Maintenance Engineering Handbook Sixth Edition

Maintenance Engineering Handbook Sixth Edition
اسم المؤلف
Lindley R. Higgins
التاريخ
17 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
282
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Maintenance Engineering Handbook Sixth Edition
Lindley R. Higgins, P.E.
(deceased)
R. Keith Mobley Editor in Chief
The Plant Performance Group
Knoxville, Tenn.
Ricky Smith Associate Editor
President, Technical Training Division
Life Cycle Engineering
Charleston, S.C.
Chapter 3. Predictive Maintenance R. Keith Mobley 2.15
Chapter 4. Maintenance Work Order Planning Richard (Doc) Palmer 2.31
Chapter 5. An Introduction to the Computer in Maintenance
Craig A. Atwater 2.41
Chapter 6. Computerized Planning and Scheduling Richard Davies 2.49
Chapter 7. Maintenance Stores and Inventory Control Dave Bertolini 2.79
Chapter 8. Maintenance Storerooms John C. Martin 2.99
Chapter 9. Internet for Maintenance and Engineering Joel Levitt 2.109
Section 3 Establishing Costs and Control
Chapter 1. Economics of Preventive Maintenance R. Keith Mobley 3.3
Chapter 2. Work Measurement R. Keith Mobley 3.13
Chapter 3. Rating and Evaluating Maintenance Workers Frank Halchin 3.59
Chapter 4. Work Simplification in Maintenance Raymond I. Reul 3.83
Chapter 5. Estimating Repair and Maintenance Costs Nicholas Fostar 3.101
Section 4 Maintenance of Plant Facilities
Chapter 1. Maintenance of Low-Sloped Membrane Roofs
Donald R. Mapes and Dennis J. McNeil 4.3
vi CONTENTSChapter 2. Concrete Industrial Floor Surfaces: Design, Installation, Repair,
and Maintenance Robert F. Ytterberg 4.19
Chapter 3. Painting and Protective Coatings Bryant (Web) Chandler 4.29
Chapter 4. Maintenance and Cleaning of Brick Masonry Structures
Brian E. Trimble 4.49
Chapter 5. Maintenance of Elevators and Special Lifts Jerry Robertson 4.65
Chapter 6. Air-Conditioning Equipment Martin A. Scicchitano 4.75
Chapter 7. Ventilating Fans and Exhaust Systems Richard P. Wojcik 4.107
Chapter 8. Dust-Collecting and Air-Cleaning Equipment Lee Twombly
and Samuel G. Dunkle 4.135
Chapter 9. Piping Tyler G. Hicks 4.149
Chapter 10. Scaffolds and Ladders Colin P. Bennett 4.183
Section 5 Maintenance of Mechanical Equipment
Chapter 1. Plain Bearings William A. Yahraus and George R. Kingsbury 5.3
Chapter 2. Rolling-Element Bearings Daniel R. Snyder 5.19
Chapter 3. Flexible Couplings for Power Transmission Donald B. Cutler 5.45
Chapter 4. Chains for Power Transmission Frank B. Kempf 5.73
Chapter 5. Cranes: Overhead and Gantry William S. Chapin 5.83
CONTENTS viiChapter 6. Chain Hoists R. C. Dearstyne 5.91
Chapter 7. Belt Drives Tom Lovin 5.101
Chapter 8. Mechanical Variable-Speed Drives Edward F. Krome, Jr. 5.129
Chapter 9. Gear Drives and Speed Reducers Robert G. Smith 5.147
Chapter 10. Reciprocating Air Compressors M. F. Baecker 5.173
Chapter 11. Valves Joseph J. Haddad 5.185
Chapter 12. Pumps: Centrifugal and Positive Displacement R. Keith Mobley 5.201
Section 6 Maintenance of Electrical Equipment
Chapter 1. Electric Motors James S. Bowers and Frank W. Ceney 6.3
Chapter 2. Maintenance of Motor Control Components Kenneth L. Paape 6.49
Chapter 3. Maintenance of Industrial Batteries (Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium,
Nickel-Iron) Richard L. Kreutzfeldt 6.88
Chapter 4. Illumination Ricky Smith 6.115
Section 7 Sanitation and Housekeeping
Chapter 1. Organizing the Sanitation-Housekeepng Personnel Carl L. Hagan 7.3
Chapter 2. Maintaining Plant Sanitation and Housekeeping Carl L. Hagan 7.19
viii CONTENTSChapter 3. Industrial Housekeeping Carl L. Hagan 7.41
Chapter 4. Cleaning Industrial Plant Offices Gorman Sterzinger and
Carl L. Hagan 7.55
Section 8 Instruments and Reliability Tools
Chapter 1. Mechanical Instruments for Measuring Process Variables
R. Keith Mobley 8.3
Chapter 2. Electrical Instruments for Measuring, Servicing, and Testing
R. Keith Mobley 8.43
Chapter 3. Vibration: Its Analysis and Correction R. Keith Mobley 8.71
Chapter 4. An Introduction to Thermography R. Keith Mobley 8.109
Chapter 5. Tribology R. Keith Mobley 8.131
Section 9 Lubrication
Chapter 1. The Organization and Management of Lubrication F. Alverson,
T. C. Mead, W. H. Stein, and A. C. Witte 9.3
Chapter 2. Lubricating Devices and Systems Duane C. Allen 9.15
Chapter 3. Planning and Implementing a Good Lubrication Program
R. Keith Mobley 9.29
Section 10 Maintenance Welding
Chapter 1. Arc Welding in Maintenance J. E. Hinkel 10.3
CONTENTS ixChapter 2. Gas Welding in Maintenance
Engineers of L-TEC Welding and Cutting Systems 10.63
Section 11 Chemical Corrosion Control and Cleaning
Chapter 1. Corrosion Control Denny Bardoliwalla and Klaus Wittel 11.3
Chapter 2. Industrial Chemical Cleaning Methods Robert Haydu,
W. Emerson Brantley III, and Jerry Casenhiser 11.17
Index I.1
x CONTENTSINDEX
A/D conversion, 8.116
Abrasive blasting/cleaning, 4.39,
4.56–57, 11.28
Abrasive wear
hard surfacing as protection against,
10.43–50, 10.48
in gear teeth, 5.165
in ventilating fans and exhaust
systems, 4.122
ABS plastic, 11.10
Absolute-pressure elements, 8.19
Absorption-type air conditioners/cleaners, 4.79–80, 4.86–87, 4.136
Absorptivity, 8.116
AC induction motors, 6.8–12
classification of, 6.8
design characteristics of, 6.9–10
insulation for, 6.10–12
nameplate coding on, 6.46t
no startup in, 6.32
overheating in, 6.33–36
slow acceleration in, 6.32
speed–torque characteristics of, 6.8–9
temperature rise in, 6.12
theory and construction of, 6.8
vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI)
insulation in, 6.11–12
Ac/dc welding unit, 10.55
Acceleration, in vibration analysis,
8.74–76, 8.77, 8.78, 8.79, 8.100
Accelerometers, 8.100
Acceptance testing, vibration analysis
and, 8.71–72
Accountability, in training, 1.74
Accounting and financial management,
computerized, 2.47
Accounting, material usage, 2.94
Accounts, Internet, 2.113
Acetal homopolymers, 11.10
Achieved availability, 3.12
Acid cleaning, in piping, 4.180
Action codes, planning and planned
maintenance, 2.50–51
Addresses, Internet, 2.114–115
Adjustable pitch fan blades, 4.117
Adjustable-type relays, 6.78–82
Adjustable-while-in-motion belt drive,
5.132–135, 5.132, 5.133, 5.134,
5.138t
Advanced Research Projects Agency
and ARPAnet, 2.110–111
Aggregate surfaced roofs, 4.15
Air-acetylene torch, 10.63–72
anchoring bolts in concrete or stone
using, 10.72
asphalt tile cutting using, 10.72
freeing frozen shafts using, 10.71
glass cutting using, 10.72
lead work using, 10.71–72
loosening nuts and bolts using, 10.71
paint burning using, 10.70–71
(See also Oxyacetylene torch;
Soldering and brazing)
Air-carbon arc cutting (CAC-A) and
gouging, 10.27–30, 10.28t, 10.29t
Air cleaners (See Air conditioning;
Dust collection and air cleaning
equipment)
Air compressor check valve, 5.190–191
Air conditioning equipment, 4.75–106
absorption refrigeration equipment
in, 4.79–80
absorption-type in, 4.86–87
air-cooled condensers in, 4.90
air washers in, 4.87–88
algae growth and, 4.93–94
bearings in, 4.89, 4.97
Btu in, 4.77–78
central vs. room-type, 4.78–79, 4.79
centrifugal compressor-type, 4.88–89
centrifugal refrigeration equipment
in, 4.79–80
cleaning in, 4.81, 4.84, 4.87–88,
4.90, 4.92, 4.94, 4.96, 4.98,
4.101, 4.103
coils in, 4.89–90, 4.104
components of, 4.79
condensers in, 4.104
coolers in, 4.92–93
cooling loads on, 4.75–76
cooling towers for, 4.93–94, 4.93
cost vs. selection of, 4.80
dampers in, 4.94, 4.97
dehumidifiers in, 4.101
drives, belt and direct connected, 4.95
economizers in, 4.96
eliminators for, 4.93
evaporative condensers in, 4.92
extended shutdowns and, 4.89
fans in, 4.88, 4.92, 4.93, 4.96
filters in, 4.97–99
freeze/winter protection for, 4.90,
4.92, 4.94, 4.104–106
heat pumps in, 4.100–101
heaters for, 4.99–100
heating load on, 4.77
humidifiers in, 4.101
inspection of, 4.81, 4.90, 4.102–103
installation of, 4.80
insulation in, 4.92
latent load on, 4.76
leaks in, 4.87, 4.89, 4.90, 4.92
lighting generated heat load on, 4.76
loads on, 4.75–78
lubrication in, 4.84, 4.88, 4.89, 4.92,
4.93, 4.97, 4.101, 4.103
maintenance of, 4.81
mixed air thermostat (MAT) for,
4.96
motors in, 4.105–106
occupancy load on, 4.76
oil heaters in, 4.89
oil return in coolers in, 4.92–93
oils used in, 4.80
operating log keeping for, 4.81, 4.85
outside air load on, 4.76
preventive maintenance for, 4.81
pumps in, 4.87, 4.101–102, 4.104
purge units in, 4.87, 4.89
reciprocating refrigeration equipment in, 4.79–80
refrigerant used in, 4.80, 4.82–83t,
4.89
refrigeration cycle in, 4.77–78
removing loads from, 4.76
rooftop unit, 4.102–103
room-type, 4.103–104
safety features in, 4.87, 4.89
screw refrigeration equipment in,
4.79–80
self-contained, 4.104
service valves in, 4.87
spare parts for, 4.81
sun load on, 4.75
“ton” as unit of measure in, 4.77–78
training for, 4.81
transmission load on, 4.75–76
water-cooled condensers in, 4.91–92
water distribution systems for, 4.93
water treatment/conditioning in,
4.92, 4.106
Air-cooled condensers, air conditioning, 4.90
Air-cooled engine set welder for,
10.53, 10.54
Air filters, 4.139, 4.140, 4.141, 4.144,
4.97–98
Air Moving and Conditioning
Association (AMCA), 4.108
Aircraft engine, vibration analysis and,
8.72, 8.74
Alert and alarm limits, in vibration
analysis, 8.97–98
Algae growth, in air conditioning,
4.93–94
Alkyd-based paints, 4.36–37
Allen, Duane C., 9.15
Allowances, in ratio delay technique,
3.53–54
Alloy steels:
melting points of, 10.88
in plain bearings, 5.5
welding, 10.36–39, 10.38t, 10.39t
Alterations, 1.4
I.1Alternating current (ac), 8.118
dynamometers and, 8.55, 8.56, 8.57
iron vane ac mechanism for, 8.55
measurement of, 8.55
true rms measurement in, 8.55
Alternators, 8.118, 8.120
Aluminum:
corrosion of, 11.7, 11.9
melting points of, 10.88
paints and protective coatings for, 4.32
welding, 10.39
Aluminum complex soaps, in grease, 9.11
Aluminum ladders, 4.184, 4.189–191,
4.192
Aluminum scaffolds, 4.193–194, 4.198
Aluminum soaps, in grease, 9.1
Alverson, F., 9.3
Ambient temperature, 8.117
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA), 5.150
American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 11.32
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 4.45–48, 11.32
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), 11.32
American Welding Society (AWS), 10.34
Amines, 11.15
Ammeters, 8.51–52
Ampacity, 8.118
Amperage measurement, 8.52–53, 8.118
Ampere, 8.118
Amplitude of vibration, in vibration
analysis, 8.77, 8.79
Analog multimeters, 8.44–48
Angular-contact ball bearings, 5.29–31
Angular misalignment, in vibration
analysis, 8.91
Anodic reactions, 11.4
Anonymous FTP, 2.111–112
Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers
Association (AFBMA) and, 5.73
Applications, computer, 2.46–48
Apprentice training programs, 1.18–19
Aqueous-solution corrosion inhibitors,
11.14–15
Arc blow, in welding, 10.50–51
Arc chambers, in motor controller,
6.54–56, 6.62
Arc welding (See Welding)
Armature, 8.118
welding machine, 10.58
Army-type trolley hoist, 5.93, 5.95
Arrester, 8.118
Asphalt tile, cutting, using air-acetylene torch, 8.56
Assigned maintenance manning, ratio
delay technique, 3.51–54
Aactic polypropylene (APP), 4.4
Atmospheric absorption, 8.116
Atmospheric attenuation, 8.116
Atmospheric emission, 8.117
Atmospheric radiation, 8.117
Atmospheric reflectance, 8.117
Atomic hydrogen welding, 10.34
Attenuator, 8.118
Atwater, Craig A. , 2.41
Austenitic stainless steel (See Stainless
steels)
Authority, shut down, 1.20–21
Authority and management, 1.5–6
Automated welding equipment, 10.41,
10.42
Automatic lubrication systems (See
Lubrication and oils, automatic
devices and systems)
Automobile bodies, soldering, 10.67–68
Autoranging, in DMMs, 8.50
Availability, 3.12
Average priority system (PS) reports,
1.63, 1.65–66
Average return on investment (ROI), 3.3
Axial fans, vane axial-type, 4.115,
4.116–118
Babbits
melting points of metals and alloys
in, 10.88
in plain bearings, 5.5, 5.10
Backlash, 8.85–86
Backlog reports, 1.64, 1.66
planning and planned maintenance,
2.49
Backward-curved blade centrifugal
fans, 4.118
Balance, vibration analysis and, 8.90,
8.91
Balancing, fan, 4.130–132
Ball (roller) spin frequency (BSF),
8.83, 8.84
Ball bearings (See Roller bearings)
Ball-check valve, 5.190
Ball pass inner race frequency (BPFI),
8.83
Ball pass outer race frequency (BPFO),
8.83
Ball valve, 5.185, 5.196, 5.197
Ballast factors, in illumination and
lighting, 6.131
Band, 8.117
Bandwidth, 8.117
Bardoliwalla, Denny, 11.3
Base metals, welding, 10.35–39, 10.35t
Baselines, training program, 1.70
Basic rating life, roller bearings, 5.25
Batteries, 6.88–113
air-acetylene torch lead terminal
ends of, 10.71–72
capacity of, 6.88, 6.109
charge–discharge rate of, 6.88
charging of, 6.90–94, 6.102–104, 6.110
cutoff voltage of, 6.88
efficiency of, 6.88
electrodes and electrolytes in, 6.89,
6.99–100, 6.104–108,
6.110–113
hourly rates of, 6.88
lead-acid, 6.89–99
cell voltage unequal in, 6.98
charging, 6.90–94
constant-current charge method
for, 6.93
electrodes and electrolytes in, 6.89
electrolyte levels low, 6.98
installation and operation of,
6.89–90
leaks in, 6.89, 6.98
maintenance of, 6.94–95
modified constant-voltage charge
method for, 6.91–92, 6.92t
motive power vs. stationary, 6.89
no charging possible in, 6.96–97
overdischarge prevention in, 6.95
overheating on charge/discharge
in, 6.97–98
placing in service, 6.90
repairs to, 6.98–99
short working life in, 6.97
specific gravity unequal in cells
of, 6.98
taper charge method for, 6.92–93
testing condition of, 6.95–96
too long time to charge in, 6.97
troubleshooting, causes and
remedies, 6.96–98
two-rate charge method for, 6.93
leaks in, 6.89, 6.98
life expectancy of, 6.101
maintenance of, 6.94–95,
6.104–108
nickel-cadmium, 6.99–108
charge/discharge in, 6.99
charging of, 6.102–104
constant-current charge for,
6.103–104
constant-voltage charge for, 6.103
electrodes and electrolytes in,
6.99–100, 6.104–108
equalizing charge for, 6.104
float charge for, 6.104
installation of, 6.102
life expectancy of, 6.101
maintenance of, 6.104–108
performance of, 6.101
plate processing and construction
of, 6.100
pocket plates in, 6.100
selection criteria for, 6.101
sintered plates in, 6.100
specific gravity in, 6.106–107
storage of, 6.108
trickle charge for, 6.104
voltage of, 6.100–101
nickel-iron, 6.108–113
boost or supplemental charging in,
6.109–110
capacity of, 6.109
charging of, 6.110
cleaning, 6.111
cycling of, 6.112
electrodes and electrolytes in,
6.110–113
laying up of, 6.112
maintenance of, 6.110–113
operation of, 6.109–110
putting into service, 6.110–111
renewing/replacing electrolyte in,
6.112–113
watering of, 6.110
overdischarge prevention in, 6.95
testing condition of, 6.95–96
troubleshooting, causes and
remedies, 6.96–98
voltage of, 6.100–101
Beachley, Ernest S., 1.63
Bearing puller, 5.38
Bearings:
(See also Plain bearings; Roller-type
bearings)
in air conditioner, 4.89, 4.97
I.2 INDEXBearings: (Cont.):
angular-contact-type, 5.29–31
Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers
Association (AFBMA) and, 4.73
ball, 5.22
basic rating life of, 5.25
failure in, general reasons for, 5.19
fan, 4.130
load ratings for, 5.25
lubrication and oil in, 5.19
mono-, bi-, and trimetal alloys used
in, 5.5
mountings for, 5.27–31
plain, 5.3–17
(See also Plain bearings)
radial ball or roller, 5.20–21
radial/axial load combination, 5.22
roller -type, 5.19–44
(See also Roller-type bearings)
series in, 5.24
service life of, 5.25
shaft and housing fits in, 5.25–26
sleeve, 5.3–17
(See also Plain bearings)
specification life of, 5.25
spherical roller, 5.24, 5.30–31, 5.32
tapered bore, mounting of, 5.35–38
tapered roller, 5.23, 5.24, 5.27–28, 5.29
thrust, 5.21
vibration analysis and, 8.82–84
in welding machine, 10.57
Belt drives, 5.101–127
adjustable-while-in-motion,
5.132–135, 5.138t
air conditioning, 4.95
alignment of pulleys for, 5.117, 5.119
arc of contact correction factor G
for, 5.123t
belt transmissions and, 5.138–140
belts turn over or come off drive, 5.127
datum length (DL) of, 5.103
deflection force per belt in, 5.125t
effective length (EL) of, 5.103–104
electric motors and, 5.105, 5.111t
factor M and factor & in, 5.123t
flat belt-type, 5.144–145, 5.145t
fractional horsepower-type, 5.102
groove dimensions and, 5.104–105,
5.106t, 5.107–108t, 5.109t
horsepower ratings for, 5.102
inspection of, 5.112, 5.114–117
joined, 5.102
length of, 5.103–104
maintenance of, 5.112–124
matching tolerances for, 5.104, 5.104t
noisy operation in, 5.127
outside circumference (OC) of, 5.103
packaged, 5.139–141, 5.141t
pitch length of, 5.103
premature belt failure in, 5.124
pulleys for, 5.110–117, 5.117t,
5.118t, 5.119t
service factors chart for, 5.122t
severe or abnormal wear in,
5.125–126
sheaves for, 5.104–105, 5.106t,
5.107–108t, 5.109
sprockets for, 5.109
static adjustment-type, 5.135–137,
5.137t
synchronous-type, 5.105–112
application guidelines for, 5.110
curvilinear, 5.105, 5.109
modified curvilinear, 5.105, 5.109
pulleys for, 5.110
sprockets for, 5.109
tooth pitch in, 5.109
trapezoidal, 5.105, 5.109,
5.113–14t, 5.115–16t
troubleshooting, 5.127–128
tensioning in, 5.117–124, 5.120–21t
tooth pitch in, 5.109
troubleshooting, 5.124–128
V-type, 5.101–105
arc of contact correction factor G
for, 5.123t
belts turn over or come off drive,
5.127
datum length (DL) of, 5.103
deflection force per belt in, 5.125t
dimensions and cross sections of,
5.101–102
effective length (EL) of,
5.103–104
fractional horsepower-type, 5.102
groove dimensions and,
5.104–106, 5.107–108t, 5.109t
horsepower ratings for, 5.102
joined, 5.102
length of, 5.103–104
matching tolerances for, 5.104,
5.104t
outside circumference (OC) of,
5.103
pitch length of, 5.103
severe or abnormal wear in,
5.125–126
sheaves for, 5.104–105, 5.106t,
5.107–108t, 5.109t
vibration analysis and, 8.86
wear in, 5.114–117, 5.125–126
(See also Mechanical
variable/adjustable speed
[MAS] drives)
Belt transmissions, 5.138–140, 5.139t
Benchmarks (slotting), in estimating
labor costs, 3.105, 3.106–107
Bennett, Colin P., 4.183
Benzoic acid, 11.15
Bertolini, Dave, 2.79
Best efficiency point (BEP), in centrifugal pumps, 5.206–208
Bitumen roofing membranes, 4.4–5,
4.8, 4.11
Blackbodies, in thermography,
2.19–20, 8.110
Blades, vibration analysis and, 8.86
Block and jaw couplings (See Oldham
flexible couplings)
Blowers, 8.94
vibration analysis and, 8.94
(See also Fans)
Blowout coils, 6.62
Boilers:
chemical cleaning of, 11.17–33
(See also Chemical cleaning)
corrosion in, 11.14–15
Bolts
anchoring in concrete or stone, airacetylene torch for, 10.72
flange, 4.176, 4.179t
heating to loosen, using airacetylene, 10.71
piping, tightening sequence in, 4.157
valve, tensioning in, 4.162
welding machine, 10.57
Bonuses (See Incentive payments for
workers)
Boost or supplemental charging, nickeliron batteries, 6.109–110
Bounce, switch, in motor controller
contacts, 6.57–58
Bourdon tubes, 8.15, 8.16
Bowers, James S., 6.3
Brake horsepower (BHP), 4.108, 4.115
centrifugal pumps, 5.208–209
Brantley, W. Emerson III, 11.17
Brass:
corrosion in, 11.7, 11.15
melting point of, 10.88
Braze welding, 10.73, 10.75–80, 10.79
Brazing (See Soldering and brazing)
Breakage, in gear teeth, 5.169–171
Breakdown maintenance, 1.13–14, 2.3
Breathers, in motor controller, 6.51
Breech-lock globe valves, 5.194–95
Brick masonry, 4.49–63
brown stain (manganese) on, 4.54,
4.58–59
cleaning, 4.53–62, 4.55t
copper or bronze stains on, 4.60
crack repair in, 4.52–53
dirt on, 4.60
efflorescence on, 4.54, 4.57
egg stains, 4.61
face grouting of, 4.51
flashing replacement in, 4.51
green stain (vanadium salt) on, 4.54,
4.58
high-pressure steam/water washing
of, 4.56
historic structures of, cleaning, 4.62
inspection of, 4.49
leaky wall repair in, 4.50–52
moisture penetration of, effects and
sources, 4.50t
oil and tar stains on, 4.60
paint stains on, 4.59
peracetic acid to clean, 4.58
plants and ivy removal, 4.61
poultice for stain removal on, 4.59
rust/iron stains, 4.59–60
sandblasting of, 4.56–57
smoke stains on, 4.60
stain removal from, 4.57–62
straw and paper stains, 4.61
tuckpointing of, 4.50–51
unit (brick, block) replacement in,
4.52–53
unknown stains on, testing, 4.61–62
vertical expansion joints for, saw
cutting, 4.54
water repellents for, 4.51–52
welding splatter stain on, 4.60
white scum stains on, 4.54, 4.61
British thermal unit (See Btu)
Broadband data, vibration analysis and,
2.18–19, 8.113
Bronze:
brick masonry and, as stain, 4.60
INDEX I.3Bronze: (Cont.):
melting point of, 10.88
in valves, 5.185, 5.187–189
Browsers, Internet, 2.113
Brushes and commutators, 8.118
DC motor, 6.22–25
synchronous motor, 6.24
welding machine, 10.57
Btu, in air conditioning, 4.77–78
Buildings and grounds, existing, 1.4
Built-up roofing membranes, 4.4, 4.11
Bull-gear compressors, 8.94–95
Burning, in gear teeth, 5.169
Bus bars, electric motor, 6.85
Buses, thermographic imaging of, 8.115
Bushings:
in mechanical adjustable speed
(MAS) drives, 5.131
thermography and, 8.115
Butt joint, welded, 10.76, 10.77, 10.78
Butterfly valve, 5.185, 5.196, 5.198
Butyl rubber, 11.9
Bypass operations, centrifugal pumps,
5.210
Calcium complex soaps, in grease, 9.11
Calcium soaps, in grease, 9.11
Campaign plan for housekeeping
awareness, 7.44–49
Capacitors, 8.115, 8.118
Capacity, predictive maintenance and,
2.30
Capacity rating, batteries, 6.88
Carbonization of concrete floors, 4.27
Cascade method for chemical cleaning,
11.23
Casenhiser, Jerry, 11.17
Cast iron:
fusion welding, 10.79–80
hard-facing, 10.87
melting point of, 10.88
Cathode ray tubes (CRTs), computer,
2.42
Cathodic protection, 11.13, 11.14
Cathodic reactions, 11.4
Cause and effect of maintenance functions, 1.34
Cause codes, planning and planned
maintenance, 2.50
Caustic soda surfactant alkalis, 11.20
Cavitation corrosion, 5.15, 11.6
Cavity ratio (CR) formulas, in illumination and lighting, 6.121t,
6.121–125, 6.122t, 6.124–125t
Ceiling cavity ratio (CCR), in illumination and lighting, 6.123,
6.124–125t
Ceney, Frank W., 6.3
Central processing unit (CPU), 2.41, 2.42
Centralized lubrication systems,
9.16–18
Centralized vs. Decentralized maintenance, 1.17–18, 1.27–32
area skills and tool requirements in,
1.28
cost control and downtime in, 1.29
crafts requirements in, 1.28
geography in, 1.27
inventory control and maintenance
stores, 2.82, 2.83–85, 2.99
items to be considered in, 1.28–29
organization of business in, 1.27,
1.29–32
shop space allocation and, 1.28
size of plant and, 1.28
supervisory staff and, 1.28–29
work force size in, 1.28
Centrifugal compressor-type air
conditioners, 4.88–89
Centrifugal compressors, 8.94, 925
Centrifugal fans, 4.115
drive arrangements for, 4.109
forward and backward-curved
blades, 4.118–119
in-line flow, 4.119
rotation and discharge in, 4.110
straight or radial-bladed, 4.119
Centrifugal force dust collection systems, 4.135
Centrifugal pumps, 5.201–211, 8.95–96
best efficiency point (BEP) for,
5.206–208
brake horsepower (BHP) rating of,
5.208–209
bypass operations of, 5.210
discharge piping configuration for,
5.209
entrained air or gas in, 5.206
failure modes in, 8.95–96
foundation for, 5.209
friction loss in, 5.209–210
hydraulic curve parameters for,
5.206–208
hydraulic hammer in, 5.211
impeller orientation, single- vs.
