bill of Materials (BOM)
    blank test patch sheet, Testing the Output Jack
    block diagram, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    cases for, Building the Noise Toaster, Preparing the Noise
    Toaster Case
    components of, Noise Toaster Block Diagram –Building the
    Noise Toaster
    front panel, Making the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    front panel component installation, Installing the Noise
    Toaster Front Panel Componentsfront panel legend overlay, Making the Noise Toaster Front
    Panel Legend Overlay
    front panel wiring, Installing the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Components
    inserting ICs, Testing the Noise Toaster
    inverting buffer, Negative Feedback Demystified
    inverting comparator, Op Amps as Comparators
    LFO module, The Low-Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
    noninverting comparator, Op Amps as Comparators
    parts for, Gathering the Parts
    PCBs, Building the Noise Toaster, The Noise Toaster Printed
    Circuit Board (PCB)–Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    power supply, The Power Supply
    sullen and listless, My Noise Toaster Is Being Sullen and
    Listless
    test control settings, Testing the VCOtroubleshooting, My Noise Toaster Is Being Sullen and
    Listless
    VCA module, The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA)
    VCF module, The Voltage-Controlled Low-Pass Filter (VCF)
    VCO module, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)–The
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    white noise generator module, The White Noise Generator
    wiring diagrams, Building the Noise Toaster
    wiring front panel, Wiring the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Components
    wiring PCB to front panel, Wiring the PCB to the Front
    Panel–Wiring the PCB to the Front Panel
    Noise Toaster testing
    AREG module, Testing the AREG
    battery connector, Testing the Noise Toaster
    LFO module, Testing the LFO
    output jack, Testing the Output Jacktroubleshooting, My Noise Toaster Is Being Sullen and
    Listless
    VCA module, Testing the VCA
    VCF module, Testing the VCF
    VCO module, Testing the VCO
    white noise generator, Testing the White Noise Generator
    noninverting buffer gain formula, Negative Feedback
    Demystified
    noninverting buffers, Noninverting Buffer
    noninverting comparators, Op Amps as Comparators
    nonpolarized capacitors, Capacitors, The Bill of Materials (BOM)
    normalized analog synthesizers, Three Configurations:
    Normalized, Modular, and Hybrid, Putting It All Together
    O
    octave, control voltages for one, The Keyboard Controller
    one volt per octave standard, Voltage Control
    online component distributors, Gathering the Partsop amps, The Incredible Op Amp
    (see also LM13700 Dual Transconductance Op Amp)
    as comparators, Op Amps as Comparators , A Basic
    Comparator
    audio mixers, Signal Mixing
    buffers for, Buffers
    DACs, Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Binarily Weighted
    Resistors or the R/2R Resistor Ladder–The R/2R Resistor
    Ladder DAC
    ideal, Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    inverting buffer, Negative Feedback Demystified
    inverting comparator, Op Amps as Comparators
    lighting up LEDs, Light Up Your Synth with LEDs–Light an
    LED Using a Comparator (II)
    negative feedback, Negative Feedback Demystified
    noninverting buffer, Negative Feedback Demystified
    noninverting comparator, Op Amps as Comparators ,
    Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)noninverting comparator with hysteresis, Positive Feedback
    (Hysteresis)
    oscillation in, Negative Feedback Demystified
    oscillators, Simple Multichannel DC Modulation Mixer –Two
    Op Amp Square- and Triangle-Wave Oscillator
    output biasing, High-Impedance Buffer Follower
    positive feedback (hysteresis), Positive Feedback
    (Hysteresis)–Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    table of useful, Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    transconductance, The LM13700
    vs. power amplifiers, Op Amps as Amplifiers
    open-loop gain, Op Amps as Amplifiers
    operational amplifier integrated circuits (see op amps)
    oscillator circuit (CD40106), The Binarily Weighted Resistor
    DAC
    oscillators, Simple Multichannel DC Modulation Mixer –Two Op
    Amp Square- and Triangle-Wave Oscillatoroscilloscope probes, Sensitivity
    oscilloscopes, The Oscilloscope–What Else Should I Look for in
    a Scope?
