Maintenance Engineering Handbook – Seventh Edition

Maintenance Engineering Handbook – Seventh Edition
اسم المؤلف
R. Keith Mobley, Lindley R. Higgins
التاريخ
27 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
335
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Maintenance Engineering Handbook
Seventh Edition
R. Keith Mobley Editor in Chief
Lindley R. Higgins , Darrin J. Wikoff , Seventh Edition
CONTENTS
Contributors ix
Foreword xi
Preface xii
SI Units and Conversion Factors xiii
Section 1 Organization and Management of the Maintenance
Function
Chapter 1. Redefining Maintenance—Delivering Reliability Scott Franklin 1.3
Chapter 2. Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Maintenance
R. Keith Mobley 1.9
Chapter 3. Maintenance and Reliability Engineering R. Keith Mobley 1.17
Chapter 4. Cooperative Partnerships Jeff Nevenhoven 1.23
Chapter 5. Effective Maintenance Organizations Randy Heisler 1.31
Chapter 6. Operating Policies of Effective Maintenance Tom Dabbs 1.39
Chapter 7. Six Sigma Safety: Applying Quality Management Principles
to Foster a Zero-Injury Safety Culture Michael Williamsen 1.55
Section 2 The Horizons of Maintenance Management
Chapter 1. Corrective Maintenance R. Keith Mobley 2.3
Chapter 2. Reliability-Based Preventive Maintenance R. Keith Mobley 2.7
Chapter 3. Predictive Maintenance R. Keith Mobley 2.19
For more information about this title, click hereChapter 4. Reliability-Centered Maintenance Darrin Wikoff 2.35
Chapter 5. Total Productive Maintenance R. Keith Mobley 2.41
Chapter 6. Maintenance Repair and Operations—Storeroom Excellence
Wally Wilson 2.59
Chapter 7. Computerized Planning and Scheduling Thomas A. Gober 2.79
Chapter 8. Computer-Based Maintenance Management Systems
R. Keith Mobley 2.91
Section 3 Engineering and Analysis Tools
Chapter 1. Economics of Reliability Robert Fei 3.3
Chapter 2. Work Measurement Bruce Wesner 3.19
Chapter 3. Rating and Evaluating Maintenance Workers Robert (Bob) Call 3.65
Chapter 4. Work Simplification in Maintenance Al Emeneker 3.89
Chapter 5. Estimating Repair and Maintenance Costs Tim Kister 3.107
Chapter 6. Key Performance Indicators John Cray 3.121
Chapter 7. Maintenance Engineer’s Toolbox Shon Isenhour 3.133
Chapter 8. Root Cause Analysis Darrin Wikoff 3.153
Section 4 Maintenance of Plant Facilities
Chapter 1. Maintenance of Low-Sloped Membrane Roofs
Donald R. Mapes and Dennis J. McNeil 4.3
Chapter 2. Concrete Industrial Floor Surfaces: Design, Installation,
Repair, and Maintenance Robert F. Ytterberg 4.17
iv CONTENTSChapter 3. Maintenance and Cleaning of Brick Masonry Structures
Brian E. Trimble 4.27
Chapter 4. Maintenance of Elevators and Special Lifts Jerry Robertson 4.43
Chapter 5. Air-Conditioning Equipment Martin A. Scicchitano 4.53
Chapter 6. Ventilating Fans and Exhaust Systems R. Keith Mobley 4.87
Chapter 7. Dust-Collecting and Air-Cleaning Equipment
Lee Twombly and Samuel G. Dunkle 4.111
Section 5 Maintenance of Mechanical Equipment
Chapter 1. Plain Bearings R. Keith Mobley 5.3
Chapter 2. Rolling-Element Bearings Daniel R. Snyder 5.19
Chapter 3. Flexible Couplings for Power Transmission Terry Hall 5.45
Chapter 4. Chains for Power Transmission Frank B. Kempf 5.73
Chapter 5. Cranes: Overhead and Gantry William S. Chapin 5.83
Chapter 6. Chain Hoists R. C. Dearstyne 5.91
Chapter 7. Belt Drives Dan Parsons and Tim Taylor 5.99
Chapter 8. Mechanical Variable-Speed Drives Carl March 5.145
Chapter 9. Gear Drives and Speed Reducers Robert G. Smith 5.161
Chapter 10. Reciprocating Air Compressors R. Keith Mobley 5.185
Chapter 11. Valves Terry Hall 5.197
Chapter 12. Pumps: Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Carl March 5.213
CONTENTS vSection 6 Maintenance of Electrical Equipment
Chapter 1. Electric Motors Shon Isenhour 6.3
Chapter 2. Maintenance of Motor Control Components Shon Isenhour 6.39
Chapter 3. Maintenance of Industrial Batteries (Lead-Acid,
Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Iron) Terry Hall 6.79
Section 7 Instruments and Reliability Tools
Chapter 1. Mechanical Instruments for Measuring Process Variables
R. Keith Mobley 7.3
Chapter 2. Electrical Instruments for Measuring, Servicing, and Testing
R. Keith Mobley 7.43
Chapter 3. Vibration: Its Analysis and Correction R. Keith Mobley 7.69
Chapter 4. An Introduction to Thermography R. Keith Mobley 7.105
Chapter 5. Tribology R. Keith Mobley 7.127
Section 8 Lubrication
Chapter 1. The Organization and Management of Lubrication
F. Alverson, T. C. Mead, W. H. Stein, and A. C. Witte 8.3
Chapter 2. Lubricating Devices and Systems Duane C. Allen 8.13
Chapter 3. Planning and Implementing a Good Lubrication Program
R. Keith Mobley 8.27
Section 9 Chemical Corrosion Control and Cleaning
Chapter 1. Corrosion Control Denny Bardoliwalla and Klaus Wittel 9.3
Chapter 2. Industrial Chemical Cleaning Methods
Robert Haydu, W. Emerson Brantley III, and Jerry Casenhiser 9.17
vi CONTENTSChapter 3. Painting and Protective Coatings Bryant (Web) Chandler 9.35
Chapter 4. Piping Tyler G. Hicks 9.55
Chapter 5. Scaffolds and Ladders Colin P. Bennett 9.91
Section 10 Maintenance Welding
Chapter 1. Arc Welding in Maintenance J. E. Hinkel 10.3
Chapter 2. Gas Welding in Maintenance
Engineers of L-TEC Welding and Cutting Systems 10.63
Index I.1
A3 process, 3.155–3.159
form for, 3.158–3.159
steps of, 3.156–3.158
Ability, in law of intelligent action, 3.91
Abrasion, with ventilating fans, 4.99–4.100
Abrasion method, 9.30
Abrasion resistance, 4.21
Abrasive wear, 10.43–10.44
ABS, for corrosion control, 9.10
Absolute-pressure elements, 7.18
Absorbers, gas, 4.113, 4.114
Absorption, atmospheric, 7.113
Absorption machines:
leak testing for, 4.66
leaktightness, 4.65
maintenance of, 4.64–4.65
pumps, 4.66
purge units, 4.66
safeties, 4.66
service valves, 4.66
Absorptivity, 7.113
AC (alternating current), 7.115
AC induction motors, 6.3–6.9
construction of, 6.6
design of, 6.7
insulation for, 6.7–6.8
speed-torque characteristics of, 6.6–6.7
temperature of, 6.8–6.9
theory for, 6.6
troubleshooting, 6.20–6.25
AC instruments, 7.56
AC motors, 6.3–6.6
AC volts, 7.53–7.55
Accelerating voltages, 7.66
Acceleration, of vibration, 7.75, 7.77
Accelerometers, 7.97
Acceptable operating envelope, 3.171
Acceptance testing, 7.69
Accessory equipment, 10.52–10.55
Accounting function, 2.106–2.107
Acetal homopolymers, 9.10
Acid(s):
citric, 9.20
cleaning with, 9.20–9.21
inhibited muriatic acid (HCl), 9.20
inhibited sulfuric acid, 9.20–9.21
inorganic, 9.20–9.21
cleaning with, 9.20–9.21
inhibited muriatic acid (HCl), 9.20
inhibited sulfuric acid, 9.20–9.21
nitric acid, 9.21
Acid(s): inorganic (Cont.)
phosphoric acids, 9.21
sulfuric acid, 9.21
monoammoniated citric acids, 9.20
nitric, 9.21
organic, 9.20
phosphoric, 9.21
sulfuric, 9.21
Acid cleaning, 9.86, 9.87
Acid number, 8.31
Across-the-flex element:
of flexible couplings, 5.67–5.71
horizontal alignment solution for, 5.70–5.71
vertical alignment solution for, 5.67–5.70
Action item matrix (AIM), 1.58–1.60
Active descriptions, 3.140
A/D conversion, 7.113
Adjustable pulleys, 4.74
Adjustable while in motion (nonenclosed)
friction drives, 5.145–5.151
Adjustable-type relays, 6.68
Administrative skills, 1.35
Aesthetics, painting for, 9.37–9.38
Aftercoolers, 5.193
AIM (action item matrix), 1.58–1.60
Air, entrained, 5.217–5.218
Air compressors, 5.185–5.196
and aftercoolers, 5.193
and air filters, 5.186, 5.187
and air receivers, 5.187
bearings in, 5.192–5.193
capacity of, 5.187
cleaning, 5.193
foundation of, 5.185–5.186
and intercoolers, 5.193
location of, 5.185, 5.187
lubrication of, 5.188–5.189
nonlubricated cylinders in, 5.189
packing, 5.193–5.196
piston rings in, 5.191–5.192
starting new, 5.188
and suction lines, 5.186, 5.187
unloading, 5.193
valves of, 5.189–5.191
Air conditioners (see Air-conditioning equipment)
Air filters, 4.76–4.77, 5.186, 5.187
Air motors, 4.84
Air receivers, 5.187
Air washers, 4.66–4.67
cleaning, 4.66
fans in, 4.66
Air washers (Cont.)
lubrication of, 4.66–4.67
maintenance of, 4.66–4.67
Air-acetylene appliances, 10.63–10.71
applications of, 10.70–10.71
automobile body soldering, 10.67
electrical connections, 10.67–10.68
paint burning, 10.69–10.70
precautions with, 10.63–10.64
safety considerations with, 10.63–10.64
sheet metal working, 10.65–10.67
soldering, 10.64–10.65
sweat-type fittings, 10.68–10.69
Air-carbon arc cutting (CAC-A), 10.27–10.30
Air-cleaning (dust control) equipment,
4.111–4.124
electrostatic precipitators, 4.117–4.118
fans in, 4.121–4.122
maintenance of, 4.120–4.122
sludge settling tanks, 4.121
exhaust ducts
maintenance of, 4.122
preventative maintenance of, 4.123
exhaust hoods
maintenance of, 4.122
preventative maintenance of, 4.123
fabric filtration, 4.116–4.117, 4.120
fans in, 4.121–4.122
gas absorbers, 4.113, 4.114
inertial (dry centrifugal), 4.112, 4.119
maintenance of, 4.118–4.124
electrostatic precipitators, 4.120–4.122
exhaust ducts, 4.122
exhaust hoods, 4.122
fabric filtration, 4.120
inertial equipment, 4.119
wet collectors, 4.119–4.120
orifice type scrubbers, 4.120
packed scrubbers, 4.119
particulate scrubbers, 4.114, 4.115
and sludge settling tanks, 4.121
types of, 4.112–4.118
wet centrifugal scrubbers, 4.119–4.120
wet collectors (scrubbers), 4.112, 4.113
maintenance of, 4.119–4.120
orifice type, 4.120
packed scrubbers, 4.119
wet centrifugal, 4.119–4.120
wet dynamic, 4.120
wet dynamic scrubbers, 4.120
Air-compressor check valve, 5.201–5.202
Air-conditioning equipment, 4.53–4.85
absorption machines, 4.64–4.65
and air motors, 4.84
air washers, 4.66–4.67
air-cooled condensers, 4.69
belt drives, 4.73–4.74
centrifugal compressors, 4.67–4.68
coils, 4.68–4.69, 4.84
components of, 4.57–4.58
and compressed-air lines, 4.84
and condensers, 4.70, 4.84
coolers, 4.71
cooling loads, 4.53–4.55
latent loads, 4.54
from lights, 4.54
occupancy loads, 4.54
outside-air loads, 4.54
removal of, 4.54
size of, 4.54–4.55
sun loads, 4.53
transmission loads, 4.53–4.54
cooling towers, 4.71–4.73
dampers, 4.73
dehumidifiers, 4.80
economizers, 4.74–4.75
equipment for, 4.57
evaporative condensers, 4.69–4.70, 4.84
fans, 4.75–4.76
filters, 4.76–4.78
freezing issues with
air motors, 4.84
coils, 4.68–4.69, 4.84
compressed-air lines, 4.84
condensers, 4.70, 4.71, 4.84
damage from, 4.83
evaporative condensers, 4.70, 4.84
prevention of, 4.83–4.84
susceptible areas, 4.84
water coils, 4.84
water lines, 4.84
water-cooled condensers, 4.71
well pumps, 4.84
heat pumps, 4.79–4.80
heaters, 4.78–4.79
and heating loads, 4.55
humidifiers, 4.80
installation of, 4.61
latent loads, 4.54
loads on, 4.53–4.55
cooling, 4.53–4.55
heating, 4.55
maintenance of, 4.61–4.85
absorption machines, 4.64–4.65
air washers, 4.66–4.67
air-cooled condensers, 4.69
belt drives, 4.73–4.74
centrifugal compressors, 4.67–4.68
coils, 4.68–4.69
coolers, 4.71
cooling towers, 4.71–4.73
dampers, 4.73
dehumidifiers, 4.80
economizers, 4.74–4.75
evaporative condensers, 4.69–4.70
fans, 4.75–4.76
filters, 4.76–4.78
with freeze protection, 4.83–4.84
heat pumps, 4.79–4.80
heaters, 4.78–4.79
Air-conditioning equipment, maintenance of
(Cont.)
humidifiers, 4.80
operating logs for, 4.63
pumps, 4.80–4.81
requirements for, 4.63, 4.64
responsibility for, 4.61
rooftop units, 4.81–4.82
room air conditioners, 4.82–4.83
self-contained units, 4.83
spare parts, 4.63
training for, 4.63
and water conditioning, 4.84–4.85
water-cooled condensers, 4.70–4.71
occupancy loads, 4.54
and operating logs, 4.63
outside-air loads, 4.54
preventative maintenance for, 4.61
pumps, 4.80–4.81
refrigeration, 4.55–4.56
equipment for, 4.58–4.61
measuring, 4.55–4.56
and oil, 4.58
and refrigerant, 4.58
responsibility for, 4.61
rooftop units, 4.81–4.82
room air conditioners, 4.82–4.83
self-contained, 4.83
spare parts for, 4.63
sun loads, 4.53
training for, 4.63
transmission loads, 4.53–4.54
and water coils, 4.84
water conditioning, 4.84–4.85
corrective measures for, 4.85
definitions of, 4.85
problems with, 4.84–4.85
and water lines, 4.84
water-cooled condensers, 4.70–4.71
and well pumps, 4.84
Air-cooled condensers:
cleaning of, 4.69
inspection of, 4.69
lubrication of, 4.69
maintenance of, 4.69
Aircraft engines, 7.71
Air-receivers, 5.187
Alarm (alert) limits, 7.94–7.95
Algae, in cooling towers, 4.72
Alignment:
of belt drives, 4.74
of cooling towers, 4.72
of face/rim, 5.63, 5.66, 5.67
of fans, 4.76
of flexible couplings, 5.54–5.56
horizontal, 5.61–5.63, 5.66, 5.67, 5.70–5.71
vertical, 5.59–5.61, 5.63, 5.66–5.70
Alkaline cleaners, 9.20
Alkyd coatings, 9.43
Alligatoring, 9.47
Allowance determination, 3.59, 3.60
Alloy steels, 10.36–10.39
high-manganese steels, 10.39
high-tensile low-alloy steels, 10.36
stainless clad steels, 10.38
stainless steels, 10.36, 10.38
straight chromium steels, 10.38
and welding, 10.36–10.39
Alterations, maintenance for, 1.10
Alternate displays, 7.66
Alternating current (ac), 7.115 (See also AC)
Alternating current-instruments, 7.56
Alternators:
defined, 7.115
motor, 7.116
Aluminum:
for corrosion control, 9.9
and welding, 10.39
Aluminum complex soaps, 8.10
Aluminum ladders, 9.92
Aluminum scaffolding, 9.101–9.103, 9.105,
9.106
Aluminum soaps, 8.9
Ambient measurements, 7.110
Ambient temperature, 7.113
American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
9.93
Ammeters, 7.51–7.52
Ampacity, 7.115
Amperage, 7.115
Amperes, 7.53, 7.115
Amplitude, 7.77
Analog infrared equipment, 7.110
Analog multimeters, 7.44–7.48
Analogue data, 7.113
Analysis(-es):
break-even, 3.14
broadband data for, 7.104
cause-and-effect, 3.138–3.139
computerized systems for, 2.88–2.90
cost-benefit, 7.135
for lubricating oil analysis, 7.135
for tribology, 7.135
cost-effectiveness, 3.14
electric motor analysis, 2.29–2.30
insulation resistance, 2.29–2.30
testing, 2.30
of equipment, 2.90
failure analysis
for FSIs, 2.11–2.12
root-cause, 7.104
first level logic tree analysis, 2.12–2.13
fuel, 8.31–8.32
infrared, 8.32
life cycle cost analyses, 3.136
logic tree analysis, 2.12–2.14
first level, 2.12–2.13
second level, 2.14
lubricant, 8.30–8.32
and microorganisms, 8.32
and sediment, 8.32
and sugar, 8.32
and sulfur, 8.32
and viscosity, 8.32
and viscosity index, 8.32
and water, 8.32
lubricating oil analysis, 2.25–2.26, 7.128–7.129
contamination, 2.25, 7.128
cost-benefit analysis for, 7.135
fuel dilution, 2.25, 7.128
fuel soot, 2.26, 7.128
nitration, 2.26, 7.129
oxidation, 2.26, 7.128
particle count, 2.26, 7.129
solids content, 2.25, 7.128
total acid number, 2.26, 7.129
total base number, 2.26, 7.129
viscosity, 7.128
I.2 INDEXAnalysis(-es) (Cont.)
in lubrication programs, 8.29–8.30
maintainability, 3.136–3.137
narrowband data for, 7.104
oil, 7.129
operating dynamics analysis, 2.31
Pareto, 3.141–3.142
of parts inventory, 2.89
root cause analysis (RCA), 153–3.176
A3 process, 3.155–3.159
for acceptable operating envelope, 3.171
analysis for, 3.159
application review, 3.172–3.174
capacity restrictions, 3.176
for clarifying problems, 3.166–3.168
concept of, 3.154–3.155
damage, 3.175–3.176
data for, 3.168–3.169
design review, 3.169–3.172
for economic performance, 3.176
for equipment damage/failure,
3.175–3.176
event-reporting format for, 3.165–3.166
and facts, 3.168–3.169
failure, 3.175–3.176
and five whys (5W), 3.161
formal process for, 3.161–3.163
identifying events with, 3.163–3.166
incident classification, 3.174–3.176
for incoming-project specifications, 3.171
methodology for, 3.154–3.155, 3.163
objectives of, 3.171
for operating performance, 3.176
for output-product specifications, 3.171
personnel requirements for, 3.163
physical evidence for, 3.168–3.169
problem solving with, 3.174
process for, 3.159–3.163
for product quality, 3.176
and regulatory compliance, 3.176
reporting for, 3.165–3.166
requirement of, 3.169
for safety, 3.176
for system damage/failure, 3.175–3.176
and visual inspection, 3.159–3.161
for work performed, 3.171
root-cause failure analysis, 7.104
second level logic tree analysis, 2.14
sequence-of-events analysis, 3.139–3.141
active descriptions in, 3.140
in logical order, 3.139
precision of, 3.140
qualifiers in, 3.141
SFMEA, 3.133–3.137
and life cycle cost analyses, 3.136
and maintainability analysis, 3.136–3.137
and mean time between failures (MTBF),
3.136
and reliability block diagram (RBD), 3.136
and reliability predictions, 3.136
and Simplified Failure Mode, Effect, and
Criticality Analysis (SFMECA),
3.135
SFMECA, 3.135
signature, 2.23
spectrographic, 7.129
statistical analyses tools, 3.141–3.152
techniques for, 7.104
for tribology, 7.135
Analysis(-es) (Cont.)
of vibration, 7.69–7.71
wear particle analysis, 2.26–2.28,
7.129–7.134
cost-benefit analysis for, 7.135
cutting wear, 2.27, 7.131, 7.132
monitoring and trending, 7.130
for particulate matter, 7.130–7.134
rolling fatigue, 2.27
rolling wear, 2.27
rubbing wear, 2.27
sliding wear, 2.27
of work controls, 2.89
of work orders, 2.88
Analytical cost estimate model, 3.15
Analytical ferrography, 8.31
Analytical models, 3.15
Angular (face) solution, 5.63, 5.66
ANSI (American National Standards
Institute), 9.93
Application review, 3.172–3.174
installation, 3.172
maintenance history, 3.173
maintenance procedures, 3.174
operating envelope, 3.172
operating procedures, 3.173
Aqueous solutions, 9.14–9.15
Arc chambers, 6.45–6.46
Arc welding, 10.3–10.60
flux-cored (FCAW), 10.10
gas-shielded metal (GMAW), 10.11–10.13
role of, 10.3–10.6
shielded metal (SMAW), 10.6–10.9
submerged (SAW), 10.10–10.11
Armature, 7.115
Arresters, 7.115, 7.116
Ash, 8.31
Asset care, 1.19
Asset management, life cycle, 1.18
Assignment maintenance mechanics, 3.58–3.59
Astigmatism, 7.66
ASTM standards, 9.51–9.54
Atmospheric absorption, 7.113
Atmospheric attenuation, 7.113
Atmospheric emission, 7.113
Atmospheric pressure, 7.8–7.10
Atmospheric radiance, 7.113
Atmospheric reflectance, 7.113
Atomic hydrogen welding, 10.34
Attenuation, atmospheric, 7.113
Attenuators, 7.66, 7.115
Authority, 1.48–1.49
Automatic costs allocation, 2.106–2.107
Automatic dampers, 4.73
Automatic lubrication system, 8.13–8.26
centralized, 8.14–8.16
duoline systems, 8.20, 8.21
ejection systems, 8.23–8.24
injection systems, 8.24
injector systems, 8.17
oil mis systems, 8.16
orifice-control systems, 8.16–8.17
pump-to-point systems, 8.20–8.21
selection of, 8.25–8.26
series-progressive systems, 8.17–8.19
twin-line systems, 8.19–8.20
types of, 8.16
zone-control systems, 8.21, 8.22
Automatic triggering, 7.66
Automobile body soldering, 10.67
Autoranging, 7.50
Averages/ratios, 3.111
Averaging bulbs, 7.23
Awareness, painting for, 9.37–9.38
Axial fans, 4.95
Backlash, 7.83
Backlogs, 2.79
Backward-curved-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96
Balanced scorecard (BSC), 3.124–3.127
Ball check valve, 5.201–5.202
Ball valves, 5.207–5.208
Banded (joint) belts, 5.120–5.121
Bands, 7.113, 7.114
Bandwidth:
defined, 7.113
of oscilloscopes, 7.66–7.67
Bar coding, 2.71–2.73
Base metals, 10.35–10.39
alloy steels, 10.36–10.39
carbon steels, 10.35–10.36
nonferrous metals, 10.39
and welding, 10.35–10.39
Base numbers, 8.31
Basic gear drives, 5.164
Batteries, 6.79–6.103
charging
lead-acid batteries, 6.81–6.85
nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.93–6.94
nickel-iron batteries, 6.100–6.101
of standby-power batteries, 6.100–6.101
cleaning, 6.101–6.102
constant-current method for, 6.84
cycled, 6.100
and electrolytes, 6.102–6.103
equalizing charge for, 6.95
float charging, 6.94
for infrared equipment, 7.110
installation of
lead-acid batteries, 6.80–6.81
nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.92–6.93
internal inspection for, 6.86–6.87
lead-acid, 6.80–6.89
charging, 6.81–6.85
condition of, 6.86–6.87
constant-current method for, 6.84
installation of, 6.80–6.81
internal inspection for, 6.86–6.87
maintenance of, 6.85–6.86
modified constant-voltage method for,
6.82–6.83
operation of, 6.80–6.81
overdischarging, 6.86
placement of, 6.81
records for, 6.86
repairs to, 6.88–6.89
taper method for, 6.84
test discharge for, 6.86
troubleshooting, 6.87–6.88
two-rate method for, 6.84
life expectancy for, 6.91–6.92
maintenance of
lead-acid, 6.85–6.86
nickel-cadmium, 6.95–6.99
nickel-iron batteries, 6.101–6.103
modified constant-voltage method for,
6.82–6.83
nickel-cadmium, 6.89–6.99
INDEX I.3Batteries, nickel-cadmium (Cont.)