multistage, 5.202–203
impeller-type, enclosed vs. open,
5.202
inlet piping configuration for, 5.209
inline, 5.202–203
installation of, 5.209–210
internal configuration of, 5.201–203
multistage, 5.202–203
net positive suction head in, 5.203,
5.204
operation of (startup, bypass, etc.),
5.210–211
opposed impeller-type, 5.203
parallel configuration of, 5.204,
5.205, 5.206
performance factors of, 5.201
piping support for, 5.209
run-out condition in, 5.208
series configuration of, 5.204, 5.205
shutoff condition in, 5.208
single-stage, 5.202–203
suction conditions in, 5.203–206
suction volume in, 5.203–206
total dynamic head (TDH) in, 5.206,
5.207, 5.208–209
total system head (TSH) in, 5.206,
5.207, 5.208, 5.209
vibration analysis of, 8.95–96
(See also Positive displacement
pumps; Pumps)
Centrifugal-type air conditioning,
4.79–80
Ceramic corrosion, 11.9
Chain couplings, 5.45–46
Chain hoists, 5.91–99
capacity of, 5.98
classes and duty ratings of, 5.91–92
design and performance specs for, 5.98
differential-type, 5.92–93, 5.94
extended handwheel-type, 5.93, 5.96
hand chain manually-operated,
5.91–93
inspection of, 5.99
installation of, 5.99
lever-operated manual (puller)-type,
5.91, 5.92
load chain gauging diagram, 5.99
low headroom army-type trolley
hoist as, 5.93, 5.95
overload limiting devices in, 5.93
powered-type, 5.94–97
preventive maintenance for, 5.98
releasable ratchet-type, 5.91, 5.92
selection criteria for, 5.91–92,
5.97–98
spur-geared-type, 5.91, 5.92, 5.93
twin-hook-type, 5.93, 5.95
worm gears in, 5.92
Chains for power transmission, 5.73–82
benefits of use of, 5.75–76
chordal action in, 5.76–77
guide links, 5.75
inspection of, 5.81–82
installation of, 5.77–79
inverted tooth-type, 5.76–77
lubrication for, 5.79–82
maintenance for, 5.81–82
misalignment of shafts and, 5.77–78
pin in, 5.86
pin links in, 5.73
pitch, width, and roller diameter in,
5.73
rocker in, 5.76
roller links in, 5.73
selection criteria for, 5.74–75
service (load) factors for, 5.75–76,
5.75t 5.78
silent chain, 5.73, 5.74
sprockets in, 5.78, 5.79
tensioning in, 5.78, 5.82
wear in, 5.82–83
Chandler, Bryant (Web), 4.29
Chapin, William S., 5.73
Charge–discharge rate, in batteries, 6.88
Charging batteries:
lead-acid, 6.90–94, 6.92t
nickel-cadmium, 6.102–104
nickel-iron batteries, 6.110
Charting devices, 8.4
Charting techniques, in work simplification, 3.89
Chasers, in piping, grinding, 4.153
Check valves, 4.162–164, 5.185,
5.187–189, 5.192–195
Chelating agents, 11.20, 11.21
Chemical cleaning, 11.17–33
abrasion method and, 11.28
alkaline cleaners in, 11.19, 11.20
of boilers, 11.18
cascade method for, 11.23
caustic soda surfactant alkalis in,
11.20
chelating agents in, 11.20, 11.21
circulation in, 11.22, 11.22, 11.23
citric acid in, 11.20
I.4 INDEXChemical cleaning, (Cont.):
complexing agents in, 11.20, 11.21
copper complexers in, 11.21
degradation vs., 11.18
vs. deposits, waterborne, 11.18, 11.19t
environmental concerns in, 11.32–33
fill-and-soak method for, 11.23–24
foam, 11.24
gel, 11.24
high-pressure water jetting (hydroblasting) and, 11.25
hydrodrilling and, 11.26
inhibited muriatic acid (HCl) in, 11.20
inhibited sulfuric acid in, 11.20
inhibitors in, 11.22
inorganic acids in, 11.20
lignin and, 11.18
mechanical and combination
methods in, 11.25–28
monoammoniated citric acid in, 11.20
muriatic acid in, 11.20
nitric acid in, 11.21
onstream method for, 11.24–25
open cooling water systems and, 11.18
organic acids in, 11.20
organic solvents in, 11.20, 11.21–22
organizations of assistance in, 11.32
oxidizing agents in, 11.22
passivating agents in, 11.22, 11.25
phosphoric acid in, 11.21
pickling, 11.25
pigs, plugs, and crawlers in, 11.26–29
pipe flow relationships and, 11.27
polymerization and, 11.18
potassium permanganate in, 11.20
preoperational deposits and, 11.19
selection of method for, 11.29–32
sequestering agents in, 11.20, 11.21
solvents used in, 11.19–22
steam vapor phase, 11.24
sulfamic acid in, 11.21
sulfuric acid in, 11.20
wetting agents in, 11.20
Chemically generated gas-activated
lubricator, 9.16, 9.17
Chloroprene rubber, 11.9, 673
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE),
4.5, 4.9
Chordal action, in chain-type drives,
5.76–77
Chrome, corrosion vs., 11.7
Chromium steel, welding, 10.38
Circuit breakers, 6.65–67, 6.67t, 6.83,
8.115–116, 8.118
Circuit interrupters 6.66
Circuit protectors, 8.119
Circuits, 8.118
Citric acid, 11.20
Clad steel, welding, 10.38
Clamp-on instruments, 8.51–52
Classification of equipment, 1.40
Clean Air Act, 4.135
Cleanliness and order, 7.44
Clerical personnel, 1.7
Closed circuit, 8.118
Closed water pump systems, 4.101
Coal tar epoxy, 4.38
Coefficient of utilization (CU), in illumination and lighting, 6.121,
6.123, 6.141
Coils, 8.119
in air conditioning, 4.89–90, 4.104
heating, in air conditioning, 4.99
in motor controller, 6.54–55
Cold working pressure (CWP) rating,
valves, 5.186
Collector rings, synchronous motor,
6.25
Color coding, paints and protective
coatings for, 4.34
Color rendering index (CRI), in illumination and lighting, 6.127
Common mode rejection, in DMM,
8.49
Communication devices, computer,
2.43
Communications, 1.22–23
Internet, 2.109
Commutation, in DC motors, 6.15
Commutators
in DC motor, 6.22–25
in welding machine, 10.57–58
Compensation programs, 3.59–60
wage rate vs. job classification in,
3.64, 3.80–82
Competency-based training, 1.74
Complexing agents, 11.20, 11.21
Compound wound DC motor, 6.13
Compressors:
bull-gear, 8.94–95
centrifugal, 8.94
failure modes in, 8.94–95
inline, 8.94
reciprocating, 8.95
screw, 8.95
vibration analysis and, 8.94–95
Computer-aided design (CAD), 2.47
Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), 2.86
Computers, 2.41–48
accessing information from, 2.45–46
accounting and financial management using, 2.47
analyses and displays using, 2.58
applications for, 2.46–48
benefits of, 2.45–46, 2.51
central processing unit (CPU) in,
2.41, 2.42
communications devices in, 2.43
components of, 2.41–43
computer-aided design (CAD) and,
2.47
cost control and, 2.51
economics/cost of, 2.44–45
equipment identification in, 2.53–54,
2.72–77
good system characteristics for,
2.52–54
hardware for, 2.41
implementation of maintenance
management using, 2.51–52
input/output (I/O) devices in, 2.42
inventory control using, 2.47, 2.59,
2.67-71
job planning and, 2.47–48
mainframes, minis, and micros in,
2.43–44
material availability reports in, 2.53
office automation applications for,
2.46–47
online inquiries in, 2.52
organizing for, 2.51
PCs in, 2.43–44
personnel recordkeeping and, 2.47
planning and, 2.46, 2.49–77
report generation using, 2.54
scheduling using, 2.49–77
software for, 2.41, 2.43
storage devices in, 2.42–43
training programs and, 2.48, 2.52
work orders and, 2.52–53, 2.55,
2.58–66
(See also Internet for maintenance
and engineering)
Concrete, paints and protective coatings and, 4.32
(See also Floors, concrete)
Condemning limits for lubricants, 9.6t
Condensation dust collection systems,
4.136
Condensers:
in air conditioning, 4.90–92, 4.104
in welding machine, 10.59
Conduction, 8.113, 8.117
Conductors:
in electric motor, 6.83
thermography and, 8.116
Conformability, in plain bearings, 5.4
Conical vs. Cylindrical shaft rotation,
vibration analysis and, 8.88
Connecting rods, reconditioning, 5.16,
5.17
Constant-current charge method, batteries, 6.93, 6.103–104
Constant-voltage charge, batteries,
6.103
Contactor-type relays 6.75
Contacts, electrical, 6.62, 6.83, 6.86
appearance of, 6.59, 6.60
bounce in, 6.57–58
dressing for, 6.60
inspection of, 6.61–62
in motor controller, 6.57
overheating in, 6.63
overtravel measurement for contacts
in, 6.59
poor arc in, 6.64
pressure of, 6.58–59
short life in, 6.64
troubleshooting guide for, 6.63,
6.63–64t
vacuum-type, 6.60–61
wear in, 6.59, 6.61t
welded, 6.63–64t
Continuous process lines, vibration
analysis and, 8.81, 8.96
Continuously wound rheostats, 6.70
Contract-type training programs, 1.77
Control indexes, inventory control and
maintenance stores, 2.96
Control policies, 1.22–23
Control reports, 1.63, 2.49
Control stations, process monitoring
and, 8.32–33
Convection, in thermography, 8.113,
8.117
Conversion coatings, 11.15
Coolers, in air conditioning, 4.92–93
Cooling loads, in air conditioning,
4.75–76
INDEX I.5Cooling methods/systems:
in electric motor, 6.5–6
in chemical cleaning, 11.18
Cooling towers:
in air conditioning, 4.93–94
corrosion in, 11.15
gears, gear motors, and speed reducers in, 5.152
Cooperation with operating personnel
in sanitation and housekeeping,
7.9–10
Coordinating maintenance with production, 1.13, 2.12–13
Copper and copper alloys:
brick masonry and, as stain, 4.60
corrosion of, 11.15, 11.6, 11.7
welding, 10.39
Copper complexers, 11.21
Corner joint, welded, 10.76, 10.77
Corona, 8.117
Correction memos, 7.31, 7.32
Corrective maintenance, 1.39, 2.3–6
history of repairs and, 2.5
identification of incipient problems
for, 2.4
planning for, 2.5
prerequisites of, 2.4
preventive maintenance vs., 3.9–12
procedures for, 2.5–6
role of, 2.6
time required for, 2.6
verification of repair in, 2.6
Corrosion and corrosion control, 11.1,
11.3–16
ABS plastic in, 11.10
acetal homopolymers in, 11.10
in aluminum, 11.7, 11.9
amines vs., 11.15
anodic reactions in, 11.4
aqueous-solution inhibitors vs.,
11.14–15
benzoic acid vs., 11.15
in boilers, 11.14–15
in brass, 11.7, 11.15
cathodic protection vs., 11.13, 11.14
cathodic reactions in, 11.4
causes and types of, 11.4–6
cavitation, 11.6
ceramic, 11.9
chrome, 11.7
cleaning practices vs., 11.12
coatings vs., 11.12–13
control methods for, 11.3–16
conversion coatings vs., 11.15
in cooling towers, 11.15
in copper, 11.15, 11.6, 11.7
crevice, 11.7
damage caused by, 11.3
design vs., 11.12
dezincification in, 11.7–8
dissolution of metals in, 11.4, 11.7
EDP in, 11.15
elastomers vs., synthetic, 11.10–11
in electric motors, 6.21
electrochemical reactions in, 11.4
erosion, 11.6
forms and defects of, 11.6–8
free radicals and, 11.5
galvanic, 11.6
galvanized metals and, 11.4, 11.9
glass fiber reinforced polyester
(GF–UP) in, 11.9, 673
graphite in, 11.9
HEDP in, 11.15
inhibitors vs., 11.14–15
interfilm, 11.8
intergranular, 11.7
machining fluids vs., 11.15
material selection vs., 11.8–11
melting (high temperature), 11.5
2–mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in,
11.15
microbiological, 11.7
molybdates in, 11.15
organic coatings vs., 11.15
oxidation and, 11.4
pH levels and, 11.6, 11.8, 11.15
phosphonates in, 11.15
pickling vs., 11.15
in piping, 4.149, 4.176
pitting in, 11.6–7
in plain bearings, 5.5
plating vs., 11.15
polyethersulfone in, 11.10
polyethylene (PE) in, 11.9, 11.10
polymeric materials in, 11.8
polymers in, 11.9
polypropylene (PP), 11.9
polystryrene and, 11.10
polyurethane and, 11.10
polyvinylchloride (PVC) in, 11.9,
11.10
polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) in,
11.9
resistance of various metals to, 11.32
in roof accessories, 4.15
rubbers vs., 11.9, 11.10–11
rust preventive oils vs., 11.14
selective leaching, 11.7
sodium nitrite vs., 11.15
special methods of control for,
11.12–15
stability of materials chart, 11.11t
in stainless steels, 11.9
in steels and iron, 11.6, 11.7, 11.9
stress cracking, 11.7
uniform vs. localized, 11.5–6
zinc, 11.7, 11.9
Corrosive wear, in gear teeth,
5.168–169
Corrosives, vs. ventilating fans and
exhaust systems, 4.121–122
Cost control, 1.24–26, 3.3–12
average return on investment (ROI)
in, 3.3
cause and effect vs., 1.34
centralized vs. decentralized maintenance and, 1.29
classificaiton of maintenance work
in, 1.34–35
computerized, 2.51
for computers, 2.44–45
corrective vs. preventive maintenance in, 3.9–12
cost reports in, 1.34
cost/benefit ratio (CBR) in, 3.4, 3.5
decision making in, 3.3–5
deferred maintenance and, 3.110
downtime and, 3.9–12
in elevators and lifts, 4.73
estimating costs for, 3.101–114
(See also Estimating maintenance
costs)
in illumination and lighting,
6.115–117, 6.117t, 6.145–146,
6.148
incentive payments for workers and,
1.41–61
inflation and, 3.8–9
interest rates and, 3.5–9
internal rate of return (IRR) in, 3.3, 3.5
in inventory control and maintenance
stores, 2.79, 2.80, 2.83, 2.90–91
job classification in, 3.101–102
labor cost estimation in, 3.104–110
maintenance costs as percent of sales
dollar in, 1.64, 1.67
materials cost estimates in,
3.110–112
materials costs reports in, 1.64, 1.67
mean time between maintenance
(MTBM) in, 3.11
mean time to preventive maintenance (MTPM) in, 3.11
mean time to repair (MTTR) in, 3.11
net present value (NPV) in, 3.4, 3.5
overhead cost estimates in,
3.112–113
payback calculation in, 3.3, 3.4
percent rate of return (PRR) in, 3.3,
3.4
PERT statistical approach to, 3.110
planning and planned maintenance,
2.49–50, 3.102
predictive maintenance and, breakdown losses vs., 2.29–30, 2.29
preventive maintenance and, 2.9–10,
3.3–12
profit objective of, 1.33
quickread estimating in, labor costs,
3.108–110
Ranking Index for Maintenance
Expenditures (RIME) in,
2.55–56
reducing maintenance work for,
1.33–40
repairs and, 1.35–40
repetitive maintenance and, 3.102
reports used in, 1.63–68
return on investment (ROI) in, 3.4–9
rule of seven (direct work) calculation for, 3.109
sanitation and housekeeping and,
7.13, 7.14
standards per unit, in estimation,
3.105–108
in thermography, 2.28
in tribology, 8.138–141
in ultrasonic monitoring, 2.29
in vibration monitoring, 2.28
(See also Estimating maintenance
costs)
Cost reports, 1.34
Cost/benefit ratio (CBR), 3.4, 3.5
Counters, 8.64–65, 8.65
Couplings, 4.130
(See also Flexible couplings)
Crack repair, in brick masonry,
4.52–53
Cracks, in gear teeth, 5.169, 5.170
I.6 INDEXCrafts requirements, centralized vs.