    output jacks, Testing the Output Jack
    Ozolins, Girts, The Voltage Sequencer
    P
    parallel capacitance formula, Capacitors
    parallel resistance formula, Resistors to Keep On Hand
    parasitic capacitance and inductance, How to Minimize
    Troubleshooting
    parts, kits of, Capacitors
    patch cords, Three Configurations: Normalized, Modular, and
    Hybrid
    PCB silk screen layer, The Noise Toaster Printed Circuit Board
    (PCB)
    PCB speaker connection points, Wiring the PCB to the Front
    PanelPCBs (printed circuit boards), Soldering Tips, Building the
    Noise Toaster, The Noise Toaster Printed Circuit Board (PCB)–
    Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    pink noise, The White Noise Generator
    plated through-holes, Soldering Tips
    polarized electrolytic capacitors, Capacitors, The Bill of
    Materials (BOM)
    polycarbonate film capacitors, Capacitors
    polystyrene film capacitors, Capacitors
    portamento controls, The Keyboard Controller, The Voltage
    Sequencer
    positive edge to negative-going pulse (CD40106), CD40106
    Positive Edge to Negative-Going Pulse
    positive feedback (hysteresis), Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)–
    Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    positive feedback resistor, Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    pot/shaft/knob combinations, Mechanical Componentspotentiometers, Mechanical Components , ADSR Envelope
    Generator, Gathering the Parts, Installing the Noise Toaster
    Front Panel Components
    power supplies, The Power Supply
    printed circuit boards (PCBs), Soldering Tips, Building the
    Noise Toaster, The Noise Toaster Printed Circuit Board (PCB)–
    Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    pulse wave oscillator (CD40106), CD40106 Pulse Wave
    Oscillator
    Pulse Width control, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    pulse width modulation input, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO)
    Q
    quad analog switch (CD4066), CD4066 Quad Analog Switch
    quad D latch (CD4042), CD4042 Quad D Latch
    quad two-input NAND gate (CD4011), CD4011 Quad Two-Input
    NAND Gate
    quad two-input NOR gate (CD4001), CD4001 Quad Two-Input
    NOR GateR
    R/2R resistor ladder DAC, The R/2R Resistor Ladder DAC
    ramp core oscillators, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    ramp wave, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The Voltage-Controlled
    Oscillator (VCO)
    ramp/square wave generator, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO)
    recording exercises
    Multitrack Layering, Your Electronic Music Studio, Multitrack
    Layering
    Multitrack Volume Envelope Layering, Your Electronic Music
    Studio
    Multitrack Volume Envelope Layering exercise, Multitrack
    Volume Envelope Layering–Multitrack Volume Envelope
    Layering
    Musique Concrete, Your Electronic Music Studio, Musique
    Concrete–Musique Concrete
    rectangle wave, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    reference voltage (Vref), Op Amps as ComparatorsRelease Time control, AR Envelope Generator , ADSR Envelope
    Generator, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    repeat rate potentiometers, ADSR Envelope Generator
    repeat switches, ADSR Envelope Generator
    Repeat/Manual switch, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    resistance values, Inverting Buffer
    resistors, Resistors to Keep On Hand, Gathering the Parts,
    Positive Feedback (Hysteresis)
    Resonance control, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    RIN (input resistor), Negative Feedback Demystified
    ring modulation effects, Putting It All Together
    ring modulators, The Ring Modulator
    ringing, The Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF)
    rosin flux, Soldering Tips
    Rosin Paste Flux, Soldering Tips
    rubber feet (bumpers), Preparing the Noise Toaster CaseS
    sample and hold (S&H) modules, The Sample and Hold (S&H)–
    The Sample and Hold (S&H)
    Sample Rate control, The Sample and Hold (S&H)
    Sauer, Don, The LM13700
    sawtooth wave, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    scanning matrix style keyboards, The Keyboard Controller
    Schaeffer, Pierre, Musique Concrete
    schematic symbol diagrams
    CD40106 hex Schmitt inverter IC, CD40106 Hex Inverting
    Schmitt Trigger
    CD4011 quad two-input NAND gate IC, CD4011 Quad TwoInput NAND Gate
    CD4013 dual D flip-flop IC, CD4013 Dual D Flip-Flop
    CD4017 decade counter with 10 decoded outputs, CD4017
    Decade Counter with 10 Decoded Outputs
    CD40193 binary up/down counter IC, CD40193 Binary
    Up/Down CounterCD4024 seven-stage ripple carry binary counter IC, CD4024
    Seven-Stage Ripple Carry Binary Counter
    CD4042 quad D latch IC, CD4042 Quad D Latch
    CD4066 quad analog switch IC, CD4066 Quad Analog Switch