charging, 6.93–6.94
construction of, 6.90
equalizing charge for, 6.95
float charging, 6.94
installation of, 6.92–6.93
life expectancy for, 6.91–6.92
maintenance of, 6.95–6.99
performance of, 6.91
plate processing for, 6.90
and pocket plates, 6.90–6.91
selection of, 6.92
and sintered plates, 6.91
trickle charging, 6.94–6.95
voltage of, 6.91
nickel-iron, 6.99–6.103
charging, 6.100–6.101
cleaning, 6.101–6.102
cycling, 6.100, 6.102
and electrolytes, 6.102–6.103
laying up, 6.102
maintenance for, 6.101–6.103
operation of, 6.99–6.100
watering, 6.101
and overdischarging, 6.86
performance of, 6.91
plate processing for, 6.90
and pocket plates, 6.90–6.91
and sintered plates, 6.91
standby-power, 6.100–6.101
taper method for, 6.84
test discharge for, 6.86
trickle charging, 6.94–6.95
troubleshooting, 6.87–6.88
two-rate method for, 6.84
voltage of, 6.91
watering, 6.101
Beam finders, 7.67
Beams, dual, 7.67
Bearing mountings, 5.28–5.32
Bearings:
in air compressors, 5.192–5.193
antifriction, 6.12
of centrifugal compressors, 4.68
dismounting, 5.38–5.39
dynamics of, 7.80–7.82
fan, 4.75–4.76
grease-lubricated antifriction bearings, 6.12
hot, 5.118, 5.123, 5.137, 5.142
oil-lubricated sleeve bearings, 6.12–6.13
overheated, 4.110
plain, 5.3–5.18
bimetals for, 5.5
cleaning, 5.3–5.4
conformability of, 5.4
corrosion resistance of, 5.4
design of, 5.6–5.9
embedability of, 5.4
fatigue strength of, 5.4
inspection of, 5.9–5.15
location of, 5.7–5.8
and lubrication, 5.8–5.9
materials for, 5.4–5.5
monometals for, 5.5
preventative maintenance for, 5.3–5.4
reconditioning, 5.9, 5.15–5.18
rolling-element, 5.19–5.44, 7.80–7.81
bearing mountings, 5.28–5.32
boundary dimensions for, 5.20, 5.23
Bearings: rolling-elemen (Cont.)
design for, 5.20
dismounting of, 5.33, 5.38–5.40
failure of, 5.19
fit of, 5.25–5.26
housing of, 5.25–5.26
load ratings for, 5.24–5.25
lubrication for, 5.41–5.44
mounting of, 5.33–5.38
nomenclature for, 5.20
series, 5.23, 5.24
shafts of, 5.25–5.26
sleeve, 6.12–6.13, 7.81–7.82
used, 5.9–5.14
ventilating fans, 4.107, 4.110
vibration of, 7.80–7.82
Beautification, painting for, 9.37–9.38
Behavioral expectations, 2.111
Bellows-actuated flowmeters, 7.5–7.7, 7.16–7.18
design of, 7.5–7.6
operation of, 7.6–7.7
Belt drives, 4.73–4.74
adjustable pulleys in, 4.74
alignment of, 4.74
and conventional mount synchronous
sprockets, 5.130
couplings in, 4.74
curvilinear, 5.124
direct-connected, 4.74
dynamics of, 7.83–7.84
friction-type, 5.145–5.147
maintenance of, 4.73–4.74
modified curvilinear, 5.124
packaged, 5.155–5.156
replacement of, 4.74
and reverse mount synchronous sprockets,
5.130
service life of, 4.73, 4.74
synchronous, 5.123–5.127, 5.129–5.142
application guidelines for, 5.129
curvilinear belts, 5.124
guidelines for, 5.129
installation of, 5.129–5.131
maintenance of, 5.131–5.135
modified curvilinear belts, 5.124
nomenclature for, 5.126–5.127
and QD bushings, 5.130–5.131
tensioning, 5.135–5.136
timing belts, 5.124
tooth pitch, 5.124
tooth profiles, 5.124–5.125
troubleshooting, 5.136–5.142
synchronous sprockets, 5.127–5.129
conventional mount, 5.130
diameter of, 5.127
guidelines for, 5.129
reverse mount, 5.130
and tensioning, 4.74
in synchronous belts, 5.135–5.136
in V-belt drives, 5.115–5.116
timing belts, 5.124
troubleshooting
synchronous belts, 5.136–5.142
V-belt drives, 5.117–5.123
V-, 5.99–5.143
application guidelines for, 5.103–5.108
datum length of, 5.101
dimensions of, 5.99–5.103
effective length of, 5.101, 5.102
Belt drives, V- (Cont.)
length of, 5.101–5.102
maintenance of, 5.112–5.115
QD bushings, 5.111
tension of, 5.115–5.116
tensioning, 5.115–5.116
and TL bushings, 5.111
troubleshooting, 5.117–5.123
and V-belt sheaves, 5.102–5.103,
5.108–5.112
and ventilating fans, 4.106, 4.108
vibration of, 7.83–7.84
Belt guards, 4.106
Belt transmissions, 5.153–5.155
Belts (see Belt drives)
Benefit-cost method, 3.14
Bent shafts, 7.89
Best practices:
inventory management, 2.61
for key performance indicators (KPIs), 3.129
BHP (brake horsepower), 5.220
Bills of material, 2.94
Bimetals, for plain bearings, 5.5
Bi-modal histograms, 3.149
Bipolar input, 7.49
Bitumen roofing membranes, modified, 4.4
Blades, 7.83
Blanking, 7.67
Blisters, 4.12, 9.47
Block-and-jaw (Oldham) couplings, 5.49–5.50
Blowers, 7.91
Bolt tension (see Tensioning)
Bolting, 9.83–9.86
Bourdon tubes, 7.15–7.18
Braided shunts, 6.46
Brake horsepower (BHP), 5.220
Braze welding, 10.74–10.75
Brazing, 10.71–10.72
Breakdown maintenance, 1.41–1.42, 2.3
Break-even analysis, 3.14
Brick masonry structures, 4.27–4.40
bronze stains on, 4.38
brown (manganese) stains on, 4.36–4.37
cleaning, 4.31–4.40
failures of, 4.31–4.32
hand washing, 4.35
procedures for, 4.32–4.36
of stains, 4.36–4.40
copper stains on, 4.38
cracked walls, 4.30–4.31
replacing units for, 4.30–4.31
and vertical expansion joints, 4.31
dirt stains on, 4.38
and efflorescence, 4.36
egg splatter on, 4.39
face grouting for, 4.29
failures of, 4.31–4.32
flashings, 4.29
green stain (vanadium salts) on, 4.36
hand washing for, 4.35
and high-pressure cold water, 4.33
and high-pressure steam, 4.33
historic structures, 4.40
inspection of, 4.27
iron stains on, 4.37–4.38
ivy stains on, 4.39
leaky walls, 4.27–4.30
face grouting, 4.29
flashings, 4.29
I.4 INDEXBrick masonry structures, leaky walls (Cont.)
tuckpointing, 4.28–4.29
water repellents for, 4.30
oil stains on, 4.38
paint stains on, 4.37
paper stains on, 4.39
plant growth on, 4.39
and poultice, 4.37
routine inspection of, 4.27
sandblasting, 4.33, 4.35
smoke stains on, 4.38
stains on, 4.36–4.40
from bronze, 4.38
brown (manganese) stain, 4.36–4.37
cleaning of, 4.36–4.40
from copper, 4.38
from dirt, 4.38
from egg splatter, 4.39
green stain (vanadium salts), 4.36
from iron, 4.37–4.38
from ivy, 4.39
from oil, 4.38
from paint, 4.37
from paper, 4.39
from plant growth, 4.39
from poultice, 4.37
from smoke, 4.38
from straw, 4.39
from tar, 4.38
of unknown origin, 4.39–4.40
from welding splatter, 4.38
from white scum, 4.39
straw stains on, 4.39
tar stains on, 4.38
tuckpointing, 4.28–4.29
and vertical expansion joints, 4.31
water repellents, 4.30
welding splatter on, 4.38
white scum on, 4.39
Brightness, 7.67
Broadband data, 7.104
Broadband trending, 2.22–2.23
Broken strands, 7.112
Bronze check valves, 5.201–5.203
air-compressor check valve, 5.201–5.202
ball check valve, 5.201–5.202
nonmetallic-disk lift-check valve, 5.201
regrinding lift-check valve, 5.201
Renewo lift-check valve, 5.201
swing-check valve, 5.201
Bronze gate valves, 5.203–5.204
double-wedge rising-stem, 5.204
renewable-wedge-and-seat bronze, 5.204
screw-and-yoke rising-stem, 5.204
single-wedge nourishing-stem, 5.204
solid-wedge rising-stem, 5.204
Bronze globe valves, 5.200–5.201
600-Brinnel flat-seat, 5.201
nonmetallic-disk, 5.201
plug-type Renewo, 5.201
threaded-bonnet, 5.200
union-bonnet regrinding valve, 5.200
Bronze stains, 4.38
Bronze valves, 5.199–5.204
check valves, 5.201–5.203
gate valves, 5.203–5.204
globe valves, 5.200–5.201
Brown (manganese) stains, 4.36–4.37
Brushes, 7.115
BSC (balanced scorecard), 3.124–3.127
Bubbling, 9.47
Budget:
CMMS for, 2.102
preparation of, 2.102
tracking, 2.102, 2.107
Building maintenance, 1.10
Built-up roofing membranes, 4.4, 4.11
Bulbs, 7.23
Bulk storage, 8.7
Burning, of gear-tooth, 5.182
Bus support insulators, 6.75
Bushings:
QD, 5.111, 5.130–5.131
TL, 5.111, 5.131
of transformers, 7.112
Business plan, 1.36
Busy ducts, 7.111
Butterfly valves, 5.208
Bypass operation, 5.222
°C (Celsius degree), 7.113
CAC-A (air-carbon arc cutting), 10.27–10.30
Calcium complex soaps, 8.11
Calcium soaps, 8.10
Calibration:
field calibration, 7.38–7.39
of flowmeters, 7.33–7.35
of pressure gages, 7.38–7.40
of relative-humidity-measuring instruments,
7.40
shop calibration, 7.39–7.40
of thermometers, 7.36
Capacitors:
defined, 7.115
and infrared technology, 7.112
Capacity:
of air compressors, 5.187
of air-receivers, 5.187
of fans, 4.75
in law of intelligent action, 3.91–3.92
and predictive maintenance, 2.33
restrictions, 3.176
of ventilating fans, 4.109
Capital cost, 7.134
Carbon steels, 10.35–10.36
cast iron, 10.36
and welding, 10.35–10.36
Cascade method, 9.23–9.24
Cast iron:
carbon steels, 10.36
fusion welding, 10.78
hard facing for, 10.85
welding, 10.36
Cathodic protection, 9.13
Cause-and-effect analysis, 3.138–3.139
Cause-&-effect diagrams, 1.64–1.67
Caustic soda plus potassium permanganate, 9.20
Caustic soda-surfactant alkalies, 9.20
Cavitation:
corrosion, 9.6
and plain bearings, 5.14
Celsius degrees (°C), 7.113
Centralization, 1.45–1.46
Centralized automatic lubrication system,
8.14–8.16
efficiency with, 8.15
and housekeeping, 8.16
and operating costs, 8.16
Centralized automatic lubrication system (Cont.)
productivity with, 8.16
safety with, 8.14
Centrifugal compressors, 4.67–4.68
bearings of, 4.68
leak testing for, 4.68
lubrication of, 4.67–4.68
maintenance of, 4.67–4.68
oil heater of, 4.68
purge unit, 4.68
and refrigerant, 4.68
safeties of, 4.68
shutdown of, 4.68
Centrifugal fans, 4.97
Centrifugal pumps, 5.213–5.222
brake horsepower (BHP) for, 5.220
bypass operation of, 5.222
configuration of, 5.213–5.215
impeller orientation in, 5.214
impeller types in, 5.213
in-line, 5.214
with opposed impellers, 5.215
and discharge-piping configuration,
5.221–5.222
and entrained air, 5.217–5.218
foundation of, 5.221
hydraulic curve of, 5.218–5.220
impeller orientation in, 5.214
impeller types in, 5.213
and inlet-piping configuration, 5.221
in-line configuration of, 5.214
installation of, 5.220–5.222
net positive suction head, 5.215–5.216
operating conditions for, 5.222
operating methods for, 5.222
with opposed impellers, 5.215
performance of, 5.215
and piping, 5.221
startup procedures for, 5.222
suction conditions of, 5.215–5.218
and entrained air, 5.217–5.218
net positive suction head, 5.215–5.216
volume, 5.216–5.217
total dynamic head (TDH) requirement for,
5.218
total system head (TSH) requirement of,
5.218
and volume, 5.216–5.217
Ceramics, 9.9
Cetane number, 8.31
Chain couplings, 5.45–5.46
Chain drives, 5.78–5.80
and contamination, 5.79
and heat, 5.79
installation of, 5.78–5.79
lubrication of, 5.79–5.80
and oil viscosity, 5.79, 5.80
precision, 5.79–5.82
and windage, 5.79
Chain hoists, 5.91–5.98
design of, 5.98
hand-chain manually operated,
5.91–5.92
manually lever-operated, 5.91
performance of, 5.98
powered, 5.93–5.96
preventative maintenance for, 5.98
selection of, 5.96–5.98
types of, 5.91–5.96
INDEX I.5Chains, for power transmissions:
bath lubrication for, 5.80
and chain drives, 5.78–5.82
and contamination, 5.79
disk lubrication for, 5.80
drip lubrication for, 5.80
lubrication for, 5.80
manual lubrication for, 5.80
oil-stream lubrication for, 5.80
service factors for, 5.75–5.76
special inverted-tooth chains, 5.76–5.78
Chalking, 9.47
Change(s):
to density, 4.91
documentation of, 1.25
KPIs for, 3.124
to plant engineering, 1.25
resistance to, 1.35
Charging:
with constant current, 6.94
of cycled batteries, 6.100
equalizing charge, 6.95
float charging, 6.94
for lead-acid batteries, 6.81–6.85
of nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.93–6.95
nickel-iron batteries, 6.100–6.101
of standby-power batteries, 6.100–6.101
and trickle charges, 6.94–6.95
trickle charging, 6.94–6.95
Chart(s):
control, 3.145–3.147
application of, 3.146
example of, 3.146, 3.147
key points of, 3.146
flow, 3.144–3.145
flow process, 3.95–3.98
multiple-activity process, 3.99–3.102
for work simplification, 3.95–3.102
Check valves, 9.68
air-compressor, 5.201–5.202
ball, 5.201–5.202
bronze, 5.201–5.203
iron, 5.204
nonmetallic-disk lift-, 5.201
regrinding lift-, 5.201
Renewo lift-, 5.201
swing-, 5.201
Check welding procedure, 10.48–10.49
Checking (coating failure), 9.47
Chemical cleaning, 9.17–9.33
abrasion method, 9.30
cascade method, 9.23–9.24
and circulation, 9.23
and copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
with crawlers, 9.26–9.30
and degradation, 9.18–9.19
environmental concerns with, 9.32–9.33
fill and soak method, 9.24
foam cleaning, 9.24–9.25
gel cleaning, 9.25
high-pressure water jetting, 9.25, 9.26
hydrodrilling, 9.26
and mechanical cleaning, 9.25–9.30
abrasion method, 9.30
with crawlers, 9.26–9.30
high-pressure water jetting, 9.25, 9.26
hydrodrilling, 9.26
with pigs, 9.26–9.30
with plugs, 9.26–9.30
Chemical cleaning (Cont.)
onstream cleaning, 9.24–9.25
foam cleaning, 9.24–9.25
gel cleaning, 9.25
passivating, 9.25
pickling, 9.25
steam vapor phase cleaning, 9.24
organic solvents, 9.21–9.23
copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
oxidizing agents, 9.22
and oxidizing agents, 9.22
passivating, 9.25
pickling, 9.25
with pigs, 9.26–9.30
with plugs, 9.26–9.30
for preoperational deposits, 9.19
process selection for, 9.31–9.33
solvents for, 9.19–9.23
alkaline cleaners, 9.20
copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
inorganic acids, 9.20–9.21
organic acids, 9.20
organic solvents, 9.21–9.23
oxidizing agents, 9.22
steam vapor phase cleaning, 9.24
Chipping (flaking), 9.47
Chloride ion concentration, 8.31
Choice, theory of, 3.3
Chopped display, 7.67
Chopping transient blanking, 7.67
Circuit breakers, 6.57
defined, 7.115
distribution panels, 7.111
and infrared technology, 7.111, 7.112
Circuit interrupters, 6.56
Circuit protectors, 7.115
Circuits, 7.115
Circulation, 9.23
Clamp-on instruments, 7.51–7.52
ammeter, 7.51–7.52
power-factor meter, 7.52
wattmeter, 7.52
Clamp-on wattmeters, 7.52
Cleaning:
abrasion method, 9.30
after plant growth, 4.39
of air compressors, 5.193
of air washers, 4.66
of air-cooled condensers, 4.69
brick masonry structures, 4.31–4.40
failures of, 4.31–4.32
procedures for, 4.32–4.36
stains in, 4.36–4.40
bronze stains, 4.38
of brown (manganese) stain, 4.36–4.37
cascade method for, 9.23–9.24
chemical, 9.17–9.33
cascade method for, 9.23–9.24
and circulation, 9.23
and degradation, 9.18–9.19
environmental concerns with, 9.32–9.33
fill and soak method for, 9.24
and mechanical cleaning, 9.25–9.30
onstream cleaning, 9.24–9.25
organic solvents, 9.21–9.23
for preoperational deposits, 9.19
process selection for, 9.31–9.33
solvents for, 9.19–9.23
coils, 4.69
Cleaning (Cont.)
concrete floor surfaces, 4.24–4.25
control components, 6.42
cooling towers, 4.72
copper stains, 4.38
for corrosion control, 9.12
dehumidifiers, 4.80
dirt stains, 4.38
of efflorescence, 4.36
egg splatter, 4.39
environmental concerns with, 9.32–9.33
of evaporative condensers, 4.70
fans, 4.75
fill and soak method for, 9.24
filters, 4.77
foam cleaning, 9.24–9.25
gel cleaning, 9.25
of green stain (vanadium salts), 4.36
hand washing, 4.35
high-pressure cold water, 4.33
high-pressure steam, 4.33
high-pressure water jetting, 9.25, 9.26
of historic structures, 4.40
humidifiers, 4.80
hydrodrilling, 9.26
iron stains, 4.37–4.38
ivy stains, 4.39
of low-sloped roofs, 4.14–4.15
mechanical cleaning, 9.25–9.30
nickel-iron batteries, 6.101–6.102
oil stains, 4.38
onstream cleaning, 9.24–9.25
paint stains, 4.37
paper stains, 4.39
passivating, 9.25
pickling, 9.25
for piping, 9.86, 9.87
plain bearings, 5.3–5.4
of poultice, 4.37
for preoperational deposits, 9.19
procedures for, 4.32–4.36
hand washing, 4.35
high-pressure cold water, 4.33
high-pressure steam, 4.33
sandblasting, 4.33, 4.35
reasons for, 4.40
rooftop air-conditioning units, 4.82
sandblasting, 4.33, 4.35
smoke stains, 4.38
of stains, 4.36–4.40
from bronze, 4.38
from copper, 4.38
from dirt, 4.38
from egg splatter, 4.39
from iron, 4.37–4.38
from ivy, 4.39
from oil, 4.38
from paint, 4.37
from paper, 4.39
from plant growth, 4.39
from poultice, 4.37
from smoke, 4.38
from straw, 4.39
from tar, 4.38
of unknown origin, 4.39–4.40
from welding splatter, 4.38
from white scum, 4.39
steam vapor phase cleaning, 9.24
straw stains, 4.39
I.6 INDEXCleaning (Cont.)
tar stains, 4.38
water-cooled condensers, 4.70–4.71
welding splatter, 4.38
white scum, 4.39
Closed circuits, 7.115
Closed tanks, 7.10–7.11
Cloud points, 8.31
CMMS (see Computer-based maintenance
management system)
Coal-tar epoxy coatings, 9.44
Coated smooth-surfaced roofs, 4.11
Coatings, 9.42–9.44
alkyd, 9.43
application of, 9.46
ASTM standards for, 9.51–9.54
coal-tar epoxy, 9.44
conversion, 9.12–9.13
corrosion control with, 9.12–9.13
discoloration of, 9.47
epoxy, 9.43–9.44
epoxy mastics, 9.44
inorganic zinc, 9.43
inspections of, 9.46–9.49
lead-based, 9.39–9.40
liquid-resin type epoxy, 9.44
organic, 9.13
and personnel, 9.49–9.50
removal of, 9.39–9.40
safety considerations with, 9.49–9.50
silicones, 9.43
surface preparation for, 9.44–9.46
surface-tolerant, 9.41–9.42
urethanes, 9.44
waterborne, 9.42
zinc, 9.43
zinc silicate, 9.43
Coiled bulbs, 7.23
Coils, 4.68–4.69
cleaning, 4.69
defined, 7.115
freeze protection for, 4.68–4.69
freezing of, 4.68–4.69, 4.84
heating, 4.79
maintenance of, 4.68–4.69
preheating, 4.84
tightness of, 4.68
water, 4.84
Cold mounting, 5.33
Collaboration, 2.112
Color test, 8.31
Comb histograms, 3.149
Common-mode rejection, 7.49
Common-mode signals, 7.67
Communications:
for control, 1.50–1.51
KPIs for, 3.124
operating policies for, 1.50–1.51
Comparative job standards, 3.111, 3.114
Comparative time estimating, 3.130–3.131
Compensation program, 3.65–3.66
Compound-wound motors, 6.9
Compressed-air lines, 4.84
Compressors:
air, 5.185–5.196
and aftercoolers, 5.193
and air filters, 5.186, 5.187
and air receivers, 5.187
bearings in, 5.192–5.193
Compressors: air (Cont.)