decentralized maintenance and,
1.28
Crafts shop, 1.8, 8
Cranes, 5.38–89
adjustment and repairs to, 5.87
electrical systems of, 5.88
governmental regulations for, 5.89
hook deformation in, 5.87
inspection of, 5.84–86
installation and testing of, 5.84
lubrication for, 5.88
maintenance of, 5.85–89
ordering parts for, 5.87
ropes for, 5.88–89
safety of, 5.83, 5.87, 5.89
spare parts for, 5.85–87
wear in, 5.88
Crankcases:
plain bearings in, distortion of,
5.14–15
reconditioning of, bore tolerances
and, 5.16–17, 5.17t
Crankshafts:
plain bearings in, distortion in,
5.14–15
tolerances for reconditioning of,
5.15–16
Crawlers, in chemical cleaning,
11.26–31
Crevice corrosion, 11.7
Critical speed, in vibration analysis,
8.87–88
Critical vs. Noncritical equipment, 1.40
Crush, in plain bearings, 5.8, 5.12–13
Cryogenic liquids, level measurement
for, 8.12–14
Current transformers, 8.58
Current, 8.119
Curvilinear synchronous belt drives,
5.105, 5.109
Cutler, Donald B., 5.45
Cutoff voltage, in batteries, 6.88
Cutting:
air-carbon arc (CAC-A), 10.27–30,
10.28t, 10.29t
oxyacetylene, 10.27-10.28, 10.72–84
oxygen, 10.80–84
plasma arc, 10.30–32
Cutting wear, in wear-particle analysis,
2.23, 8.134, 8.135–137
Cycle times, computer, 2.42
Cycles per second (cps) of vibration, in
vibration analysis, 8.77
Cyclone-type dust collection systems,
4.136, 4.137, 4.142
Daily drop in productivity following
cleaning, 7.8–9, 7.31
Dampers:
in air conditioning, 4.94, 4.97
in fan, 4.125–126, 4.128
D’Arsonval movement, 8.54
Dashpots 6.76
Databases, for vibration analysis,
8.96–98
Datum length (DL), belt drives, 5.103
Davies, Richard, 2.49
DC motors, 6.13–15
application data for, 6.14–15
brushes and commutators in,
6.22–25, 6.22
commutation in, 6.15
compound wound, 6.13
excessive brush wear in, 6.44–46
fast operation in, 6.40
insulation for, 6.15
mechanical design factors for, 6.14
no startup in, 6.36
noisy operation in, 6.41, 6.42
overheating in, 6.38, 6.42
overload protection device trips, 6.37
permanent magnet-type, 6.13–14
series wound, 6.13
shunt wound, 6.13
slow operation in, 6.39
sparking in, 6.23–25, 6.44–46
starts, stops, reverses direction, 6.37
theory and design, 6.13
thermal design factors for, 6.14–15
Dearstyne, R.C., 5.91
Decentralized maintenance (See
Centralized vs. Decentralized
maintenance)
Decision making, work simplification
and, 3.99
Dehumidifiers, 4.101
Delay relays, in welding machine, 10.59
Delta temperature, 8.116
Derisive campaign incentive plan for,
7.44–49
Design and engineering, vibration
analysis and, 8.72
Dew point sensors, 8.26
Dezincification, corrosion, 11.7–8
Diaphragm-type valves, 4.160
Diaphragm-type flexible couplings,
5.51–52
Diaphragm-type pressure gauges,
8.17–19
Dichlorodifluoromethane, 4.82–83t
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, 4.82–83t
Differential chain hoists, 5.92–94
Diffusion dust collection systems, 4.136
Digital multimeters (DMMs), 8.48–50
Diodes, 8.119
Direct current (dc), 8.119, 8.54
Direct current welder, 10.53
Direct interception dust collection
systems, 4.135
Disconnect devices, for electric
motors,6.65–67, 6.83, 6.85
Disk drives, computer, 2.43
Disk ring flexible couplings, 5.50–51
Dispatch, in scheduling, 1.13
Displacement, in vibration analysis,
8.74–76, 8.77, 8.78, 8.79
Displacement probes, 8.99, 8.99, 8.100
Dissolution of metals, corrosion, 11.4,
11.7
Distribution, 8.119
Documentation, in inventory control
and maintenance stores, 2.86–89
Domains and domain name servers
(DNS), 2.113
Domains, 2.114, 166
Double helical gears, 5.147–150, 5.159t
Double-wedge rising stem gate valve,
5.191, 5.192
Downtime, 1.25–26
centralized vs. decentralized maintenance and, 1.29
cost control of, 3.9–12
inventory control and maintenance
stores vs., 2.81
percent downtime reports for, 1.64,
1.67
Drains, for motor controller, 6.51
Dressing, contact, 6.60
Drives:
adjustable-while-in-motion belt in,
5.132–135, 5.138t
in air conditioning,4.95
belt (See Belt drives)
belt transmissions and, 5.138–139,
5.139t, 5.140
fan, 4.109, 4.128, 4.130
flat belt-type, 5.144–145, 5.145t
friction disk-type, 5.141, 5.142
geared differential-type, 5.144, 5.144
gears, gear drives, and speed
reducers, 5.147–171
general friction-type belt in,
5.129–130
mechanical variable speed (See
Mechanical variable/adjustable
speed [MAS] drives)
open vs. sealed (packaged) types,
5.130
packaged belt, 5.139–141, 5.141t
static adjustment-type, 5.135–137,
5.137t
traction-type, 5.141–144, 5.143t
variable speed (See Mechanical
variable/adjustable speed
[MAS]drives)
(See also Belt drives; Mechanical
variable/adjustable speed
[MAS]drives)
Drop point, grease, 5.42, 9.8, 9.8t
Drum controllers, electric motor, 6.72,
6.72, 6.73
Dry centrifugal dust collection systems,
4.136, 4.137, 4.142
Dry dynamic dust collection systems,
4.136, 4.137, 4.142–143
Ducts, in air cleaners, 4.146
Dunkle, Samuel G., 4.135
Duoline lubrication system, 9.22
Dust collection and air cleaning equipment, 4.135–148
Clean Air Act and, 4.135
dos and don’ts of maintaining,
4.147–148
dry dynamic-type, 4.136, 4.142–143
electrostatic precipitator, 4.141–142,
4.144–146
exhaust hoods and ducts in, 4.146
fabric filter-type, 4.139, 4.140,
4.141, 4.144
gas absorption-type, 4.137–138
health and safety and, 4.135
inertial or dry centrifugal systems in,
4.136, 4.137, 4.142
maintenance of, 4.142–146
multiple centrifugal-type, 4.136,
4.137, 4.142
nozzle-type scrubber, 4.139, 4.140
orifice-type scrubber, 4.138, 4.143
particulate scrubber, 4.138–139
INDEX I.7Dust collection and air cleaning
equipment, (Cont.):
preventive maintenance in, 4.146–147
simple cyclone-type, 4.136, 4.137,
4.142
threshold limit values (TLVs) for,
4.135
types of, 4.135–136
venturi scrubber, 4.139, 4.140
wet centrifugal scrubber, 4.138,
4.143
wet collector (scrubber), 4.137–139,
4.143
wet dynamic scrubber, 4.138, 4.143
Dusty environments
dust collection and air cleaning
equipment for, 4.135–148
ventilating fans and exhaust systems,
4.122
Duty ratings, ladders (Type I, II, etc.),
4.186
Dynamometers, 8.55, 8.56, 8.57, 8.59
Eccentricity, in plain bearings, 5.8
Economic order quantity (EOQ)
calculation, 2.91
Economics of preventive maintenance
(See Cost control, preventive
maintenance)
Economizers, air conditioning, 4.96
Edison Electrical Institute, 11.32
EDP, 11.15
Effective center, in roller bearings,
5.28–29
Effective length (EL), belt drives,
5.103–104
Efficiency, mechanical
batteries, 6.88
fan, 4.110
static efficiency (SE) in, 4.108
total efficiency (ME) in, 4.108
Efficiency rating of workers, 1.16–17,
3.59–82
analyzing jobs and job descriptions
for, 3.62–67
compensation programs vs., 3.59–60
defining factors in, 3.63
evaluating jobs for, 3.63
general principles of
job classifications and, 3.63–64,
3.68–76
quantitative approach to, 3.60–61
relative weights of factors in, 3.61–62
reports on, 1.64, 1.67
in sanitation and housekeeping,
7.31–32
traditional factors in, 3.60–61,
3.77–79
wage rate vs. job classification in,
3.64, 3.80–82
work simplification and, 3.98–99
Efflorescence, on brick masonry, 4.54,
4.57
Ejection lubrication system, 9.23,
9.25–26
Elastomeric flexible couplings, 5.52–54
Elastomers, synthetic, 11.10–11
Electric motors, 6.3–47
(See also Shaft alignment, in flexible
couplings)
AC induction motors, 6.8–12
classification of, 6.8
design characteristics of, 6.9–10
formulas and calculations for,
6.46–47t
insulation for, 6.10–12
nameplate coding, 6.46t
no startup in, 6.32
noisy operation in, 6.31, 6.35
overheating in, 6.33–36
power supply for, 6.9–10
slow acceleration in, 6.32
speed–torque characteristics of,
6.8–9
temperature rise in, 6.12
theory and construction of, 6.8
troubleshooting charts for,
6.31–35
vacuum pressure impregnation
(VPI) insulation in, 6.11–12
voltage variations and, 6.9–10
in air conditioning, 4.105–106
adjustable-type relays in, 6.78–82
appearance of contacts in, 6.59, 6.60
application data for, 6.6–8
arc chambers in, 6.54, 6.55–56, 6.62
bearing failure and rotor damage in,
6.19
bearing failure and stator damage in,
6.21
belt drives and, 5.105, 5.111t
blowout coils in, 6.62
bounce in contacts of, 6.57–58
brushes and collector rings in, 6.25
bus bars in, 6.85
for chain hoists, 5.94–97
circuit breakers for, 6.65–67, 6.67t,
6.83
circuit interrupters for 6.66
cleaning and drying windings in, 6.28
commutation in, 6.15
conductors in, 6.83
contact troubleshooting guide for,
6.63, 6.63–64t
contactor-type relays in, 6.75
contacts in, 6.57, 6.62, 6.83, 6.86
control components, 6.49–87
controller ratings for: single-phase
motor, single–phase full voltage, jogging duty, 6.65
single-phase motor, single–phase
full voltage, limited plugging/jogging duty, 6.64
three-phase motor, jogging duty,
three-phase full voltage
severe duty, 6.65
three-phase motor, normal service,
three-phase full voltage limited
plugging/jogging duty, 6.65
cooling methods for, 6.5–6
corrosion in, 6.21
dashpots in 6.76
DC motors, 6.13–15
application data for, 6.14–15
brushes and commutators in,
6.22–25
commutation in, 6.15
compound wound, 6.13
excessive brush wear in, 6.44–46
fast operation in, 6.40
insulation for, 6.15
mechanical design factors for, 6.14
noisy operation in, 6.41, 6.42
overheating in, 6.38, 6.42
overload protection device trips,
6.37
permanent magnet-type, 6.13–14
series wound, 6.13
shunt wound, 6.13
slow operation in, 6.39
sparking in, 6.23–25, 6.44–46
starts, stops, reverses direction in,
6.37
theory and design, 6.13
thermal design factors for, 6.14–15
troubleshooting charts for, 6.36–45t
disconnect devices for, 6.65–67,
6.83, 6.85
dressing for contacts in, 6.60
drum controllers for, 6.72, 6.72, 6.73
dynamometer load testing in, 6.29,
6.29
electrical skills required for maintenance of, 6.50
enclosures for, 6.4–6
environmental considerations for, 6.6
excessive brush wear in, 6.44–46
failure modes for, 8.93
fast operation in, 6.40
fault conditions in, controller maintenance and, 6.82–84
formulas and calculations for,
6.46–47t
fusable safety switch disconnects
for, 6.65
fuses and fuse holders for, 6.83, 6.85
grounding and, 6.72–74
inspecting contacts in, 6.61–62
inspection of, 6.14
insulation for, 6.10–12, 6.15, 6.26
insulation resistance tests for, 2.26
insulators in, 6.62, 6.85
interlocks in, 6.86–87
lubrication of, 6.16–19
magnetic overload relays in 6.76
magnets in, 6.53–55, 6.62
maintenance plan for, 6.15–16
manual motor controllers for,
6.56–57
manual vs. machine-operated controller devices for, 6.74–75
mechanical variable/adjustable speed
(MAS) drives, 5.129–145
megger testing of, 6.26, 6.27–28
motor control center for, 6.84–87
nameplate coding, 6.46t
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA) ratings
for, 6.3
no startup in, 6.32, 6.36
noisy operation in, 6.19–21, 6.31,
6.35, 6.41, 6.42
operating (magnet) coils in, 6.54–55
operating considerations for, 6.6–7
overheating in, 6.19–20, 6.33–36,
6.38, 6.42, 6.63
overload protection device trips, 6.37
overload relays in, 6.84
overtravel measurement for contacts
in, 6.59
I.8 INDEXovervoltage in, 6.55
polarization index for, 6.28
power circuit components in, 6.53
power supply for, 6.7–8, 6.8t, 6.9–10
predictive maintenance program for,
2.26, 6.29
pressure of contacts in, 6.58–59
protector circuits for, 6.66–67
ratings for, 6.3–6.4
relays in, 6.75–82, 6.77, 6.78, 6.79,
6.83t
rheostats for, starting and speed regulating, 6.67–72
secondary circuit of wound–
rotor-type, 6.70–71
shading coils in, 6.53–54
shaft alignment, pump-to-motor, 5.59
shock hazards in, 6.16, 6.22, 6.28,
6.30
short circuits and, 6.82–84
shunts in, 6.55, 6.56, 6.62
slow acceleration in, 6.32
slow operation in, 6.39
solid-state overload relays in, 6.76–78
sparking in, 6.23–25, 6.44–46
starts, stops, reverses direction in, 6.37
surge testing in, 6.28
synchronous, brushes and collector
rings in, 6.26
synchronous speeds (rpm) in, 6.46t
temperature rise in, 6.12
terminals in, 6.62, 6.83, 6.85
testing, 2.26, 6.26–29
thermal overload relays in,
6.75–6.76, 6.86
thermography and, 8.114, 8.115
Time Tactor relays in, 6.79–82
totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC),
8.93
troubleshooting flowcharts for, 6.30,
6.31–45
“unusual service conditions” defined
for, 6.7
vacuum contacts for, 6.60–61
vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI)
insulation in, 6.11–12, 6.12
vibration analysis and, 6.19–21, 8.93
wear in contacts of, 6.59, 6.61t
welded contacts in, 6.63–64t
in welding machines, 10.57–59
windings in, 6.25–28
Electrical connections, soldering, 10.68
Electrical equipment, 6.1
Electrical generation, 1.4
(See also Utilities)
Electrical test/measurement instruments, 8.43–69
ammeters, clamp-on-type, 8.51–52,
8.51
amperage measurement, 8.52–53
analog multimeters, 8.44–47
clamp-on types, 8.51–52, 8.51
current transformers in, 8.58
D’Arsonval movement in, 8.54
DC meter, 8.54
digital multimeters (DMMs),
8.48–50
dynamometers, 8.55, 8.56, 8.57, 8.59
frequency counters and timers,
8.64–65
high-resistance determination,
8.63–64
iron vane ac mechanism for, 8.55
Kelvin bridge, 8.63, 8.63, 8.64
low resistance determination, 8.63
megger tester, 8.60–62
miscellaneous, 8.68–69
multimeters, 8.44–51
ohmmeters, 8.60
oscilloscopes, 8.65–68
potential transformers in, 8.58
power analyzers, 8.50–51
power factor meter, clamp-on-type,
8.52, 8.53
power measurement, 8.57–58
resistance measurement, 8.59–64
selection criteria for, 8.43–44
single-function instruments, 8.51–65
solid-state circuit checkers, 8.68
special purpose industrial multimeters, 8.50–51
true rms measurement in, 8.55
tube checkers, 8.68
volt ohm milliammeter (VOM),
8.44–51, 8.44–48
voltage measurement, 8.52–53
voltmeters, 8.54–55, 8.54, 8.55
wattage measurement, 8.52–53
wattmeters, 8.52, 8.53, 8.57–59
Wheatstone bridge, 8.62–63
Electrochemical gas-activated lubricators, 9.16, 9.17
Electrochemical reactions, 11.4
Electrode holders, welding, 10.22, 10.55
Electrodes for welding, 10.6, 10.8t,
10.10, 10.21–22, 10.41, 10.43t,
10.44
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
10.21–22
hard surfacing, 10.44
submerged arc welding (SAW),
10.41, 10.43t
Electrodes and electrolytes, in batteries, 6.89, 6.104–108, 6.110–113
Electrodynamometers, 8.56
Electrogas welding, 10.34
Electromagnetic interference (EMI),
8.119
Electromagnetic spectrum, thermography and, 8.111–112, 8.117
Electroslag welding, 10.34
Electrostatic dust collection systems,
4.136
Electrostatic precipitator, 4.141–142,
4.144–146
Elevators and lifts, 4.65–74
age adjustments and premaintenance
repairs to, 4.74
check charts for, 4.68–69
cleaning of machinery in, 4.69
contract maintenance for, 4.71
cost of maintenance in, 4.73
do-it-yourself maintenance for,
4.71
emergency service for, 4.70–71
inspections of, 4.72
machine room equipment for, 4.69
maintenance objectives for, 4.65–66
manufacturer maintenance for,
4.71–72
parts replacement for, 4.72
performance and efficiency of, 4.66
personnel for maintenance of, 4.68–69
preventive maintenance for, 4.73
repairs to, 4.74
safety and dependability of, 4.66–68,
4.72
testing equipment (CRT) for, 4.70
troubleshooting and adjustment of,
4.69, 4.70
warranties on new equipment and,
4.73–74
Eliminators, in air conditioning, 4.93
Embeddability, in plain bearings, 5.4
Emergency maintenance:
for elevators and lifts, 4.70–71
for piping leaks, 4.149, 4.150
for roof leaks, 4.10–11
Emissions, 8.117
Emissivity, in thermography, 8.110,
8.117
Emittance, 8.117
Enclosures, electric motor, 6.4–6,
6.50–51, 6.50t, 6.83, 6.84–85
End lateral roller bearings, shaft, 5.29
Energy conservation, illumination and
lighting, 6.116–117, 6.117t
Energy, 4.107
Engineering, preventive, 1.14
Engineers, 1.7
ENIAC, 2.41
Environmental protection, chemical
cleaning and, 11.32–33
Epicyclic gears, 5.153–155
Epoxy coatings, 4.37–38
Equalizing charge, nickel-cadmium
batteries, 6.104
Equipment identification, in planning
and planned maintenance, 2.50,
2.53–54, 2.72–77
Equipment management, work measurement and, 3.23–25
Equipment selection and purchase,
maintenance personnel input for,
1.19–20
Equipment, existing, 1.4
Ergonomics, motion economy and,
four basic principles of, 3.96–98
Erosion corrosion, 11.6
Estimated jobs, work measurement
and, 3.48–49
Estimating maintenance costs,
3.101–114
benchmarks (slotting) in, 3.105,
3.106–107
deferred maintenance and, 3.110
job classification in, 3.101–102
labor cost, 3.104–110
materials cost estimates in, 3.110–112
overhead cost estimates in, 3.112–113
PERT statistical approach to, 3.110
planned maintenance and, 3.102
preparation of, persons responsible,
3.103–104
prerequisites for, 3.101
quickread estimating in, labor costs,
3.108–110
repetitive maintenance and, 3.102
rule of seven (direct work) calculation for, 3.109
INDEX I.9Estimating maintenance costs, (Cont.):
selecting appropriate techniques for,
3.110, 3.111
standards per unit in, 3.105–108
training estimators for, 3.113–114
use of estimates in, 3.102–103
(See also Cost control)
Estimating time to repair, 2.7–10
Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer
(EPDM), 4.5, 4.8, 4.9
Evaporative condensers, in air conditioning, 4.92
Excitation, gear excitation, 8.85
Exhaust hoods, air cleaner, 4.146
Exhaust systems (See Ventilating fans
and exhaust systems)
Expansion joints, in brick masonry,
4.54
Experts, for work simplification, 3.83–84
Extended handwheel chain hoist, 5.93,
5.96
Extension ladders, 4.186, 4.188–191
External stand–off ladders, 4.195, 4.195
Eye protection, for paints and protective coatings, 4.43
Fabric filter air cleaners, 4.139, 4.140,
4.141, 4.144
Face grouting, in brick masonry, 4.51
Factors in sanitation, 7.13, 7.15–17
Failure modes:
thermography and, 8.114
vibration analysis and, 8.90–96
Fan capacity (cfm), 4.107, 4.114, 4.115
Fans, 4.107–133
abrasive environment use of, 4.122
adjustable pitch blades in, 4.117
in air conditioning, 4.88, 4.92, 4.93,
4.96
Air Moving and Conditioning
Association (AMCA) and, 4.108
axial fans, 4.115
tube–axial-type, 4.116–118
vane axial-type, 4.116–118
backward-curved blade centrifugal,
4.118
balancing of, 4.130–132
bearings in, 4.130
brake horsepower (bhp) in, 4.108,
4.115
centrifugal fans, 4.115
drive arrangements for, 4.109
forward and backward-curved
blades, 4.118–119
in-line flow, 4.119
rotation and discharge in, 4.110
straight or radial blade, 4.119
corrosive environment use, 4.121–122
couplings in, 4.130
dampers for, 4.125–126, 4.128
density change vs., 4.112, 4.113
drive arrangement in, 4.109, 4.128,
4.130
efficiency rating in, 4.110
electrostatic precipitator, 4.145
failure modes in, 8.94
fan capacity (cfm) in, 4.107, 4.114,
4.115
fan rating in, 4.108
flammable gas/vapor environment
use, 4.122–123
forward-curved blade centrifugal,
4.118–119
foundations and mountings for,
4.127–128
free delivery capacity in, 4.108
handling and storage of, 4.127
high temperature use, 4.121
inspection, 4.129
installation of, 4.127–129
jet pump, 4.120
low capacity/pressure in, 4.132
multirating tables for, 4.109–112,
4.112t
noise in, 4.123–125, 4.132
outlet velocity (OV) in, 4.108
overheating in, 4.132
overloading, 4.133
performance laws for, 4.114–115
prestart check for, 4.128
propeller-type, 4.115–116
protective devices for, 4.129
recommended uses for, 4.115–120
roof exhaust, 4.120
safety in, 4.123, 4.129
severe duty types, 4.120–122
sizes of, 4.108
special purpose, 4.115
speed (rpm) of, 4.110, 4.114, 4.115,
4.126
static efficiency (SE) in, 4.108
static no delivery pressure (SND) in,
4.108
static pressure (SP) in, 4.107, 4.115
symptoms of trouble in, 4.132–133
terminology and definitions in,
4.107–108
tip speed in, 4.108
total efficiency (ME) in, 4.108
total pressure (TP) in, 4.108
troubleshooting of, 4.132–133
types of, 4.115–120
variable inlet vanes for, 4.126, 4.127,
4.128
velocity pressure (VP) in, 4.107–108
vibration analysis and, 8.86, 8.94
vibration analysis in, 4.130–132,
4.131t
volume-control devices in,
4.125–126
wheel rotation in, 4.128
FAQs (frequently asked questions), 2.110
Far infrared, 8.117
Fatigue strength, in plain bearings, 5.4
Fatigue wear, in flexible couplings, 5.45
Fatigue, in gear teeth, 5.167–168
Ferritic stainless steel (See Stainless
steels)
Ferrography, lubricating oil, 2.24–25,
8.133
Fiberglass ladders, 4.184–185, 4.188
File transfer and File Transfer Protocol
(FTP), 2.111–112
Fill-and-soak method for chemical
cleaning, 11.23–24
Fillet joint, welded, 10.76, 10.77
Filters, air, 4.97–99, 4.139, 4.140,
4.141, 4.144
Filters, electrical, 8.119
Fire dampers, air conditioning, 4.94
Fire permits, 1.21
Fire safety
lubrication and oils, 9.8
paints and protective coatings and,
4.43–44
First in first out (FIFO), 2.11
Flammable gases, ventilating fans and
exhaust systems, 4.122–123
Flanges:
piping, 4.152, 4.155, 4.156,
4.174–176, 4.179t
plain bearings, 5.7
roof, leaking, 4.13
Flashing:
brick masonry, 4.51
roof, 4.3, 4.7, 4.13, 4.14
Flashover, 8.119
Flat belt drives, 5.144–145, 5.145t
Flat roofs (See Roofs, low sloped
membrane-type)
Flat seat globe (600 Brinell) valve,
5.188, 5.189
Flexible couplings, 5.45–71
abrasive wear in, 5.48
block and jaw (See Oldham-type)
chain-type, 5.45–46
covers for, 5.46, 5.49
diaphragm-type, 5.51–52
elastomeric-type, 5.52–54
failure of, causes for, 5.54–56
fatigue in, 5.45
floating shaft gear-type, 5.46–48
gear-type, 5.45, 5.46, 5.47
grease in, 5.46, 5.48
grid-type, 5.45, 5.49
inspection of, 5.49
installation of, 5.55
laminated disk ring-type, 5.50–51
lubrication for, 5.45, 5.48, 5.49
materials used in, 5.45, 493
misalignment of connected shafts
and, 5.46, 5.49, 5.51, 5.52,
5.55–56, 5.57–71
Oldham-type, 5.45, 5.49, 5.50
selection criteria for, 5.54–55
shaft alignment, in flexible couplings, 5.46, 5.49, 5.51, 5.52,
5.55–56, 5.57–71
across-the-flex element alignment
for, 5.68–71
alignment readings for, 5.58
coupling center members and, 5.57
face/rim alignment method for,
5.63–68
indicator sag in, 5.58
pump-to-motor alignment guide
for, 5.59
reverse indicator (vertical and horizontal) procedures for,
5.59–63
shaft relationship in, 5.58
soft foot in, 5.58
thermal growth in, 5.58
shaft center line relationship for,
5.56–57
sleeves in, 5.48
spindle-type, 5.48
Float charge, nickel-cadmium batteries,
6.104
Floating shaft gear coupling, 5.46–48
I.10 INDEXFloor cavity ratio (FCR), in illumination and lighting, 6.123,
6.124–125t
Floors, concrete, 4.19–28
abrasion resistance in, 4.23
aggregates in, 4.20–21
carbonization or “dusting” of, 4.27
corrosion resistant topping for, 4.28
cost of new, 4.20
crack control for, 4.22–23
earth subgrade and slab design for,
4.21
maintaining and cleaning, 4.26–27
monolithically finished, 4.23
new, 4.20–25
reinforcement for, 4.22–23
resurfacing of, 4.26
sealers and finishes for, 4.27–28
shrinkage and joints in, 4.21–23
superflat, 4.25
toppings for, 4.23–25, 4.28
water-to-cement ratio in, 4.20–21
Flow chart of maintenance procedures,
1.38
Flow of work requests, 1.12
Flow process chart/diagram, in work
simplification, 3.89–92
Flow rate, positive displacement
pumps, 5.211, 5.212
Flowmeters, 8.5–9, 8.34–36
pneumatic flow measurement
devices, 8.27–30
Fluid management program, lubrication, 9.4–6
Fluorescent lamps, in illumination and
lighting, 6.121t, 6.126–127, 6.136,
6.139, 6.145–146
Fluorinated rubber, 11.9
Flux, soldering, 10.66t
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW),
10.10, 10.11, 10.15
Foam, in chemical cleaning, 11.24
FOG index, training programs and, 1.71
Folding scaffolds, 4.193–194
Follow-up, for planned maintenance,
2.58
Food product containers, paints and
protective coatings for, 4.33
Foot candles, in illumination and lighting, 6.121
Forward-curved blade centrifugal fans,
4.118–119
Fostar, Nicholas, 3.101
Fourier series or transform, in vibration
analysis, 8.78–79
Free-delivery capacity, 4.108
Free radicals, 11.5
Free spread, in plain bearings, 5.7
Freeze/winter protection, for air conditioning, 4.90, 4.92, 4.94,
4.104–106
Frequency, in vibration analysis, 8.73,
8.77, 8.79, 8.89
Frequency counters and timers, 8.64–65
Frequency domain, in vibration analysis, 8.78–79
Fretting, in plain bearings, 5.12–13, 5.14
Friction disk drives, 5.141, 5.142
Friction loss, in centrifugal pumps,
5.209–210
Friction, 4.107
Fundamental train frequency (FTF), 8.83
Fusable safety switch disconnects, 6.65
Fuse holders, 6.83
Fuses, 8.119
electric motor, 6.85
thermography and, 8.116
Fusion welding, 10.73, 10.76–80,
Galvanic corrosion, 11.6
Galvanized metals, 11.4, 11.9
Gamma rays, 8.117
Gantry cranes (See Cranes)
Gas absorption air cleaners, 4.137–138
Gas-activated lubricators, 9.16, 9.17
Gas-shielded metal arc welding
(GMAW), 10.11–13, 10.14t,
10.15t, 10.15, 10.39
Gas-shielded spot welding, 10.34
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
10.13, 10.16–27, 10.39
advantages and disadvantages of,
10.17–18
applicability of, 10.15
arc starting methods for, 10.25, 10.27
electrode holders and gas nozzles
for, 10.22
manual techniques for, 10.24, 10.25
operating principles of, 10.18
polarity and, 10.18–20
power supply for, 10.16, 10.22–23,
10.26t
process description of, 10.13
shielding gases and flow rates for,
10.20–21
torches for, 10.23–24
welding parameters for, 10.25
wiring/cable sizes for, 10.26t
(See also Welding)
Gaskets, piping, 4.152, 4.154, 4.156t
Gate valve, 5.185, 5.187–189,
5.192–195
Gear coupling, 5.45, 5.46, 5.47
Gearbox, 5.151
Geared differential drives, 5.144
Gearmotors, 5.151, 5.160t
(See also Gears, gear drives, and
speed reducers)
Gears, gear drives, and speed reducers,
5.147–171
abrasive wear in, 5.165
American Gear Manufacturers
Association (AGMA) and, 5.150
backlash in, 8.85–86
breakage in, 5.169–171
burning in, 5.169
in cooling tower drive, 5.152
corrosive wear in, 5.168–169
cracks in, 5.169, 5.170
double helical, 5.147–150, 5.159t
epicyclic, 5.153–155
excitation, gear excitation in, 8.85
failure modes for, 5.164, 8.93–94
gearbox for, 5.151
helical, 5.147–150, 5.153, 5.159t
high-speed, enclosed gearbox for.