    CD4067 single 16-channel multiplexer/ demultiplexer IC,
    CD4067 Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demuliplexer
    CD4094 eight-stage shift register IC, CD4094 Eight-Stage
    Shift Register
    CD4514 4-bit latch/4-to-16 line decoder IC, CD4514 4-Bit
    Latch/4-to-16 Line Decoder
    LM13700 Dual Transconductance Op Amp, The LM13700
    schematics
    audio amplifier, The Audio Amplifier
    audio mixer, Simple AC-Coupled Audio Mixer
    CD40106 multiple-input NAND gate, CD40106 Multiple-Input
    NAND Gate
    CD40106 multiple-input NOR gate, CD40106 Multiple-Input
    NOR GateCD40106 narrow pulse stretcher, CD40106 Narrow Pulse
    Stretcher
    CD40106 negative edge to positive-going pulse, CD40106
    Negative Edge to Positive-Going Pulse
    CD40106 positive edge to negative-going pulse, CD40106
    Positive Edge to Negative-Going Pulse
    CD40106 pulse wave oscillator, CD40106 Pulse Wave
    Oscillator
    CD40106 square wave oscillator, CD40106 Square Wave
    Oscillator
    comparator lighting an LED, A Basic Comparator, Light an
    LED Using a Comparator (I), Light an LED Using a
    Comparator (II)
    DC modulation mixer, Simple Multichannel DC Modulation
    Mixer
    debounced push button and toggler using CD4013, CD4013
    Dual D Flip-Flop
    inverting buffer, Inverting Buffer
    LEDs, The Simplest Way to Light an LED, Isolating the LED
    Control Source with a CD40106 Inverter (I)LFO, The Low-Frequency Oscillator (LFO)
    noninverting buffer, Noninverting Buffer
    output biasing, A Basic Comparator
    power supply, The Noise Toaster Schematics
    R/2R resistor ladder DAC, The R/2R Resistor Ladder DAC
    ramp/square wave generator, The Voltage-Controlled
    Oscillator (VCO)
    sound card audio interface, Connecting a Project to Your
    Computer’s Sound Card
    square wave oscillator, Single Op Amp Square-Wave
    Oscillator
    square- and triangle-wave oscillator, Two Op Amp Squareand Triangle-Wave Oscillator
    state-variable VCF using LM13700, A Simple VCA Using the
    LM13700, A Simple State-Variable VCF
    triangle-to-sine wave converter using LM13700, A Simple
    State-Variable VCF
    VCA, The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA)VCF, The Voltage-Controlled Low-Pass Filter (VCF)
    voltage mixer and exponential converter, The VoltageControlled Oscillator (VCO)
    weighted resistor value DAC, The Binarily Weighted Resistor
    DAC
    white noise generator, The White Noise Generator
    screwdrivers, Hand Tools
    Selection Tool (Audacity), Audacity Tools , Musique Concrete
    sensitive signals, How to Minimize Troubleshooting
    sequencers, What Can I Build?, The Voltage Sequencer, The
    Voltage Sequencer
    series capacitance formula, Capacitors
    series resistance formula, Resistors to Keep On Hand
    service loop (slack), Wiring the PCB to the Front Panel
    seven-stage ripple carry binary counter (CD4024), CD4024
    Seven-Stage Ripple Carry Binary Counter
    SFZ files, Floobydustshift registers, The White Noise Generator
    signal mixers, Audio and DC Signal Mixers
    signal multiplication, The Ring Modulator
    silence clips, Effect Tails
    Silence tool (Audacity), Audacity Edit Toolbar
    sine wave, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    single 16-channel multiplexer/demultiplexer (CD4067), CD4067
    Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demuliplexer
    16-Step Sequencer, The Voltage Sequencer, CD40193 Binary
    Up/Down Counter , CD4514 4-Bit Latch/4-to-16 Line Decoder ,
    CD4067 Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demuliplexer
    soft sync, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    SOIC (small outline integrated circuit) package, The Incredible
    Op Amp
    solder braid, Desoldering Is Important, Too
    solder suckers, Desoldering Is Important, Too
    solderingadjustable temperature-controlled solder stations, Tips for
    Reliable Soldering
    desoldering, Soldering Tips
    factors affecting, Tips for Reliable Soldering
    IC sockets, Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    leads and, Soldering Tips, Populating the Noise Toaster PCB
    panel components, Wiring the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Components
    proper, Soldering Tips
    tips for, Function Generator–Soldering Tips
    tools for, Soldering Tips
    solderless breadboards, What Can I Build?, Capacitors,
    Mechanical Components , Solderless Breadboarding , Negative
    Feedback Demystified
    solid hookup wire, Solderless Breadboarding
    Solo control (Audacity), Sound-on-Sound Recordingsound card audio interface box, Connecting a Project to Your
    Computer’s Sound Card
    sound cards, Connecting a Project to Your Computer’s Sound
    Card
    Sound Lab Mini-Synth, My Electronic Roots, What Can I Build?,
    A Simple State-Variable VCF
    Sound Lab ULTIMATE (Magnaval), How Far Can I Go?