capacity of, 5.187
cleaning, 5.193
foundation of, 5.185–5.186
and intercoolers, 5.193
location of, 5.185, 5.187
lubrication of, 5.188–5.189
nonlubricated cylinders in, 5.189
packing, 5.193–5.196
piston rings in, 5.191–5.192
starting new, 5.188
and suction lines, 5.186, 5.187
unloading, 5.193
valves of, 5.189–5.191
centrifugal, 4.67–4.68
bearings of, 4.68
leak testing for, 4.68
lubrication of, 4.67–4.68
maintenance of, 4.67–4.68
oil heater of, 4.68
purge unit, 4.68
and refrigerant, 4.68
safeties of, 4.68
shutdown of, 4.68
vibration of, 7.91–7.92
Computer-based maintenance management
system (CMMS), 2.91–2.113
for accounting function, 2.106–2.107
for automatic costs allocation,
2.106–2.107
and behavioral expectations, 2.111
and collaboration, 2.112
communications affecting, 2.112
and confrontation, 2.112
and consultants, 2.112
cost accounting data, 2.96–2.97
for cost history evaluation, 2.107
craft/skill data, 2.97
for data management, 2.107
and deliverables, 2.111
downtime scheduling, 2.103–2.104
effort affecting, 2.111
for engineering function, 2.102–2.103
equipment/asset bills of material, 2.94
equipment/asset hierarchies, 2.92–2.94
equipment/asset identification and
specifications, 2.92
equipment/asset repair history, 2.104
and expectations, 2.111
and expertise, 2.112
failure of, 2.109–2.113
and behavioral expectations, 2.111
and collaboration, 2.112
communications affecting, 2.112
and confrontation, 2.112
and consultants, 2.112
and deliverables, 2.111
effort affecting, 2.111
and expectations, 2.111
and expertise, 2.112
from lack of resources, 2.110–2.111
from partial implementation, 2.110
from staffing issues, 2.111
and work culture, 2.113
for files, 2.92–2.99
cost accounting data, 2.96–2.97
craft/skill data, 2.97
equipment/asset bills of material, 2.94
equipment/asset hierarchies, 2.92–2.94
Computer-based maintenance management
system (CMMS), for files (Cont.)
equipment/asset identification and
specifications, 2.92
preventative maintenance plans, 2.96
purchase orders, 2.98–2.99
purchase requisitions, 2.98
repetitive maintenance plans, 2.96
spare parts, 2.94–2.95
stores inventory, 2.94–2.95
work order history, 2.97
work orders, 2.95–2.96
for finance function, 2.106–2.107
functionality of, 2.91
functions of, 2.107–2.109
for inventory function, 2.104–2.105
for direct-buy items, 2.105
material safety data sheets (MSDS), 2.105
parts requirements for planned work,
2.105
parts to equipment/asset, 2.104–2.105
parts usage history, 2.104
purchase orders, 2.105
reorder/stocking requirements, 2.105
repositioning parts, 2.105
work orders, 2.105
for inventory replenishment program,
2.108
for inventory to equipment/asset
where-used, 2.94–2.95
for job scheduling, 2.108
for maintenance function, 2.99–2.102
budget preparation and tracking, 2.102
craft utilization, 2.102
equipment/asset repair history, 2.101–2.102
preventative maintenance planning,
2.100–2.101
requisition of parts and services, 2.101
resource scheduling, 2.101
work order initiation, 2.99–2.100
work order planning, 2.100
work order scheduling, 2.101
and maintenance managers, 2.108
for management function, 2.107
modification of, 2.112–2.113
and planners, 2.108–2.109
preventative maintenance plans, 2.96
for preventative maintenance programs,
2.107–2.108
and product quality, 2.109
for production function, 2.103–2.104
downtime scheduling, 2.103–2.104
equipment/asset repair history, 2.104
repair request backlog, 2.104
purchase orders, 2.98–2.99
purchase requisitions, 2.98
for purchasing function, 2.105–2.106
and reliability, 2.109
repair request backlog, 2.104
repetitive maintenance plans, 2.96
and resources, 2.110–2.111
spare parts, 2.94–2.95
staffing issues with, 2.111
stores inventory, 2.94–2.95
usage for, 2.99–2.107
and work assignments, 2.109
and work culture, 2.113
work order history, 2.97
work orders, 2.95–2.96
INDEX I.7Computerized systems, 2.79–2.90
for analysis, 2.88–2.90
of equipment, 2.90
of parts inventory, 2.89
of work controls, 2.89
of work orders, 2.88
for equipment, 2.90
implementation of, 2.81–2.82
for on-line inquiries, 2.82–2.83
operating characteristics of, 2.82–2.84
on-line inquiries, 2.82–2.83
performance reports, 2.84
report generation, 2.83–2.84
work orders, 2.82–2.83
organizing for, 2.81
for parts inventory, 2.89
for performance reports, 2.84
and planning, 2.86–2.87
priority system, 2.85
purpose for, 2.80–2.81
for report generation, 2.83–2.84
for reports, 2.88–2.90
and scheduling, 2.87
for work controls, 2.89
work order system, 2.84–2.85
for work orders, 2.82–2.83, 2.88
Concrete floor surfaces, 4.17–4.26
abrasion resistance, 4.21
cleaning, 4.24–4.25
corrosion-resistant, 4.26
cost of, 4.18
creak control for, 4.20
design for, 4.19
dusting floors, 4.25
finishes for, 4.25–4.26
joints of, 4.19–4.20
maintenance of, 4.24–4.25
monolithically finished, 4.21
new, 4.18–4.23
reinforcement of, 4.20
repair of, 4.25
resurfacing, 4.24
sealers for, 4.25–4.26
separate, 4.21–4.23
shrinkage of, 4.19–4.20
slab design for, 4.19
subgrade for, 4.19
superflat floors, 4.23
toppings for, 4.21–4.23, 4.26
corrosion-resistant, 4.26
separate, 4.21–4.23
water-cement ratio of, 4.18–4.19
Condensers:
air-cooled, 4.69
evaporative, 4.69–4.70
cleaning of, 4.70
fan section of, 4.70
and freezing, 4.70
freezing of, 4.70, 4.84
lubrication of, 4.70
refrigerant joints, 4.70
freezing of, 4.70, 4.84
water-cooled, 4.70–4.71
cleaning, 4.70–4.71
freeze protection for, 4.71
freezing of, 4.71
maintenance of, 4.70–4.71
and refrigerated joints, 4.71
and water treatment, 4.71
Conduction, 7.109
defined, 7.113
and infrared technology, 7.109
Conductivity, thermal, 5.4
Conductors:
ground, 7.113
and infrared technology, 7.112, 7.113
Configuration management, 1.18–1.19
Confrontation, 2.112
Connecting rods, 5.17
Constant current, 6.94
Constant voltage, 6.93–6.94
Constant-current method, 6.84
Consultants, 2.112
Consumer Product Safety Commission, 9.94
Contact(s), 6.47–6.51
bounce, 6.47
dressing for, 6.49–6.51
and motor controllers, 6.47–6.51
overtravel measurement, 6.49
pressure of, 6.48–6.49
vacuum contactors, 6.51
wear of, 6.49
Contactors, 6.51–6.56
inspection of, 6.51–6.55
troubleshooting, 6.52–6.55
vacuum, 6.51
Contactor-type control relays, 6.65
Contamination:
and chains, 5.79
of fuel, 8.31
lubricating oil analysis for, 7.128
of lubricating oils, 2.25
and painting, 9.39
in power transmissions, 5.79
and precision chain drives, 5.79
product, 9.39
of solids, 8.32
Continuous improvement:
reliability for, 1.7
and self-directed work teams, 1.35
Six Sigma for, 1.58
Six Sigma safety for, 1.58
Continuously wound rheostats, 6.60–6.61
Continuous-process systems, 7.79, 7.93
Contract maintenance, 4.49
Contractors, outside, 1.43–1.44
Control(s):
communications for, 1.50–1.51
of coolers, 4.71
KPIs for, 3.124
and operating policies, 1.50–1.51
(See also related topics, e.g.: Cost control)
Control charts, 3.145–3.147
application of, 3.146
example of, 3.146, 3.147
key points of, 3.146
Control components, 6.39–6.77
adjustable-type relays, 6.68
cleaning, 6.42
contactors, 6.51–6.55
contactor-type control relays, 6.65
and contacts, 6.47–6.51
control circuit components, 6.64–6.72
dashpots, 6.66
DC relay maintenance, 6.71
disconnect devices, 6.56–6.57
drum controllers, 6.62–6.63
enclosures for, 6.40–6.41
Control components (Cont.)
equipment grounding, 6.63–6.64
lubrication for, 6.42
magnetic circuit modification, 6.70–6.71
and magnetic hysteresis, 6.70
magnetic overload relays, 6.66
maintenance of, 6.72–6.73
manual/machine-operated, 6.64
mechanical checks, 6.42
motor controllers, 6.43–6.51
and personnel, 6.39–6.40
power circuit components, 6.43
preventative maintenance for, 6.41–6.42
rheostats, 6.57–6.61
solid-state overload relays, 6.66–6.68
thermal overload relays, 6.65–6.66
time-tactors, 6.68–6.70
Control reports, 2.79
Controllers, motor, 6.43–6.51
Convection, 7.109
defined, 7.113
and infrared technology, 7.109
Conventional built-up roofing membranes, 4.4
Conventional modes, 7.67
Conventional mount, 5.110
Conventional mount synchronous sprockets,
5.130
Conversion coatings, 9.12–9.13
Coolers, 4.71
Cooling, for motors, 6.3–6.4
Cooling loads, 4.53–4.55
and air-conditioning equipment,
4.53–4.55
from lights, 4.54
occupancy loads, 4.54
outside-air loads, 4.54
removal of, 4.54
size of, 4.54–4.55
sun loads, 4.53
transmission loads, 4.53–4.54
Cooling towers, 4.71–4.73
algae in, 4.72
alignment of, 4.72
cleaning, 4.72
eliminators, 4.72
exposure of, 4.72
fans, 4.72
lubrication of, 4.72
maintenance of, 4.71–4.73
water distribution in, 4.72
water level of, 4.72
winter protection for, 4.73
Cooperative partnerships, 1.23–1.30
with engineering function, 1.29
interdependency, 1.26–1.27
with maintenance function, 1.24–1.25, 1.28
with management function, 1.25
with operations, 1.27–1.28
with plant engineering, 1.25
with procurement function, 1.25, 1.29–1.30
with production function, 1.24
and responsibilities, 1.23–1.25, 1.27–1.30
with sales function, 1.23–1.24
Copper, 10.39
Copper alloys, 10.39
Copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
Copper corrosion, 8.31
Copper stains, 4.38
Corona, 7.113
I.8 INDEXCorrective maintenance, 2.3–2.6
maintenance history database for, 2.5
planning for, 2.4–2.5
prerequisites of, 2.4
role of, 2.6
trained maintenance planners for, 2.5
Corrosion, 9.3–9.8
cavitation corrosion, 9.6
copper, 8.31
crevice corrosion, 9.7
and defects, 9.6–9.8
defined, 9.3
dezincification, 9.7–9.8
dissolution, 9.7–9.8
erosion corrosion, 9.6
forms of, 9.6–9.8
galvanic corrosion, 9.6
interfilm corrosion, 9.8
intergranular corrosion, 9.7
localized, 9.5–9.6
in low-sloped roofs, 4.15
mechanisms of, 9.4–9.6
of metals, 4.15
microbiological corrosion, 9.7
of piping, 9.55–9.56
pitting corrosion, 9.6–9.7
of polymeric materials, 9.8
selective leaching, 9.7
stress-cracking corrosion, 9.7
types of, 9.4–9.6
uniform, 9.5, 9.6
and ventilating fans, 4.99
Corrosion control, 9.3–9.4, 9.8–9.15
and ABS, 9.10
and acetal homopolymers, 9.10
and aluminum, 9.9
in aqueous solutions, 9.14–9.15
cathodic protection, 9.13
and ceramics, 9.9
cleaning practices for, 9.12
with conversion coatings, 9.12–9.13
defined, 9.3–9.4
design for, 9.11–9.12
and galvanized steel, 9.9
and graphite, 9.9
and inhibitors, 9.13–9.15
material selection for, 9.8–9.11
ABS, 9.10
acetal homopolymers, 9.10
aluminum, 9.9
ceramics, 9.9
galvanized steel, 9.9
graphite, 9.9
polyethersulfone, 9.10
polyethylene (PE), 9.10
polymers, 9.9–9.10
polystyrene, 9.10
polyurethane, 9.9–9.10
polyvinylchloride (PVC), 9.9
rubber elastomers, 9.10
stainless steel, 9.9
steel, 9.9
synthetic elastomers, 9.10
zinc, 9.9
for new surfaces, 9.12–9.13
with organic coatings, 9.13
painting for, 9.38–9.39
of plain bearings, 5.4
with plating, 9.12
Corrosion control (Cont.)
and polyethersulfone, 9.10
and polyethylene (PE), 9.10
and polymers, 9.9–9.10
and polystyrene, 9.10
and polyurethane, 9.9–9.10
and polyvinylchloride (PVC), 9.9
and rubber elastomers, 9.10
with rust-preventive oils, 9.14
and stainless steel, 9.9
and steel, 9.9
and synthetic elastomers, 9.10
and zinc, 9.9
Corrosion-resistant floors, 4.26
Corrosion-resistant piping, 9.83
Corrosive wear, 5.182
Cost(s):
capital, 7.134
of concrete floor surfaces, 4.18
for elevators, 4.51
of maintenance, 2.57
for predictive maintenance, 2.31
production unit costs, 1.5
and reliability, 1.5
for repair, 3.107
of tribology, 7.134
Cost accounting, for reliability, 3.16–3.17
Cost accounting data, 2.96–2.97
Cost control:
indexes for, 1.52–1.53
standard-practice sheets for, 1.52–1.53
systems for, 1.53
Cost estimate model, 3.15
Cost estimates, 3.107–3.110
for emergency services, 3.108
from engineers, 3.109–3.110
from foreman, 3.109
and job classifications, 3.107–3.108
labor, 3.110–3.117
and deferring maintenance, 3.116
with factor development, 3.115
judgment for, 3.110–3.111
PERT approach to, 3.116
quickread factors for, 3.115–3.116
with rule of seven, 3.115
and slotting, 3.111, 3.115
standards per unit, 3.111, 3.114–3.116
technique selection for, 3.116–3.117
for materials, 3.117–3.118
for overhead, 3.118–3.119
for planned maintenance, 3.108
from planners, 3.110
preparation of, 3.109–3.110
prerequisites for, 3.107
from rate setters, 3.110
for repetitive maintenance, 3.108
usage of, 3.108–3.109
Cost estimation methods, 3.14–3.16
Cost history evaluation, 2.107
Cost-benefit analysis, 7.135
Cost-effectiveness analysis, 3.14
Counterflashings, 4.13
Counters, 7.63–7.65
Counter-timers, 7.64
Coupler scaffolds, 9.105
Coupling(s):
in belt drives, 4.74
chain, 5.45–5.46
diaphragm, 5.51, 5.52
Coupling(s) (Cont.)
in direct-connected drives, 4.74
elastomeric, 5.52–5.53
flexible (see Flexible couplings)
floating-shaft gear, 5.46
gear, 5.46
laminated disk-ring, 5.50–5.51
metallic-grid, 5.48–5.49
Oldham (block-and-jaw), 5.49–5.50
for power transmissions (see Flexible
couplings)
spindle, 5.46, 5.48
and ventilating fans, 4.107–4.108
Coupling guards, 4.106
Coverage, for work force, 1.44–1.45
Cracked walls, 4.31
Cracks, grinding, 5.182, 5.183
Craft personnel:
formal instruction for, 1.15
informal instruction for, 1.15
on-the-job training for, 1.15
selection of, 1.14–1.15
training of, 1.15
utilization of, 2.102
Craft/skill data, 2.97
Cranes, 5.83–5.89
governmental regulations for, 5.89
inspection of, 5.85
installation of, 5.83–5.85
maintenance of, 5.85–5.89
Crankcase:
distortion of, 5.14
reconditioning, 5.17–5.18
Crankshaft distortion, 5.14
Crawlers, cleaning with, 9.26–9.30
Crazing, 9.47
Creak control, 4.20
Crevice corrosion, 9.7
Critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
Criticality ranking, 2.11
Cross-craft supervision, 1.14
Cross-training, 1.35
Crush, 5.14
Cryogenic-liquid-level measurement, 7.12–7.13
Culture:
and CMMS failure, 2.113
for Six Sigma, 1.55–1.56
Current transformers, 7.57
Currents:
AC volts, 7.53–7.55
alternating current (ac), 7.115
alternating current-instruments, 7.56
and amperage, 7.53
constant, 6.94
DC volts, 7.53
defined, 7.115
direct current (dc), 7.115
direct current-instruments, 7.53, 7.54
and single-function instruments, 7.53–7.56
and wattage, 7.53
Curvilinear belts, 5.124
Cutting:
oxyacetylene, 10.27
and oxyacetylene appliances, 10.72
oxygen, 10.78–10.82
oxygen cutting, 10.78–10.82
plasma arc cutting, 10.30–10.31
Cutting wear, 2.27, 7.131, 7.132
Cycled batteries, 6.100
INDEX I.9Cycling nickel-iron batteries, 6.100, 6.102
Cylinders, nonlubricated, 5.189
Dampers, 4.73
automatic, 4.73
in fans, 4.76
fire, 4.73
hand, 4.73
maintenance of, 4.73
outlet, 4.102
relief, 4.73
splitter, 4.73
and ventilating fans, 4.106
vortex, 4.76
Dashpots, 6.66
Data:
analogue, 7.113
broadband, 7.104
cost accounting data, 2.96–2.97
craft/skill data, 2.97
elemental basic data, 3.114
methods-time measurement (MTM) data,
3.41–3.52
nameplate data, 3.170
narrowband data, 7.104
for piping, 9.57, 9.58
Data management, 2.107
Data-acquisition frequency, 7.93–7.94
Databases:
for predictive maintenance program,
7.93–7.95, 7.101–7.102
for vibration, 7.93–7.95
DC (direct current), 7.115
DC motors, 6.3–6.6, 6.9–6.11
AC motors vs., 6.3–6.6
application data for, 6.9–6.11
design of, 6.9
insulation for, 6.9–6.11
theory for, 6.9
troubleshooting, 6.26–6.36
types of, 6.9
DC relay maintenance, 6.71
DC volts, 7.53
Decentralization, 1.45–1.46
Decision logic tree analysis (see Logic tree
analysis)
Decision-making, 3.105
Default logic, 2.14–2.17
Deflection blanking, 7.67
Deflection factors, 7.67
Degradation, 9.18–9.19
Dehumidifiers, 4.80
Delay pickoff, 7.67
Delayed sweep, 7.67
Delays, signal, 7.68
Deliverables, 2.111
Deliveries:
late, 1.25
and procurement function, 1.25
and sales function, 1.24
unrealistic, 1.24
Delta temperature (∆T), 7.113
Density, of supervisory personnel, 1.14
Design:
of AC induction motors, 6.7
of Bellows-actuated flowmeters, 7.5–7.6
of chain hoists, 5.98
of concrete floor surfaces, 4.19
for corrosion control, 9.11–9.12
Design (Cont.)
of DC motors, 6.9
for lubrication, 5.8–5.9
of machines, 7.71
of motors, 6.7, 6.9
of plain bearings, 5.6–5.9
plant engineering, 1.25
for rolling-element bearings, 5.20
slab, 4.19
thermal-system bulb designs, 7.22–7.23
and vibration, 7.71
Desire, in law of intelligent action, 3.90–3.91
Dew-point measurement, 7.25
Dezincification, 9.7–9.8
Diagrams, flow, 3.98
Diaphragm couplings, 5.51, 5.52
Diaphragm-actuated flowmeter transmitters, 7.26
Digital infrared equipment, 7.110
Digital instruments:
long-term stability of, 7.49
resolution of, 7.49
response time of, 7.49
temperature coefficient of, 7.50
Digital multimeters, 7.48–7.50
Digits, number of, 7.49
Diodes, 7.115
Direct current (dc), 7.115
Direct current-instruments, 7.53, 7.54
Direct reading ferrography, 8.31
Direct-buy items, 2.105
Direct-connected drives, 4.74
Dirt:
on brick masonry structures, 4.38
and plain bearings, 5.9–5.10
Discharge-piping configuration, 5.221–5.222
Discoloration, of coatings, 9.47
Disconnect devices, 6.56–6.57
circuit breakers, 6.57
circuit interrupters, 6.56
disconnect switches, 6.56
motor circuit protectors, 6.57
Disconnect switches, 4.106, 6.56
Dismounting, of rolling-element bearings,
5.33, 5.38–5.40
Dispatching, 1.41
Dispension, of lubricants, 8.33
Displacement, of vibration, 7.75, 7.77
Displacement (eddy-current) probes, 7.96–7.97
Displays, alternate, 7.66
Disposal:
of lubricants, 8.6
as maintenance, 1.11
of waste, 1.11
Dissolution, 9.7–9.8
Distillation, 8.31
Distortion:
harmonic, 7.116
and welding, 10.39–10.40
Distribution, 7.115
Documentation, 1.25
Do-it-yourself maintenance, 4.49
Double-wedge rising-stem gate valve, 5.204
Downtime scheduling, 2.103–2.104
Drainage, 9.56
Drivers, 4.110
Drives:
basic gear, 5.164
belt, 4.73–4.74
adjustable pulleys in, 4.74
Drives: belt (Cont.)
alignment of, 4.74
and conventional mount synchronous
sprockets, 5.130
couplings in, 4.74
curvilinear belts, 5.124
direct-connected drives, 4.74
maintenance of, 4.73–4.74
modified curvilinear belts, 5.124
replacement of, 4.74
and reverse mount synchronous
sprockets, 5.130
service life of, 4.73, 4.74
synchronous belts, 5.123–5.127
synchronous sprockets, 5.127–5.129
and tensioning, 4.74
timing belts, 5.124
troubleshooting, 5.117–5.123, 5.136–5.142
V-belt drives, 5.99–5.143
and V-belt sheaves, 5.102–5.103
couplings in, 4.74
direct-connected, 4.74
epicyclic gear, 5.164, 5.165, 5.167
flat-belt, 5.160
friction-disk-type, 5.156–5.157
gear, 5.161
basic, 5.164
epicyclic, 5.164, 5.165, 5.167
gear-tooth wear and failure, 5.177–5.184
installation of, 5.169, 5.172
lubrication of, 5.174–5.177
maintenance of, 5.177
selection of, 5.167–5.169
shutdown of, 5.177
geared differential, 5.157–5.159
mechanical variable-speed, 5.145–5.160
friction drives, 5.145–5.160
friction-type belts, 5.145–5.147
packaged belt, 5.155–5.156
selection of, 5.167–5.169
shutdown of, 5.177
start-up, 5.174
troubleshooting, 5.177
types of, 5.161–5.164
start-up, 5.174
static-adjustment type, 5.151–5.153
traction-type, 5.157
Drum controllers, 6.62–6.63
Dry centrifugal air-cleaning equipment
(see Inertial air-cleaning equipment)
Dry dynamic air-cleaning equipment, 4.112,
4.119
Dry type transformers, 7.112
Dry-bulb thermometers, 7.24, 7.25
Dry-water column procedure, 7.33–7.35
Dual beams, 7.67
Dual traces, 7.67
Ducts:
busy, 7.111
exhaust, 4.122, 4.123
and infrared technology, 7.111
Duoline systems, 8.20, 8.21
Dust control equipment (see Air-cleaning
equipment)
Dusting floors, 4.25
Economizers, 4.74–4.75
Eddy-current (displacement) probes, 7.96–7.97
Edge-peaked histograms, 3.150
I.10 INDEXEfficiency:
with centralized automatic lubrication
system, 8.15
estimation of, 3.60–3.62
with lubrication programs, 8.15
of personnel, 1.44–1.45
of work force, 1.44–1.45
and work measurement, 3.60–3.62
and work simplification, 3.104–3.105
Efflorescence, 4.36
Effort, 2.111
Egg splatter, 4.39
80/20 rule, 3.142–3.144
application of, 3.143
example of, 3.143–3.144
interpretation of, 3.143
key points for, 3.142–3.143
options in, 3.142
procedure for, 3.142
Ejection systems, 8.23–8.24
Elastomeric couplings, 5.52–5.53
Elastomers:
for corrosion control, 9.10
low-sloped roofs with, 4.11
rubber, 9.10
synthetic, 9.10
vulcanized, 4.11
Electric motor analysis, 2.29–2.30
insulation resistance, 2.29–2.30
testing, 2.30
Electric motors, 7.90
Electrical instruments, 7.43–7.68
and AC volts, 7.53–7.55
alternating current-instruments, 7.56
ammeter, 7.51–7.52
and amperes, 7.53
analog multimeters, 7.44–7.48
clamp-on instruments, 7.51–7.52
ammeter, 7.51–7.52
power-factor meter, 7.52
wattmeter, 7.52
clamp-on wattmeters, 7.52
counters, 7.64
counter-timers, 7.64
current transformers, 7.57
and currents, 7.53–7.56
AC volts, 7.53–7.55
alternating current-instruments, 7.56
amperes, 7.53
DC volts, 7.53
direct current-instruments, 7.53, 7.54
watts, 7.53
and DC volts, 7.53
digital multimeters, 7.48–7.50
direct current-instruments, 7.53, 7.54
frequency counters, 7.63–7.65
counters, 7.64
counter-timers, 7.64
oscilloscopes, 7.64, 7.65
high-resistance determination with, 7.63–7.64
low-resistance determination with, 7.62–7.63
meggers, 7.59–761
high-resistance determination with, 7.64
precautions when using, 7.61
resistance measurements with, 7.59–761
multimeters, 7.44–7.50
analog multimeters, 7.44–7.48
digital multimeters, 7.48–7.50
special-purpose industrial multimeters, 7.50
Electrical instruments (Cont.)