5.151
horsepower selection and, 5.155
hypoid, 5.147–150
identification plate for, 5.155
installation of, 5.158, 5.160
interference wear in, 5.169
internal, 5.147–150
load characteristics and, 5.155,
5.156–158t
lubrication of, 5.161–162, 5.161t,
5.163t
maintenance of, 5.162
mesh, gear mesh in, 8.85
motorized (gearmotors or motor
reducers), 5.151, 5.160t
normal wear in, 5.164–165
overload wear in, 5.165, 5.166
pitting in, 5.167, 5.168
plain bevel, 5.147–150
planetary, 5.149, 5.154
plastic flow in, 5.165–166
in positive displacement pumps,
5.212–213
in pump, vertical drive, 5.152
quenching cracks in, 5.161
rack and pinion, 5.147–150
ridging in, 5.165–166
rippling in, 5.166
rolling and peening in, 5.166
scoring (scuffing, seizing, galling)
in, 5.166–167
scratching in, 5.165
selection criteria for, 5.155,
5.155–58t, 5.158
service factors for, 5.159t
shutdown of, 5.162
solar-type, 5.149, 5.155
spalling in, 5.168
spiral bevel, 5.147–150, 5.153, 5.159t
spur, 5.147–150
standards for, 5.150
star-type, 5.149, 5.155
startup of, 5.160–161
surface deterioration of teeth in,
5.164–169
surface fatigue in, 5.167–168
troubleshooting of, 5.162, 5.164
types of, 5.147–150
uses and applications for, 5.150–151
vertical drive, 5.152
vibration analysis and, 8.84–86,
8.93–94
wear in, 5.164–171
worm, 5.147–150, 5.153, 5.159t
Gel, in chemical cleaning, 11.24
General Pump web site, 2.116
Generators, 8.120
failure modes in, 8.95
vibration analysis and, 8.95
in welding machine, 10.52, 10.58
Geography, in centralized vs. decentralized maintenance, 1.27
Glass cutting, using air-acetylene torch,
10.71
Glass fiber reinforced polyester
(GF–UP), 11.9
Globe valve, 4.160, 5.185, 5.187–189,
5.192–195
Goggles, for paints and protective
coatings, 4.43
Gouging:
air-carbon arc cutting (CAC-A) and,
10.27–30, 10.28t, 10.29t
oxyacetylene, 10.84, 10.85
Government Web sites of interest, 2.116
INDEX I.11Graphite, vs. Corrosion, 11.9
Gravity-separation dust collection systems, 4.136
Graybodies, in thermography, 2.20,
8.110
Grease, 5.41, 9.8–13
additives to, 9.7
aluminum/aluminum complex soaps
in, 9.11
calcium/calcium complex soaps in,
9.11
classification of, 9.8, 9.8t
compatibility of, 9.12
components of, 9.7
drop point of, 5.42, 9.8, 9.8t
elastohydrodynamics (EHD) data
for, 5.43–44
in electric motor, 6.16–19
in flexible couplings, 5.46, 5.48
in gears, gear motors, and speed
reducers, 5.162
lithium/lithium complex soaps in, 9.11
manufacture of, 9.12–13
maximum usable temperatures for,
9.8, 9.8t
in mechanical adjustable speed
(MAS) drives, 5.130–131
natural vs. synthetic, 9.7
organoclays in, nonsoap, 9.11
polyurea in, nonsoap, 9.11
properties and tests for, 9.8–10, 9.10t
sodium soaps in, 9.10–11
standards for, 5.43–44
thickeners for, 9.10–11
total fill of, 5.42
viscosity of, 5.41–5.44
National Lubricating Grease Institute
(NLGI) codes for, 5.41
in roller bearings, 5.41–42
(See also Lubrication and oils)
Grid couplings, 5.45, 5.49
Grinding valve seats, 4.162, 4.164
Ground, grounding, 6.72–74, 8.119
Grouting, brick masonry, 4.51
Guide links, chain-type drives, 5.75
Gutter joint leaks, 4.13–14
Haddad, Joseph J., 5.185
Hagan, Carl L., 7.3, 7.19, 7.41, 7.55
Halchin, Frank, 3.59
Hand-chain manually-operated chain
hoist, 5.91–93
Hand dampers, air conditioning, 4.94
Hand motion, motion economy and,
four basic principles of, 3.96–98
Handling requirements, work measurement and, 3.20–21
Handwheel chain hoists, 5.93, 5.96
Hangers, for piping, 4.167–173
Hard-facing, 10.43–50, 10.85–88
cast iron, 10.87
check welding procedure for, 10.47–49
finishing hard-facing deposit after,
10.87–88
guide (pictorial) to, 10.46–74
heat treating of, 10.87
increased part life from, 10.86t
material selection for, 10.45–46
melting points of metals and alloys
for, 10.88
rods for, 10.85
steel, 10.85–87
submerged arc welding (SAW) for,
10.49–50
surface cracking in, 10.87
surfacing electrodes for, 10.44–45
welding for, 10.43–50
Hardware, computer, 2.41
Harmonic distortion, 8.119
Harmonic motion, in vibration analysis, 8.77–79
Harmonics, 8.119
Haydu, Robert, 11.17
Head, pump, 4.101
Heat exchangers, chemical cleaning of,
11.18
Heat pumps, 4.100–101
Heat transfer, thermography and,
8.112–113
Heat treating, hard-facing, 10.87
Heaters, in air conditioning, 4.99–100
Heating load, on air conditioning, 4.77
HEDP, 11.15
Helical-gear positive displacement
pump, 5.213
Helical gears, 5.147–150, 5.159t
Helix tubes, pressure measurement, 8.17
Herringbone-gear positive displacement pump, 5.213
Hertz, 8.73, 8.119
Hicks, Tyler G., 4.149
High intensity discharge (HID) lamps,
in illumination and lighting,
6.126–127, 6.137, 6.139, 6.145
High manganese steel, welding, 10.38
High-pressure steam/water washing,
brick masonry, 4.56
High-pressure water jetting (hydroblasting), 11.25
Hinkel, J.E., 10.3
Hiring personnel, 1.9–10
History of repairs, 1.35–38, 2.5
Hoists (See Chain hoists)
Horsepower
in belt drives ratings, 5.102
brake (bhp), 4.108, 4.115, 5.208–209
in centrifugal pumps, 5.208–209
in chain-type drives load ratings,
5.75–76, 5.75t
in gears, gear motors, and speed
reducers selection and, 5.155
Hot-short failure, in plain bearings,
5.12, 5.13
Hot spots, 8.117
Hourly personnel, 1.8
Hourly rates, in batteries, 6.88
Humidification dust collection systems,
4.136
Humidifiers, 4.101
Hydraulic curve parameters, in centrifugal pumps, 5.206–208
Hydraulic hammer, centrifugal pumps,
5.211
(See also Water hammer)
Hydroblasting, 11.25
Hydrodrilling, 11.26
Hygrometers, 8.25–27, 8.42
Hypertext markup language (HTML),
2.113
Hypoid gears, 5.147–150
Illumination and lighting, 6.115–152, 9.7
analyzing existing systems for efficiency in, 6.151–152t
atmosphere of area in, 6.129–130,
6.131t
ballast factors in, 6.131
burned out lamps (lamp burnout
factor) in, 6.132, 6.139
calculations for, 6.118–125
cavity ratio (CR) formulas, 6.121t,
6.121–125, 6.122t, 6.124–125t
ceiling cavity ratio (CCR) in, 6.123,
6.124–125t
classification of lighting systems in,
6.126
cleaning of, 6.117, 6.118, 6.144t,
6.149
coefficient of utilization (CU) in,
6.121, 6.123, 6.141
color of light in, 6.126–127
color rendering index (CRI) in, 6.127
cost control in, 6.145–146, 6.148
design of, 6.118–134
direct vs. indirect lighting in, 6.126
dirt vs., 6.129–134, 6.130t, 6.133t,
6.138–139
energy conservation and cost control
in, 6.115–117, 6.117t
equipment for maintenance of,
6.141–145, 6.142t
floor cavity ratio (FCR) in, 6.123,
6.124–125t
fluorescent lamps in, 6.121t,
6.126–127, 6.136, 6.139,
6.145–146
foot candles in, 6.121
group relamping in, 6.146–148
high intensity discharge (HID) lamps
in, 6.126–127, 6.137, 6.139,
6.145
incandescent lamps in, 6.126–127,
6.136, 6.145–146
inefficiency of lamps in, 6.139
lamp depreciation in, 6.136–138
lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) in,
6.132
lifespan of lamps in, mortality
curves, 6.147–148
light loss factors (LLF) in, 6.121,
6.133, 6.135–141, 6.136t
light loss factors (LLF) in, recoverable vs. nonrecoverable,
6.130–133
light output and operating life of
lamps in, 6.119, 6.120t, 6.121t
low reflectance surfaces vs.,
6.139–141
lumen method of calculation for,
6.118, 6.119–121, 6.119t
luminaire (lamp) designs for, 6.127,
6.130
luminaire dirt depreciation (LDD) in,
6.132–134
maintained illumination calculation
(See Maintenance factor)
maintenance categories in, 6.134t
maintenance department operation
for, 6.149–150
maintenance factor (MF) in, 6.121,
6.123, 6.127–134, 6.129t
I.12 INDEXIllumination and lighting, (Cont.):
maintenance of, 6.116–118
mercury halide lamps in, 6.126–127,
6.137, 6.139
mercury vapor lamps in, 6.126–127,
6.136–137
objectives and specifications for,
6.128–130
point-by-point method of calculation
for, 6.118
program for maintenance of, 6.150,
6.152
quality of lighting in, 6.127, 6.129
quantity of lighting in, 6.129
recommended values for, 6.138
replacing lamps in, 6.145–146
room cavity ratio (RCR) in, 6.119,
6.123, 6.141
room surface dirt depreciation
(RSDD) factors in, 6.133t
sodium lamps in, 6.126–127,
6.137–138
sources of light (lamps) in, 6.126–127
spot replacement of, 6.146
surface depreciation of lamps in,
6.131
temperatures of lamps in, 6.130,
6.132, 6.138–139
troubleshooting for, 6.145
use of, 6.130
voltage requirements for, 6.131,
6.139, 6.141
zonal cavity method of calculation
for, 6.118, 6.121t, 6.121–125,
6.122t, 6.124–125t
Imaging systems, infrared, 2.20–21,
8.111
Imbalance, vibration analysis and,
8.90, 8.91
Impact wear, hard surfacing as protection against, 10.44
Impedance, 8.50, 8.119
Impellers, centrifugal pumps, 5.202–203
Impingement dust collection systems,
4.136
In-line flow centrifugal fans, 4.119
Incandescent lamps, in illumination
and lighting, 6.126–127, 6.136,
6.145–146
Incentive payments for workers,
1.41–61, 7.44
Indicator devices, 8.4–5
Induced load, in vibration analysis and,
8.89
Inductance, 8.119
Induction motors (See Ac induction
motors)
Inductors, 8.119
Industrial housekeeping:
cleanliness and order in, 7.44
factors governing, 7.42–44
improvements to, maintenance staff
responsibility in, 7.48
incentive plans for, 7.44
inspections in, 7.45, 7.47–49
layout and equipment for, 7.42–43
maintaining levels of, 7.44–49
management support of, 7.41–42
material handling and storage in,
7.43–44
productivity and, 7.41–42
rating sheets for, 7.47–49
time standards for, 7.50, 7.51t,
7.52–53t
work standards and techniques for,
7.49–50
Inertia, 4.107
Inertial or dry centrifugal dust collection systems, 4.136, 4.137, 4.142
Inflation, cost control and, 3.8–9
Information management, 2.86
Infrared band, 8.117
Infrared imaging, thermography,
2.20–21, 8.111
Infrared radiation, 8.117
Infrared technology:
thermography and, 2.19, 8.109–113
thermometers, 2.20, 8.111
Inherent availability, 3.12
Inhibited muriatic acid (hcl), 11.20
Inhibited sulfuric acid, 11.20
Inhibitors, corrosion, 11.14–15, 11.22
Injection lubrication system, 9.26–27
Injector lubrication systems, 9.19, 9.20
Inline compressors, 8.94
Inorganic acids, 11.20
Input/output (i/o) devices, computer, 2.42
Inspections, 1.4
air conditioning, 4.102–103, 4.81,
4.84, 4.90
batteries, 6.95–96
belt drives, 5.112, 5.114–117
chain hoists, 5.99
chain-type drives, 5.81–82
contacts, 6.61–62
cranes, 5.84–86
electric motor, 6.16
elevators and lifts, 4.66–68, 4.72
fan, 4.129–132
flexible couplings, 5.49
inventory control and maintenance
stores, 2.82
plain bearings, 5.9–15
sanitation and housekeeping, 7.45,
7.47–49
time required for, 7.23
ventilating fans and exhaust systems,
4.129–132
Instructor criteria for training programs, 1.75–76
Instruments, 1.21–22, 2.81
(See also Electrical test/measurement
instruments; Test instruments)
Insulation:
AC induction motors, 6.10–12
air conditioning, 4.92
DC motors, 6.15
electric motor, 2.26, 6.10–12, 6.12,
6.15, 6.25
flanges, 4.174–175
megger tester, 8.60–62
piping, 4.173–174, 4.174t, 4.176
vacuum pressure impregnation
(VPI), 6.11–12, 6.12
Insulators, electric motor, 6.62, 6.85,
8.120
Insurance administration, 1.5
Intelligent action, law of work simplification, 3.84–86
Interest rates, 3.5–9
Interference wear, in gear teeth, 5.169
Interfilm, corrosion, 11.8
Intergranular corrosion, 11.7
Interlocks, electric motor, 6.86–87
Internal gears, 5.147–150
Internal rate of return (IRR), 3.3, 3.5
Internet for maintenance and engineering, 2.109–117
accessing (getting on), 2.112–113
account setup for, 2.113
addresses in, 2.114–115
browsers for, 2.113
capabilities of, 2.111–112
development and history of, 2.110–111
domains and domain name servers
(DNS) in, 2.113
FAQs (frequently asked questions)
in, 2.110
file transfer and File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) in, 2.111–112
hypertext markup language (HTML)
and, 2.113
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) for,
2.112–113
IP addresses in, 2.113, 2.114–115
mailing lists in, 2.112
Maintenance Consultant and
Supersite tour, 2.115
modems for, 2.112
newsgroups in, 2.110, 2.112
search sites, search engines in,
2.112, 2.115
servers in, 2.112
“surfing” the net in, 2.113–114
Telnet in, 2.112
universal resource locators (URLs)
in, 2.113, 2.115
user groups in, 2.110
user names and, 2.114–115
uses of, 2.109–110
World Wide Web and, 2.110, 2.111,
2.113, 2.115
(See also Computers)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs),
2.112–113
Intraplant relations policies, 1.19–22
Inventory control and maintenance
stores, 2.79–108
accounting for, material usage, 2.94
attendants for storerooms in,
2.100–101
cash flow and, 2.82–83
centralized vs. decentralized storerooms for, 2.82, 2.83–85, 2.99
components of, 2.79–81
computerized, 2.47, 2.59,2.67–71
control indexes for, 2.96
control principles of, 2.86–98
cost control and, 2.79, 2.80, 2.90–91
decision making for, 2.89–92
documentation in, 2.86–89
downtime vs., 2.81
economic order quantity (EOQ)
calculation for, 2.91
equipment repair records and, 2.96
increases in, conditions initiating,
2.81–82
inspection of, 2.82
janitor/housekeeping supplies and
consumables in, 2.81
INDEX I.13Inventory control and maintenance
stores, (Cont.):
major spares (spare parts) in,
2.79–80, 2.88, 2.92, 2.101
nonmaintenance items in, 2.81
normal maintenance stock in, 2.80
order point calculations for, 2.90
order quantity calculations for, 2.90
outside contracts vs., 2.82
outsourcing for, 2.96–98
parts catalogs in, 2.92
production vs., 2.83
purchasing and, 2.94–95
quantity purchases and, 2.81
receiving dock and, 2.100
record of inventory in, 2.87–89
reductions in, conditions initiating,
2.82–83
requisition forms for, 2.87, 2.94–95
salvaged parts and materials in, 2.95,
2.101
scheduling vs., 2.81
special materials requisitions and, 2.95
standardization and, 2.82, 2.95–96
stock code numbers for, 2.92–94
storeroom design in, 2.99–108
storeroom-associated costs and, 2.83
suppliers and, 2.82, 2.83
systems contracting (See
Outsourcing)
tool cribs and, 2.100
tools and instruments in, 2.81
traveling requisitions for, 2.94–95
Inverted tooth drive chain, 5.76–77
Inverters, 8.120
IP addresses, 2.113, 2.114–115
Iron (See Cast iron; Steels and iron)
Iron vane ac mechanism, 8.55
Isolation, 8.120
Isothermal mapping, 8.117
Ivy on bricks, 4.61
Jet pump fans, 4.120, 370
Job analysis, 3.62–67
Job classification, 3.63–64, 3.68–76
estimating maintenance costs using,
3.101–102
Job descriptions, 3.62–67
Job evaluation, 3.63
Job planning, computerized, 2.47–48
Job sequence, 2.49
Job task analysis, training programs
and, 1.71
Joined belt drives, 5.102
Kelvin bridge, 8.63, 8.63, 8.64
Kempf, Frank B., 5.73
Keyboards, computer, 2.42
Kilohertz (kHz), 8.120
Kilovolt ampere (kVA), 8.120
Kingsbury, George R., 5.3
Kreutzfeldt, Richard L., 6.88
Krome, Edward F. Jr., 5.129
L-TEC Welding and Cutting System,
10.63
Labor cost estimation, 3.104–110
Labor efficiency reports, 1.64, 1.67
Ladders, 4.183–193, 6.142
aluminum, 4.184, 4.189–191, 4.192
duty ratings (Type I, II, etc.), 4.186
extension, 4.184–187, 4.188–191
external stand-off, 4.195
fiberglass, 4.184–185, 4.188
paints and protective coatings on, 4.43
regulations and standards for (ANSI,
OSHA, UL), 4.185–186
rung, 4.186
safety rules for, 4.188–192
scaffolding vs., 4.201–203
sectional, 4.186
selection criteria for, 4.183
single-, 4.186, 4.188–191
special purpose, 4.187
stair-type systems (Tubelox) or step
units, 4.195, 4.196
step-, 4.184–188, 4.191–192
wood, 4.185, 4.188–189, 4.191
(See also Scaffolds)
Laminated disk ring flexible couplings,
5.50–51
Lamp depreciation, in illumination and
lighting, 6.136–138
Lamp lumen depreciation (LLD), 6.132
Lamps (See Illumination and lighting)
Languages, computer, 2.43
Lap joints, soldered, 10.67
Latent load, in air conditioning, 4.76
Latex-based paints, 4.36
Law of intelligent action, in work simplification, 3.84–86
Leaching corrosion, 11.7
Lead
air-acetylene torch and, 10.71–72
melting points of, 10.88
Lead-acid batteries (See Batteries)
Lead-based paints, 4.33–34, 4.39–40
Lead time, in scheduling, 1.12
Leaks
in air conditioning, 4.87, 4.89, 4.90,
4.92
in batteries, 6.89, 6.98
in piping, 4.155, 4.173, 4.179–180,
4.182
in roofs, 4.10–11, 261
in valves, 4.167
Lever-operated manual (puller) chain
hoist, 5.91, 5.92
Levitt, Joel, 2.109
Lift trucks, 6.142
Lifts (See Elevators and lifts)
Light loss factors (LLF), in illumination and lighting, 6.121,
6.130–133, 6.135–141, 6.136t
Lighting (See Illumination and lighting)
Lighting-generated heat load, air conditioning, 4.76
Lightning arrester, 8.120
Line scanners, in thermography, 2.20,
8.111
Linear motion machinery, vibration
analysis and, 8.81
Lines of reporting in maintenance, 1.6–7
Liquid level measurement, 8.9–14,
8.36–37
air purge-type, 8.10–11
atmospheric pressure, 8.9–11
bubbler-type, 8.10
closed tank under pressure and,
8.11–13
cryogenic liquids, 8.12–14
diaphragm box-type, 8.10
purge-type system for, 8.13–15
rotameter for, 8.11
suppression in, 8.12
volatile liquids, sealing liquids in,
8.12
Liquid resin epoxy, 4.38
Liquid velocity, pipe, 4.179, 4.181t
Lithium/lithium complex soaps, in
grease, 9.11
Load
in air conditioning, 4.75–78
on chain-type drives, 5.75–76, 5.75t,
5.78
in gears, gear motors, and speed
reducers selection and, 5.155,
5.156–8t
vibration analysis and, 8.89
Load ratings, in roller bearings, 5.25
Lobe-type positive displacement
pumps, 5.214–215
Local area networks (lans), 2.43
Lock joint, soldered
Lockouts, 1.21
Loose parts, mechanical looseness
vibration analysis and, 8.92
thermography and, 8.114
Lovin, Tom, 5.101
Low headroom army-type trolley hoist
as, 5.93, 5.95
Lubrication and oils, 1.4, 9.1, 9.29–38
in air conditioning, 4.80, 4.85, 4.88,
4.89, 4.92, 4.93, 4.97, 4.101,
4.103
analysis of, 2.21–22, 8.131–133,
8.140t, 9.32, 9.33–35t
automatic devices and systems for,
9.15–28
centralized systems in, 9.16–18
chemically generated gasactivated, 9.16, 9.17
duoline-type, 9.22, 9.23
ejection-type, 9.23, 9.25–26
electrochemical gas-activated,
9.16, 9.17
injection-type, 9.26–27
injector-type, 9.19, 9.20
oil mist-type, 9.18
orifice control-type, 9.18–19
pump-to-point-type, 9.22, 9.24
selection criteria checklist for,
9.27–28t
series-progressive-type, 9.19,
9.20, 9.21, 9.22
spring–activated, 9.15–16
twin-line-type, 9.21–22
zone control-type, 9.23, 9.24
bulk storage of, 9.7
chain-type drives, 5.79–81
condemning limits for, 9.6t
containers for, 9.6–7
contaminants in, 2.22, 8.132
cost of testing/maintenance for, 2.28
in cranes, 5.88
disposal of, 9.5–6
duoline system for, 9.22, 9.23
ejection system for, 9.23, 9.25–26
elastohydrodynamics (EHD) data
for, 5.43–44
I.14 INDEXLubrication and oils, (Cont.):
in electric motor, 6.16–19
employee responsibility in, 9.4, 9.4t
ferrography in, 2.24–25, 8.133
fire protection for, 9.8
in flexible couplings, 5.45, 5.48, 5.49
fluid management program for, 9.4–6