    spacers (stand-offs), Wiring the PCB to the Front Panel
    speaker grills, Preparing the Noise Toaster Case
    spring-loaded vacuum solder suckers, Desoldering Is
    Important, Too
    square wave, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    square wave oscillators, Single Op Amp Square-Wave Oscillator
    , CD40106 Square Wave Oscillator
    square- and triangle-wave oscillator, Two Op Amp Square- and
    Triangle-Wave Oscillator–Two Op Amp Square- and TriangleWave Oscillator
    stand-offs (spacers), Wiring the PCB to the Front Panelstate variable VCFs, The Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF)
    static precautions, Hand Tools , How to Minimize
    Troubleshooting, Working with CMOS Logic Chips
    subtractive synthesis elements, The Voltage-Controlled Filter
    (VCF)
    surplus electronic parts, Surplus Parts
    switches, Mechanical Components , Gathering the Parts
    synchronized VCOs, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    synth-DIY, Preface, A Bit of Analog Synthesizer Etymology,
    Logic Chips in Synth-DIY
    synth-DIY tools (see tools)
    synthesizers, defined, A Bit of Analog Synthesizer Etymology
    T
    tantalum electrolytic capacitors, Capacitors, Troubleshooting
    Tips
    test leads, Hand Tools
    Thurm, Michael, How Far Can I Go?Time Shift Tool (Audacity), Audacity Tools , Musique Concrete
    tools, The Oscilloscope
    (see also electronic components)
    bench power supplies, The Bench Power Supply
    capacitance meters, Capacitance Meter
    digital multimeters, The Digital Multimeter (DM), Second
    Multimeter
    frequency counters, Frequency Counter
    function generators, Function Generator
    hand, Hand Tools
    logic probes, Logic Probe
    oscilloscopes, The Oscilloscope–What Else Should I Look
    for in a Scope?
    Track menu (Audacity), Audacity Effects
    transconductance op amp, The LM13700
    transformers, Mechanical Componentstransistors, Active Components , The Simplest Way to Light an
    LED
    triangle (tri) core oscillators, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO)
    triangle wave, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The
    Sample and Hold (S&H)
    triggers, Voltage Control , AR Envelope Generator , ADSR
    Envelope Generator
    Trim tool (Audacity), Audacity Edit Toolbar
    trimpot adjustment tool, Hand Tools
    troubleshooting, Hand Tools –Divide and Conquer, My Noise
    Toaster Is Being Sullen and Listless
    tweezers, Hand Tools
    two-pole filters, A Simple State-Variable VCF
    V V
    ari-Clock module, CD40193 Binary Up/Down Counter
    VCA modules, Voltage Control , The Voltage-Controlled
    Amplifier (VCA), Testing the VCA, The Voltage-Controlled
    Amplifier (VCA)VCF Cutoff Frequency control, Noise Toaster Block Diagram
    VCF modules, Voltage Control , Voltage Control , The VoltageControlled Oscillator (VCO)–The Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF),
    Testing the VCF, The Voltage-Controlled Low-Pass Filter (VCF)
    VCO frequency doubling, Voltage Control
    VCO frequency modulation, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO)
    VCO modules, Voltage Control , Voltage Control , The VoltageControlled Oscillator (VCO)–The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO), Testing the VCO, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
    (VCO)–The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
    vertical sensitivity, Sensitivity
    vias, The Noise Toaster Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
    vibrato, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The LowFrequency Oscillator (LFO)
    virtual ground, The Bench Power Supply
    Vocoder effect (Audacity), Audacity Effects
    voltage control of VCO frequency, The Voltage-Controlled
    Oscillator (VCO), The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)voltage mixer and exponential converter, The VoltageControlled Oscillator (VCO)
    Voltage Quantizer, Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Binarily
    Weighted Resistors or the R/2R Resistor Ladder
    voltage sequencers, The Voltage Sequencer
    Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA) modules, Voltage Control ,
    The Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA), Testing the VCA, The
    Voltage-Controlled Amplifier (VCA)
    Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF) modules, Voltage Control ,
    Voltage Control , The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)–The
    Voltage-Controlled Filter (VCF), Testing the VCF, The VoltageControlled Low-Pass Filter (VCF)
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) modules, Voltage Control ,
    Voltage Control , The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)–The
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), Testing the VCO, The
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)–The Voltage-Controlled
    Oscillator (VCO)
    W
    wall warts, The Power Supply
    waveforms, The Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The
    Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO), The Low-Frequency
    Oscillator (LFO)Web SFZ Helper application, Floobydust
    Weird Sound Generator, What Can I Build?
    white noise, The Sample and Hold (S&H)
    white noise generator modules, ADSR Envelope Generator, The
    White Noise Generator
    white noise waveform, The White Noise Generator
    window comparators, The Window Comparator
    Winter (Carlos), Multitrack Layering
    wire strippers, Hand Tools
    wiring diagrams
    Noise Toaster, Installing the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Components , Wiring the Noise Toaster Front Panel
    Components
    sound card audio interface, Connecting a Project to Your
    Computer’s Sound Card, Connecting a Project to Your
    Computer’s Sound Card
    workbench tools (see tools)
    working voltage, CapacitorsX
    XOR logic gates, The White Noise Generator
    Z
    Z wire, The Noise Toaster Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
    Zoom Tool (Audacity), Audacity Tools , Audacity Tools

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