ohmmeters, 7.59, 7.64
oscilloscopes, 7.64, 7.65
potential transformers, 7.58
for power measurements, 7.57–7.58
current transformers, 7.57
potential transformers, 7.58
single-phase connections, 7.57
power-factor meter, 7.52
for resistance measurements, 7.58–7.63
high-resistance determination,
7.63–7.64
low-resistance determination,
7.62–7.63
megger, 7.59–761
ohmmeter, 7.59
Wheatstone bridge, 7.61–7.62
selection of, 7.43–7.44
single-function instruments, 7.50–7.66
clamp-on instruments, 7.51–7.52
and currents, 7.53–7.56
frequency counters, 7.63–7.65
for power measurements, 7.57–7.58
for resistance measurements,
7.58–7.63
solid-state circuit testers, 7.65–7.66
tube checkers, 7.65
single-phase connections, 7.57
solid-state circuit testers, 7.65–7.66
special-purpose industrial multimeters,
7.50
three-phase wattmeters, 7.58
transformers
current, 7.57
potential, 7.58
tube checkers, 7.65
wattmeters, 7.52
clamp-on, 7.52
three-phase, 7.58
and watts, 7.53
Wheatstone bridge, 7.61–7.62
Electrical interlocks, 6.76
Electrical motors (see Motor(s))
Electrodes:
and submerged arc welding, 10.41–10.42
surfacing, 10.44
for welding, 10.21–10.22
Electrogas welding, 10.34
Electrolytes:
and nickel-iron batteries, 6.102–6.103
renewing, 6.102–6.103
spilled, 6.103
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 7.115
Electromagnetic spectrum:
defined, 7.113
and infrared technology, 7.108–7.109
Electrostatic precipitators, 4.117–4.118
fans in, 4.121–4.122
maintenance of, 4.120–4.122
sludge settling tanks, 4.121
Elemental basic data, 3.114
Elevators, 4.43–4.52
and age adjustment, 4.52
contract maintenance for, 4.49
cost to maintain, 4.51
dependability of, 4.44
do-it-yourself maintenance for, 4.49
economic factors of, 4.44
emergency service for, 4.48–4.49
Elevators (Cont.)
inspections for, 4.44–4.46, 4.50–4.51
maintenance objectives for, 4.43–4.44
maintenance organization for, 4.46–4.49
do-it-yourself maintenance, 4.49
emergency service, 4.48–4.49
personnel, 4.46–4.48
manufacturer of
and age adjustment, 4.52
experience of, 4.51
integrity of, 4.51
maintenance by, 4.50
premaintenance repairs from, 4.52
preventative maintenance from, 4.51
safety inspections by, 4.50–4.51
services provided by, 4.51–4.52
warranties from, 4.51–4.52
parts for, 4.50
performance of, 4.44
and personnel, 4.46–4.48
premaintenance repairs for, 4.52
preventative maintenance for, 4.51
repairs for, 4.52
safety considerations with, 4.44, 4.50–4.51
safety inspections for, 4.44–4.46, 4.50–4.51
services for, 4.51–4.52
warranties for, 4.51–4.52
Eliminators, 4.72
Embedability, 5.4
Emergencies, 1.36
Emergency leak repair, 4.9–4.10
Emergency services:
cost estimates for, 3.108
for elevators, 4.48–4.49
EMI (electromagnetic interference), 7.115
Emission, atmospheric, 7.113
Emissivity, 7.109
defined, 7.114
and infrared technology, 7.109
of materials, 7.118–7.125
Emittance, 7.114
Employee ownership, 1.6
Employees:
and organized plant lubrication program,
8.4
and reliability, 1.6–1.7
safety of, 1.6–1.7
Encapsulation, 9.39–9.40
Enclosures:
for control components, 6.40–6.41
of and motor control centers, 6.74
Engineering, 1.17–1.20, 2.102–2.103
CMMS for, 2.102–2.103
cooperative partnerships with, 1.29
equipment/asset modification history, 2.103
equipment/asset specifications, 2.103
and maintenance, 1.29
maintenance function from, 1.28–1.29
plant, 1.25
project planning and tracking, 2.103
reliability, 1.32–1.33
responsibilities of, 1.19–1.20
and vibration, 7.71
(See also Reliability engineering)
Engineers:
cost estimates from, 3.109–3.110
and work measurement, 3.19–3.21
Engines, aircraft, 7.71
Entrained air, 5.217–5.218
INDEX I.11Environmental issues, 1.7
of chemical cleaning, 9.32–9.33
risk of, 1.7
Epicyclic gear drives, 5.164, 5.165, 5.167
Epoxy coatings, 9.43–9.44
Epoxy mastics, 9.44
Equalizing charge, 6.95
Equipment:
accessory, 10.52–10.55
air-cleaning, 4.111–4.124
electrostatic precipitators, 4.117–4.118
exhaust ducts, 4.122, 4.123
exhaust hoods, 4.122, 4.123
fabric filtration, 4.116–4.117, 4.120
fans in, 4.121–4.122
gas absorbers, 4.113, 4.114
inertial (dry centrifugal), 4.112, 4.119
maintenance, 4.118–4.124
orifice type scrubbers, 4.120
packed scrubbers, 4.119
particulate scrubbers, 4.114, 4.115
preventative maintenance, 4.123
and sludge settling tanks, 4.121
types of, 4.112–4.118
wet centrifugal scrubbers, 4.119–4.120
wet collectors (scrubbers), 4.112, 4.113
wet dynamic scrubbers, 4.120
air-conditioning, 4.53–4.85
absorption machines, 4.64–4.65
and air motors, 4.84
air washers, 4.66–4.67
air-cooled condensers, 4.69
belt drives, 4.73–4.74
centrifugal compressors, 4.67–4.68
coils, 4.68–4.69
components of, 4.57–4.58
and compressed-air lines, 4.84
and condensers, 4.70, 4.84
coolers, 4.71
cooling loads, 4.53–4.55
cooling towers, 4.71–4.73
dampers, 4.73
dehumidifiers, 4.80
economizers, 4.74–4.75
evaporative condensers, 4.69–4.70, 4.84
fans, 4.75–4.76
filters, 4.76–4.78
and freeze protection, 4.83–4.84
and freezing, 4.68–4.69, 4.84
heat pumps, 4.79–4.80
heaters, 4.78–4.79
and heating loads, 4.55
humidifiers, 4.80
installation of, 4.61
latent loads, 4.54
and loads, 4.53–4.55
maintenance of, 4.61–4.85
occupancy loads, 4.54
and operating logs, 4.63
outside-air loads, 4.54
preventative maintenance for, 4.61
pumps, 4.80–4.81
refrigeration, 4.55–4.56
responsibility for, 4.61
rooftop units, 4.81–4.82
room air conditioners, 4.82–4.83
self-contained units, 4.83
spare parts for, 4.63
sun loads, 4.53
Equipment: air-conditioning (Cont.)
training for, 4.63
transmission loads, 4.53–4.54
and water coils, 4.84
water conditioning, 4.85
and water conditioning, 4.84–4.85
and water lines, 4.84
water-cooled condensers, 4.70–4.71
and well pumps, 4.84
analog infrared, 7.110
analysis of, 2.90
availability of, 2.44–2.45
digital infrared, 7.110
dry dynamic air-cleaning, 4.112, 4.119
effectiveness of, 2.44, 2.46–2.47
for flowmeters, 7.33–7.34
inertial (dry centrifugal) air-cleaning,
4.112, 4.119
infrared
digital, 7.110
lenses for, 7.110
portability of, 7.110
qualitative measurements of, 7.110
quantitative measurements of, 7.110
software for, 7.110
wave lengths of, 7.110
for infrared technology, 7.107–7.110
analysis of, 7.109–7.110
infrared imaging, 7.107–7.108
infrared thermometers, 7.107
line scanners, 7.107
inspection of, 1.10
life of, 1.5–1.6
for low-sloped roofs, 4.15
maintenance of, 1.48–1.49
multiple centrifugal air-cleaning, 4.112, 4.119
packaged ventilating, 4.98
and personnel, 1.47–1.48
plant, 1.10
production, 1.47–1.48
records of, 3.31
for refrigeration, 4.58–4.61
shutting down, 1.48–1.49
simple cyclone air-cleaning, 4.112, 4.119
storage of, 4.15
for welding, 10.52–10.55
and work measurement, 3.26–3.27
(See also specific equipment, e.g.: Line
scanners)
Equipment grounding, 6.63–6.64
Equipment/asset:
bills of material, 2.94
hierarchies, 2.92–2.94
identification, 2.92
modification history, 2.103
parts for, 2.104–2.105
repair history, 2.101–2.102, 2.104
specifications, 2.92, 2.103
specifications review for, 2.103
Erosion corrosion, 9.6
Errors, operator, 1.24
Estimators, training for, 3.119–3.120
Evaluation:
KPIs for, 3.124
of personnel, 3.65
Evaporative condensers, 4.69–4.70
cleaning of, 4.70
fan section of, 4.70
and freezing, 4.70
Evaporative condensers (Cont.)
freezing of, 4.70, 4.84
lubrication of, 4.70
maintenance of, 4.69–4.70
refrigerant joints, 4.70
Event-reporting format, 3.165–3.166
Exhaust ducts:
maintenance of, 4.122
preventative maintenance of, 4.123
Exhaust hoods:
maintenance of, 4.122
preventative maintenance of, 4.123
Existing, 1.10
Expectations, and CMMS failure, 2.111
Expertise, and CMMS failure, 2.112
Exposure, of cooling towers, 4.72
Extension ladders, 9.92–9.94
Extension necks, 7.23
°F (Fahrenheit degree), 7.113
Fabric filtration, 4.116–4.117, 4.120
Face grouting, 4.29
Face solution (see Angular solution)
Face/rim alignment:
angular (face) solution for, 5.63, 5.66
flexible couplings on, 5.63–5.67
horizontal alignment solution for, 5.66, 5.67
parallel-offset (rim) solution for, 5.66
vertical alignment for, 5.63, 5.66
Facilities:
for lubricants, 8.6
maintenance for, 1.10
painting for, 9.38–9.39
plant, 9.38–9.39
(See also Plant facilities)
Fahrenheit degrees (°F), 7.113
Failure(s):
of bearings, 5.19
and behavioral expectations, 2.111
from bent shafts, 7.89
of blowers, 7.91
of brick masonry structures, 4.31–4.32
of CMMS, 2.109–2.113
and collaboration, 2.112
of compressors, 7.91–7.92
and confrontation, 2.112
consequences of, 2.37
and consultants, 2.112
of continuous-process lines, 7.93
of couplings, 5.53–5.55
and culture, 2.113
and deliverables, 2.111
effects of, 2.36
and effort, 2.111
of electric motors, 7.90
of equipment, 3.175–3.176
and expectations, 2.111
and expertise, 2.112
of fans, 7.91
of flexible couplings, 5.53–5.55
functional, 2.36
in gear drives, 5.177–5.184
of gearboxes, 7.90–7.91
of gear-tooth, 5.177–5.184
of generators, 7.92
from imbalance, 7.87–7.88
and infrared technology, 7.111
from looseness, 7.89
mean time between, 3.136
I.12 INDEXFailure(s) (Cont.)
from mechanical rub, 7.89
from misalignment, 7.88–7.89
modes of, 2.36
and personnel, 2.111
premature
of synchronous belts, 5.136–5.138
of V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.118
of pumps, 7.92–7.93
redesign for, 2.14
and reliability centered maintenance,
2.36–2.37
of rolling-element bearings, 5.19
and root cause analysis, 3.175–3.176
run to, 2.39
of synchronous belts, 5.136–5.138
of systems, 3.175–3.176
of V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.118
and vibration, 7.87–7.93
and work culture, 2.113
Failure analysis:
for FSIs, 2.11–2.12
root-cause, 7.104
Failure-finding tasks, 2.38–2.39
Fan(s), 4.75–4.76
in air washers, 4.66
alignment of, 4.76
axial, 4.95
backward-curved-blade centrifugal, 4.96
bearings, 4.75–4.76, 4.110
capacity of, 4.75
cleaning, 4.75
in cooling towers, 4.72
and corrosion, 4.99
in electrostatic precipitators, 4.121–4.122
in evaporative condensers, 4.70
forward-curved-blade centrifugal, 4.96
in-line-flow centrifugal, 4.97
lubrication for, 4.76
maintenance of, 4.75–4.76
propeller, 4.95
radial-blade centrifugal, 4.96, 4.97
rotation of, 4.76
straight-blade centrifugal, 4.96, 4.97
ventilating, 4.87–4.110
and abrasion, 4.99–4.100
and bearings, 4.110
capacity of, 4.109
and corrosion, 4.99
drivers, 4.110
fan laws, 4.91, 4.94
and flammable gases, 4.100
and flow, 4.87
forward-curved-blade centrifugal fans,
4.96
handling of, 4.105
in-line-flow centrifugal fans, 4.97
inspection of, 4.104, 4.107–4.109
installation of, 4.104–4.106
jet pumps, 4.98
noise of, 4.101–4.102
packaged ventilating equipment, 4.98
performance data for, 4.88–4.91
power roof exhausters, 4.98
pressure of, 4.109
propeller fans, 4.95
protective devices, 4.107
radial-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96, 4.97
safety devices, 4.106
Fan(s), ventilating (Cont.)
selection of, 4.98–4.100
storage of, 4.105
straight-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96, 4.97
and temperatures, 4.98–4.99
terminology, 4.87–4.88
types of, 4.94–4.98
uses of, 4.94–4.98
vibration, 4.109–4.110
volume-control devices for, 4.102–4.104
vibration of, 7.91
vortex dampers in, 4.76
wheel of, 4.76
Fan laws, 4.91, 4.94
Fan wheels, 4.105–4.106
Far infrared, 7.114
Fasteners, 4.12
Fatigue:
of gear-tooth, 5.180–5.181
and plain bearings, 5.10–5.11
surface, 5.180–5.181
Fatigue spallwear, 7.131, 7.132
Fatigue strength, 5.4
FCAW (see Flux-cored arc welding)
FCAW (flux-cored arc welding), 10.10
Federal regulations (see Regulations)
Feeders, parallel, 7.113
Ferrography, 2.27–2.28
analytical, 8.31
direct reading, 8.31
and tribology, 7.129
Fiberglass ladders, 9.93
Field calibration, 7.38–7.39
Field maintenance:
of flowmeters, 7.33
for relative-humidity-measuring
instruments, 7.40
Fill and soak method, 9.24
Filled-system thermometers, 7.19–7.24
classifications of, 7.19–7.23
fully compensated liquid-filled, 7.20
gas-filled thermal systems, 7.22
liquid-filled, 7.19
mercury-filled thermal systems, 7.22–7.23
and thermal-system bulb designs, 7.22–7.23
vapor-pressure thermal systems, 7.20–7.22
Filters, 4.76–4.78
air, 5.186, 5.187
air filters, 4.76–4.77
cleaning, 4.77
defined, 7.115–7.116
maintenance of, 4.76–4.78
oil filters, 4.77–4.78
purpose of, 4.76
types of, 4.76–4.77
water filters, 4.77–4.78
Filtration, fabric, 4.116–4.117, 4.120
Finance function, 2.106–2.107
Finishes, for concrete floor surfaces,
4.25–4.26
Fire dampers, 4.73
Fire point, 8.31
Fire protection, 8.7
First level logic tree analysis, 2.12–2.13
Fit, of rolling-element bearings, 5.25–5.26
Five whys (5W), 3.141, 3.161
“5S” program, 2.67–2.68
Five-sigma control, 1.57
Flaking (chipping), 9.47
Flame adjustment, 10.74–10.83
Flammable gases, 4.100
Flanges:
bolting, 9.83–9.86
in low-sloped roofs, 4.13
for piping, 9.58, 9.81–9.86
Flash point, 8.31
Flashings:
and counterflashings, 4.13
defects with, 4.7, 4.12
for leaky walls, 4.29
metal-base, 4.13
open, 4.12
permanent repair of, 4.12, 4.13
replacement of, 4.29
sagging, 4.12
Flashovers, 7.116
Flat-belt drives, 5.160
Flexible couplings, 5.45–5.71
across-the-flex element of, 5.67–5.71
horizontal alignment solution for,
5.70–5.71
vertical alignment solution for, 5.67–5.70
alignment of, 5.54–5.56
angular (face) solution for, 5.63, 5.66
chain couplings, 5.45–5.46
diaphragm couplings, 5.51, 5.52
elastomeric couplings, 5.52–5.53
on face/rim, 5.63–5.67
failure of, 5.53–5.55
floating-shaft gear couplings, 5.46
gear couplings, 5.46
horizontal alignment solution for,
5.61–5.63, 5.66, 5.67, 5.70–5.71
and indicator sag, 5.57
installation of, 5.54
laminated disk-ring couplings, 5.50–5.51
metallic-grid couplings, 5.48–5.49
Oldham (block-and-jaw) couplings,
5.49–5.50
parallel-offset (rim) solution for, 5.66
readings for, 5.57–5.58
reverse indicator for, 5.58–5.63
selection of, 5.53–5.54
and shaft center line, 5.56
and shaft misalignment, 5.56–5.67
angular (face) solution for, 5.63, 5.66
on face/rim, 5.63–5.67
horizontal alignment solution for,
5.61–5.63, 5.66, 5.67
indicator sag, 5.57
parallel-offset (rim) solution for, 5.66
readings for, 5.57–5.58
reverse indicator for, 5.58–5.63
soft foot, 5.56, 5.57
and thermal growth, 5.58
vertical alignment on, 5.59–5.61, 5.63,
5.66
and soft foot, 5.56, 5.57
spindle couplings, 5.46, 5.48
and thermal growth, 5.58
types of, 5.45–5.53
vertical alignment on, 5.59–5.61, 5.63, 5.66
vertical alignment solution for, 5.67–5.70
Float charging, 6.94
Floating-shaft gear couplings, 5.46
Floors:
concrete, 4.17–4.26
joints in, 4.19–4.20
INDEX I.13Flow:
direction of, 9.63, 9.66
of flow transmitters, 7.34
of gear-tooth, 5.179–5.180
plastic, 5.179–5.180
of valves, 9.63, 9.66
and ventilating fans, 4.87
Flow charts, 3.144–3.145
key points in, 3.145
procedure for, 3.144
Flow diagrams, 3.98
Flow process chart, 3.95–3.98
creation of, 3.95, 3.98
and flow diagrams, 3.98
points in, 3.98
work simplification with, 3.95–3.98
Flow rates, 10.20–10.21
Flow transmitters, flow of, 7.34
Flowmeter transmitters, diaphragm-actuated,
7.26
Flowmeters, 7.5–7.7, 7.32–7.34
Bellows-actuated, 7.5–7.7
calibration of, 7.33–7.35
dry-water column procedure for, 7.33–7.35
equipment for, 7.33–7.34
dry-water column procedure for, 7.33–7.35
equipment for, 7.33–7.34
field maintenance of, 7.33
installation of, 7.32–7.33
maintenance of, 7.32–7.34
mechanical, 7.5–7.7
at zero, 7.33
Flow-of-work requests, 1.40–1.41
Fluid management programs, 8.4–8.6
Fluids management, 8.30
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 10.10
Fluxes, and submerged arc welding, 10.41–10.42
Foam tests, 8.31
Focus, 7.67
Force-deflection method:
for tensioning, 5.135
for V-belt drives, 5.115–5.116
Foreman, maintenance of, 3.109
Formal instruction, 1.15
Forward-curved-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96
Four-sigma control, 1.57
Freeze protection:
for coils, 4.68–4.69
maintenance with, 4.83–4.84
for water coils, 4.84
for water-cooled condensers, 4.71
Freezing:
of air motors, 4.84
and air-conditioning equipment, 4.84
areas prone to, 4.84
of coils, 4.68–4.69, 4.84
of compressed-air lines, 4.84
of condensers, 4.70, 4.84
damage from, 4.83
and evaporative condensers, 4.70
of evaporative condensers, 4.70, 4.84
prevention of, 4.83–4.84
of water coils, 4.84
of water lines, 4.84
of water-cooled condensers, 4.71
of well pumps, 4.84
Frequency:
data-acquisition, 7.93–7.94
of vibration, 7.76
Frequency counters, 7.63–7.65
counters, 7.64
counter-timers, 7.64
oscilloscopes, 7.64, 7.65
Frequency domain, 7.76
Frequency method:
for tensioning, 5.135–5.136
for V-belt drives, 5.115–5.116
Friction drives, 5.145–5.160
adjustable while in motion (nonenclosed),
5.145–5.151
belt transmissions, 5.153–5.155
flat-belt drives, 5.160
friction-disk-type drives, 5.156–5.157
geared differential drives, 5.157–5.159
packaged belt drives, 5.155–5.156
static-adjustment type, 5.151–5.153
traction-type drives, 5.157
Friction-disk-type drives, 5.156–5.157
Friction-type belts, 5.145–5.147
Front line supervision, 1.32
FSIs (see Functionally significant items)
Fuel analysis, 8.31–8.32
Fuel contamination, 8.31
Fuel soot, 2.26, 7.128
Fuels:
dilution of, 2.25, 7.128
lubricating oil analysis for, 7.128
testing for, 8.31–8.32
Fully compensated liquid-filled system
thermometers, 7.20
Functionally significant items (FSIs),
2.11–2.12
Fuses:
defined, 7.116
and infrared technology, 7.112
and motor control centers, 6.75
Fusion welding, 10.75
Fusion welding cast iron, 10.78
Gages, pressure (see Pressure gages)
Galvanic corrosion, 9.6
Galvanized steel, 9.9
Gas:
flux-cored arc welding with, 10.10
for GMAW, 10.13
Gas absorbers, 4.113, 4.114
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
10.13–10.27
advantages of, 10.17–10.18
applicability of, 10.15–10.17
disadvantages of, 10.17–10.18
electrode material for, 10.21–10.22
flow rates, 10.20–10.21
manual techniques, 10.24
mechanical welding parameters for,
10.25
methods for, 10.25–10.27
and polarity, 10.18–10.20
power supplies, 10.22–10.23
principles of, 10.18
process for, 10.13–10.15
shielding gases, 10.20–10.21
torches, 10.23–10.24
Gas welding, 10.63–10.89
air-acetylene appliances, 10.63–10.71
flame adjustment for, 10.74–10.83
and hard facing, 10.83–10.89
oxyacetylene appliances, 10.71–10.74
Gases:
flammable, 4.100
shielding, 10.20–10.21
Gas-filled thermal systems, 7.22
Gaskets, for piping, 9.58, 9.61–9.62
Gas-shielded metal arc welding (GMAW),
10.11–10.13
Gas-shielded spot welding, 10.34
Gate valves:
bronze, 5.203–5.204
double-wedge rising-stem gate valve, 5.204
iron valves, 5.204–5.205
renewable-wedge-and-seat bronze gate
valve, 5.204
screw-and-yoke rising-stem gate valve,
5.204
single-wedge nourishing-stem gate valve,
5.204
solid-wedge rising-stem gate valve, 5.204
Gaussian response, 7.67
Gear(s):
and backlash, 7.83
dynamics of, 7.82–7.83
in positive-displacement pumps, 5.224
vibration of, 7.82–7.83
Gear couplings, 5.46
Gear drives, 5.161