fuel dilution of, 2.22, 8.132
fuel soot content in, 2.22, 8.132
in gears, gear motors, and speed reducers, 5.161–162, 5.161t, 5.163t
greases in, 9.8–13
(See also Grease)
handling checklist for, 9.36t
injection system for, 9.26–27
injector systems for, 9.19, 9.20
maintenance of, 9.5
management responsibility in, 9.3–4
in mechanical adjustable speed
(MAS) drives, 5.130–131,
5.139, 5.140
monitoring of, 9.5
in motor controller, 6.52
nitration of, 2.22, 8.132
oil mist-type, 9.18
organization and management of,
9.3–13
orifice control-type, 9.18–19
oxidation of, 2.22, 8.132
particle count in 2.22, 8.133
in plain bearings, 5.3–4, 5.8
program for, 9.29–38
analysis of lubricants for, 9.32,
9.33–35t
fluid management and, 9.32
implementation of, 9.37
planning and implementation of,
9.30–31
quality assurance and, 9.32
scheduling of, 9.31–32
single-source of lubricant for, 9.38
survey of needs for, 9.31
protection of, 9.6–8
pump-to-point system for, 9.22, 9.24
purchasing of, 9.5
quality tests for, 9.32, 9.37t
in roller bearings, 5.19, 5.31–5.32,
5.39–44
safety and, 9.4
sampling, 8.139
scheduling of, 9.31–32
selection of, 9.5, 9.29–30
series-progressive systems for, 9.19,
9.20, 9.21, 9.22
solids content of, 2.22, 8.132
spectrographic analysis of, 2.22–23,
8.133
standards for, 5.43–44
storage and handling of, 9.6–8
Total Acid Number (TAN) for, 2.22,
2.28, 8.132, 8.139
Total Base Number (TBN) for, 2.22,
2.28, 8.133, 8.139
training in use of, 9.30
tribology studies for, 2.21–25,
8.131–141
twin-line system for, 9.21–22
viscosity of, 2.21–22, 5.41–44, 8.132
wear-particle analysis in, 2.23–24,
8.133–138, 8.141
zone control system for, 9.23, 9.24
Lumen method of illumination calculation, 6.118, 6.119–121, 6.119t
Luminaire dirt depreciation (LDD),
6.132–133
Machine dynamics, vibration analysis
and, 8.82–90
Machining of valves seats, 4.163–164
Magnetic overload relays 6.76
Magnets, motor controller, 6.53–55, 6.62
Mailing lists, 2.112
Mainframe computers, 2.43–44
Maintenance Consultant and Supersite
Web site, 2.115
Maintenance costs as percent of sales
dollar reports, 1.64, 1.67
Maintenance factor (MF), in illumination and lighting, 6.121, 6.123,
6.127–134, 6.129t
Maintenance management, predictive
maintenance and, 2.16–17
Maintenance stores, 2.79–98
(See also Inventory control and
maintenance stores)
Major spares (spare parts) 2.79–80,
2.88, 2.92, 2.101
Management support:
for lubrication programs, 9.3–4
for sanitation and housekeeping,
7.10–17, 7.41–42
Manomometers, 8.35
Manpower requirements, 1.7–8
Manuals, 1.23–26
Mapes, Donald R., 4.3
Martin, John C., 2.99
Masonry, roofs and, 4.8
Master output charts, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28
Mastics, 4.37–38
Material availability, in planning and
planned maintenance and, 2.49,
2.53
Material handling and storage, in
industrial housekeeping, 7.43–44
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS),
roofing materials, 4.8
Material usage accounting, 2.94
Materials cost estimates, 3.110–112
Materials costs reports, 1.64, 1.67
Materials requirements, in preventive
maintenance and, 2.10
McGuen, Joseph, 1.27
McNeil, Dennis J., 4.3
Mead, T.C., 9.3
Mean maintenance time, 3.12
Mean time between failure (MTBF),
8.120
Mean time between maintenance
(MTBM), 3.11
Mean time to preventive maintenance
(MTPM), 3.11
Mean time to repair (MTTR), 3.11
Measurement (See Electrical test/measurement instruments)
Mechanical instruments for process
variable measurement (See Test
instruments)
Mechanical looseness:
thermography and, 8.114
vibration analysis and, 8.92
Mechanical rub, vibration analysis and,
8.92
Mechanical variable/adjustable speed
(MAS) drives, 5.129–145
adjustable-while-in-motion belt in,
5.132–135, 5.138t
applications for, 5.129
belt transmissions and, 5.138–140,
5.139t
bushing replacement in, 5.31
cam and spring adjustment in, 5.134
flat belt-type, 5.144–145, 5.145t
friction disk-type, 5.141, 5.142
geared differential-type, 5.144
general friction-type belt in,
5.129–130
grease in, 5.130–131
keyways for, 5.130–131, 5.140
lubrication for, 5.130–131, 5.139,
5.140
open vs. sealed (packaged) types,
5.130
packaged belt drives as, 5.139–141,
5.141t
pulleys in, 5.131–137
replacing belts in, 5.137
speed variation/control in,
5.134–137, 5.141
spring adjustment in, 5.132, 5.134,
5.139
static adjustment-type, 5.135–137,
5.137t
stretching of belts in, 5.137
stuck disks within, 5.130
traction-type, 5.141–144, 5.143t
Megahertz (MHz), 8.120
Megger tester, 6.26, 6.27–28, 8.60–62
Melting (high temperature) corrosion,
11.5
Melting points of metals and alloys,
10.88
Membrane roofs (See Roofs, low
sloped membrane-type)
2–Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), 11.15
Mercury halide lamps, 6.126–127,
6.137, 6.139
Mercury vapor lamps, 6.126–127,
6.136–137
Mesh, gear mesh, 8.85
Metal inert gas (MIG) welding,
10.11–13, 10.14t, 10.15t, 10.39
Metals, melting points, 10.88
Method improvement, in work simplification, 3.87–88
Microbiologic-induced corrosion
(MIC), 4.32, 4.39, 11.7
Microcomputers, 2.43–44
Microwave band, 8.117
Mid-infrared, 8.117
Mineral surfaced roofs, 4.11
Mini computers, 2.43–44
Miniature instruments, 8.5, 8.30–33
Mixed air thermostat (MAT), air conditioning, 4.96
Mobley, R. Keith, 1.3, 1.11, 1.41, 2.3,
2.7, 2.15, 3.3, 3.13, 5.201, 8.3,
8.43, 8.71, 8.109, 8.131, 9.29
Modems, 2.112
Modified bitumen roofing membranes
in, 4.4–5, 4.8, 4.11
INDEX I.15Modified constant-voltage charge
method, lead-acid batteries,
6.91–92, 6.92t
Modified curvilinear synchronous belt
drives, 5.105, 5.109
Modular system scaffolding,
4.197–199, 4.200
Molybdates, 11.15
Monoammoniated citric acid, 11.20
Monoclorodifluoromethane, 4.82–83t
Mop-applied membranes, 4.4
Mopping, wet and dry, 7.49–50
Morale and motivation in sanitation
and housekeeping staff, 7.34–36
Motion economy, four basic principles
of, 3.96–98
Motor alternator, 8.120
Motor control centers, 6.84–87
Motor controllers, 6.49–87
(See also Electric motors)
adjustable-type relays in, 6.78–82
appearance of contacts in, 6.59, 6.60
arc chambers in, 6.54, 6.55–56, 6.62
blowout coils in, 6.62
bounce in contacts of, 6.57–58
breathers for, 6.51
bus bars in, 6.85
circuit breakers as, 6.65–67, 6.67t,
6.83
circuit interrupters as, 6.66
cleaning of, 6.52
components of, 6.74–78
conductors in, 6.83
contact troubleshooting guide for,
6.63, 6.63–64t
contactor-type relays in, 6.75
contacts in, 6.57, 6.62, 6.83, 6.86
control devices as, 6.86
dashpots in, 6.76
disconnect devices as, 6.65–67, 6.83,
6.85
drains for, 6.51
dressing for contacts in, 6.60
drum controllers as, 6.72, 6.72, 6.73
electrical skills required for maintenance of, 6.50
enclosures for, 6.50–51, 6.50t, 6.83,
6.84–85
fault conditions and, maintenance of,
6.82–84
fusable safety switch disconnects as,
6.65
fuses and fuse holders and, 6.83, 6.85
grounding and, 6.72–74
inspecting contacts in, 6.61–62
insulators in, 6.62, 6.85
interlocks in, 6.86–87
lubrication of, 6.52
magnetic overload relays in, 6.76
magnets in, 6.53–55, 6.62
manual-type, 6.56–57
manual vs. machine-operated
devices for, 6.74–75
mechanical checks for, 6.52
motor control center as, 6.84–87
operating (magnet) coils in, 6.54–55
overload relays in, 6.84
overtravel measurement for contacts
in, 6.59
overvoltage and, 6.55
power circuit components in, 6.53
pressure of contacts in, 6.58–59
preventive maintenance for, 6.51–52
protector circuits as, 6.66–67
ratings
single-phase motor, single–phase
full voltage, jogging duty, 6.65
single-phase motor, single–phase
full voltage, limited plugging/jogging duty, 6.64
three-phase motor, jogging duty,
three-phase full voltage
severe duty, 6.65
three-phase motor, normal service,
three-phase full voltage limited plugging/jogging duty, 6.65
relays for, 6.75–82, 6.83t
rheostats as, starting and speed regulating, 6.67–72
shading coils in, 6.53–54
short circuits in, 6.82–84
shunts in, 6.55, 6.56, 6.62
solid-state overload relays in, 6.76–78
terminals in, 6.62, 6.83, 6.85
thermal overload relays in,
6.75–6.76, 6.86
Time Tactor relays in, 6.79–82
types of, 6.49–50
vacuum contacts for, 6.60–61
wear in contacts of, 6.59, 6.61t
“weld check” switches in, 6.76
Motor generator, 8.120, 10.52
Motor reducers, 5.151, 5.160t
(See also Gears, gear drives, and
speed reducers)
Motorized (gearmotors or motor reducers) gear drives, 5.151, 5.160t
(See also Gears, gear drives, and
speed reducers)
Motors (See Electric motors)
MTM data, 3.27, 3.35–48, 3.53
Multimeters, 8.44–51
Multiple activity process chart, in work
simplification, 3.92–96
Multirating tables, fan, 4.109–112, 4.112t
Muriatic acid, 11.20
Nameplate coding, AC induction
motors, 6.46t
Narrowband data, in vibration analysis,
2.19, 8.113
National Association of Corrosion
Engineers (NACE), 4.47, 11.32
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA) electric
motor ratings, 6.3
National Lubricating Grease Institute
(NLGI) codes, 5.41
Near infrared, 8.117
Need Urgency Customer Rank
Equipment Criticality (NUCREC),
2.11–12
Net positive suction head, centrifugal
pump, 5.203, 5.204
Net present value (NPV), 3.4, 3.5
Neutral, 8.120
New installations, 1.4–5, 1.34
Newsgroups, 2.110, 2.112
Nickel-cadmium (NiCad) (See
Batteries)
Nickel-iron batteries (See Batteries)
Nitration, lubricating oil,2.22, 8.132
Nitric acid, 11.21, 684
Noise
AC induction motor, 6.31, 6.35
belt drive, 5.127
DC motor, 6.41, 6.42
electric motor, 6.19–21, 6.31, 6.35,
6.41, 6.42
fan, 4.132
ventilating fans and exhaust systems,
4.123–125
vibration analysis and, 8.72
Nonferrous metals, welding, 10.39
Nonmaintenance inventory, 2.81
Nonmetallic disk globe valve, 5.188,
5.189
Nonmetallic disk lift–check valve,
5.189, 5.190
Nonrepetitive jobs, work measurement
and, 3.47–48
Nonvulcanized elastomers, 4.5, 4.9,
4.12
Normal-mode rejection, in DMM, 8.49
Nozzle-type scrubber, 4.139, 4.140, 388
Occupancy load and air conditioning,
4.76
Office automation computer applications, 2.46–47
Office cleaning, 7.55–61
assistance of other service groups in,
7.59
maintaining cleanliness levels of,
7.55–56
organization for, 7.55–56
personnel or manpower for, 7.56
scheduling, 7.57–61
supervisors for, 7.56
supplies and tools for, 7.57
Ohm, 8.120
Ohmmeters, 8.60
Ohm’s law, 8.120
Oil filters, in air conditioning, 4.98–99
Oil heaters, in air conditioning, 4.89
Oil mist lubrication systems, 9.18
Oil stains, on brick masonry, 4.60
Oldham flexible couplings, 5.45, 5.49,
5.50
Omega web site, 2.116
On-the-job training, 1.9, 1.10
Online inquiries, computer, 2.52
Onstream method for chemical cleaning, 11.24–25
Open circuit, 8.118
Operating policies and maintenance,
1.11–26
control, 1.22–23
cost control, 1.24–26
intraplant relations, 1.19–22
standard practice sheets and manuals
in, 1.23–26
work allocation, 1.11–14
work force, 1.15–19
Operational availability, 3.12
Order analysis, in vibration analysis,
8.79, 8.87
Order point calculations, in inventory
control and maintenance stores,
2.90
I.16 INDEXOrder quantity calculations, in inventory
control and maintenance stores,
2.90
Organic acids, 11.20
Organic coatings, 11.15
Organic solvents, 11.20, 11.21–22
Organization and management of
maintenance function, 1.1–77
Organization of business, in centralized
vs. Decentralized maintenance,
1.27
Organoclays, nonsoap, in grease, 9.11
Orifice-control lubrication systems,
9.18–19
Orifice-type scrubber, 4.138, 4.143
Oscilloscopes, 8.65–68
Outlet velocity (OV), 4.108
Outside air load, in air conditioning,
4.76
Outside circumference (OC), in belt
drives, 5.103
Outside contractors, outsourcing,
1.15–16
in inventory control and maintenance
stores and, 2.82, 2.96–98
Overdischarge, batteries, 6.95
Overhead cost estimates, 3.112–113
Overhead cranes (See Cranes)
Overheating:
in AC induction motors, 6.33–36
in DC motors, 6.38, 6.42
in electric motors, 6.19–20, 6.33–36,
6.38, 6.42, 6.63, 6.84
Overload wear, in gear teeth, 5.165,
5.166
Overrange, in DMMs, 8.50
Overtravel measurement for contacts,
6.59
Overvoltage control, 6.55
Oxidation, lubricating oil, 2.22, 8.132
Oxidation corrosion, 11.4
Oxidizing agents, 11.22
Oxyacetylene torch, 10.72–84
braze welding using, 10.73, 10.75–80
brazing using, 10.72–73
butt joint in, 10.76, 10.77, 10.78
cast iron, fusion welding of, 10.79–80
corner joint in, 10.76, 10.77
cutting using, 10.27, 10.27, 10.28,
10.73
equipment for, 10.73–75
fillet joint in, 10.76, 10.77
flame adjustment in, 10.75
fusion welding using, 10.73, 10.76–80
gouging using, 10.84, 10.85
heavy steel or cast iron, braze welding of, 10.79
oxygen cutting and, 10.80–84
safety, 10.72
torch motion in, 10.77, 10.78
weld method selection, 10.77–79,
10.81–82t
weld preparation for, 10.76–77
welding using, 10.72
Oxygen cutting, 10.80–84
Paape, Kenneth L., 6.49
Packaged belt drives, 5.139–141,
5.141t
Packing, valve, 4.160, 4.162
Paints and protective coatings, 4.29–48
alkyd-based, 4.36–37
for aluminum, 4.32
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) specs for,
4.45–48
application of, 4.40
for beautification, aesthetics, or
awareness, 4.31–32
benefits of, 4.29–30
on brick masonry, as a stain, 4.59
for concrete, 4.32
for corrosion protection, 4.32–33
cured films, physical properties of,
4.46
deterioration of, causes of, 4.41t
epoxy coatings as, 4.37–38
finish types in (gloss, semigloss,
etc.), 4.31
for food product containers, 4.33
holiday (discontinuity) testing in, 4.46
inspection of, 4.40–42
latex-based, 4.36
lead-based, 4.33–34, 4.39–40
life extension using, 4.32–33
material selection in, 4.34–35
personnel for, in house vs. contracted,
4.44–45
for potable water tanks, 4.33
primers as, 4.36, 4.39
product contamination prevention
using, 4.33
recommended practices for, 4.47
removal of, using air-acetylene,
10.70–71
safety awareness using, 4.34
safety issues in, ladders, scaffolds,
etc., 4.43–44
silicones as, 4.37
soluble salt removal prior to, 4.39
for steels and iron, 4.32–33, 4.47
surface preparation for, 4.38–40, 4.45
surface tolerant coatings as, 4.35–36
survey before applying, 4.30–31
temperatures for, 4.31
test methods for, 4.48
thickness measurement of, 4.46
tools for testing, 4.42
urethanes as, 4.38, 289
ventilation during application of, 4.43
visual examination of, 4.46
volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
in, 4.34, 4.36
water-based, 4.36, 287
wet films as, physical properties of,
4.45–46
for wood, 4.32
zinc/zinc silicate coatings as, 4.37
Palmer, Richard (Doc), 2.31
Parallel circuit, 8.118
Parallel misalignment, in vibration
analysis, 8.90–91
Particle count, lubricating oil, 2.22, 8.133
Particulate scrubbers, 4.138–139
Parts catalogs, 2.92
Parts inventory, 2.59, 2.67–71
(See also Inventory control and
maintenance stores)
Parts lists, planning and planned maintenance and, 2.50
Passivating agents in, 11.25, 11.22
Past-performance work measurement
methods, 3.41–50
Payback calculation, 3.3, 3.4
PCs, 2.43–44
Peening, in gear teeth, 5.166
Peracetic acid, for brick masonry
cleaning, 4.58
Percent downtime reports, 1.64, 1.67
Percent rate of return (PRR), 3.3, 3.4
Performance records, 1.25–26
Performance reports, 1.22–23
Period of vibration, 8.73
Permanent magnet DC motor, 6.13–14
Personnel management:
authority in, 1.5–6
backlog reports for, 1.64, 1.66
in centralized vs. decentralized
maintenance, 1.17–18, 1.27–32
compensation programs and,
3.59–60
computerized, 2.47
correction memos in, 7.31, 7.32
developing work interest in, 7.32–36
efficiency rating of workers,
1.16–17, 3.59–82, 7.31–32
factors in good worker performance
in, 7.31–32
incentive payments for workers and,
1.41–61
job classifications and, 3.63–64,
3.68–76
job descriptions and, 3.62–63, 3.65–67
job evaluation and, 3.63
lines of reporting in, 1.6–7
for lubrication and oils management,
9.4, 9.4t
manpower requirements for, 1.7–8
morale and motivation in staff for,
7.34–36
for office cleaning, 7.56
outside contractors and, 1.15–16
in planning and planned maintenance,2.38–39, 2.50
policies concerning, 1.15–19
productivity of staff in (PICKUPALL),
7.8–10, 7.31–32, 7.41–42
recruitment policies in, 1.1
in sanitation and housekeeping,
7.3–17
selection and training of personnel
in, 1.9–10
shift coverage and, 1.16
specialized personnel in, 1.7
standardization of crews in, 3.21–25
training and, 1.18–19
unions and labor organizations in,
1.15–16, 1.18
wage rate vs. job classification in,
3.64, 3.80–82
work simplification and, 3.99
PERT charts, in labor cost estimates,
3.110
pH levels, corrosion and, 11.6, 11.8,
11.15
Phase or phase angle, in vibration
analysis, 8.75–76, 8.78
Phosphonates, 11.15
Phosphoric acid, 11.21
Pickling, corrosion vs., 11.15, 11.25
INDEX I.17Pigs, plugs, and crawlers, in chemical
cleaning, 11.26–31
Pin, chain-type drives, 5.76
Pin links, 5.73
Piping, 4.149–182, 5.185
acid cleaning in, 4.180
bolt tightening sequence in, 4.157
bolted flanges in, 4.176, 4.179t
piping, 5.185, 752
(See also Valves)
brazing repairs to, 4.149
centrifugal pumps, 5.209
chaser grinding in, 4.153
corrosion control in, 4.149, 4.176,
4.179t
emergency repairs to, 4.149, 4.150
flanges in, 4.152, 4.155, 4.156,
4.174–175, 4.176, 4.179t
flow vs. built–up debris in, 11.27
flowmeters for, mechanical, 8.5–9,
8.34–36
gaskets in, 4.152, 4.154, 4.156t
hard-facing of valves in, 4.164–166
hydrodrilling cleaning for, 11.26
identification of, 4.180
insulation for, 4.173–174, 4.174t,
4.175, 4.176
leaks in, 4.155, 4.173, 4.179–180,
4.182
lip, rake, and cutting angles for,
4.151–152
liquid velocity through, 4.179, 4.181t
materials used in, 4.176
organization of maintenance for,
4.151
pigs, plugs, and crawlers for cleaning, 11.26–29
plastic (PVC), 4.180–182
pressurized joints in, 4.154, 4.176
relief valves and devices, 4.180, 4.181
soldering, 10.69–70
standards, data, and specifications
for, 4.151–152
supports and hangers for, 4.167–173,
4.182, 4.182
temperature changes and, 4.151
thermal expansion in, 4.171, 4.171t,
4.173
thread cutting in, 4.151, 4.154,
4.155t, 4.159
traps in, 4.166–167, 4.167, 168
turbulent flow in, 11.27
valves in, 4.155–166, 4.182,
5.185–200
(See also Valves)
water hammer in, 4.150, 4.173
welding, 4.175–177, 4.178
(See also Soldering and brazing;
Valves)
Pitch, in chain-type drives, 5.73
Pitch length, in belt drives, 5.103
Pitch pan repairs, roof, 4.14, 265
Pitting, 11.6–7, 670
Pitting, in gear teeth, 5.167, 5.168, 896
Plain bearings, 5.3–17
annular groove in, 5.6
babbitt in, 5.5, 5.10
cavitation in, 5.15
cleanliness of, 5.4
conformability in, 5.4
connecting rod distortion and, 5.12,
5.16, 5.17
construction of, 5.5
corrosion resistance in, 5.5
crankcase reconditioning, bore tolerances and, 5.16–17, 5.17t
crankcase/crankshaft distortion and,
5.14–15
crush in, 5.8, 5.12–13
design of, 5.6–8
dirt embeddment and scoring in,
5.9–10