basic, 5.164
epicyclic, 5.164, 5.165, 5.167
gear-tooth wear and failure, 5.177–5.184
surface deterioration, 5.177–5.183
tooth breakage, 5.177, 5.183–5.184
installation of, 5.169, 5.172
lubrication of, 5.174–5.177
maintenance of, 5.177
selection of, 5.167–5.169
shutdown of, 5.177
start-up, 5.174
and surface deterioration, 5.177–5.183
and tooth breakage, 5.177, 5.183–5.184
troubleshooting, 5.177
types of, 5.161–5.164
Gear mesh, 7.82–7.83
Gearboxes, 7.90–7.91
Geared differential drives, 5.157–5.159
Gear-tooth wear and failure:
burning, 5.182
corrosive wear, 5.182
grinding cracks, 5.182, 5.183
interference wear, 5.182, 5.183
plastic flow, 5.179–5.180
scoring, 5.180
surface deterioration, 5.177–5.183
burning, 5.182
corrosive wear, 5.182
grinding cracks, 5.182, 5.183
interference wear, 5.182, 5.183
plastic flow, 5.179–5.180
scoring, 5.180
surface fatigue, 5.180–5.181
wear, 5.178–5.179
surface fatigue, 5.180–5.181
tooth breakage, 5.177, 5.183–5.184
wear, 5.178–5.179
Generalizing, in scientific method, 3.92–3.93
Generators:
motor, 7.116
vibration of, 7.92
Geometry (CRT), 7.67
I.14 INDEXGlobe valves, 5.200–5.201
bronze valves, 5.200–5.201
iron valves, 5.204
nonmetallic-disk globe valve, 5.201
plug-type Renewo globe valve, 5.201
600-Brinnel flat-seat globe valve, 5.201
threaded-bonnet globe valve, 5.200
union-bonnet regrinding valve, 5.200
Glycol, 8.32
GMAW (gas-shielded metal arc welding),
10.11–10.13
Gouging, 10.82–10.83
Government regulations (see Regulations)
Gradients, temperature, 7.114
Graphite, for corrosion control, 9.9
Graticules, 7.67, 7.68
Gravimetric solids, 8.32
Gravity, and lubricant analysis, 8.32
Grease(s), 8.7–8.12
compatibility of, 8.11
components of, 8.8
and lubrication programs, 8.7–8.12
manufacture of, 8.11–8.12
properties of, 8.8–8.9
testing for, 8.8, 8.9
thickeners for, 8.9–8.11
Grease lubrication, 5.41–5.43
Grease thickeners, 8.9–8.11
aluminum complex soaps, 8.10
aluminum soaps, 8.9
calcium complex soaps, 8.11
calcium soaps, 8.10
lithium complex soaps, 8.11
lithium soaps, 8.10
nonsoap organoclay, 8.11
nonsoap polyurea, 8.11
sodium soaps, 8.9, 8.10
Grease-lubricated antifriction bearings,
6.12
Green stain (vanadium salts), 4.36
Grinding cracks, of gear-tooth, 5.182, 5.183
Ground(s):
defined, 7.116
maintenance for, 1.10
plant, 1.10
Ground conductors, 7.113
GTAW (see Gas tungsten arc welding)
Gutter joints, 4.13
Hand dampers, 4.73
Hand washing, 4.35
Hand-chain manually operated chain hoists,
5.91–5.92
Hard facing, 10.83–10.89
for cast iron, 10.85
finishing for, 10.85–10.89
and gas welding, 10.83–10.89
material for, 10.45–10.48
rods, 10.84
for steel, 10.84–10.85
Hard facing rods, 10.84
Hard surfacing:
with submerged arc welding, 10.49–10.51
and welding, 10.43
Hard-facing piping, 9.70–9.72
Harmonic (order), 7.76–7.77
Harmonic distortion, 7.116
Harmonics, 7.116
HCl (inhibited muriatic acid), 9.20
Heat:
and chain drives, 5.79
and power transmissions, 5.79
and precision chain drives, 5.79
spiral, 7.113
Heat pumps, 4.79–4.80
Heat transfer, 7.109
conduction, 7.109
convection, 7.109
emissivity, 7.109
and infrared technology, 7.109
radiation, 7.109
Heaters, 4.78–4.79
heating coils, 4.79
maintenance of, 4.78–4.79
water heaters, 4.79–4.80
Heating coils, 4.79
Heavy braze welding, 10.76–10.77
Helix tubes, 7.16
Hertz (Hz), 7.116
Hidden rusting, 9.47
High voltage switchgear, 7.112
High-carbon steels, 10.36
High-manganese steels, 10.39
High-pressure cold water, 4.33
High-pressure steam, 4.33
High-pressure water jetting, 9.25, 9.26
High-resistance determination, 7.63–7.64
High-tensile low-alloy steels, 10.36
Histograms, 3.147–3.150
bi-modal, 3.149
comb, 3.149
edge-peaked, 3.150
interpretations of, 3.148–3.150
isolated peaked, 3.150
key points for, 3.149
normal, 3.149
plateau, 3.149
procedure for, 3.148
skewed, 3.150
truncated, 3.150
Historic structures, 4.40
History, equipment/asset, 2.104
Hoists, chain, 5.91–5.98
Holes, in low-sloped roofs, 4.12, 4.15
Homopolymers, acetal, 9.10
Hoods, exhaust, 4.122, 4.123
Horizontal alignment:
for face/rim alignment, 5.66, 5.67
for flexible couplings, 5.70–5.71
for shaft misalignment, 5.61–5.63,
5.66, 5.67
Hot bearings:
troubleshooting, 5.118, 5.123, 5.137, 5.142
and V-belt drives, 5.118, 5.123
Hot spots, 7.114
Hot-short phenomenon, 5.13
Hourly personnel, 1.13–1.14
amount of, 1.13–1.14
crafts, 1.14
and operation personnel, 1.13–1.14
Housekeeping:
and centralized automatic lubrication
system, 8.16
for low-sloped roofs, 4.6, 4.14
Humidifiers, 4.80
Humidity measurements, 7.24–7.25
dew-point measurement, 7.25
nylon-ribbon hygrometer method, 7.24–7.25
Hydraulic curve, 5.218–5.220
Hydraulic removal, 5.39, 5.40
Hydrodrilling, 9.26
Hygrometer method, nylon-ribbon, 7.24–7.25
Hysteresis, magnetic, 6.70
Hz (hertz), 7.116
Imaging, infrared, 7.107–7.108
Imbalance, vibration from, 7.87–7.88
Impact wear, 10.44
Impedance (Z):
defined, 7.116
input, 7.50
Impellers:
opposed, 5.215
orientation of, 5.214
types of, 5.213
Improvement:
KPIs for, 3.124
methods improvement, 3.93–3.95
proactive, 1.35
proactive improvement, 1.35
quality, 2.21
total productive maintenance for, 2.51–2.52
(See also Continuous improvement)
Incentives, for self-directed work teams, 1.35
Incoming inspections, 3.12–3.13
Incoming-project specifications, 3.171
Indexes, for cost control, 1.52–1.53
Indicator sag, 5.57
Induced loads, 7.86–7.87
Inductance, 7.116
Inductors, 7.116
Industrial chemical cleaning (see Chemical
cleaning)
Industrial multimeters, 7.50
Industrywide averages/ratios, 3.111
Inertial (dry centrifugal) air-cleaning
equipment, 4.112
dry dynamic, 4.112, 4.119
maintenance of, 4.119
multiple centrifugal, 4.112, 4.119
simple cyclone, 4.112, 4.119
Informal instruction, 1.15
Infrared analysis, 8.32
Infrared bands, 7.114
Infrared equipment:
digital, 7.110
lenses for, 7.110
portability of, 7.110
qualitative measurements of, 7.110
quantitative measurements of, 7.110
software for, 7.110
wave lengths of, 7.110
Infrared imaging, 2.24, 7.107–7.108
Infrared radiation, 7.114
Infrared technology, 7.105–7.125
and broken strands, 7.112
and busy duct, 7.111
and capacitors, 7.112
and circuit breakers, 7.111, 7.112
and conduction, 7.109
and conductors, 7.112
and convection, 7.109
and dry type transformers, 7.112
and electrical terminology, 7.114–7.117
and electromagnetic spectrum,
7.108–7.109
and emissivity, 7.109
INDEX I.15Infrared technology (Cont.)
equipment for, 7.107–7.110
analog, 7.110
analysis of, 7.109–7.110
infrared imaging, 7.107–7.108
infrared thermometers, 7.107
line scanners, 7.107
and failure, 7.111
far, 7.114
and fuses, 7.112
and ground conductors, 7.113
and heat transfer concepts, 7.109
infrared imaging for, 7.107–7.108
infrared thermometers for, 7.107
line scanners for, 7.107
and load break switches, 7.112
and looseness, 7.111
and materials, 7.118–7.125
and motors, 7.111
and oil-filled transformers, 7.111–7.112
and parallel feeders, 7.113
problems with, 7.111–7.113
quantitative, 7.114
and radiation, 7.109
safety with, 7.110
scanning procedures for, 7.110–7.113
and spiral heating, 7.113
and switches, 7.112
and switchgear, 7.111, 7.112
terms for, 7.113–7.114
theory for, 7.108
and transformers, 7.111–7.112
Infrared thermometers, 2.24, 7.107
Inhibited muriatic acid (HCl), 9.20
Inhibited sulfuric acid, 9.20–9.21
Inhibitors:
for aqueous solutions, 9.14–9.15
and corrosion control, 9.13–9.15
In-house work force, 1.43–1.44
Injection systems, 8.24
Injector systems, 8.17
Inlet-piping configuration, 5.221
In-line configuration, 5.214
In-line-flow centrifugal fans, 4.97
Inorganic acids, 9.20–9.21
cleaning with, 9.20–9.21
inhibited muriatic acid (HCl), 9.20
inhibited sulfuric acid, 9.20–9.21
nitric acid, 9.21
phosphoric acids, 9.21
sulfuric acid, 9.21
Inorganic zinc coatings, 9.43
Input, 7.49
Input impedance, 7.50
Input RC characteristics, 7.67
Inquiries, on-line, 2.82–2.83
Insolubles, 8.32
Inspection:
of air-cooled condensers, 4.69
for appearance, 5.9
of brick masonry structures, 4.27
for cavitation, 5.14
of contactors, 6.51–6.55
of cranes, 5.85
for crankcase distortion, 5.14
for crankshaft distortion, 5.14
for crush, 5.14
for dirt, 5.9–5.10
for fatigue, 5.10–5.11
Inspection (Cont.)
for foreign materials, 5.11, 5.13
for hot-short phenomenon, 5.13
internal, 6.86–6.87
for lead-acid batteries, 6.86–6.87
of low-sloped roofs, 4.5–4.7
of plain bearings, 5.9–5.15
preliminaries for, 5.9
of rooftop air-conditioning units, 4.81–4.82
for synchronous belts, 5.132
of used bearings, 5.9–5.14
of V-belt drives, 5.112
of ventilating fans, 4.104, 4.107–4.109
visual, 2.30
and root cause analysis, 3.159–3.161
for synchronous belts, 5.132
of V-belt drives, 5.112
for wear, 5.9, 5.11
Inspections:
of coatings, 9.46–9.49
for elevators, 4.44–4.46, 4.50–4.51
incoming, 3.12–3.13
Installation:
of air-conditioning equipment, 4.61
application review, 3.172
of batteries, 6.80–6.81, 6.92–6.93
of centrifugal pumps, 5.220–5.222
of chain drives, 5.78–5.79
of cranes, 5.83–5.85
of flexible couplings, 5.54
of flowmeters, 7.32–7.33
of gear drives, 5.169, 5.172
of lead-acid batteries, 6.80–6.81
maintenance for, 1.10
of nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.92–6.93
of positive-displacement pumps, 5.227
of pressure gages, 7.37–7.38
of QD-type sheaves, 5.110
of refrigeration equipment, 4.61
of relative-humidity-measuring instruments,
7.40
root cause analysis (RCA), 3.172
of synchronous belts, 5.129–5.131
of thermometers, 7.35–7.36
of TL-type sheaves, 5.110–5.111
of V-belt drives, 5.113
for V-belt sheaves, 5.108–5.112
of ventilating fans, 4.104–4.106
of welding equipment, 10.55
Installed systems, 7.100–7.101
Instruction:
for craft personnel, 1.15
formal, 1.15
informal, 1.15
Instruction manuals, 1.51–1.53
Instrumentation, 1.49–1.50
Instruments (see Electrical instruments;
Mechanical instruments)
Insulation:
for AC induction motors, 6.7–6.8
bus support insulators, 6.75
for coolers, 4.71
for DC motors, 6.9–6.11
for piping, 9.78–9.81
Insulation resistance, 2.29–2.30
Insulators, 7.116
Insurance administration, 1.11
Intelligent action, law of (see Law of
intelligent action)
Intensity modulation, 7.68
Interchangeable lenses, 7.110
Intercoolers, 5.193
Interdependency, 1.26–1.27
Interference, 7.115
Interference wear, of gear-tooth, 5.182, 5.183
Interfilm corrosion, 9.8
Intergranular corrosion, 9.7
Internal graticules, 7.68
Internal inspection, 6.86–6.87
Intervals, 2.17–2.18
Intraplant relations, 1.47–1.50
authority, 1.48–1.49
and instrumentation, 1.49–1.50
maintenance personnel, 1.47–1.48
operating policies for, 1.47–1.50
and safety, 1.49
Inventory, 2.59–2.78
analysis of, 2.89
best practices inventory management for,
2.60–2.61
carrying cost for, 2.64–2.65
computerized maintenance management
systems (CMMS) for, 2.75–2.78
enterprise asset management (EAM),
2.75–2.76
stock keeping units (SKU), 2.76–2.78
control of, 2.61
criticality of, 2.63–2.64
and loss elimination, 2.62–2.63
MRO carrying cost for, 2.64–2.65
objectives of, 2.59
obsolete, 2.78
parts, 2.89
and replacement asset value (RAV), 2.61
and risk management, 2.62
stock keeping units (SKU), 2.76–2.78
stocking levels for, 2.64
and storeroom management, 2.65–2.75
types of, 2.60
Inventory function:
CMMS for, 2.104–2.105
for direct-buy items, 2.105
material safety data sheets (MSDS), 2.105
parts requirements for planned work,
2.105
parts to equipment/asset, 2.104–2.105
parts usage history, 2.104
purchase orders, 2.105
reorder/stocking requirements, 2.105
repositioning parts, 2.105
work orders, 2.105
Inventory replenishment program, 2.108
Inventory to equipment/asset where-used,
2.94–2.95
Inverters, 7.116
Iron stains, 4.37–4.38
Iron valves, 5.204–5.205
check valves, 5.204
gate valves, 5.204–5.205
globe valves, 5.204
ISO 9000 compliance, 2.107
Isolated peaked histograms, 3.150
Isolation, 7.116
Isothermal mapping, 7.114
Ivy stains, 4.39
Jet pumps, 4.98
Jitter, 7.68
I.16 INDEXJob(s):
size of, 1.40
wage rate for, 3.70
Job classifications, 3.69–3.89
and cost estimates, 3.107–3.108
wage rate for, 3.70
Job evaluation, 3.66–3.69
classifications, 3.69–3.89
factors in, 3.66–3.68
and job analysis, 3.68–3.69
principles of, 3.66
Job scheduling, 2.108
Job sequence, 2.79
Job standards, comparative, 3.111, 3.114
Joint(s):
of concrete floor surfaces, 4.19–4.20
and coolers, 4.71
and cracked walls, 4.31
and evaporative condensers, 4.70
refrigerant, 4.71
refrigerated, 4.71
saw cutting of, 4.31
shrinkage of, 4.19–4.20
vertical expansion, 4.31
and water-cooled condensers, 4.71
Joint (banded) belts, 5.120–5.121
Key performance indicators (KPIs),
3.121–3.132
and balanced scorecard (BSC), 3.124–3.127
best practices for, 3.129
for change, 3.124
for communication, 3.124
and comparative time estimating, 3.130–3.131
for control, 3.124
for evaluation, 3.124
for improvement, 3.124
in knowledge-based organizations,
3.121–3.124
for long-term focus, 3.124
for measurement, 3.124
for motivation, 3.124
need for, 3.124
for planning, 3.124
PMS models for, 3.124
requirements of, 3.128–3.129
for resource allocation, 3.124
and work measurement, 3.129–3.132
application of, 3.131
comparative time estimating, 3.130–3.131
familiarity for, 3.130
levels of, 3.132
kHz (kilohertz), 7.116
Kilivolt-ampere (kVA), 7.116
Kilohertz (kHz), 7.116
Knowledge-based organizations, 3.121–3.124
KPIs (see Key performance indicators)
kVA (kilivolt-ampere), 7.116
Labor cost estimates, 3.110–3.117
and deferring maintenance, 3.116
with factor development, 3.115
judgment for, 3.110–3.111
PERT approach to, 3.116
quickread factors for, 3.115–3.116
with rule of seven, 3.115
and slotting, 3.111, 3.115
standards per unit, 3.111, 3.114–3.116
technique selection for, 3.116–3.117
Ladders, 9.91–9.101
aluminum, 9.92
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) on, 9.93
Consumer Product Safety Commission on,
9.94
extension ladders, 9.92–9.94
federal regulations for, 9.93
fiberglass, 9.93
materials for, 9.92–9.93
aluminum, 9.92
fiberglass, 9.93
OSHA regulations on, 9.93
ratings for, 9.94
regulations for, 9.93–9.94
rung ladders, 9.94–9.95
extension ladders, 9.94
sectional ladders, 9.94, 9.95
single ladders, 9.94
safety considerations with, 9.96–9.101
sectional ladders, 9.94, 9.95
single ladders, 9.94
special-purpose ladders, 9.96
standards for, 9.93–9.94
stepladders, 9.92–9.96
Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc. on,
9.93–9.94
Laminated disk-ring couplings, 5.50–5.51
Latent loads, 4.54
Law of intelligent action, 3.90–3.92
ability, 3.91
capacity, 3.91–3.92
desire, 3.90–3.91
Leaching, selective, 9.7
Lead time, for scheduling, 1.40
Lead-acid batteries, 6.80–6.89
charging, 6.81–6.85
condition of, 6.86–6.87
constant-current method for, 6.84
installation of, 6.80–6.81
internal inspection for, 6.86–6.87
maintenance of, 6.85–6.86
modified constant-voltage method for,
6.82–6.83
operation of, 6.80–6.81
overdischarging, 6.86
placement of, 6.81
records for, 6.86
repairs to, 6.88–6.89
taper method for, 6.84
test discharge for, 6.86
troubleshooting, 6.87–6.88
two-rate method for, 6.84
Lead-based paints, 9.39–9.40
Leaks:
in absorption machines, 4.66
in centrifugal compressors, 4.68
detection of, 7.70, 9.86
in piping, 9.62–9.63, 9.86
testing for
for absorption machines, 4.66
for centrifugal compressors, 4.68
and vibration, 7.70
Leaktightness, 4.65
Lenses, 7.110
Life cycle asset management, 1.18
Life cycle cost analyses, 3.136
Life expectancy, 6.91–6.92
Lifts (see Elevators)
Lighting, 8.6
Lightning arrester, 7.116
Lights, 4.54
Line scanners, 2.24, 7.107
Linear-motion machinery, 7.78
Liquid velocity, 9.86
Liquid-filled system thermometers, 7.19
Liquid-level instruments, 7.35
Liquid-level measurement, 7.8–7.14
under atmospheric pressure, 7.8–7.10
in closed tanks, 7.10–7.11
cryogenic-liquid-level measurement, 7.12–7.13
purge-type liquid-level measurement, 7.13–7.14
of sealing liquids, 7.11–7.12
Liquid-resin type epoxy, 9.44
Liquids, sealing, 7.11–7.12
Lithium complex soaps, 8.11
Lithium soaps, 8.10
Load(s), 4.53–4.55
and air-conditioning equipment, 4.53–4.55
cooling, 4.53–4.55
and air-conditioning equipment, 4.53–4.55
from lights, 4.54
occupancy loads, 4.54
outside-air loads, 4.54
removal of, 4.54
size of, 4.54–4.55
sun loads, 4.53
heating, 4.55
induced, 7.86–7.87
latent, 4.54
occupancy loads, 4.54
outside-air loads, 4.54
sun loads, 4.53
total work load, 1.40
transmission, 4.53–4.54
transmission loads, 4.53–4.54
work load, 1.40
Load break switches, 7.112
Load ratings, 5.24–5.25
Lobe-type pumps, 5.226
Localized corrosion, 9.5–9.6
Logic, default, 2.14–2.17
Logic tree analysis, 2.12–2.14
first level, 2.12–2.13
second level, 2.14
Logical order, 3.139
Long-term focus, 3.124
Loose fasteners, 4.12
Loose parts, 7.70
Looseness:
and infrared technology, 7.111
vibration from, 7.89
Loss elimination, 1.19
Low-carbon steels, 10.35
Low-resistance determination, 7.62–7.63
Low-sloped roofs, 4.3–4.16
bitumen membranes on, 4.11
blisters on, 4.12
built-up bitumen membranes on, 4.11
cleaning, 4.14–4.15
coated smooth-surfaced roofs, 4.11
conventional built-up roofing membranes, 4.4
corrosion of, 4.15
counterflashings, 4.13
defects with, 4.5–4.7
flashings, 4.7, 4.12
housekeeping, 4.6
masonry, 4.7
INDEX I.17Low-sloped roofs, defects with (Cont.)
membrane damage, 4.6–4.7
roof accessory components, 4.7
surfacing, 4.6
emergency leak repair, 4.9–4.10
and equipment, 4.15
equipment for, 4.15
fasteners, 4.12
flanges, 4.13
flashings, 4.7, 4.12, 4.13
gutter joints, 4.13
and holes, 4.12, 4.15
holes in, 4.15
housekeeping, 4.14
inspection of, 4.5–4.7
maintenance prevention for, 4.14–4.15
masonry, 4.7
membrane damage, 4.6–4.7
metals, 4.15
mineral surfaced roofs, 4.11
modified bitumen membranes on, 4.11
modified bitumen roofing membranes, 4.4
with nonvulcanized elastomers, 4.11
permanent repair of, 4.10–4.14
for blisters, 4.12
of built-up bitumen membranes, 4.11
of coated smooth-surfaced roofs, 4.11
for counterflashings, 4.13
for fasteners, 4.12
for flanges, 4.13
for flashings, 4.12, 4.13
for gutter joints, 4.13
for holes, 4.12
of mineral surfaced roofs, 4.11
of modified bitumen membranes, 4.11
with nonvulcanized elastomers, 4.11
for punctures, 4.12
with thermoplastic membranes, 4.11–4.12
with vulcanized elastomers, 4.11
preventative maintenance for, 4.14–4.15
corrosion, 4.15
and holes, 4.15
housekeeping, 4.14
metals, 4.15
roof drains, 4.15
rusting, 4.15
and storage, 4.15
surface cleaning, 4.14–4.15
and traffic, 4.15
protected roof membrane assembly
(“upside-down” roof system), 4.5
punctures, 4.12
record keeping for, 4.3
repair materials for, 4.8–4.9
repair of, 4.10–4.14
replacement of, 4.16
reroofing of, 4.16
roof accessory components, 4.7
roof drains, 4.15
rusting, 4.15
single-ply roofing membranes, 4.5
and storage, 4.15
storage on, 4.15
superimposition of, 4.16
surface cleaning, 4.14–4.15
surfacing, 4.6
temporary repair of, 4.9–4.10
with thermoplastic membranes, 4.11–4.12
Low-sloped roofs (Cont.)
and traffic, 4.15
traffic on, 4.15
with vulcanized elastomers, 4.11
Low-voltage release devices, 6.59
Lubricant(s):
application of, 8.29–8.30
bulk storage of, 8.7
dispensing, 8.33
disposal of, 8.6
facilities for, 8.6
fire protection for, 8.7
and glycol, 8.32
and gravity, 8.32
handling of, 8.6, 8.33–8.34
and lighting, 8.6
location of, 8.6
and lubrication, 8.4–8.7
and lubrication programs, 8.4–8.7
maintenance of, 8.5, 8.6
monitoring programs for, 8.5
and personnel, 8.6
protection of, 8.6–8.7
purchasing, 8.4–8.5
safety considerations with, 8.33
selection of, 8.4–8.5, 8.27–8.30
source of, 8.35
storage of, 8.7, 8.33
testing for, 8.31–8.32
Lubricant analysis, 8.30–8.32
and glycol, 8.32
and gravity, 8.32
and microorganisms, 8.32
and sediment, 8.32
and sugar, 8.32
and sulfur, 8.32
and viscosity, 8.32
and viscosity index, 8.32
and water, 8.32
Lubricating oil analysis, 2.25–2.26, 7.128–7.129
contamination, 2.25, 7.128
cost-benefit analysis for, 7.135
fuel dilution, 2.25, 7.128
fuel soot, 2.26, 7.128
nitration, 2.26, 7.129
oxidation, 2.26, 7.128
particle count, 2.26, 7.129
solids content, 2.25, 7.128
total acid number, 2.26, 7.129
total base number, 2.26, 7.129
viscosity, 2.25, 7.128
Lubrication:
of air compressors, 5.188–5.189
of air washers, 4.66–4.67
of air-cooled condensers, 4.69
automatic lubrication system, 8.13–8.26
centralized automatic lubrication system,
8.14–8.16
of centrifugal compressors, 4.67–4.68
of chains, for power transmissions, 5.79–5.80
for control components, 6.42
of cooling towers, 4.72
of dehumidifiers, 4.80
design considerations with, 5.8–5.9
of evaporative condensers, 4.70
for fans, 4.76
of gear drives, 5.174–5.177
grease lubrication, 5.41–5.43
Lubrication (Cont.)
and greases, 8.7–8.12
compatibility of, 8.11
components of, 8.8
manufacture of, 8.11–8.12
properties of, 8.8–8.9
testing for, 8.8, 8.9
thickeners for, 8.9–8.11
of humidifiers, 4.80
and lubricants, 8.4–8.7
maintenance for, 1.10
oil lubrication, 5.41
and plain bearings, 5.8–5.9
for power transmissions, 5.79–5.80
of precision chain drives, 5.79–5.80
for rolling-element bearings, 5.41–5.44
for rooftop air-conditioning units, 4.82
selection of, 5.43–5.44
supply of, 5.3
Lubrication programs, 8.13–8.35
analysis in, 8.29–8.30
automatic lubrication system, 8.13–8.26
centralized, 8.14–8.16
duoline systems, 8.20, 8.21
ejection systems, 8.23–8.24
injection systems, 8.24
injector systems, 8.17
oil mis systems, 8.16
orifice-control systems, 8.16–8.17
pump-to-point systems, 8.20–8.21
selection of, 8.25–8.26
series-progressive systems, 8.17–8.19
twin-line systems, 8.19–8.20
types of, 8.16
zone-control systems, 8.21, 8.22
centralized automatic lubrication system,
8.14–8.16
efficiency with, 8.15
and housekeeping, 8.16
and operating costs, 8.16
productivity with, 8.16
safety with, 8.14
devices for, 8.13
duoline systems, 8.20, 8.21
efficiency with, 8.15
ejection systems, 8.23–8.24
employee responsibility for, 8.4
fluid management programs for, 8.4–8.6
and fluids management, 8.30
and greases, 8.7–8.12
and housekeeping, 8.16
implementation of, 8.28, 8.34
injector systems, 8.17
lubricant selection for, 8.27–8.30
and lubricants, 8.4–8.7
and management, 8.27
management of, 8.3–8.12
fluid management programs for, 8.4–8.6
greases, 8.7–8.12
lubricants, 8.4–8.7
organized plant lubrication program, 8.3–8.4
management responsibility for, 8.3–8.4
oil mis systems, 8.16
and operating costs, 8.16
organized plant lubrication program, 8.3–8.4
employee responsibility for, 8.4
management responsibility for, 8.3–8.4
safety considerations with, 8.4
I.18 INDEXLubrication programs (Cont.)
orifice-control systems, 8.16–8.17
planning for, 8.28
and plant lubrication surveys, 8.29
productivity with, 8.16
pump-to-point systems, 8.20–8.21
and quality assurance, 8.30
responsibility for, 8.3–8.4
safety considerations with, 8.4, 8.14
scheduling in, 8.29–8.30
selection of, 8.25–8.26
series-progressive systems, 8.17–8.19
training for, 8.27–8.28
twin-line systems, 8.19–8.20
zone-control systems, 8.21, 8.22
Machine design, 7.71
Machine vibration, 7.74
Machine/manual-operated control circuits, 6.64
Machinery (see Machine(s))
Machines and machinery:
absorption machines
leak testing for, 4.66
leaktightness, 4.65
maintenance of, 4.64–4.65
pumps, 4.66
purge units, 4.66
safeties, 4.66
service valves, 4.66
linear-motion machinery, 7.78
plant machinery
bearings, 7.80–7.82
belt drives, 7.83–7.84
blades, 7.83
critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
dynamics of, 7.79–7.87
gears, 7.82–7.83
induced loads, 7.86–7.87
mode shape, 7.85–7.86
preloads, 7.86–7.87
process variables, 7.87
resonance, 7.86
rolling-element bearings, 7.80–7.82
running speeds, 7.84
sleeve bearings, 7.81–7.82
vanes, 7.83
vibration of, 7.77–7.87
reciprocating machinery, 7.78
rotating machinery, 7.77–7.78
and vibration, 7.77–7.78
for welding, 10.51–10.52
Magnet (operating) coils, 6.44–6.45
Magnet constructions, 6.43–6.44
Magnetic circuit modification, 6.70–6.71
Magnetic hysteresis, 6.70
Magnetic motor controllers, 6.43
Magnetic overload relays, 6.66
Magnified sweeps, 7.68
Maintainability analysis, 3.136–3.137
Maintenance, 1.9–1.16
of absorption machines, 4.64–4.65
of air washers, 4.66–4.67
of air-cleaning equipment, 4.118–4.124
of air-conditioning equipment, 4.61–4.85
of air-cooled condensers, 4.69
for alterations, 1.10
of belt drives, 4.73–4.74
breakdown, 1.41–1.42, 2.3
Maintenance (Cont.)
of centrifugal compressors, 4.67–4.68
of coils, 4.68–4.69
of concrete floor surfaces, 4.24–4.25
contract, 4.49
of control circuit components, 6.72–6.73
of coolers, 4.71
of cooling towers, 4.71–4.73
cost estimates for (see Cost estimates)
of cranes, 5.85–5.89
of dampers, 4.73
of dehumidifiers, 4.80
do-it-yourself, 4.49
of dry dynamic air-cleaning equipment,
4.119
of economizers, 4.74–4.75
of electrostatic precipitators, 4.120–4.122
for elevators, 4.43–4.44, 4.46–4.49
and engineering function, 1.29
of equipment, 1.48–1.49
equipment inspection, 1.10
of evaporative condensers, 4.69–4.70
of exhaust ducts, 4.122
of exhaust hoods, 4.122
of fabric filtration, 4.120
of fans, 4.75–4.76
field, 7.33, 7.40
of filters, 4.76–4.78
of flowmeters, 7.32–7.34
with freeze protection, 4.83–4.84
of gear drives, 5.177
of heat pumps, 4.79–4.80
of heaters, 4.78–4.79
of humidifiers, 4.80
of inertial air-cleaning equipment, 4.119
for installations, 1.10
insurance administration as, 1.11
of lead-acid batteries, 6.85–6.86
of liquid-level instruments, 7.35
of lubricants, 8.5, 8.6
lubrication, 1.10
manpower requirements for, 1.13–1.14
of mechanical instruments, 7.32–7.35
of multiple centrifugal air-cleaning
equipment, 4.119
of nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.95–6.99
for nickel-iron batteries, 6.101–6.103
operating logs for, 4.63
and operations, 1.27–1.28
organization for, 1.11–1.13
planned, 3.108
and planning, 1.24–1.25
of plant buildings and grounds, 1.10
of plant equipment, 1.10
plant protection as, 1.11
of plastic piping, 9.88–9.89
of precision chain drives, 5.81–5.82
primary functions of, 1.10
procedures for, 2.5
and procurement function, 1.29–1.30
program maintenance, 7.102
of pumps, 4.80–4.81
for relative-humidity-measuring
instruments, 7.40
repetitive, 3.108
responsibilities of, 1.9–1.11
primary functions, 1.10
secondary functions, 1.11
Maintenance (Cont.)
responsibility for, 4.61
of rooftop A/C units, 4.81–4.82
of room air conditioners, 4.82–4.83
salvage as, 1.11
for scaffolding, 9.112–9.113
secondary functions of, 1.11
of self-contained A/C units, 4.83
of simple cyclone air-cleaning equipment,
4.119
of spare parts, 4.63
storeskeeping as, 1.11
of synchronous belts, 5.131–5.135
of thermometers, 7.36
training for, 1.15, 1.16, 4.63
and utilities, 1.10
of valves, 9.66
of V-belt drives, 5.112–5.115
for vibration, 7.102
waste disposal as, 1.11
and water conditioning, 4.84–4.85
of water-cooled condensers, 4.70–4.71
of welding equipment, 10.57–10.59
of wet collectors, 4.119–4.120
(See also Breakdown maintenance)
(See also Corrective maintenance)
(See also Preventative maintenance)
Maintenance engineering (see Engineering)
Maintenance function:
budget preparation and tracking, 2.102
CMMS for, 2.99–2.102
cooperative partnerships with, 1.24–1.25,
1.28
craft utilization, 2.102
and engineering, 1.28–1.29
equipment/asset repair history,
2.101–2.102
and operations, 1.28
preventative maintenance planning,
2.100–2.101
and procurement, 1.29
for reliability, 1.24–1.25
requisition of parts and services, 2.101
resource scheduling, 2.101
responsibilities of, 1.28–1.29
and work orders, 2.99–2.101
Maintenance history database, 2.5
Maintenance organization, 1.31–1.38
business plan of, 1.36
considerations with, 1.33, 1.36–1.37
for emergencies, 1.36
for overhauling, 1.36
for preventative maintenance, 1.36
rebuilding, 1.36
responsibilities of, 1.32–1.33
with self-directed work teams, 1.33–1.35
span of control ratios for, 1.37–1.38
structure of, 1.33, 1.36–1.37
supervision of, 1.37–1.38
support for, 1.37–1.38
work types of, 1.36–1.37
Maintenance painting (See Painting)
Maintenance personnel (see Personnel)
Maintenance planning (see Planning)
Maintenance programs, 1.19–1.20
Maintenance scheduling (see Scheduling)
Maintenance supervision (see Supervision)
Maintenance workers (see Personnel)
INDEX I.19Management:
best practices inventory management,
2.61
computer-based maintenance management
system (CMMS), 2.91–2.113
configuration management, 1.18–1.19
data management, 2.107
fluid management programs, 8.4–8.6
fluid management programs for, 8.4–8.6
fluids management, 8.30
of greases, 8.7–8.12
life cycle asset management, 1.18
of lubricants, 8.4–8.7
of lubrication, 8.3–8.12
fluid management programs for, 8.4–8.6
greases, 8.7–8.12
lubricants, 8.4–8.7
organized plant lubrication program,
8.3–8.4
lubrication programs, 8.27
organized plant lubrication program, 8.3–8.4
and organized plant lubrication program,
8.3–8.4
production management, 2.21
risk management, 1.18
storeroom management, 2.65–2.75
total plant management, 2.20
Management function, 2.107
budget tracking, 2.107
CMMS for, 2.107
cooperative partnerships with, 1.25
ISO 9000 compliance, 2.107
for reliability, 1.25
Management theory, 1.11–1.12
Manganese (brown) stains, 4.36–4.37
Manpower (see Personnel)
Manual motor controllers, 6.46–6.47
Manual techniques, 10.24
Manually lever-operated chain hoists (pullers),
5.91
Manual/machine-operated control circuits,
6.64
Manuals, instruction, 1.51–1.53
Mapping, isothermal, 7.114
Maps, process, 1.64
Masonry, 4.7
Material(s):
for corrosion control, 9.8–9.11
cost estimates for, 3.117–3.118
emissivity of, 7.118–7.125
foreign, 5.11, 5.13
infrared technology, 7.118–7.125
and infrared technology, 7.118–7.125
inspection of, 5.11, 5.13
for ladders, 9.92–9.93
for low-sloped roofs, 4.8–4.9
for painting, 9.40–9.41
for piping, 9.83
for plain bearings, 5.4–5.5
for repair, 4.8–4.9
storage of, 4.15
for thermography, 7.118–7.125
Material cost estimates, 3.117–3.118
Material safety data sheets (MSDS), 2.105
Matrix form (tabular) models, 3.15
Matrix models, 3.15–3.16
Mean time between failures (MTBF), 3.136,
7.116
Measurement(s):
ambient, 7.110
cryogenic-liquid-level measurement,
7.12–7.13
dew-point measurement, 7.25
humidity measurements, 7.24–7.25
of infrared equipment, 7.110
KPIs for, 3.124
liquid-level measurement, 7.8–7.14
overtravel measurement, 6.49
power measurements, 7.57–7.58
purge-type liquid-level measurement,
7.13–7.14
qualitative measurements, 7.110
quantitative measurements, 7.110
resistance measurements, 7.58–7.63
tangential noise measurement, 7.68
total flow measurement, 7.7–7.8
work measurement, 3.19–3.63
Mechanical checks, 6.42
Mechanical cleaning:
abrasion method, 9.30
and chemical cleaning, 9.25–9.30
with crawlers, 9.26–9.30
high-pressure water jetting, 9.25, 9.26
hydrodrilling, 9.26
with pigs, 9.26–9.30
with plugs, 9.26–9.30
Mechanical flowmeters, 7.5–7.7
Mechanical instruments, 7.3–7.71
Bellows-actuated flowmeters, 7.5–7.7
design of, 7.5–7.6
operation of, 7.6–7.7
cryogenic-liquid-level measurement, 7.12–7.13
dew-point measurements, 7.25
diaphragm-actuated flowmeter transmitter,
7.26
filled-system thermometers, 7.19–7.24
classifications of, 7.19–7.23
fully compensated liquid-filled, 7.20
gas-filled thermal systems, 7.22
liquid-filled, 7.19
mercury-filled thermal systems, 7.22–7.23
and thermal-system bulb designs, 7.22–7.23
vapor-pressure thermal systems, 7.20–7.22
flowmeters, 7.5–7.7, 7.32–7.34
calibration of, 7.33–7.35
field maintenance of, 7.33
installation of, 7.32–7.33
maintenance of, 7.32–7.34
at zero, 7.33
fully compensated liquid-filled
thermometers, 7.20
gas-filled thermal systems, 7.22
for humidity measurements, 7.24–7.25
dew-point measurement, 7.25
nylon-ribbon hygrometer method, 7.24–7.25
liquid-filled system thermometers, 7.19
liquid-level instruments, 7.35
for liquid-level measurement, 7.8–7.14
under atmospheric pressure, 7.8–7.10
in closed tanks, 7.10–7.11
cryogenic-liquid-level measurement,
7.12–7.13
purge-type liquid-level measurement,
7.13–7.14
of sealing liquids, 7.11–7.12
maintenance of, 7.32–7.35
Mechanical instruments, maintenance of
(Cont.)
flowmeters, 7.32–7.34
liquid-level instruments, 7.35
and mechanical-pressure instruments,
7.14–7.19
mercury-filled thermal systems, 7.22–7.23
meter-body operation, 7.27
miniature, 7.4–7.5, 7.29–7.32
nylon-ribbon hygrometer method, 7.24–7.25
pneumatic pressure transmitters, 7.28–7.29
pneumatic temperature transmitters, 7.28–7.29
pneumatic transmission systems, 7.25–7.28
diaphragm-actuated flowmeter
transmitter, 7.26
meter-body operation, 7.27
pressure gages, 7.37–7.40
calibration of, 7.38–7.40
installation of, 7.37–7.38
pressure transmitters, pneumatic, 7.28–7.29
for process monitoring/control, 7.3
purge-type liquid-level measurement,
7.13–7.14
recording instruments, 7.4–7.5
recording type, 7.29–7.32
relative-humidity-measuring instruments,
7.40–7.41
temperature transmitters, pneumatic,
7.28–7.29
and thermal-system bulb designs, 7.22–7.23
thermometers, 7.35–7.36
calibration of, 7.36
filled-system, 7.19–7.24
installation of, 7.35–7.36
maintenance of, 7.36
for total flow measurement, 7.7–7.8
transmitters
pneumatic pressure transmitters, 7.28–7.29
pneumatic temperature transmitters,
7.28–7.29
types of, 7.4
vapor-pressure thermal systems, 7.20–7.22
(See also specific types, e.g.: Plain bearings)
Mechanical interlocks, 6.76–6.77
Mechanical rub, 7.89
Mechanical variable-speed drives, 5.145–5.160
adjustable while in motion (nonenclosed)
friction drives, 5.145–5.151
friction drives, 5.145–5.160
adjustable while in motion (nonenclosed),
5.145–5.151
belt transmissions, 5.153–5.155
flat-belt drives, 5.160
friction-disk-type drives, 5.156–5.157
geared differential drives, 5.157–5.159
packaged belt drives, 5.155–5.156
static-adjustment type, 5.151–5.153
traction-type drives, 5.157
friction-type belts, 5.145–5.147
Mechanical welding, 10.25
Mechanical-pressure instruments, 7.14–7.19
absolute-pressure elements for, 7.18
bellows, 7.16–7.18
Bourdon tubes, 7.15–7.18
helix tubes, 7.16
pressure gages, 7.15–7.18
absolute-pressure elements for, 7.18
bellows, 7.16–7.18
I.20 INDEXMechanical-pressure instruments, pressure
gages (Cont.)
Bourdon tubes, 7.15–7.18
helix tubes, 7.16
spiral actuating elements for, 7.16
springs, 7.16–7.18
spiral actuating elements for, 7.16
springs, 7.16–7.18
types of, 7.14–7.15
Medium-carbon steels, 10.36
Megahertz (MHz), 7.116
Meggers:
high-resistance determination with, 7.64
precautions when using, 7.61
and resistance measurements, 7.59–761
resistance measurements with, 7.59–761
using, 7.61
Mercury-filled thermal systems, 7.22–7.23
Metal(s):
alloy steels, 10.36–10.39
base, 10.35–10.39
bimetals, 5.5
carbon steels, 10.35–10.36
corrosion of, 4.15
and low-sloped roofs, 4.15
monometals, 5.5
nonferrous metals, 10.39
rusting of, 4.15
spectrometals, 8.32
spectrometric, 8.32
spectrometric metals, 8.32
trimetals, 5.5
and welding, 10.35–10.39
Metal-base flashings, 4.13
Metallic-grid couplings, 5.48–5.49
Methods-time measurement (MTM) data,
3.41–3.52
MHz (megahertz), 7.116
Microbiological corrosion, 9.7
Microorganisms, 8.32
Micropatch study, 8.32
Microwave bands, 7.114
Mid-infrared, 7.114
Mineral surfaced roofs, 4.11
modified bitumen roofing membranes, 4.4
power roof exhausters, 4.98
Miniature mechanical instruments, 7.4–7.5,
7.29–7.32
Misalignment:
failure from, 7.88–7.89
and flexible couplings, 5.56–5.67
shaft, 5.63, 5.66
of synchronous belts, 5.132
V-belt drives, 5.112, 5.113
vibration from, 7.88–7.89
Mixed sweeps, 7.68
Mode shape, 7.85–7.86
Modified bitumen roofing membranes, 4.4, 4.11
Modified constant-voltage method, 6.82–6.83
Modified curvilinear belts, 5.124
Modular systems scaffolds, 9.106–9.107
Modulation, intensity, 7.68
Monitoring programs, 8.5
Monoammoniated citric acids, 9.20
Monolithically finished concrete floor
surfaces, 4.21
Monometals, for plain bearings, 5.5
Monopolar input, 7.49
Motion economy, 3.102–3.104
Motivation:
KPIs for, 3.124
of self-directed work teams, 1.35
Motor(s), 6.3–6.37
AC induction motors, 6.3–6.9
construction of, 6.6
DC motors vs., 6.3–6.6
design of, 6.7
insulation for, 6.7–6.8
speed-torque characteristics of, 6.6–6.7
temperature of, 6.8–6.9
theory for, 6.6
troubleshooting, 6.20–6.25
adjustable-type relays, 6.68
arc chambers, 6.45–6.46
braided shunts, 6.46
brushes for, 6.14–6.19
and bus support insulators, 6.75
circuit breakers, 6.57
circuit interrupters, 6.56
circuit protectors, motor`, 6.57
common characteristics of, 6.3–6.6
compound-wound, 6.9
and contact bounce, 6.47
contactors, 6.51–6.56
inspection of, 6.51–6.55
and motor control centers, 6.75
troubleshooting, 6.52–6.55
vacuum, 6.51
contactor-type control relays, 6.65
contacts, 6.47–6.51
bounce, 6.47
dressing for, 6.49–6.51
overtravel measurement, 6.49
pressure of, 6.48–6.49
vacuum contactors, 6.51
wear of, 6.49
continuously wound rheostats, 6.60–6.61
control centers, motor, 6.73–6.77
and bus support insulators, 6.75
and contactors, 6.75
control devices, 6.76
and disconnect devices, 6.75
electrical interlocks, 6.76
enclosures of, 6.74
and fuses, 6.75
mechanical interlocks, 6.76–6.77
and terminal connections, 6.74
thermal overload relays, 6.75–6.76
control circuit components, 6.64–6.72
adjustable-type relays, 6.68
contactor-type control relays, 6.65
dashpots, 6.66
DC relay maintenance, 6.71
magnetic circuit modification, 6.70–6.71
and magnetic hysteresis, 6.70
magnetic overload relays, 6.66
maintenance of, 6.72–6.73
manual/machine-operated, 6.64
solid-state overload relays, 6.66–6.68
thermal overload relays, 6.65–6.66
time-tactors, 6.68–6.70
control components, 6.39–6.77
cleaning, 6.42
contactors, 6.51–6.55
and contacts, 6.47–6.51
control circuit components, 6.64–6.72
Motor(s), control components (Cont.)