eccentricity in, 5.8
embeddability in, 5.4
excessive wear in, 5.11–12
fatigue and fatigue strength in, 5.4,
5.10–11
flange in, 5.7
foreign materials on back of, 5.12,
5.13
free spread in, 5.7
fretting in, 5.12–14
hot-short failure in, 5.12, 5.13
inspection of, 5.9–15
location and retention of, 5.7
lubrication of, 5.3–4, 5.8
lug in, 5.6
material specifications for, 5.4–5
nomenclature for, 5.6, 5.7
normal wear in, 5.9
parting line in, 5.6, 5.7
preventive maintenance for, 5.3–4
reassembly of, 5.17
reconditioning of, 5.9, 5.15–17
shaft tolerances for reconditioning
for, 5.15–16
spreader groove in, 5.6
squirt hole in, 5.6
surface action in, 5.4
temperature strength in, 5.4
thermal conductivity in, 5.4
vibration analysis and, 8.84
Plain bevel gears, 5.147–150
Plan A Day Ahead (PADA), 2.10
Planetary gear drive, 5.149, 5.154
Planning and planned maintenance,
2.32–35
action codes in, 2.50
analyses and displays for, computerized, 2.58
backlogs in, 2.49
cause codes in, 2.50
communications and management
support for, 2.39
computers and, 2.46, 2.49–77
control reports in, 2.49
cost assignment in, 2.49–50
definition of, 2.35
electric motor, 6.15–16
equipment identification for, 2.50,
2.53–54, 2.72–77
estimating maintenance costs and,
3.102
follow-up for, 2.58
how to plan, 2.36
how to schedule, 2.37–28
implementing, 2.38–39
job sequence in, 2.49
material availability and, 2.49, 2.53
organization for, 2.38
parts inventory in, 2.50, 2.59, 2.67–71
personnel for, 2.38–39, 2.50
prioritization in, 2.49, 2.50
procedures for, outline and flowchart
of, 2.56–58
Ranking Index for Maintenance
Expenditures (RIME) in,
2.55–56
reporting successful results of,
2.39–40
work measurement and, 3.26
work orders in, 2.49, 2.50, 2.52–53,
2.55, 2.58–59, 2.60–66
work plans for, 2.49
(See also Preventive maintenance)
Planning group, for work orders, 2.31
Plant facilities maintenance, 4.1–204
Plant Services magazine Web site, 2.116
Plasma arc cutting, 10.30–32
Plasma arc welding, 10.34–35
Plastic (PVC) pipe, 4.5, 4.9, 4.180–182
Plastic flow, in gear teeth, 5.165–166
Plating, 11.15
Plugs, in chemical cleaning, 11.26–28,
11.30, 11.31
Pneumatic flow measurement devices,
8.27–30
Pneumatic pressure measuring devices,
8.30, 8.31
Pneumatic temperature measuring
devices, 8.30
Pocket plates, nicad batteries, 6.100
Point-by-point method of illumination
calculation, 6.118
Point-to-point protocol (PPP) connections, 2.113
Polarity, in gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) and, 10.18–20
Polarization index, in electric motor,
6.28
Policies (See Operating policies)
Polyethersulfone, 11.10
Polyethylene (PE), 11.9, 11.10
Polymeric materials vs. corrosion, 11.8
Polymerization, 11.18
Polymers vs. corrosion, 11.9
Polypropylene (PP), 11.9
Polystryrene, 11.10
Polyurea, nonsoap, in grease, 9.11
Polyurethane, 11.10, 674
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 4.5, 4.9,
11.9, 11.10
Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), 11.9
Positive displacement pumps,
5.211–215
flow rate through, 5.211, 5.212
gears in, 5.212–213
helical gear-type, 5.213
herringbone gear-type, 5.213
installation of, 5.215
lobe-type, 5.214–215
operation of, 5.215
performance of, 5.215
rotating speed of, 5.215
screw-type, 5.213–214
slip rate in, 5.211
spur-geared, 5.212–213
suction supply for, 5.215
vane-type, 5.214
viscous liquids and, 5.215
I.18 INDEXPositive displacement pumps, (Cont.):
(See also Centrifugal pumps;
Pumps)
Potable water tanks, paints and protective coatings for, 4.33
Potassium permanganate, 11.20
Potential transformers, 8.58
Potentiometers 6.70
Poultice for stain removal on brick
masonry, 4.59
Power analyzers, 8.50–51
Power circuit components, in motor
controller, 6.53
Power factor meter, clamp-on-type,
8.52, 8.53
Power generation, 1.4
(See also Utilities)
Power measurement, 8.57–58
Power supplies:
for AC induction motors, 6.9–10
for air-carbon arc cutting (CAC-A)
and gouging, 10.29–30, 10.30t
for electric motor, 6.7–8, 6.8t, 6.9–10
for gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW), 10.16, 10.22–24, 10.26t
variations in, 6.7, 6.9–10
for welding, 10.50–51
Power transmission:
chains for, 5.73
(See also Chains for power transmission)
flexible couplings for, 5.45–71
(See also Flexible couplings)
(See also Shaft alignment, in flexible
couplings)
Powered chain hoists, 5.94–97
Precipitator, electrostatic, 4.141–142,
4.144–146
Predictive maintenance, 1.39, 2.15–30
benefits of, 2.29–30
breakdown losses vs., 2.29–30, 2.29
capacity factor and, 2.30
cost of, 2.28
definition of, 2.15
electric motor analysis in, 2.26, 6.29
maintenance management and,
2.16–17
operating dynamics analysis in, 2.27
process parameters for, 2.25–26
production management and, 2.17
quality improvement through, 2.17,
2.30
techniques for, 2.17–18
thermography in, 2.19–21, 2.28,
8.109–129
(See also Thermography)
total plant management and, 2.16
tribology in, 2.21–25, 2.28,
8.131–141
(See also Tribology)
ultrasonic monitoring in, 2.27, 2.29
vibration analysis in, 2.18–19, 2.28,
8.71–108
(See also Vibration analysis)
visual inspections in, 2.26–27
Preheat calculator for welding, 10.36,
10.37
Preload, vibration analysis and, 8.89
Preoperational chemical cleaning,
11.19
Pressure:
static no delivery (SND), 4.108
static (SP), 4.107, 4.115
total (TP), 4.108
in valves, 5.186
velocity (VP), 4.107–108
vibration analysis and, 8.89–90
Pressure gauges measurement devices,
8.14–20, 8.38–42
absolute-pressure elements in, 8.19
actuating elements for pressure
gauges in, 8.15–16
Bourdon tubes for, 8.15, 8.16
diaphragm-type, 8.17–18
helix tubes for, 8.17
indicator gauges for, 8.15, 8.16
pneumatic flow measurement
devices, 8.27–30
pneumatic pressure measuring
devices in, 8.30
spiral elements for, 8.17
spring and bellows for, 8.17–19
Pressure seal globe valves, 5.194–95
Pressure vessels, valves for, 5.186
Pressurized joints, in piping, 4.154, 4.176
Preventive engineering, 1.14
Preventive maintenance, 1.13–14, 1.39,
2.4, 2.7–13, 6.51–52
for air cleaners, 4.146–147
for air conditioning, 4.81
for chain hoists, 5.98
completion of, 2.13
coordinating with production for,
2.12–13
corrective maintenance vs., 3.9–12
cost control of, 3.3–12
(See also Cost control)
for cranes, 5.85–89
for elevators and lifts, 4.73
feedback from, 2.10
first in first out (FIFO) priority for,
2.11
labor costs required for, 2.9–10
materials required for, 2.10
mean time between maintenance
(MTBM) in, 3.11
mean time to preventive maintenance (MTPM), 3.11
mean time to repair (MTTR) in, 3.11
Need Urgency Customer Rank
Equipment Criticality
(NUCREC) in, 2.11–12
oil analysis in, 8.132
opportunities for, 2.13
Plan A Day Ahead (PADA), 2.10
planning and estimating for, 2.7–10,
2.32–35
prioritizing in, 2.8–9, 2.11–12
procedures for, 2.8
Ranking Index for Maintenance
Expenditures (RIME) in, 2.11
for roofs, 4.14–16
scheduling of, 2.10–13
techniques of routine interim maintenance (TRIM) in, 2.13
time required for, 2.9
Primary maintenance functions, 1.4–5
Primers, 4.36, 4.39
(See also Paints and protective coatings)
Printers, 2.42
Prioritization, 1.13
average priority system (PS) reports,
1.63, 1.65–66
planning and planned maintenance
and, 2.50
planning and planned maintenance,
2.49
preventive maintenance and, 2.8–9,
2.11–12
Ranking Index for Maintenance
Expenditures (RIME) in, 2.55–56
Priority system (PS) reports, 1.63,
1.65–66
Process monitoring, 8.3–42
charting devices in, 8.4
control in, 8.3
control stations for, 8.32–33
flowmeters in, 8.5–9, 8.34–36
humidity measurement in, 8.25–27,
8.42
indicator devices in, 8.4–5
liquid level measurement in, 8.9–15,
8.36–37
maintenance of instruments for,
8.33–42
miniature instruments in, 8.5,
8.30–33
monitoring in, 8.3
pneumatic flow measurement in,
8.27–30
pneumatic pressure measurement in,
8.30, 8.31
pneumatic temperature measurement
in, 8.30
pressure measurement in, 8.14–20,
8.38–42
receiver devices in, 8.5
recording devices in, 8.5, 8.30–33
rotameters in, 8.11
thermometers for, 8.20–25, 8.37–38
types of, 8.4
Process parameters, predictive maintenance, 2.25–26
Production management/optimization:
predictive maintenance and, 2.17
vibration analysis and, 8.73
Productivity:
daily drop in productivity following,
7.8–9, 7.31
good housekeeping and, 7.9–10
sanitation and housekeeping vs.,
7.41–42
in staff for sanitation and housekeeping, 7.31–32
Profit objective of business, 1.33
Project boards, 1.20
Project orders, work measurement and,
3.43
Propeller-type fans, 4.115–116
Protected roof membrane assemblies
(upside down roof), 4.5
Protection (See Security)
Protector circuits, electric motor, 6.66–67
Protocols, 2.114
Pulleys:
for belt drives, 5.110, 5.117t,
5.114–117, 5.118t, 5.119t
mechanical adjustable speed (MAS)
drives, 5.131–137
INDEX I.19Pump-to-point lubrication system,
9.22, 9.24
Pumps:
in air conditioning, 4.87, 4.101–102,
4.104
best efficiency point (BEP) for,
5.206–208
brake horsepower (BHP) rating of,
5.208–209
bypass operations of, 5.210
centrifugal, 5.201–211, 8.95–96
best efficiency point (BEP) for,
5.206–208
brake horsepower (BHP) rating of,
5.208–209
bypass operations of, 5.210
discharge piping configuration for,
5.209
entrained air or gas in, 5.206
foundation for, 5.209
friction loss in, 5.209–210
hydraulic curve parameters for,
5.206–208
hydraulic hammer in, 5.211
impeller orientation, single- vs.
multistage, 5.202–203
impeller-type, enclosed vs. open,
5.202
inlet piping configuration for, 5.209
inline, 5.202–203
installation of, 5.209–210
internal configuration of,
5.201–203
multistage, 5.202–203
net positive suction head in,
5.203, 5.204
operation of (startup, bypass, etc.),
5.210–211
opposed impeller-type, 5.203
parallel configuration of, 5.204,
5.205, 5.206
performance factors of, 5.201
piping support for, 5.209
run-out condition in, 5.208
series configuration of, 5.204, 5.205
shutoff condition in, 5.208
single-stage, 5.202–203
suction conditions in, 5.203–206
suction volume in, 5.203–206
total dynamic head (TDH) in,
5.206, 5.207, 5.208–209
total system head (TSH) in, 5.206,
5.207, 5.208, 5.209
in closed water systems, 4.101
discharge piping configuration for,
5.209
entrained air or gas in, 5.206
failure modes in, 8.95–96
flow rate through, 5.211, 5.212
foundation for, 5.209
friction loss in, 5.209–210
gears, gear motors, and speed reducers in, 5.152
hydraulic curve parameters for,
5.206–208
hydraulic hammer in, 5.211
impeller orientation in, 5.202–203
impeller-type in, 5.202
inlet piping configuration for, 5.209
installation of, 5.209–210, 5.215
internal configuration of, 5.201–203
in jet-pump fans, 4.120
low or no pressure in, 4.102
maintenance of, 4.102
net positive suction head in, 5.203,
5.204
operation of (startup, bypass, etc.),
5.210–211, 5.215
parallel configuration of, 5.204,
5.205, 5.206
performance factors of, 5.201, 5.215
piping support for, 5.209
positive displacement pumps,
5.211–215
configuration of, 5.212
flow rate through, 5.211, 5.212
gears in, 5.212–213
helical gear-type, 5.213
herringbone gear-type, 5.213
installation of, 5.215
lobe-type, 5.214–215
operation of, 5.215
performance of, 5.215
rotating speed of, 5.215
screw-type, 5.213–214
slip rate in, 5.211
spur-geared, 5.212–213
suction supply for, 5.215
vane-type, 5.214
viscous liquids and, 5.215
rotating speed of, 5.215
run-out condition in, 5.208
series configuration of, 5.204, 5.205
shaft alignment, motor to pump, 5.59
shutoff condition in, 5.208
slip rate in, 5.211
static lift or static head in, 4.101
suction conditions in, 5.203–206
suction volume in, 5.203–206
symptoms of trouble in, 4.102
total dynamic head (TDH) in, 5.206,
5.207, 5.208–209
total head in, 4.101
total pumping head in, 4.101
total system head (TSH) in, 5.206,
5.207, 5.208, 5.209
troubleshooting, 4.102
vibration analysis and, 8.89–90,
8.95–96
viscous liquids and, 5.215
wear in, excessive, 4.102
Purchasing:
inventory control and maintenance
stores and, 2.94–95
quantity purchases, 2.81
Purge units, in air conditioning, 4.87, 4.89
PVC pipe, 4.180–182
Qualitative infrared thermography,
8.117
Quality control:
for lubrication and oils, 9.32, 9.37t
predictive maintenance and, 2.17, 2.30
sanitation and housekeeping and,
7.12, 7.13
vibration analysis and, 8.72
Quantitative approach to worker efficiency rating, 3.60–61
Quantitative infrared thermography,
8.117
Quantity purchases, 2.81
Quenching cracks, in gear teeth, 5.161
Quickread estimating in, labor costs,
3.108–110
Quinn, James D., 1.33
Rack-and-pinion gears, 5.147–150, 5.148
Radar band, 8.117
Radial ball or roller bearings, 5.20, 5.21
Radial-bladed centrifugal fans, 4.119
Radial offset shaft rotation, 8.88
Radial/axial load combination bearings, 5.22
Radiation, in thermography, 8.113,
8.117, 8.120
Radio band, 8.118
Random sampling, in ratio delay technique, 3.51, 3.52, 3.54
Ranking Index for Maintenance
Expenditures (RIME), 2.11,
2.55–56
Rating and evaluating maintenance
works (See Efficiency rating of
workers; Personnel management)
Rating sheets, in industrial housekeeping, 7.47–49
Ratio delay technique, 3.26, 3.50–56
accuracy of, 3.54–55
allowances in, 3.53–54
assigned maintenance manning in,
3.51–52, 3.53, 3.54
estimating maintenance efficiency
using, 3.55–56
MTM data in, 3.53
sampling in, 3.50–52, 3.54
work simplification and, 3.52–53,
3.83–99
Ratio plan incentive programs (See
Incentive payments for workers)
Receiver devices, 8.5
Receiving docks, 2.100
Reciprocating compressors, 8.95
Reciprocating machinery, vibration
analysis and, 8.80–81
Reciprocating-type air conditioning,
4.79–80
Reconditioning of plain bearings, 5.9,
5.15–17
Recording devices, 8.5, 8.30–33
Recordkeeping, inventory control and
maintenance stores, 2.87–89
Recruitment policies, 1.18
Rectifiers, 8.120
Reducing maintenance work (See Cost
control; Work simplification)
Refacing of valve seats, 4.162, 4.164
Reflectance, 8.117
Reflectivity, 8.118
Refrigerants, air conditioning, 4.80,
4.82–83t, 4.89
Refrigeration cycle, in air conditioning,
4.77–78
Regrinding lift–check valve, 5.189, 5.190
Regulating valves, 4.160, 4.161
Reilly, William J., 3.84
Relays, 6.75–82, 8.120
adjustable-type, 6.78–82
contactor-type 6.75
dashpots in 6.76
magnetic overload 6.76
I.20 INDEXRelays, (Cont.):
overload relays, 6.84
solid-state overload, 6.76–78
thermal overload, 6.75–6.76, 6.86
Time Tactor, 6.79–82
troubleshooting and maintenance of,
6.82, 6.83t
“weld check” switches in, 6.76
welding machine, 10.59
Releasable ratchet chain hoist, 5.91, 5.92
Reliability engineering, in work measurement, 3.13–15
Reliability tools (See Test instruments)
Relief dampers, in air conditioning, 4.94
Relief valves, 4.180, 4.181
Remedial training, 1.74
Renewable wedge-and-seat gate valve,
5.191–92
Renewo (plug-type) globe valve, 5.188,
5.189, 5.190
Repair orders, work measurement and,
3.43, 3.47
Repairs maintenance, 1.34, 1.35–40
actions taken in, 1.39
analysis of history of, 1.38
classification of equipment in, 1.40
coding for, 1.35–36
corrective maintenance vs., 1.39
flow charts for, 1.38
history keeping of, 1.35–38
history of, 2.5
predictive maintenance vs., 1.39
preventive maintenance in, 1.39
production requirements and, 1.39–40
repairs maintenance in, 1.39
system analysis and, 1.40
time required for, 2.6, 2.7–10
verification of, 2.6
work orders for, 1.35–36
Repetitive jobs, work measurement
and, 3.17, 3.26, 3.47
Repetitive maintenance, estimating
costs in, 3.102
Repointing brick/masonry walls,
4.50–51
Reports, 1.63–68
average priority system (PS), 1.63,
1.65–66
backlog, 1.64, 1.66
computerized, 2.54
control, 1.63
cost control, 1.34
labor efficiency, 1.64, 1.67
maintenance costs as percent of sales
dollar, 1.64, 1.67
materials costs, 1.64, 1.67
percent downtime, 1.64, 1.67
performance, 1.22–23
planned maintenance results, 2.39–40
for planning and planned maintenance, 2.49
for sanitation and housekeeping,
7.10–12
schedule compliance, 1.64, 1.66–67
Requisition forms, 2.87, 2.94–95
Research Web sites, 2.116
Reseating kits, valve, 4.164
Resistance measurement, 8.59–64
Resistance to change, vs. Work simplification, 3.85–86
Resistance welding, 10.35
Resistance, 8.120
Resistors, 8.120
Resolution, in DMMs, 8.50
Resonance, in vibration analysis, 8.89
Respirators, for paints and protective
coatings, 4.43
Response time, in DMMs, 8.50
Return on investment (ROI), 3.4–9
Reul, Raymond I., 3.83
Rheostats, 8.120
continuously wound, 6.70
maintenance of, 6.67–72
motor controller, 6.67–72
potentiometers and, 6.70
Ridging, in gear teeth, 5.165–166
Rippling, in gear teeth, 5.166
Rising stem gate valve, 5.191, 5.192
Robertson, Jerry, 4.65
Rocker, in chain-type drives, 5.76
Roller or ball bearings, 5.19–44
adjusting devices for, 5.29, 5.30
angular-contact type, 5.29–30
Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers
Association (AFBMA) and, 5.23
ball (roller) spin frequency (BSF) in,
8.83, 8.84
ball bearings, single-row, deepgroove, with shields, seals, snap
rings, 5.22
ball pass inner race frequency
(BPFI) in, 8.83
ball pass outer race frequency
(BPFO) in, 8.83
basic rating life of, 5.25
cleanliness in, 5.31–32
cold mounting in, 5.33
design and nomenclature of, 5.20
direct vs. indirect mounting for,
5.28–29
dismounting of, 5.38–40
effective center of, 5.28–29
end lateral of shaft in, 5.29
end shaft mounting for, 5.27
failure in, general reasons for, 5.19
fundamental train frequency (FTF)
in, 8.83
grease lubrication/packing in, 5.41–42
hydraulic removal of, 5.39, 5.50
load ratings for, 5.25
lubrication of, 5.19, 5.31–32, 5.39–44
mounting, 5.27–39
opposed mounting of, 5.27, 5.28
puller for dismounting of, 5.38
radial, 5.20, 5.21
radial/axial load combination, 5.22
series in, 5.24
service life of, 5.25
shaft and housing fits in, 5.25–26
single-row, deep-groove, with
shields, seals, snap rings, 5.22
sleeve mounts for, 5.31, 5.32
specification life of, 5.25
spherical, 5.24, 5.30–32
standardization and boundary dimensions for, 5.20, 5.23, 5.24
tandem, back-to-back, and face-toface mounts in, 5.29–31
tapered, 5.23, 5.24, 5.27–5.29
tapered bore, mounting of, 5.35–38
temperature mounting in, 5.33–35
thermal expansion in, 5.27, 5.29
through-shaft mounting for, 5.27
thrust bearings as, 5.21
vibration analysis and, 8.82–84
Roller chain (See Chains for power
transmission)
Roller links, 5.73
Rolling and peening, in gear teeth,
5.166
Rolling element bearings (See
Bearings; Roller or ball bearings)
Rolling fatigue, in wear-particle analysis, 2.23–24, 8.134, 8.135–137
Roof exhaust fans, 4.120
Roofs, low sloped membrane-type,
4.3–17
accessory components in, 4.7–8
aggregate surfaces for, 4.15
atactic polypropylene (APP) in, 4.4
blister repair for, 4.12
chlorosulfonated polyethylene
(CSPE) in, 4.5, 4.9
cleaning surface of, 4.15
coated smooth surfaced roofs in, 4.11