disconnect devices, 6.56–6.57
drum controllers, 6.62–6.63
enclosures for, 6.40–6.41
equipment grounding, 6.63–6.64
lubrication for, 6.42
mechanical checks, 6.42
motor controllers, 6.43–6.51
and personnel, 6.39–6.40
power circuit components, 6.43
preventative maintenance for, 6.41–6.42
rheostats, 6.57–6.61
control devices, 6.76
controllers, motor, 6.43–6.51
arc chambers, 6.45–6.46
braided shunts, 6.46
and contacts, 6.47–6.51
and magnet constructions, 6.43–6.44
magnetic, 6.43
manual, 6.46–6.47
operating (magnet) coils, 6.44–6.45
cooling methods for, 6.3–6.4
dashpots, 6.66
DC motors, 6.3–6.6, 6.9–6.11
AC motors vs., 6.3–6.6
application data for, 6.9–6.11
design of, 6.9
insulation for, 6.9–6.11
theory for, 6.9
troubleshooting, 6.26–6.36
types of, 6.9
DC relay maintenance, 6.71
design of, 6.7, 6.9
disconnect devices, 6.56–6.57
circuit breakers, 6.57
circuit interrupters, 6.56
disconnect switches, 6.56
motor circuit protectors, 6.57
and motor control centers, 6.75
disconnect switches, 6.56
drum controllers, 6.62–6.63
electrical interlocks, 6.76
enclosures, 6.74
equipment grounding, 6.63–6.64
and fuses, 6.75
and infrared technology, 7.111
insulation for, 6.7–6.8
low-voltage release devices, 6.59
lubrication for, 6.42
and magnet constructions, 6.43–6.44
magnetic circuit modification, 6.70–6.71
and magnetic hysteresis, 6.70
magnetic motor controllers, 6.43
magnetic overload relays, 6.66
manual motor controllers, 6.46–6.47
manual/machine-operated control circuits,
6.64
mechanical checks, 6.42
mechanical interlocks, 6.76–6.77
operating (magnet) coils, 6.44–6.45
overtravel measurement for, 6.49
permanent magnet motors, 6.9
and personnel, 6.39–6.40
and potentiometers, 6.60–6.61
power circuit components, 6.43
predictive maintenance program for, 6.19
preventative maintenance for, 6.41–6.42
ratings of, 6.3
INDEX I.21Motor(s) (Cont.)
relays
adjustable-type relays, 6.68
contactor-type control relays, 6.65
DC relay maintenance, 6.71
magnetic overload relays, 6.66
solid-state overload relays, 6.66–6.68
thermal overload relays, 6.65–6.66,
6.75–6.76
and resistor replacement, 6.59
rheostats, 6.57–6.61
contact pressure settings, 6.59
continuously wound, 6.60–6.61
locating, 6.59–6.60
with loose connection, 6.60
low-voltage release devices, 6.59
and potentiometers, 6.60–6.61
and resistor replacement, 6.59
servicing, 6.58–6.59
and wound-rotor motors, 6.61
scheduled maintenance for, 6.11–6.19
series-wound, 6.9
shunt-wound motors, 6.9
solid-state overload relays, 6.66–6.68
and temperature, 6.13–6.14
and terminal connections, 6.74
thermal overload relays, 6.65–6.66,
6.75–6.76
time-tactors, 6.68–6.70
and vacuum contactors, 6.51
and vibration, 6.13–6.14
vibration of, 7.90
wear of, 6.49
and wound-rotor motors, 6.61
Motor alternators, 7.116
Motor circuit protectors, 6.57
Motor control centers, 6.73–6.77
and bus support insulators, 6.75
and contactors, 6.75
control devices, 6.76
and disconnect devices, 6.75
electrical interlocks, 6.76
enclosures of, 6.74
and fuses, 6.75
mechanical interlocks, 6.76–6.77
and terminal connections, 6.74
thermal overload relays, 6.75–6.76
Motor controllers, 6.43–6.51
arc chambers, 6.45–6.46
braided shunts, 6.46
and contacts, 6.47–6.51
and magnet constructions, 6.43–6.44
magnetic, 6.43
manual, 6.46–6.47
operating (magnet) coils, 6.44–6.45
Motor generators, 7.116
Motor ratings, 6.3
Mounting:
reverse, 5.110
of rolling-element bearings, 5.33–5.38
of V-belt sheaves, 5.110
for vibration, 7.98
Mountings:
bearing, 5.28–5.32
cold mounting, 5.33
tapered-bore bearings, 5.35–5.38
temperature mountings, 5.33, 5.35
for ventilating fans, 4.105
MRO parts, 1.25
MSDS (material safety data sheets), 2.105
MTBF (see Mean time between failures)
MTM (methods-time measurement) data,
3.41–3.52
µ (unit ohms), 7.113
Multimeters, 7.44–7.50
analog multimeters, 7.44–7.48
digital multimeters, 7.48–7.50
special-purpose industrial multimeters,
7.50
Multiple centrifugal air-cleaning equipment,
4.112, 4.119
Multiple-activity process chart, 3.99–3.102
creation of, 3.99
usage of, 3.99–3.100
work simplification with, 3.99–3.102
Multirating tables, 4.88, 4.91
Multitrace, 7.68
Nameplate data, 3.170
Narrowband data, 7.104
Narrowband trending, 2.23
Near-infrared, 7.114
Net positive suction head, 5.215–5.216
Neutral, 7.117
Nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.89–6.99
charging, 6.93–6.94
with constant current, 6.94
with constant voltage, 6.93–6.94
and trickle charges, 6.94–6.95
construction of, 6.90
equalizing charge for, 6.95
float charging, 6.94
installation of, 6.92–6.93
life expectancy for, 6.91–6.92
maintenance of, 6.95–6.99
performance of, 6.91
plate processing for, 6.90
and pocket plates, 6.90–6.91
selection of, 6.92
and sintered plates, 6.91
trickle charging, 6.94–6.95
voltage of, 6.91
Nickel-iron batteries, 6.99–6.103
charging, 6.100–6.101
of cycled batteries, 6.100
of standby-power batteries, 6.100–6.101
cleaning, 6.101–6.102
cycling, 6.100, 6.102
and electrolytes, 6.102–6.103
renewing, 6.102–6.103
spilled, 6.103
laying up, 6.102
maintenance for, 6.101–6.103
operation of, 6.99–6.100
watering, 6.101
Nitration:
and lubricating oil analysis, 2.26
lubricating oil analysis for, 7.129
Nitric acid, 9.21
No I.I., 3.12
Noise:
from electrical motors, 6.13–6.14
from synchronous belts, 5.137, 5.141
tangential measurement, 7.68
troubleshooting, 5.117, 5.122
from V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.122
Noise (Cont.)
from ventilating fans, 4.101–4.102
elimination of, 4.101–4.102
as problem, 4.109–4.110
volume-control devices for, 4.102–4.104
Noise control, 7.70
Nonenclosed (adjustable while in motion)
friction drives, 5.145–5.151
Nonferrous metals, 10.39
Nonlubricated cylinders, 5.189
Nonmetallic-disk globe valve, 5.201
Nonmetallic-disk lift-check valve, 5.201
Nonsoap organoclay, 8.11
Nonsoap polyurea, 8.11
Nonvulcanized elastomers, 4.11
Normal histograms, 3.149
Normal-mode rejection, 7.49
Number of digits, 7.49
Nylon-ribbon hygrometer method,
7.24–7.25
Occupancy loads, 4.54
Occupational Safety and Heatlh Administration
(OSHA):
on ladders, 9.93
on scaffolding, 9.111
Ohm (Ω), 7.117
Ohmmeters:
high-resistance determination with, 7.64
for resistance measurements, 7.59
Ohm’s law, 7.117
Oil:
in chains, 5.79, 5.80
and coolers, 4.71
corrosion control with, 9.14
for power transmissions, 5.79, 5.80
quality of, 8.34
and refrigeration, 4.58
rust-preventive, 9.14
testing for, 8.34
viscosity of, 5.79, 5.80
Oil analysis, 7.129
Oil filters, 4.77–4.78
Oil heaters, 4.68
Oil lubrication, 5.41
Oil mis systems, 8.16
Oil stains, 4.38
Oil-filled transformers, 7.111–7.112
Oil-lubricated sleeve bearings, 6.12–6.13
Oldham (block-and-jaw) couplings,
5.49–5.50
O&M (operating and maintenance) manuals,
3.171
Ω (Ohm), 7.117
One sigma control, 1.56
100% test only, 3.12
100% test-stress-retest, 3.12
On-line inquiries, 2.82–2.83
Onstream cleaning, 9.24–9.25
foam cleaning, 9.24–9.25
gel cleaning, 9.25
passivating, 9.25
pickling, 9.25
steam vapor phase cleaning, 9.24
On-the-job training, 1.15
Open circuits, 7.115
Operating and maintenance (O&M) manuals,
3.171
I.22 INDEXOperating (magnet) coils, 6.44–6.45
Operating costs, 8.16
Operating dynamics analysis, 2.31
Operating logs, 4.63
Operating performance, 3.176
Operating policies, 1.39–1.53
for communications, 1.50–1.51
and control, 1.50–1.51
and instruction manuals, 1.51–1.53
for intraplant relations, 1.47–1.50
and standard-practice sheets, 1.51–1.53
for work allocation, 1.39–1.43
for work force, 1.43–1.47
Operational basic data, 3.114
Operations:
cooperative partnerships with,
1.27–1.28
and maintenance, 1.27–1.28
maintenance function from, 1.28
responsibilities of, 1.27–1.28
Operator errors, 1.24
Order(s):
purchase orders, 2.105, 2.106
and sales function, 1.24
size of, 1.24
(See also Work orders)
Order (harmonic), 7.76–7.77
Organic acids, 9.20
Organic coatings, 9.13
Organic solvents, 9.21–9.23
chemical cleaning, 9.21–9.23
copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
oxidizing agents, 9.22
cleaning with, 9.21–9.23
Organization, for maintenance, 1.11–1.13
for computerized systems, 2.81
factors affecting, 1.12
management theory for, 1.11–1.12
for piping, 9.56–9.57
reporting structure, 1.12
and specialized personnel, 1.13
Organized plant lubrication program,
8.3–8.4
employee responsibility for, 8.4
management responsibility for, 8.3–8.4
safety considerations with, 8.4
Organoclay, nonsoap, 8.11
Orifice type wet collectors, 4.120
Orifice-control systems, 8.16–8.17
Oscilloscopes, bandwidth of, 7.64–7.67
OSHA (see Occupational Safety and Heatlh
Administration)
Outlet dampers, 4.102
Output-product specifications, 3.171
Outside contractors, 1.43–1.44
Outside-air loads, 4.54
Overdischarging, 6.86
Overhauling, 1.36
Overhead cost estimates, 3.118–3.119
Overload, on drivers, 4.110
Overrange, 7.49
Overtime, 1.6
Overtravel measurement, 6.49
Ownership, employee, 1.6
Oxidation:
and lubricating oil analysis, 2.26
lubricating oil analysis for, 7.128
Oxidizing agents, 9.22
Oxyacetylene appliances, 10.71–10.74
and brazing, 10.71–10.72
and cutting, 10.72
precautions for, 10.71
safety considerations with, 10.71
setup for, 10.73
Oxyacetylene cutting, 10.27
Oxygen cutting, 10.78–10.82
equipment for, 10.81
preparation for, 10.81
process for, 10.81–10.82
Packaged belt drives, 5.155–5.156
Packaged ventilating equipment, 4.98
Packaging:
for air compressors, 5.193–5.196
for valves, 9.66, 9.68
Packed scrubbers, 4.119
Paint burning, 10.69–10.70
Paint stains, 4.37
Painters, 9.50–9.51
Painting, 9.35–9.41
for aesthetics, 9.37–9.38
for awareness, 9.37–9.38
for beautification, 9.37–9.38
benefits of, 9.35–9.36
for corrosion protection, 9.38–9.39
and encapsulation, 9.39–9.40
and lead-based paints, 9.39–9.40
material selection for, 9.40–9.41
need for, 9.35
for plant facilities, 9.38–9.39
and product contamination, 9.39
safety considerations with, 9.40
survey for, 9.36–9.37
Paints (see Coatings)
Paper stains, 4.39
Parallel circuits, 7.115
Parallel feeders, 7.113
Paralleling, 2.14–2.17
Parallel-offset (rim) solution, 5.66
Pareto analysis, 3.141–3.142
Pareto charts, 1.61–1.63
Particle count:
and lubricating oil analysis, 2.26
lubricating oil analysis for, 7.129
Particle counts, 8.32
Particulate matter, 7.130–7.134
Particulate scrubbers, 4.114, 4.115
Partnerships (see Cooperative partnerships)
Parts:
CMMS for, 2.94–2.95
for elevators, 4.50
to equipment/asset, 2.104–2.105
MRO, 1.25
for planned work, 2.105
pre-burned, 3.12
repositioning, 2.105
requisition of, 2.101
spare, 2.94–2.95, 5.208, 5.210–5.211
spare parts inventory, 1.6
tested, 3.12
usage history, 2.104
Parts inventory analysis, 2.89
Passivating, 9.25
Past-performance method, 3.52–3.56
PE (polyethylene), 9.10
Peeling, 9.47
Pentane, 8.32
Performance:
of batteries, 6.91
of centrifugal pumps, 5.215
of chain hoists, 5.98
economic, 3.176
of elevators, 4.44
of nickel-cadmium batteries, 6.91
operating, 3.176
of positive-displacement pumps, 5.226
of pumps, 5.226
and RCA, 3.176
reports for, 2.84
of synchronous belts, 5.137, 5.142
and total productive maintenance, 2.45
of V-belt drives, 5.118, 5.123
of ventilating fans, 4.88–4.91
Performance reports, 2.84
Periodic inspection, 4.107–4.109
Permanent magnet motors, 6.9
Permanent repair, 4.10–4.14
Personnel, 1.13–1.14, 1.43–1.47
centralization of, 1.45–1.46
and CMMS failure, 2.111
compensation program for, 3.65–3.66
and control components, 6.39–6.40
coverage for, 1.44–1.45
craft, 1.14–1.15
decentralization of, 1.45–1.46
efficiency of, 1.44–1.45
and elevators, 4.46–4.48
hourly
amount of, 1.13–1.14
crafts, 1.14
and operation personnel, 1.13–1.14
hourly personnel, 1.13–1.14
in-house, 1.43–1.44
with intraplant relations, 1.47–1.48
job evaluation for, 3.66–3.69
classifications, 3.69–3.89
factors in, 3.66–3.68
and job analysis, 3.68–3.69
principles of, 3.66
and lubricants, 8.6
for maintenance, 1.13–1.14
operating policies for, 1.43–1.47
operation, 1.13–1.14
outside contractors, 1.43–1.44
painters, 9.49–9.50
and production equipment, 1.47–1.48
rating and evaluating, 3.65
recruitment of, 1.46
for root cause analysis, 3.163
selection of, 1.14–1.16
specialized, 1.13
standardization of, 3.27–3.31
supervision, 1.14
supervisory, 1.15–1.16
cross-craft supervision, 1.14
density of, 1.14
training of, 1.15, 1.16, 1.46–1.47
wage rate for, 3.70
and work measurement, 3.27–3.31
and work simplification, 3.105
Phosphoric acids, 9.21
Pickling, 9.25
Pickoff, delay, 7.67
Pigs, cleaning with, 9.26–9.30
INDEX I.23Pipe threading, 9.57
Piping, 9.55–9.89
acid cleaning for, 9.86, 9.87
bolt tension for, 9.68
and centrifugal pumps, 5.221
check valves for, 9.68
cleaning, 9.25
cleaning for, 9.86, 9.87
corrosion of, 9.55–9.56
corrosion-resistant piping, 9.83
data for, 9.57, 9.58
and drainage, 9.56
flanges for, 9.58, 9.81–9.86
flow direction of, 9.63, 9.66
gaskets for, 9.58, 9.61–9.62
hard-facing, 9.70–9.72
identification of, 9.87
insulation for, 9.78–9.81
leaks in, 9.62–9.63, 9.86
and liquid velocity, 9.86
machining, 9.69
maintenance of, 9.66
materials for, 9.83
organization for, 9.56–9.57
packing for, 9.66, 9.68
pickling, 9.25
and pipe threading, 9.57
plastic, 9.88–9.89
plastic piping, 9.87–9.89
relief devices for, 9.87
reseating kits, 9.70
seat rings, 9.69–9.70
and stem traps, 9.76–9.77
support for, 9.74–9.78
temperatures for, 9.57
and traps, 9.72–9.74
and valves, 5.211, 9.63, 9.66, 9.68–9.70
bolt tension for, 9.68
check valves, 9.68
flow direction of, 9.63, 9.66
machining, 9.69
maintenance of, 9.66
packing for, 9.66, 9.68
refacing, 9.70
reseating kits, 9.70
seat rings, 9.69–9.70
and water hammer, 9.56
welding for, 9.83
Piston rings, 5.191–5.192
Pitting corrosion, 9.6–9.7
Plain bearings, 5.3–5.18
appearance of, 5.9
bimetals for, 5.5
cavitation of, 5.14
cleaning, 5.3–5.4
conformability of, 5.4
construction of, 5.5
corrosion resistance of, 5.4
crankcase distortion, 5.14
crankshaft distortion, 5.14
and crush, 5.14
design of, 5.6–5.9
and dirt, 5.9–5.10
embedability of, 5.4
fatigue, 5.10–5.11
fatigue strength of, 5.4
and foreign materials, 5.11, 5.13
and hot-short phenomenon, 5.13
Plain bearings (Cont.)
inspection of, 5.9–5.15
for appearance, 5.9
for cavitation, 5.14
for crankcase distortion, 5.14
for crankshaft distortion, 5.14
for crush, 5.14
for dirt, 5.9–5.10
for fatigue, 5.10–5.11
for foreign materials, 5.11, 5.13
for hot-short phenomenon, 5.13
preliminaries for, 5.9
used bearings, 5.9–5.14
for wear, 5.9, 5.11
location of, 5.7–5.8
and lubrication
design considerations with, 5.8–5.9
supply of, 5.3
types of, 5.4
materials for, 5.4–5.5
construction of, 5.5
requirements for, 5.4
monometals for, 5.5
preventative maintenance for, 5.3–5.4
reconditioning, 5.9, 5.15–5.18
of connecting rods, 5.17
of crankcase, 5.17–5.18
for reassembly, 5.18
requirements for, 5.4
and retention, 5.7–5.8
surface action of, 5.4
temperature strength of, 5.4
thermal conductivity of, 5.4
trimetals for, 5.5
used, 5.9–5.14
wear, 5.9, 5.11
Planned maintenance, 3.108
Planners:
and CMMS, 2.108–2.109
cost estimates from, 3.110
Planning:
and computerized systems, 2.86–2.87
for corrective maintenance, 2.4–2.5
follow-up for, 2.87–2.88
KPIs for, 3.124
for lubrication programs, 8.28
and maintenance, 1.24–1.25
maintenance history database for,
2.5
in maintenance organizations, 1.36
for production function, 1.24
project, 2.103
responsibilities of, 1.32–1.33
statistical, 3.52–3.56
supervision, 1.32–1.33
trained maintenance planners for, 2.5
and work measurement, 3.31–3.32
work order, 2.100
work plans, 2.79
Plant buildings, 1.10
Plant engineering, 1.25
changes to, 1.25
cooperative partnerships with, 1.25
design, 1.25
and documentation, 1.25
modifications, 1.25
and reliability, 1.25
Plant equipment, 1.10
Plant facilities:
existing, 1.10
low-sloped roofs, 4.3–4.16
conventional built-up roofing
membranes, 4.4
defects with, 4.5–4.7
emergency leak repair, 4.9–4.10
inspection of, 4.5–4.7
maintenance prevention for, 4.14–4.15
modified bitumen roofing membranes, 4.4
permanent repair of, 4.10–4.14
protected roof membrane assembly
(“upside-down” roof system), 4.5
record keeping for, 4.3
repair materials for, 4.8–4.9
single-ply roofing membranes, 4.5
temporary repair of, 4.9–4.10
maintenance for, 1.10
painting for, 9.38–9.39
(See also specific parts of, e.g.: Low-sloped
roofs)
Plant growth, 4.39
Plant lubrication surveys, 8.29
Plant machinery:
bearings, 7.80–7.82
rolling-element bearings, 7.80–7.81
sleeve bearings, 7.81–7.82
vibration of, 7.80–7.82
belt drives, 7.83–7.84
blades, 7.83
critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
dynamics of, 7.79–7.87
bearings, 7.80–7.82
belt drives, 7.83–7.84
blades, 7.83
critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
gears, 7.82–7.83
induced loads, 7.86–7.87
mode shape, 7.85–7.86
preloads, 7.86–7.87
process variables, 7.87
resonance, 7.86
running speeds, 7.84
vanes, 7.83
gears, 7.82–7.83
induced loads, 7.86–7.87
mode shape, 7.85–7.86
preloads, 7.86–7.87
process variables, 7.87
resonance, 7.86
rolling-element bearings, 7.80–7.82
running speeds, 7.84
sleeve bearings, 7.81–7.82
vanes, 7.83
vibration of, 7.77–7.87
Plant protection, 1.11
Plantwide averages/ratios, 3.111
Plasma arc cutting, 10.30–10.31
Plasma arc welding, 10.34–10.35
Plastic flow, of gear-tooth, 5.179–5.180
Plastic piping, 9.87–9.89
Plate processing, 6.90
Plateau histograms, 3.149
Plating, corrosion control with, 9.12
Plots, scatter, 3.150–3.152
Plugs, cleaning with, 9.26–9.30
Plug-type Renewo globe valve, 5.201
PMS models, 3.124
I.24 INDEXPneumatic pressure transmitters, 7.28–7.29
Pneumatic temperature transmitters,
7.28–7.29
Pneumatic transmission systems, 7.25–7.28
diaphragm-actuated flowmeter transmitter,
7.26
meter-body operation, 7.27
operation of, 7.27–7.28
Pocket plates, 6.90–6.91
Polarity, and welding, 10.18–10.20
Polyethersulfone, 9.10
Polyethylene (PE), 9.10
Polymeric materials, corrosion of, 9.8
Polymers, for corrosion control, 9.9–9.10
Polystyrene, for corrosion control, 9.10
Polyurea, nonsoap, 8.11
Polyurethane, for corrosion control, 9.9–9.10
Polyvinylchloride (PVC), 9.9
Portability, of infrared equipment, 7.110
Positive-displacement pumps, 5.222–5.227
configuration of, 5.223–5.226
gears in, 5.224
installation of, 5.227
lobe-type pump, 5.226
operating methods for, 5.227
performance of, 5.226
rotating speed of, 5.226
screws in, 5.224–5.225
suction of, 5.226
vane pump, 5.225–5.226
viscosity of, 5.226
Potassium permanganate, 9.20
Potential transformers, 7.58
Potentiometers, and rheostats, 6.60–6.61
Poultice, 4.37
Pour points, 8.32
Power circuit components, 6.43
Power measurements, 7.57–7.58
current transformers, 7.57
potential transformers, 7.58
single-function instruments for, 7.57–7.58
single-phase connections, 7.57
Power roof exhausters, 4.98
Power transmissions:
chains for, 5.73–5.82
bath lubrication for, 5.80
and chain drives, 5.78–5.82
disk lubrication for, 5.80
drip lubrication for, 5.80
lubrication for, 5.80
manual lubrication for, 5.80
oil-stream lubrication for, 5.80
service factors for, 5.75–5.76
special inverted-tooth chains, 5.76–5.78
flexible couplings for (see Flexible couplings)
Powered chain hoists, 5.93–5.96
Power-factor meters, 7.52
Pre-burned parts, 3.12
Precipitators, electrostatic, 4.117–4.118
Precision, of sequence-of-events analysis,
3.140
Precision chain drives, 5.79–5.82
and contamination, 5.79
and heat, 5.79
lubrication of, 5.79–5.80
maintenance of, 5.81–5.82
and oil viscosity, 5.79, 5.80
and windage, 5.79
Predictive maintenance, 2.19–2.34
benefits of, 2.32–2.34
and breakdown losses, 2.32, 2.33
and capacity factor, 2.33
maintenance costs of, 2.33–2.34
and quality defects, 2.33
definition of, 2.19
electric motor analysis, 2.29–2.30
insulation resistance, 2.29–2.30
testing, 2.30
maintenance management, 2.20–2.21
operating dynamics analysis, 2.31
process parameters, 2.28–2.29
production management, 2.21
program costs for, 2.31
quality improvement, 2.21
for synchronous belts, 5.133
techniques for, 2.21–2.22
thermography, 2.23–2.24, 2.32
total plant management, 2.20
tribology, 2.24–2.28, 2.32
ferrography, 2.27–2.28
lubricating oil analysis, 2.25–2.26
wear particle analysis, 2.26–2.28
ultrasonics, 2.30–2.32
of V-belt drives, 5.115
and vibration, 7.69
vibration monitoring, 2.22–2.23, 2.31
broadband trending, 2.22–2.23
narrowband trending, 2.23
signature analysis, 2.23
visual inspection, 2.30
Predictive maintenance program, 7.101–7.104
analysis techniques for, 7.104
with databases, 7.93–7.95, 7.101–7.102
for motors, 6.19
program maintenance, 7.102
trending techniques for, 7.102
for vibration, 7.101–7.104
Preheating, of coils, 4.84
Preloads, 7.86–7.87
Premaintenance repairs, 4.52
Premature failure:
of synchronous belts, 5.136–5.138
of V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.118
Preoperational deposits, 9.19
Preparation:
of budget, 2.102
for coatings, 9.44–9.46
of cost estimates, 3.109–3.110
for oxygen cutting, 10.81
for welding, 10.75–10.76
Present worth method, 3.14
Pressure:
atmospheric, 7.8–7.10
of contacts, 6.48–6.49
of ventilating fans, 4.109
Pressure gages, 7.15–7.18, 7.37–7.40
absolute-pressure elements for, 7.18
bellows, 7.16–7.18
Bourdon tubes, 7.15–7.18
calibration of, 7.38–7.40
field calibration of, 7.38–7.39
shop calibration of, 7.39–7.40
field calibration of, 7.38–7.39
helix tubes, 7.16
installation of, 7.37–7.38
shop calibration of, 7.39–7.40
Pressure gages (Cont.)