conventional built-up roofing membranes in, 4.4
corrosion and rust damage in, 4.15
cutting holes in roof and, 4.16
drain cleaning for, 4.15
emergency leak detection and repair
for, 4.10–11
ethylene propylene diene terpolymer
(EPDM) in, 4.5, 4.8, 4.9
flanges, gravel stops, pitch pockets,
gutters, etc., 4.13
flashing used in, 4.3, 4.7, 4.13, 4.14
gutter joint leaks and, 4.13–14
housekeeping tasks for, 4.6, 4.14
loose fastener repairs for, 4.12–13
masonry and, 4.8
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
for materials used in, 4.8
membrane used in, 4.3, 4.6–7
mineral surfaced roofs in, 4.11
modified bitumen roofing membranes in, 4.4–5, 4.8, 4.11
mop-applied membranes in, 4.4
new equipment mounting, 267
nonvulcanized elastomers in, 4.5,
4.9, 4.12
pitch pan repairs, 4.14
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in, 4.5, 4.9
preventive maintenance for, 4.14–16
protected roof membrane assemblies
(upside down roof) in, 4.5
protection for, 267
puncture and hole repair for, 4.12
record keeping for, 4.3–4
repair materials for, 4.8–10
repairs to, permanent, 4.11–14
reroofing techniques for, 4.16–17
single-ply roofing membranes in,
4.5, 4.8
splits, cracks, loose lap repairs for, 4.12
storage for equipment and materials
for, 4.15
styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) in, 4.4
superimposition vs. replacement in,
4.16–17
INDEX I.21Roofs, low sloped membrane-type,
(Cont.):
surfacing defects in, 4.6
survey and defect identification for,
4.5–8
thermoplastics in, 4.5, 4.9, 4.12
tools for, 4.8–10
torch-applied membranes in, 4.4
traffic on, unnecessary, 4.16
vulcanized elastomers in, 4.5, 4.9,
4.11–12
Rooftop air conditioners, 4.102–103
Room air conditioners, 4.103–104
Room cavity ratio (RCR), in illumination and lighting, 6.119, 6.123,
6.141
Room surface dirt depreciation
(RSDD) factors, 6.133t
Root cause failure analysis, 8.106–108
Ropes:
for cranes, 5.88–89
paints and protective coatings on, 4.43
Rotameters, 8.11
Rotating machinery, vibration analysis
and, 8.80
Rotors, 8.120
Rubber, vs. Corrosion, 11.9, 11.10–11
Rubbing parts, vibration analysis and,
8.92
Rubbing wear, in wear-particle analysis, 2.23, 8.134–135
Rule of seven (direct work) calculation,
3.109
Run-out condition, in centrifugal
pumps, 5.208
Rung ladders, 4.186
Running speed, vibration analysis and,
8.87
Rust preventive oils, 11.14
Rust stains, on brick masonry, 4.59–60
Safety:
air conditioning, 4.87, 4.89
crane, 5.83, 5.87, 5.89
elevator and lift, 4.66–68, 4.72
fan, 4.123
ladder, 4.188–192
lubrication and oil, 9.4
oxyacetylene, 10.72
paint and protective coating, 4.34
soldering, 10.63–65
thermography and, 8.114
ventilating fan and exhaust system,
4.123, 4.129
welding, 10.53–55, 10.60, 10.61
Safety programs, 1.21
Safety swinging scaffolds, 4.195–196,
4.197
Salvage, 1.5
Salvaged parts and materials, in inventory and maintenance stores, 2.95,
2.101
Sampling, in ratio delay technique,
3.50–52, 3.54
Sand blasting (See Abrasive blasting)
“Sanefficiency” chart, 7.12, 7.14
Sanitation and housekeeping, 7.1
assistance of other service groups in,
7.59
cleanliness and order in, 7.44
cooperation with operating personnel
in, 7.9–10
correction memos in, 7.31, 7.32
cost control through, 7.13, 7.14
daily drop in productivity following,
7.8–9, 7.31
derisive campaign incentive plan for,
7.44–49
developing work interest in, 7.32–36
factors in sanitation and, 7.13,
7.15–17, 7.42–44
frequency of, 7.22
improvements to, maintenance staff
responsibility in, 7.48
incentive plans for, 7.44
industrial housekeeping in, 7.41–53
inspections in, 7.45, 7.47–49
inspector or rater in, 7.23
layout and equipment for, 7.42–43
maintaining good levels of, 7.19–39,
7.44–49, 7.55–56
management support for, 7.10–17,
7.41–42
manual for, illustrated page from, 7.11
master output charts for, 7.26, 7.27,
7.28
material handling and storage in,
7.43–44
measuring levels of, 7.19–29
rating forms for, 7.19–21
unit standard for, 7.21–23
weighting of elements in, 7.19–22
morale and motivation in staff for,
7.34–36
office cleaning in, 7.55–61
organization for, 7.55–56
personnel organization for, 7.3–17,
7.56
productivity increases with, 7.9–10,
7.41–42
productivity of staff in, 7.31–32
quality control and, 7.12, 7.13
rating sheets for, 7.47–49
reporting to management on,
7.10–12
“sanefficiency” chart for, 7.12, 7.14
sanitors vs. janitors in, 7.5
scheduling, schedule control sheet
for, 7.30, 7.32, 7.57–61
standard time lists for, 7.27–29
supervisors for, 7.3–5, 7.56
supplies and tools for, 7.32, 7.38, 7.57
time required for rating of, 7.23
time standards for, 7.50, 7.51t,
7.52–53t
training for, 7.36–37
unit standard for, 7.21–23
work routine chart for, 7.30
work standards and techniques for,
7.49–50
workload/time required determination in, 7.23–29
Sanitors vs. Janitors, 7.5
Scaffolding, 4.183, 4.193–204, 6.142
aluminum ladder-type, 4.198
applications for, 4.201
external stand–off ladders in, 4.195,
4.195
folding-type, 4.193–194
ladders vs., 4.201–203
maintenance of, 4.203–204
modular system, 4.197–200
open side or end, safety issues in,
4.201
paints and protective coatings, 4.43
regulations and standards for
(OSHA, ANSI), 4.193
safety checklist for (OSHA), 4.201,
4.202–203
safety rules for, 4.199, 4.201
safety swinging type, 4.195–197
special design, 4.199, 4.201
stair-type systems (Tubelox) or step
units, 4.195, 4.195, 4.196
tube-and-coupler-type, steel and aluminum, 4.196, 4.198
welded aluminum, 4.193–194
welded sectional steel, 4.194–195
(See also Ladders)
Scanners, thermography, 2.20
Schedule compliance reports, 1.64,
1.66–67
Schedule control sheet, 7.32, 7.33
Scheduling, scheduling systems, 1.11–13
backlog reports, 1.64, 1.66
compliance reports for, 1.64, 1.66–67
computerized, 2.49–77
first in first out (FIFO), 2.11
inventory control and maintenance
stores vs., 2.81
lubrication and oils, 9.31–32
office cleaning, 7.57–61
Plan A Day Ahead (PADA), 2.10
planning and planned maintenance,
2.37–38
preventive maintenance and, 2.10–13
reports used in, 1.63–68
sanitation and housekeeping, 7.30, 7.30
work measurement and, 3.26
Scicchitano, Martin A., 4.75
Scientific method, in work simplification, 3.86–88
Scope of maintenance responsibilities,
1.4–5
Scoring (scuffing, seizing, galling), in
gear teeth, 5.166–167
Scratching, in gear teeth, 5.165
Screw-and-yoke rising stem gate valve,
5.191, 5.192
Screw compressors, 8.95
Screw-type air conditioning, 4.79–80
Screw-type positive displacement
pump, 5.213–214
Scrubber-type dust collection systems,
4.137–139, 4.143
Sealers, concrete floor, 4.27–28
Search sites, search engines, 2.112, 2.115
Seat rings, valve, 4.164
Secondary functions of maintenance, 1.5
Sectional ladders, 4.186
Sectional steel scaffolds, 4.194–195
Security and protection, 1.5
Selective leaching corrosion, 11.7
Semiconductors, 8.120
Sequestering agents, 11.20, 11.21
Serial line Internet protocol (SLIP)
connections, 2.113
Series circuit, 8.118
Series-progressive lubrication systems,
9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22
I.22 INDEXSeries wound DC motor, 6.13
Servers, Internet, 2.112
Service life of roller bearings, 5.25
Service valves, in air conditioning, 4.87
Shading coils, motor controller, 6.53–54
Shafts and shaft alignment, 5.56–71
across-the-flex element alignment
for, 5.68–71
alignment readings for, 5.58
bent, 8.91
conical vs. cylindrical shaft rotation
and, 8.88
coupling center members and, 5.57
deformation of, vibration and, 8.88
face/rim alignment method for,
5.63–68
flexible couplings, 5.56–71
heating to unstick, using airacetylene, 10.71
indicator sag in, 5.58
misalignment and, 8.90–91
mode shape in vibration analysis
and, 8.88
pump-to-motor alignment guide for,
5.59
radial offset shaft rotation and, 8.88
reverse indicator (vertical and horizontal) procedures for, 5.59–64
shaft relationship in, 5.58
soft foot in, 5.58
thermal growth in, 5.58
vibration analysis and, 8.88, 8.90–91
Shaft and housing fits, roller bearings,
5.25–26
Sheaves, belt drive, 5.104–105, 5.106t,
5.107–108t, 5.109t
Sheet metal, soldering, 10.65, 10.67
Sheet metal welding, 10.41–42
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
10.6, 10.7
Shielding gases, for gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW), flow rates for,
10.20–21
Shielding, 8.120
Shift coverage, 1.16
Shock hazards, in electric motor, 6.16,
6.22, 6.28, 6.30
Shop space allocation, centralized vs.
Decentralized maintenance and,
1.28
Short circuits, electric motor, 6.82–84
Shunt-wound DC motor, 6.13
Shunt, 8.120
motor controller, 6.55, 6.56, 6.62
Shut-down authority, 1.20–21
Shutoff condition, centrifugal pumps,
5.208
Signature analysis boundaries, vibration analysis, 2.19, 8.97
Silent chain, 5.73, 5.74
Silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), 8.120
Silicone paints and protective coatings,
4.37
Sine waves, 8.121
Single-ladders, 4.186, 4.188–189,
4.189–191
Single-phase, 8.121
Single-ply roofing membranes, 4.5, 4.8
Single-wedge nonrising stem gate
valve, 5.191, 5.192
Sintered plates, nicad batteries, 6.100
Size of jobs, in scheduling, 1.12
Size of plant, centralized vs. decentralized maintenance and, 1.28
Skills assessment, in training programs,
1.71–75
Skills training (See Training)
Sleeve bearings, 5.3–17, 8.84
(See also Plain bearings)
Sleeves, for flexible couplings, 5.48
Sliding wear, in wear-particle analysis,
2.24, 8.134, 8.137, 8.137
Slip rate, in positive displacement
pumps, 5.211
Slotting, in estimating labor costs,
3.105
Smith, Ricky, 1.69, 6.115
Smith, Robert G., 5.147
Smoke stains, on brick masonry, 4.60
Smooth surfaced roofs, 4.11
Snyder, Daniel R., 5.19
Sodium lamps, in illumination and
lighting, 6.126–127, 6.137–138
Sodium soaps, in grease, 9.10–11
Software, 2.41, 2.43
Solar-type gear drive, 5.149, 5.155
Soldering and brazing, 10.63–72
automobile body, 10.67–68
electrical connections, 10.68
equipment for, 10.6
fluxes for, 10.66t
lap joints in, 10.67
melting points of metals and alloys
for, 10.88
oxyacetylene, 10.72–73
precautions and safety for, 10.63–65
sheet metal working using, 10.65,
10.67
solders for, 10.66t
sweat-type fittings in pipe using,
10.69–70, 10.69
(See also Air-acetylene torch;
Oxyacetylene torch; Welding)
Solenoids, 8.121
Solid-state circuit checkers, 8.68
Solid-state overload relays, 6.76–78
Solid wedge rising stem gate valve,
5.191, 5.192
Solvent cleaning, 4.39, 11.19–22
Spalling, in gear teeth, 5.168
Spare parts, 2.79–80, 2.88, 2.92, 2.101,
4.81
Sparking, in DC motors, 6.44–46
Specialists, 1.7
Specification life of roller bearings, 5.25
Spectral band, 8.118
Spectrographic analysis, lubricating
oils, 2.22–23, 8.133
Speed (rpm) control:
in fans, 4.114, 4.115, 4.126
in mechanical adjustable speed
(MAS) drives, 5.134–135,
5.136–137, 5.141
Speed reducers (See Gear drives and
speed reducers)
Spherical roller bearings, 5.24,
5.30–31, 5.32
Spindle flexible coupling, 5.48
Spiral bevel gears, 5.147–150, 5.148,
5.153, 5.159t
Spiral elements, pressure measurement,
8.17
Splitter dampers, in air conditioning, 4.94
Sponge Jet blasting, 4.39
Spot removal, 7.50
Spot welding, 10.34
Spring-activated lubrication system,
9.15–16
Spring and bellows, pressure measurement, 8.17–18
Sprockets:
in belt drives, 5.109
in chain-type drives, 5.73, 5.78, 5.79
Spur-geared chain hoist, 5.91, 5.92, 5.93
Spur-geared positive displacement
pump, 5.212–213
Spur gears, 5.147–150
Staff specialists, 1.7
Stain removal, brick masonry, 4.54,
4.57–62
Stainless steels:
corrosion in, 11.9
melting point of, 10.88
welding, 10.37–39, 10.38t, 10.39t
Stair-type systems (Tubelox) or step
units, 4.195, 4.196
Standard data development sheets, in
work measurement, 3.15–20
Standard practice sheets and manuals,
1.23–26
Standard time lists for sanitation and
housekeeping, 7.27–29
Standardization, 1.20
crew, 3.21–25
estimating standards for, in work
measurement, 3.56–57
inventory control and maintenance
stores and, 2.82, 2.95–96
time studies and, 3.26–50
work measurement and, 3.13–20,
3.21–25
Standards:
for gears, gear motors, and speed
reducers, 5.150
for grease, 5.43–44
for ladders, 4.185–186
for lubrication and oils, 5.43–44
for piping, 4.151
for roller bearings, 5.20, 5.23, 5.24
for scaffolding, 4.193
for welding, 10.89–91t
Standards per unit, in labor cost estimation, 3.105–108
Standing orders, in work measurement,
3.42, 3.47
Stand-off ladders, 4.195, 4
Star-type gear drive, 5.149, 5.155
Static adjustment belt drives,
5.135–137, 5.137t
Static efficiency (SE), 4.108
Static lift or static head, 4.101
Static no delivery pressure (SND), 4.108
Static pressure (SP), 4.107, 4.115
Statistical or past performance work
measurement methods, 3.41–50
Stator, 8.121
in welding machine, 10.58
Steam-operated valves, 4.160
Steam vapor phase, in chemical cleaning, 11.24
INDEX I.23Steel scaffolds, 4.194–195
Steel Structures Painting Council
(SSPC), 4.47
Steels and iron:
alloyed, welding, 10.36–39, 10.38t,
10.39t
braze welding of, 10.79
chromium, welding, 10.38
clad, welding, 10.38
corrosion in, 11.6, 11.7, 11.9
hard-facing of, 10.85–87
high manganese, welding, 10.38
melting points of, 10.88
paints and protective coatings for,
4.32–33, 4.47
stainless, welding, 10.37–39, 10.38t,
10.39t
thermal expansion in, piping, 4.171,
4.171t, 4.173
valves of, 5.186, 5.192–195
welding, 10.35–36, 10.35t
Stein, W.H., 9.3
Step units, 4.195, 4.195, 4.196
Stepladders, 4.187, 4.188, 4.191–192
Sterzinger, Gorman, 7.55
Stick welding, 10.6, 10.7
Stock code numbers, 2.92–94
Storage and handling of lubrication and
oils, 9.6–8
Storage devices, computer, 2.42–43
Storeroom design, 2.99–108
(See also Inventory control and
maintenance stores)
Stores (See Inventory control and
maintenance stores)
Storeskeeping, 1.5
Straight-bladed centrifugal fans, 4.119
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)., 4.32,
11.7
Stud welding, 10.35, 727
Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), 4.4
Submerged arc welding (SAW),
10.10–11, 10.13t, 10.40–41,
10.43t
hard surfacing using, 10.49–50
Suction conditions, in centrifugal
pumps, 5.203–206
Suction volume, in centrifugal pumps,
5.203–206
Sulfamic acid, 11.21
Sulfuric acid, 11.20
Sun load, in air conditioning, 4.75
Superflat concrete floors, 4.25
Superimposition vs. replacement, in
roofs, 4.16–17
Supervisory personnel, 1.8, 1.9–10
centralized vs. decentralized maintenance and, 1.28–29
communications and, 1.22–23
Suppliers, 2.82, 2.83
Supplies and tools for sanitation and
housekeeping, 2.81, 7.32, 7.38,
7.57
Supports, piping, 4.167–173
Suppression, in liquid level measurement, 8.12
Surface action, in plain bearings, 5.4
Surface fatigue, in gear teeth,
5.167–168
Surface tolerant coatings, 4.35–36
(See also Paints and protective coatings)
“Surfing the net,” 2.113–114
Surge testing, in electric motor, 6.28
Sweating work with a torch, 4.165
Swing check valve, 5.189, 5.190
Swinging scaffolds, 4.195–196
Switches, 8.115–116, 8.121
Synchronous belt drives (See Belt
drives)
Synchronous pulleys, 5.110, 5.116,
5.117, 5.117t
System analysis, 1.40
Tape storage, computer, 2.42–43
Taper charge method, lead-acid batteries, 6.92–93
Tapered roller bearings, 5.23, 5.24,
5.27–28, 5.29
Tar stains, on brick masonry, 4.60
Technical schools and colleges, for
training programs, 1.76–77
Techniques of routine interim maintenance (TRIM), 2.13
Telnet, 2.112
Temperature coefficient, in DMMs, 8.50
Temperature gradient, 8.118
Temperature strength, in plain bearings, 5.4
Terminals, electric motor, 6.62, 6.83, 6.85
Test equipment, thermography,
8.110–111
Test instruments, 8.1–42, 8.43–69
accelerometers, 8.100, 8.101
Bourdon tubes, 8.15, 8.16
charting devices, 8.4
dew point sensors, 8.26
displacement probes, 8.99, 8.99, 8.100
electrical, 8.43–69
(See also Electrical test/measurement instruments)
flowmeters, mechanical, 8.5–9,
8.34–36
hygrometers, 8.25–27, 8.42
indicator devices in, 8.4–5
liquid level measurement in, 8.9–15,
8.36–37
maintenance of, 8.33–42
manomometers, 8.35, 8.36
miniature, 8.5, 8.30–33
pneumatic flow measurement
devices, 8.27–30
pneumatic pressure measuring
devices, 8.30, 8.31
pneumatic temperature measuring
devices, 8.30
pressure gauges and measurement
devices, 8.14–20, 8.38–42
process variable measurement using,
8.3–42
receiver devices, 8.5, 8.30–33
recording devices, 8.5
rotameters, 8.11
thermography, 8.113
thermometers, 8.20–25, 8.37–38
velocity transducers, 8.100
vibration analyzer, 8.103, 8.104
vibration meters, 8.101–103
(See also Electrical test/measurement instruments)
Theory and practice of maintenance,
1.3–10
Thermal conductivity, plain bearing, 5.4
Thermal emittance, 8.118
Thermal expansion:
in piping, 4.171, 4.171t, 4.173
in roller bearings, 5.27, 5.29
Thermal overload relays, 6.75–6.76, 6.86
Thermography in, 2.19–21, 8.109–129
blackbodies in, 2.19–20, 8.110
buses and, 8.115
bushings and, 8.115
capacitors and, 8.115
circuit breakers and, 8.115, 8.116
common problems to scan for using,
8.114–116
component failure and, 8.114
conduction in, 8.113, 8.117
conductors and, 8.116
convection in, 8.113, 8.117
cost of, 2.28
electric motors and, 8.114, 8.115
electromagnetic spectrum and,
8.111–112, 8.117
emissivity in, 8.110, 8.117
energy emissions in, 8.109
equipment for, 8.110–111
evaluating equipment for, 8.113
fuses and, 8.116
graybodies in, 2.20, 8.110
heat transfer concepts in, 8.112–113
imaging in, 8.111
infrared technology in, 2.19–21,
8.109–113
line scanners for, 2.20, 8.111
materials list for, 8.121–129t
mechanical looseness problems and,
8.114
qualitative vs. quantitative, 8.117
radiation in, 8.113, 8.117
reflectance in, 8.117, 8.118
safety precautions for, 8.114
scanning procedures for, 8.114–116
switches, switchgear and,
8.115–8.116
terms and symbols used in (glossary), 8.116–121
thermometers for, 2.20, 8.111
transformers and, 8.115
wavelength in, 8.112
wiring and, 8.116
(See also Predictive maintenance)
Thermometers, 8.111, 8.20–25,
8.37–38
infrared, 2.20, 8.111
in pneumatic temperature measuring
devices, 8.30
thermography, 2.20
Thermoplastics, 4.5, 4.9, 4.12
Thickeners, grease, 9.10–11
Thixotropic action in latex paints, 4.36
Threaded bonnet-globe valve, 5.188
Threading, pipe, 4.151, 4.154, 4.155t,
4.159
Three-phase systems, 8.121
Threshold limit values (TLVs), airborne matter, 4.135
Thrust bearings, 5.21
Time domain, in vibration analysis,
8.78
I.24 INDEXTime standards for sanitation and housekeeping, 7.50, 7.51t, 7.52–53t
Time studies, 3.15–20, 3.26–50
advantages and disadvantages of,
3.30–35
job or component standards in,
extension of standard data,
3.29–35
job standards in, 3.26–29
MTM data in, 3.27, 3.35–48, 3.53
standard data in, 3.27–33
Time Tactor relays, 6.79–82
Timers, 8.64–65
Tin, melting points of metals and
alloys for, 10.88
Tip speed, 4.108
Tippett, L.H.C., ratio delay and, 3.50
“Ton” as unit of measure, in air conditioning, 4.77–78
Tool cribs, 2.100
Tools, 2.81
Tooth pitch, in belt drives, 5.109
Torch-applied membranes, 4.4
Torque, in ac induction motors, 6.8–9
Total Acid Number (TAN), lubricating
oil, 2.22, 2.28, 8.132, 8.139, 9.60
Total Base Number (TBN), lubricating
oil, 2.22, 2.28, 8.133, 8.139
Total dynamic head (TDH), in centrifugal pumps, 5.206, 5.207, 5.208–209
Total efficiency (ME), 4.108
Total fill greases, 5.42
Total head, 4.101
Total pressure (TP), 4.108
Total pumping head, 4.101
Ttotal system head (TSH), in centrifugal pumps, 5.206–209
Totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC)
motors, 8.93
Traction-type drives, 5.141–144, 5.143t
Training programs, 1.9–10, 1.18–19,
1.69–77
accountability of personnel in, 1.74
air conditioning, 4.81
baselines for, 1.70
commitment of management in,
1.70, 1.76
competency-based, 1.74
computerized, 2.48, 2.52
contract-type, 1.77
curriculum for, 1.73
estimators for, 3.113–114
FOG index for, 1.71
formats for, 1.75–77
instructor criteria for, 1.75–76
job task analysis for, 1.71
literacy assessments for, 1.70–71
need for, 1.69–70
plan of, 1.73
remedial, 1.74
for sanitation and housekeeping
staff, 7.36–37
skills assessment for, 1.71–72, 1.73,
1.74, 1.75
steps to successful programs for,
1.70–74
technical schools and colleges in,
1.76–77
vendor-type, 1.77
workshops for, 1.77
Transformers, 8.121
current, 8.58
potentia, 8.58
thermography and, 8.115
Transmission load, in air conditioning,
4.75–76
Transmission, power (See Power transmission)
Transmissions, belt, 5.138–139, 5.139t,
5.140
Transmittance, 8.118
Trapezoidal synchronous belt drives,
5.105, 5.109, 5.113, 5.113–14t,
5.115–16t
Traps, piping, 4.166–168
steam, troubleshooting chart for,
4.170–171t
testing, 4.168, 4.169
troubleshooting chart for, 4.170–171t
Traveling requisitions, 2.94–95
Trending techniques, in vibration
analysis, 8.105–106
Tribology, 2.21–25, 8.131–141
cost of, 2.28, 8.138–141
ferrography in, 2.24–25, 8.133
limitations of, 8.138–141
lubricating oil analysis using,
2.21–22, 8.131–133
sampling for, 8.139
spectrographic analysis in, 2.22–23,
8.133
techniques for, 8.140t
wear-particle analysis, 2.23–24,
8.133–138, 8.141
cutting wear in, 2.23, 8.134,
8.135–137
inline, online, vs. offline monitoring in, 8.134
particulate matter analysis in,
8.134–138, 8.138t
rolling fatigue in, 2.23, 8.134,
8.135–137
routine monitoring and trending
in, 8.133–134
rubbing wear in, 2.23, 8.134–135
sliding wear in, 2.23, 2.24, 8.134,
8.137
(See also Lubrication and oils;
Predictive maintenance)
Trichloromonofluoromethane, 4.82–83t
Trichlorotrifluoromethane, 4.82–83t
Trickle charge, nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.104
Trimble, Brian E., 4.49
Trolley hoist, 5.93, 5.95
True rms measurement, 8.55
Tube-and-coupler scaffolds, 4.196, 4.198
Tube axial fans, 4.116–118
Tube checkers, 8.68
Tuckpointing, brick masonry, 4.50–51
Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding,
10.13, 10.16–27, 10.39
Twin-hook chain hoist, 5.93, 5.95
Twin-line lubrication system, 9.21–22
Twombly, Lee, 4.135
Two-rate charge method, lead-acid batteries, 6.93
Ultrasonic monitoring, 2.27, 2.29
Ultraviolet band, 8.118
Union bonnet regrinding valve,
5.188–189
Unions and labor organizations,
1.15–16, 1.18
Universal resource locators (URLs),
2.113, 2.115
Urethane-based paints, 4.38
User groups, 2.110
User names, 2.114–115
Utilities, 1.4
V belts (See Belt drives)
Vacuum contacts, 6.60–61
Vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI)
insulation, 6.11–12, 6.12
Vacuum tubes, 8.68
Valves, 4.155–166, 5.185–200
air compressor check, 5.190–191
ball-check, 5.190
ball, 5.185, 5.196, 5.197
bolt tensioning in, 4.162
breech-lock globe-type, 5.194–95
bronze, 5.185, 5.187–189
butterfly, 5.185, 5.196, 5.198
cast iron, 5.186
cast steel, 5.186
check-type, 4.162–164, 5.185,
5.187–189, 5.192–195
cold working pressure (CWP) rating
for, 5.186
diaphragm-type, 4.160
disk-over-seat design principle in,
5.185
double-wedge rising stem gate,
5.191, 5.192
flat seat globe (600 Brinell), 5.188,
5.189
flow direction in, 4.156–157,
5.186–187
gate, 5.185, 5.187–189, 5.192–195
globe, 4.160, 5.185, 5.187–189,
5.192–195
grinding and refacing seats in,
4.162–163, 4.164
hard-facing of, 4.164–166
horizontal vs. vertical installation of,
4.157, 4.158
installation of, 4.158, 4.160
iron, 5.192–194
leaks in, 4.167
machining of, 4.163–164
maintenance of, 4.160
mounting of, 4.156
nonmetallic disk globe, 5.188, 5.189
nonmetallic disk lift–check, 5.189,
5.190
packing in, 4.160, 4.162
parts and nomenclature of, 5.199
in piping, 4.155–166, 4.182 5.200
plastic (PVC), 4.182, 4.182
pressure classes for, 5.186
pressure seal globe, 5.194–95
pressure vessels and, 5.186
regrinding lift-check, 5.189, 5.190
regulating-type, 4.160, 4.161
relief, 4.180, 4.181
renewable wedge-and-seat gate,
5.191–92
renewo (plug-type) globe, 5.188,
5.189, 5.190
INDEX I.25Valves, (Cont.):
reseating kits for, 4.164
screw-and-yoke rising stem gate,
5.191, 5.192
seat rings in, 4.164
single-wedge nonrising stem gate,
5.191, 5.192
solid-wedge rising stem gate, 5.191,
5.192
spare parts ordering and identification for, 5.196, 5.199–200
steam-operated, 4.160
steel, 5.194–95
swing check, 5.189, 5.190
threaded bonnet-globe-type, 5.188
traps and, 4.166–168
union-bonnet regrinding-type,
5.188–189
uses and applications for, 5.186–187
wear in, 5.186
(See also Piping)
Vane axial fans, 4.116–118, 4.116, 4.117
Vane-type positive displacement
pumps, 5.214
Vanes, fan, 4.126, 4.127, 4.128
vibration analysis and, 8.86
Variable inlet vanes, fan, 4.126, 4.127,
4.128
Variable speed drives (See Mechanical
variable/adjustable speed [MAS]
drives)
Velocity, in vibration analysis, 8.74–76,
8.77, 8.78, 8.79, 8.100
Velocity pressure (VP), 4.107–108
Velocity transducers, 8.100
Vendor training, 1.77
Ventilating fans and exhaust systems,
4.107–133
abrasive environment and, 4.122
Air Moving and Conditioning
Association (AMCA) and, 4.108
brake horsepower (bhp) in, 4.108,
4.115
corrosive environment and, 4.121–122
density change vs., 4.112, 4.113
fan and flow fundamentals in, 4.107
fan capacity (cfm) in, 4.107, 4.114,
4.115
fan performance laws in, 4.114–115
fan rating in, 4.108
fan types and recommended uses for,
4.115–120
fan volume-control devices in,
4.125–126
flammable gas/vapor and, 4.122–123
free delivery capacity in, 4.108
high temperature conditions in, 4.121
jet pump fans in, 4.120
noise in, 4.123–125
outlet velocity (OV) in, 4.108
packaged equipment for, 4.120
published performance data for,
4.108–113
roof exhaust fans in, 4.120
safety and protective devices for,
4.123, 4.129
severe duty fans for, 4.120–122
static efficiency (SE) in, 4.108
static no delivery pressure (SND) in,
4.108
static pressure (SP) in, 4.107, 4.115
terminology and definitions in,
4.107–108
tip speed in, 4.108
total efficiency (ME) in, 4.108
total pressure (TP) in, 4.108
troubleshooting of, 4.132–133
velocity pressure (VP) in, 4.107–108
(See also Fans)
Ventilation, for paints and protective
coatings, 4.43
Venturi scrubber, 4.139, 4.140
Very large system integration (VLSI),
2.42
Vibration analysis, 2.18–19, 8.71–108
vibration defined, 8.73–76
vibration meters, 8.101–103
cost of, 2.28
signature analysis in, 2.19
acceleration in, 8.74–76, 8.77, 8.78,
8.79, 8.100
acceptance testing using, 8.71–72
aircraft engine analysis using, 8.72,
8.74
alert and alarm limits in, 8.97–98
amplitude of vibration in, 8.77, 8.79
analysis techniques in, 8.106–108
backlash in, 8.85–86
ball (roller) spin frequency (BSF) in,
8.83, 8.84
ball pass inner race frequency
(BPFI) in, 8.83
ball pass outer race frequency
(BPFO) in, 8.83
for bearings, 8.82–84
for belt drives, 8.86
for bent shafts, 8.91
for blades and vanes, 8.86
broad- and narrowband data in,
2.18–19, 8.113
causes of vibration in, 8.76
characteristics of vibration in, 8.77–79
for compressors, 8.94–95
conical vs. cylindrical shaft rotation
and, 8.88
for continuous process lines, 8.81, 8.96
critical speed in, 8.87–88
cycles per second (cps) of vibration
in, 8.77
database development for, 8.96–98
alert and alarm limits in, 8.97–98
analysis parameters in, 8.97
frequency of data acquisition for,
8.96–97
signature analysis boundaries for,
8.97
for deformation of shaft, 8.88
displacement in, 8.74–76, 8.77, 8.78,
8.79
for electric motors, 6.19–21, 8.93
failure modes and, 8.90–96
for fans and blowers, 4.130–132,
4.131t, 8.94
Fourier series or transform in,
8.78–79
frequency domain in, 8.78–79
frequency of vibration in, 8.73, 8.77,
8.79, 8.89
fundamental train frequency (FTF)
in, 8.83
gear excitation in, 8.85
gear mesh in, 8.85
for gears, gear motors, and speed
reducers, 8.84–86, 8.93–94
for generators, 8.95
harmonic motion in, 8.77, 8.78, 8.79
identification chart of vibration in,
8.107
imbalance and, 8.90, 8.91
instruments for, 8.98–104
accelerometers in, 8.100, 8.101
displacement probes in, 8.99,
8.99, 8.100
installed system (permanent or
hard-wired), 8.103–105
mounting techniques for, 8.100
velocity transducers in, 8.100
vibration analyzer in, 8.103, 8.104
vibration meters in, 8.101–102,
8.103
leak detection and, 8.72
for linear motion machinery, 8.81
for loose parts detection using, 8.72,
8.92
machine design and engineering
using, 8.72
machinery dynamics and, 8.82–90
maintenance and, 8.104–105
measurement points for, 8.92–93,
8.100–101, 8.102
misalignment and, 8.90–91
mode shape in, 8.88
monitoring parameters for plant
machinery in, 8.79–81
noise control using, 8.72
order analysis in, 8.79, 8.87
period of vibration in, 8.73
phase or phase angle in, 8.75–76, 8.78
pickup device for, 8.80
predictive maintenance and, 8.71
preload and induced load in, 8.89
pressure variations and, 8.89–90
process of, 8.81
process variables and, 8.89–90
production optimization using, 8.73
for pumps, 8.89–90, 8.95–96
quality control using, 8.72
for radial offset shaft rotation, 8.88
for reciprocating machinery, 8.80–81
resonance and, 8.89
for roller bearings, 8.82–84
root cause failure analysis in,
8.106–108
for rotating machinery, 8.80
rubbing parts, mechanical rub and,
8.92
running speed and, 8.87
signature analysis boundaries in, 8.97
for sleeve bearings and, 8.84
starting program of, 8.104–108
time domain in, 8.78
trending techniques in, 8.105–106
velocity in, 8.74–76, 8.77, 8.78,
8.79, 8.100
vibration defined in, 8.73–76
(See also Predictive maintenance)
Vibration analyzer, 8.103, 8.104
Viscosity, oils, 2.21–22, 5.41–5.44,
8.132
Viscous liquids, pumping, 5.215
I.26 INDEXVisible band, 8.118
Visual inspections in predictive maintenance, 2.26–27
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
4.34, 4.36, 2.87
Volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM),
8.44–51, 8.44–48
Volt, 8.121
Voltage measurement, 8.52–53
Voltage requirements, in illumination
and lighting, 6.131, 6.139, 6.141
Voltmeters, 8.54–55
Volume-control devices, fans, 4.125–126
Vortex dampers, in air conditioning, 4.97
Vulcanized elastomers, 4.5, 4.9, 4.11–12
W.W. Grainger Web site, 2.116
Wages (See Compensation programs;
Incentive programs)
Warning signs, 1.21
Warranties, elevators and lifts, 4.73
Waste disposal, 1.5
Water-based paints, 4.36
Water-cooled condensers, in air conditioning, 4.91–92
Water distribution systems, for air conditioning, 4.93
Water filters, in air conditioning, 4.98–99
Water hammer, 4.150, 4.173
(See also Hydraulic hammer)
Water heaters, in air conditioning,
4.99–100
Water jetting, 11.25
Water tanks, paints and protective coatings for, 4.33
Water treatment/conditioning, for air
conditioning, 4.92, 4.106
Wattage measurement, 8.52–53
Wattmeters, 8.52, 8.53, 8.57–59
Watts, 8.121
Wavelength, infrared, in thermography,
8.112
Wear-particle analysis, lubricating oils,
2.23–24, 8.109, 8.133–138
Web sites of interest, 2.115–117
Wedge-and-seat gate valve, 5.191–92
Weighting, in worker efficiency ratings,
3.61–62
“Weld check” switch, in relays, 6.76
Welded aluminum scaffolds, 4.193–194
Welded sectional steel scaffolds,
4.194–195
Welding, 10.1–61, 10.63–92
ac/dc welding unit for, 10.55
accessory equipment for, 10.53–55
air-carbon arc cutting (CAC-A) and
gouging, 10.27–30, 10.28t,
10.29t
air-cooled engine set welder for,
10.53, 10.54
alloy steels and, 10.36–39, 10.38t,
10.39t
alloyed electrodes for, 10.6, 10.8–9t
aluminum, 10.39
American Welding Society (AWS)
and, 10.34
arc blow in, 10.50–51
atomic hydrogen, 10.34
automated equipment for, 10.41,
10.42
base metals and, 10.35–39, 10.35t
braze, 10.73, 10.75–80
butt joint in, 10.76, 10.77 10.78
capacity of welding machines and,
10.56–57
carbon steels and, 10.35–36, 10.35t
cast iron, fusion welding of,
10.79–80
“casual” vs. “critical” jobs in, 10.32
codes, specifications, and standards
for, 10.89–91t
copper and copper alloys, 10.39
corner joint in, 10.76, 10.77
direct current welder for, 10.53
distortion control in, 10.39–40
electrode holder for, 10.22, 10.55
electrodes for, 10.5, 10.6, 10.8t,
10.10, 10.21–22, 10.41, 10.43t
electrogas, 10.34
electroslag, 10.34
equipment selection and maintenance for, 10.50–55
fillet joint in, 10.76, 10.77
flux cored arc (FCAW), 10.10,
10.11, 10.15
fusion, 10.73, 10.76–80
gas-shielded metal arc (GMAW),
10.11–13, 10.14t, 10.15t, 10.15,
10.16, 10.39
gas-shielded spot, 10.34
gas tungsten arc (GTAW), 10.13,
10.16–27, 10.39
advantages and disadvantages of,
10.17–18
applicability of, 10.15
arc starting methods for, 10.25,
10.27
electrode holders and gas nozzles
for, 10.22
electrodes for, 10.21–22
manual techniques for, 10.24, 10.25
operating principles of, 10.18
polarity and, 10.18–20
power supply for, 10.16,
10.22–23, 10.24, 10.26t
process description of, 10.13
shielding gases and flow rates for,
10.20–21
torches for, 10.23–24
welding parameters for, 10.25
wiring/cable sizes for, 10.26t
gouging and, 10.84, 10.85
hard-facing using, 10.43–50,
10.85–88
check welding procedure for,
10.47–49
guide (pictorial) to, 10.46–47
material selection for, 10.45–46
submerged arc welding (SAW)
for, 10.49–51
surfacing electrodes for, 10.44–45
heavy steel or cast iron, braze welding of, 10.79
installation of equipment for,
10.55–56
melting points of metals and alloys
for, 10.88
metal inert gas (MIG), 10.11–13,
10.14t, 10.15t, 10.15, 10.16,
10.39
method selection for, 10.77–78,
10.81–82t
motor generators for, 10.52
nonferrous metals and, 10.39
operational guidelines for equipment
in, 10.56–59
oxyacetylene, 10.72
oxyacetylene cutting and, 10.27,
10.27, 10.28
oxyacetylene torch and, 10.72–84
oxygen cutting and, 10.80–84
parts fabrication using, 10.3–5
piping, 4.175–177, 4.178
plasma arc cutting and, 10.30–32,
10.34–35
power supply for, 10.16, 10.22–23,
10.24, 10.26t, 10.50–51
preheat calculator for, 10.36, 10.37
procedure sheet for, 10.32, 10.33
qualification of welders for, 10.33
repairs using, 10.3
resistance, 10.35
role of, in maintenance, 10.3–6
safety/protective equipment for,
10.53–55, 10.60, 10.61
scrap material for, 10.5–6
selection of process in, 10.32
sheet metal, 10.41–42
shielded metal arc (SMAW), 10.6,
10.7
soldering and brazing, air-acetylene,
10.63–72
spot, 10.34
stainless steels, 10.37–39, 10.38t,
10.39t
“stick,” 10.6, 10.7
structural, 10.5, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7
stud, 10.35
submerged arc (SAW), 10.10–11,
10.12, 10.13t, 10.40–41, 10.43t,
10.49–50, 10.51
tensile strength of electrodes/
materials in, 10.6, 10.8–9t
troubleshooting chart for, 10.59t
tungsten inert gas (TIG), 10.13,
10.16–27, 10.39
(See also Hard-facing; Soldering and
brazing)
Welding spatter, on brick masonry, as
stain, 4.60
Wet centrifugal scrubber, 4.138, 4.143
Wet collector dust collection systems
(scrubber), 4.137–139, 4.143
Wet dynamic scrubber, 4.138, 4.143
Wetting agents, 11.20
Wheatstone bridge, 8.62–63
Windings, in electric motor, 6.25–28
Wire brushing, 4.39
Wiring, thermography and, 8.116
Witte, A.C., 9.3
Wittel, Klaus, 11.3
Wojcik, Richard P., 4.107
Wood, paints and protective coatings
for, 4.32
Wood ladders, 4.185, 4.188–189, 4.191
Work allocation policies, 1.11–14
Work force policies, 1.15–19
(See also Personnel management)
Work force size, in centralized vs.
decentralized maintenance, 1.28
INDEX I.27Work measurement, 3.13–58
allowances in, 3.53–54
assigned maintenance manning in,
3.51–52, 3.53, 3.54
equipment records in, 3.23–25
estimated jobs and, 3.48–49
estimating standards for, 3.56–57
handling requirements and, 3.20–21
job or component standards in,
extension of standard data,
3.29–30, 3.33–35
methods for, 3.15–20
MTM data in, 3.27, 3.35–48, 3.53
nonrepetitive jobs and, 3.47–48
planning and scheduling in, 3.26
project orders and, 3.43
ratio delay technique in, 3.26, 3.50–56
reliability engineering role in, 3.13–15
repair orders and, 3.43, 3.47
repetitive jobs and, 3.17, 3.26, 3.47
standard data development sheets
for, 3.15–20
standardization and, of crews,
3.13–20, 3.21–23, 3.23–25
standing orders and, 3.42, 3.47
statistical or past performance methods in, 3.41–50
successful use of, 3.57–58
time studies in, 3.15–20, 3.26–50
work orders and, 3.43, 3.47–48
work sampling in (See Ratio delay
technique)
work simplification and, 3.52–53,
3.83–99
Work orders, 1.22–23, 2.31–40, 2.49,
2.50, 2.52–53, 2.55, 2.58–66
computerized, 2.52–53, 2.55, 2.58–66
planning groups for, 2.31
planning program benefits for,
2.32–35, 2.32
work measurement and, 3.43, 3.47–48
Work plans, 2.49
Work routine chart for sanitation and
housekeeping, 7.30
Work sampling (See Ratio delay technique)
Work simplification, 3.83–99
ability for, 3.85
applications for, in maintenance,
3.98–99
charting techniques for, 3.89
experts in, 3.83–84
five steps of method improvement
in, 3.87–88
flow process chart/diagram in,
3.89–92
law of intelligent action in, 3.84–86
motion economy and, four basic
principles of, 3.96–98
multiple activity process chart for,
3.92–96
practice of, 3.84
ratio delay technique in, 3.52–53
resistance to change and, 3.85–86
scientific method for, 3.86–88
solution of typical problem using,
3.94–96
theory of, 3.83
Work units, in scheduling, 1.12
Workload/time required for sanitation
and housekeeping, 7.23–29
Workshop training programs, 1.77
World Wide Web, 2.110, 2.111, 2.113,
2.115
(See also Internet for maintenance
and engineering)
Worm gears, 5.92, 5.147–150, 5.148,
5.153, 5.159t
X-ray, 8.118
Yahoo search engine, 2.117
Yahraus, William, A., 5.3
Ytterberg, Robert F., 4.19
Zinc
corrosion in, 11.7, 11.9
melting point of, 10.88
Zinc/zinc silicate coatings, 4.37
(See also Paints and protective coatings)
Zonal cavity method of illumination
calculation, 6.118, 6.121t,
6.121–125, 6.122t, 6.124–125
Zone control lubrication system, 9.23,
9.24
I.28 INDEX

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