spiral actuating elements for, 7.16
springs, 7.16–7.18
Pressure transmitters, pneumatic, 7.28–7.29
Prestart check, 4.105
Preventative maintenance, 1.25, 2.3–2.4, 2.7–2.18
for air-conditioning equipment, 4.61
breakdown maintenance vs., 1.41–1.42
for chain hoists, 5.98
CMMS for, 2.96, 2.100–2.101, 2.107–2.108
for control components, 6.41–6.42
for corrosion, 4.15
for elevators, 4.51
for exhaust ducts, 4.123
for exhaust hoods, 4.123
for holes, 4.15
for housekeeping, 4.14
information collection for, 2.10
for low-sloped roofs, 4.14–4.15
for metals, 4.15
for plain bearings, 5.3–5.4
planning for, 2.100–2.101
for roof drains, 4.15
for rusting, 4.15
for and storage, 4.15
with surface cleaning, 4.14–4.15
system analysis for, 2.10
and system functions, 2.10
and traffic, 4.15
work allocation for, 1.41–1.42
Priority:
computerized, 2.79
and scheduling, 1.41
Priority system, 2.85
Proactive improvement, 1.35
Probes, displacement (eddy-current), 7.96–7.97
Process control, 7.3
Process maps, for Six Sigma safety, 1.64
Process monitoring, 7.3
Process stability, 1.5
Process variables, 7.87
mechanical instruments for (see Mechanical
instruments)
and vibration, 7.87
Procurement function, 1.25
cooperative partnerships with, 1.25, 1.29–1.30
deliveries, 1.25
and maintenance, 1.29–1.30
and maintenance function, 1.29
MRO parts, 1.25
for reliability, 1.25
specifications for, 3.170
of vendors, 1.25
Product contamination, 9.39
Product mix, 1.23–1.24
Product quality, 3.176
and CMMS, 2.109
and root cause analysis (RCA), 3.176
Product safety, 3.11–3.12
Production, 7.71
Production equipment, 1.47–1.48
Production function, 1.24
Production management, 2.21
Production run, 1.24
Production unit costs, 1.5
Productivity, 8.16
Program maintenance, 7.102
Project planning, 2.103
INDEX I.25Propeller fans, 4.95
Protected roof membrane assembly
(“upside-down” roof system), 4.5
Protection:
cathodic, 9.13
for cooling towers, 4.73
corrosion, 9.38–9.39
fire, 8.7
freeze, 4.68–4.69
for coils, 4.68–4.69
maintenance with, 4.83–4.84
for water coils, 4.84
for water-cooled condensers, 4.71
for lubricants, 8.7
of lubricants, 8.6–8.7
painting for, 9.38–9.39
winter, 4.73
Protective screens, 4.106
Pullers (manually lever-operated chain hoists),
5.91
Pullet wear, 5.112
Pulleys, adjustable, 4.74
Pumps, 4.66, 4.80–4.81, 5.213–5.227
centrifugal, 5.213–5.222
brake horsepower (BHP) for, 5.220
bypass operation of, 5.222
configuration of, 5.213–5.215
and discharge-piping configuration,
5.221–5.222
and entrained air, 5.217–5.218
foundation of, 5.221
hydraulic curve of, 5.218–5.220
impeller orientation in, 5.214
impeller types in, 5.213
and inlet-piping configuration, 5.221
in-line configuration of, 5.214
installation of, 5.220–5.222
net positive suction head, 5.215–5.216
operating conditions for, 5.222
operating methods for, 5.222
with opposed impellers, 5.215
performance of, 5.215
and piping, 5.221
startup procedures for, 5.222
suction conditions of, 5.215–5.218
total dynamic head (TDH) requirement
for, 5.218
total system head (TSH) requirement of,
5.218
and volume, 5.216–5.217
freezing of, 4.84
heat, 4.79–4.80
jet pumps, 4.98
lobe-type pumps, 5.226
maintenance of, 4.80–4.81
positive-displacement, 5.222–5.227
configuration of, 5.223–5.226
gears in, 5.224
installation of, 5.227
lobe-type pump, 5.226
operating methods for, 5.227
performance of, 5.226
rotating speed of, 5.226
screws in, 5.224–5.225
suction of, 5.226
vane pump, 5.225–5.226
viscosity of, 5.226
problems with, 4.81
Pumps (Cont.)
vane pumps, 5.225–5.226
vibration of, 7.92–7.93
well freezing, 4.84
well pumps, 4.84
Pump-to-point systems, 8.20–8.21
Punctures, in low-sloped roofs, 4.12
Purchase orders, 2.106
CMMS for, 2.98–2.99, 2.105
receipts against, 2.106
Purchase requisitions, 2.98
Purchasing function, 2.105–2.106
for purchase orders, 2.106
for requisitions, 2.106
for stores stock inventory, 2.106
Purge units, 4.66, 4.68
Purge-type liquid-level measurement,
7.13–7.14
PVC (polyvinylchloride), 9.9
QD bushings:
and synchronous belt drives, 5.130–5.131
and V-belt drives, 5.111
and V-belt sheaves, 5.111
QD-type sheaves, 5.110
QD-type sprockets, 5.130
Qualifiers, in sequence-of-events analysis, 3.141
Qualitative infrared thermography, 7.114
Qualitative measurements, 7.110
Quality:
of oil, 8.34
and total productive maintenance, 2.45–2.46
(See also Product quality)
Quality assurance, 8.30
Quality control, 7.70
Quality improvement, 2.21
Quantitative infrared thermography, 7.114
Quantitative measurements, 7.110
Questioning, in scientific method, 3.92
R (see Resistance)
Radar bands, 7.114
Radial-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96, 4.97
Radiance, atmospheric, 7.113
Radiation, 7.109
defined, 7.114, 7.117
infrared, 7.114
and infrared technology, 7.109
Radio bands, 7.114
Random sampling, 3.56–3.58, 3.60
Ranking, criticality, 2.11
Rate of return method, 3.14
Rate setters, cost estimates from, 3.110
Rating, personnel, 3.65
Ratings:
for ladders, 9.94
motor, 6.3
for rolling-element bearings, 5.24–5.25
Ratio delay, 3.56–3.62
accuracy of, 3.60
for allowance determination, 3.59, 3.60
and work simplification, 3.59
RBD (reliability block diagram), 3.136
RC characteristics, input, 7.67
RCA (see Root cause analysis)
Ready backlogs, 2.79
Reassembly, reconditioning for, 5.18
Rebuilding, of maintenance organization, 1.36
Reciprocating machinery, 7.78
Reconditioning:
of connecting rods, 5.17
of crankcase, 5.17–5.18
for plain bearings, 5.9, 5.15–5.18
for reassembly, 5.18
Record keeping, 4.3
Recording instruments, 7.4–7.5
Recordkeeping, 4.107
Records, for lead-acid batteries, 6.86
Recruitment, of work force, 1.46
Rectifiers, 7.117
Redesign, for failure, 2.14
Refacing valves, 9.70
Reflectance, 7.113
Reflectivity, 7.114
Refrigerant(s), 4.58
and centrifugal compressors, 4.68
and refrigeration, 4.58
Refrigerant float chambers, 4.71
Refrigerant joints:
and coolers, 4.71
and evaporative condensers, 4.70
and water-cooled condensers, 4.71
Refrigeration, 4.55–4.56
and air-conditioning equipment, 4.55–4.56
equipment for, 4.58–4.61
installation of, 4.61
oil, 4.58
refrigerant, 4.58
installation for, 4.61
measuring, 4.55–4.56
and oil, 4.58
and refrigerant, 4.58
Regrinding lift-check valve, 5.201
Regulations:
compliance to, 3.176
for cranes, 5.89
federal, 9.93
for ladders, 9.93–9.94
and root cause analysis (RCA), 3.176
for ventilating fans, 4.88
(See also specific organizations, e.g.:
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration)
Reinforcement, of concrete floor surfaces, 4.20
Rejection, 7.49
Relative-humidity-measuring instruments,
7.40–7.41
Relays:
adjustable-type relays, 6.68
contactor-type control relays, 6.65
DC relay maintenance, 6.71
defined, 7.117
magnetic overload relays, 6.66
solid-state overload relays, 6.66–6.68
thermal overload relays, 6.65–6.66
Reliability, 1.3–1.8
benefits of, 1.5–1.7
for continuous improvement, 1.7
cost accounting for, 3.16–3.17
cost estimation methods for, 3.14–3.16
economic evaluation for, 3.13–3.14
and employee ownership, 1.6
and employee safety, 1.6–1.7
and environmental issues, 1.7
and equipment life, 1.5–1.6
incoming inspections for, 3.12–3.13
I.26 INDEXReliability (Cont.)
issues with, 3.11–3.13
and maintenance costs, 1.5
maintenance function for, 1.24–1.25
management function for, 1.25
and overtime, 1.6
and plant engineering, 1.25
problems with, 1.23–1.25
and process stability, 1.5
procurement function for, 1.25
and product safety, 3.11–3.12
production function for, 1.24
and production unit costs, 1.5
responsibility for, 1.23–1.25
sales function for, 1.23–1.24
and self-directed work teams, 1.7–1.8
and spare parts inventory, 1.6
Reliability block diagram (RBD), 3.136
Reliability centered maintenance (RCM),
2.35–2.39
and failure, 2.36–2.37
failure-finding tasks, 2.38–2.39
functions of, 2.35–2.36
proactive tasks, 2.37–2.38
Reliability engineering, 1.32–1.33
and asset care, 1.19
and configuration management, 1.18–1.19
and life cycle asset management, 1.18
and loss elimination, 1.19
responsibilities of, 1.17–1.19, 1.32–1.33
and risk management, 1.18
and work allocation, 1.42–1.43
Reliability predictions, 3.136
Relief dampers, 4.73
Relief devices, 9.87
Renewable-wedge-and-seat bronze gate valve,
5.204
Renewo lift-check valve, 5.201
Reorder requirements, 2.105
Repair(s):
for elevators, 4.52
of emergency leaks, 4.9–4.10
of equipment/asset, 2.101–2.102, 2.104
history of, 2.101–2.102, 2.104
to lead-acid batteries, 6.88–6.89
for low-sloped roofs, 4.9–4.10
of low-sloped roofs, 4.9–4.14
materials for, 4.8–4.9
permanent, 4.10–4.14
premaintenance, 4.52
procedures for, 2.5
request backlog, 2.104
temporary, 4.9–4.10
time for, 2.6
verification for, 2.6
Repair costs, 3.107
Repetitive maintenance:
CMMS for, 2.96
cost estimates for, 3.108
Replacement:
of belt drives, 4.74
of flashings, 4.29
of low-sloped roofs, 4.16
Replacement studies, 3.14
Reports and reporting:
computerized systems for, 2.83–2.84,
2.88–2.90
control reports, 2.79
Reports and reporting (Cont.)
generation of, 2.83–2.84
organization for, 1.12
performance, 2.84
for performance, 2.84
performance reports, 2.84
for root cause analysis, 3.165–3.166
in storerooms, 2.66–2.67
structure for, 1.12
Requisitions, 2.106
Reroofing, 4.5, 4.16
Reseating kits, 9.70
Resistance (R):
to change, 1.35
defined, 7.117
Resistance measurements, 7.58–7.63
high-resistance determination, 7.63–7.64
low-resistance determination, 7.62–7.63
megger, 7.59–761
with meggers, 7.59–761
ohmmeter, 7.59
single-function instruments for, 7.58–7.63
Wheatstone bridge, 7.61–7.62
Resistance welding, 10.35
Resistors:
defined, 7.117
replacement of, 6.59
Resolution, 7.49, 7.68
Resonance, 7.86
Resource allocation, 3.124
Resource scheduling, 2.101
Resources, lack of, 2.110–2.111
Response time, 7.49
Responsibilities:
for air-conditioning equipment, 4.61
of cooperative partnerships, 1.23–1.25,
1.27–1.30
of employees, 8.4
of engineering, 1.19–1.20
of front line supervision, 1.32
for lubrication programs, 8.3–8.4
for maintenance, 1.9–1.11, 4.61
of maintenance organization, 1.32–1.33
of management, 8.3–8.4
of operations, 1.27–1.28
for organized plant lubrication program,
8.3–8.4
of planning, 1.32–1.33
for reliability, 1.17–1.19, 1.23–1.25, 1.32–1.33
of reliability engineering, 1.17–1.19,
1.32–1.33
of scheduling, 1.32–1.33
of supervision, 1.32
Resurfacing, for concrete floor surfaces, 4.24
Retention, and plain bearings, 5.7–5.8
Reverse indicators, 5.58–5.63
Reverse mount, V-belt sheaves, 5.110
Reverse mount synchronous sprockets, 5.130
Review, of equipment/asset specifications,
2.103
Rheostats, 6.57–6.61
contact pressure settings, 6.59
continuously wound, 6.60–6.61
locating, 6.59–6.60
with loose connection, 6.60
low-voltage release devices, 6.59
and potentiometers, 6.60–6.61
and resistor replacement, 6.59
Rheostats (Cont.)
servicing, 6.58–6.59
and wound-rotor motors, 6.61
Rim (parallel-offset) solution, 5.66
Risetime, 7.68
Risk management, 1.18
Rolling fatigue wear, 2.27, 7.131–7.133
defined, 7.131
and sliding wear, 2.27, 7.132–7.133
Rolling wear, 2.27
Rolling-element bearings, 5.19–5.44, 7.80–7.82
bearing mountings, 5.28–5.32
boundary dimensions for, 5.20, 5.23
cold mounting, 5.33
design for, 5.20
dismounting of, 5.33, 5.38–5.40
bearings, 5.38–5.39
hydraulic removal, 5.39, 5.40
failure of, 5.19
fit of, 5.25–5.26
housing of, 5.25–5.26
load ratings for, 5.24–5.25
lubrication for, 5.41–5.44
grease lubrication, 5.41–5.43
oil lubrication, 5.41
selection of, 5.43–5.44
mounting of, 5.33–5.38
cold mounting, 5.33
tapered-bore bearings, 5.35–5.38
temperature mountings, 5.33, 5.35
nomenclature for, 5.20
series, 5.23, 5.24
shafts of, 5.25–5.26
tapered-bore bearings, 5.35–5.38
temperature mountings, 5.33, 5.35
vibration of, 7.80–7.81
Roll-off, 7.68
Roof(s):
bitumen roofing membranes, 4.4
built-up roofing membranes, 4.4
coated smooth-surfaced roofs, 4.11
conventional built-up roofing membranes, 4.4
low-sloped, 4.3–4.16
low-sloped roofs, 4.3–4.16
mineral surfaced, 4.11
mineral surfaced roofs, 4.11
permanent repair of, 4.11
storage on, 4.15
Roof accessory components, 4.7
Roof drains, 4.15
Roofing membranes, 4.4, 4.5
Rooftop air-conditioning units, 4.81–4.82
cleaning, 4.82
inspection of, 4.81–4.82
lubrication for, 4.82
maintenance of, 4.81–4.82
Room air conditioners, 4.82–4.83
applications for, 4.82–4.83
instructions for, 4.83
maintenance of, 4.82–4.83
types of, 4.82
Root cause analysis (RCA), 3.153–3.176
A3 process, 3.155–3.159
form for, 3.158–3.159
steps of, 3.156–3.158
for acceptable operating envelope, 3.171
analysis for, 3.159
application review, 3.172–3.174
INDEX I.27Root cause analysis (RCA), application review
(Cont.)
installation, 3.172
maintenance history, 3.173
maintenance procedures, 3.174
operating envelope, 3.172
operating procedures, 3.173
capacity restrictions, 3.176
for clarifying problems, 3.166–3.168
concept of, 3.154–3.155
damage, 3.175–3.176
data for, 3.168–3.169
design review, 3.169–3.172
for economic performance, 3.176
for equipment damage/failure,
3.175–3.176
event-reporting format for, 3.165–3.166
and facts, 3.168–3.169
failure, 3.175–3.176
and five whys (5W), 3.161
formal process for, 3.161–3.163
identifying events with, 3.163–3.166
incident classification, 3.174–3.176
for incoming-project specifications, 3.171
methodology for, 3.154–3.155, 3.163
objectives of, 3.171
for operating performance, 3.176
for output-product specifications, 3.171
personnel requirements for, 3.163
physical evidence for, 3.168–3.169
problem solving with, 3.174
process for, 3.159–3.163
analysis for, 3.159
and five whys (5W), 3.161
formal, 3.161–3.163
personnel requirements for, 3.163
purpose of, 3.162
and visual inspection, 3.159–3.161
for product quality, 3.176
and regulatory compliance, 3.176
reporting for, 3.165–3.166
requirement of, 3.169
for safety, 3.176
for system damage/failure, 3.175–3.176
and visual inspection, 3.159–3.161
for work performed, 3.171
Root-cause failure analysis, 7.104
Rotating machinery, 7.77–7.78
Rotating speed, 5.226
Rotation, of fans, 4.76
Rotors, 7.117
Rub, mechanical, 7.89
Rubber elastomers, 9.10
Rubbing wear, 2.27, 7.131
Rung ladders, 9.94–9.95
extension ladders, 9.94
sectional ladders, 9.94, 9.95
single ladders, 9.94
Running speeds, 7.84
Rusting:
hidden, 9.47
in low-sloped roofs, 4.15
of metals, 4.15
Rust-preventive oils, 9.14
Safeties, 4.66, 4.68
Safety considerations:
for air-acetylene appliances, 10.63–10.64
Safety considerations (Cont.)
for centralized automatic lubrication
system, 8.14
for coatings, 9.49–9.50
for elevators, 4.44–4.46, 4.50–4.51
for employees, 1.6–1.7
in infrared technology, 7.110
and intraplant relations, 1.49
for ladders, 9.96–9.101
for lubricants, 8.33
for meggers, 7.61
for organized plant lubrication program, 8.4
for painting, 9.40
for product, 3.11–3.12
and reliability, 3.11–3.12
and root cause analysis, 3.176
for scaffolding, 9.108–9.111
for welding, 10.59–10.60
(See also Six Sigma safety)
Safety swinging scaffolds, 9.104
Safety taskforces, 1.60–1.61
Sagging:
in flashings, 4.12
indicator sag, 5.57
Sales function:
cooperative partnerships with, 1.23–1.24
and delivery, 1.24
and orders, 1.24
and product mix, 1.23–1.24
and production run, 1.24
for reliability, 1.23–1.24
Salvage, as maintenance, 1.11
Sampling:
random, 3.56–3.58, 3.60
work, 3.56
Sandblasting, 4.33, 4.35
SAW (see Submerged arc welding)
Saw cutting, 4.31
Scaffolding, 9.91–9.92, 9.101–9.113
aluminum, 9.101–9.103, 9.105, 9.106
application of, 9.111–9.113
coupler scaffolds, 9.105
maintenance for, 9.112–9.113
modular systems scaffolds, 9.106–9.107
OSHA on, 9.111
safety considerations with, 9.108–9.111
safety swinging scaffolds, 9.104
special-design scaffolds, 9.108–9.111
steel, 9.103, 9.105, 9.106
tube scaffolds, 9.105, 9.106
welded aluminum scaffolds, 9.101–9.102
welded steel scaffolds, 9.103
Scanners, line, 2.24, 7.107
Scanning procedures, 7.110–7.113
Scatter plots, 3.150–3.152
Scheduled maintenance, 6.11–6.19
Scheduling, 1.39–1.41
amount of, 1.39–1.40
CMMS for, 2.108
and computerized systems, 2.87
coordinating, 1.41
and dispatching, 1.41
downtime, 2.103–2.104
with flow-of-work requests, 1.40–1.41
job, 2.108
lead time for, 1.40
in lubrication programs, 8.29–8.30
and priority, 1.41
Scheduling (Cont.)
for production function, 1.24
resource, 2.101
responsibilities of, 1.32–1.33
by size of job, 1.40
supervision, 1.32–1.33
systems for, 1.40–1.41
by total work load, 1.40
for work allocation, 1.39–1.41
work measurement for, 3.31–3.32
work order, 2.101
by work unit, 1.40
Scientific method:
and application, 3.93
generalizing in, 3.92–3.93
for methods improvement, 3.93–3.95
questioning in, 3.92
wondering in, 3.92
work simplification with, 3.92–3.95
Scoring, of gear-tooth, 5.180
SCR (semiconductor-/silicon- controlled
rectifier), 7.117
Screw-and-yoke rising-stem gate valve,
5.204
Screws, in positive-displacement pumps,
5.224–5.225
Scrubbers (see Wet collectors)
Scum, 4.39
Sealers, for concrete floor surfaces, 4.25–4.26
Sealing liquids, 7.11–7.12
Seat rings, 9.69–9.70
Second level logic tree analysis, 2.14
Secondary switchgear, 7.111
Sectional ladders, 9.94, 9.95
Sediment, 8.32
Selective leaching, 9.7
Self-contained air conditioners, 4.83
Self-directed work teams, 1.33–1.35
administrative skills for, 1.35
and continuous improvement, 1.35
cross-training for, 1.35
implementation of, 1.35
incentives for, 1.35
motivation of, 1.35
and proactive improvement, 1.35
and reliability, 1.7–1.8
and resistance to change, 1.35
teamwork in, 1.35
Self-shielded flux-cored arc welding, 10.10
Semiconductor- (silicon-) controlled rectifier
(SCR), 7.117
Sequence-of-events analysis, 3.139–3.141
active descriptions in, 3.140
in logical order, 3.139
precision of, 3.140
qualifiers in, 3.141
Series circuits, 7.115
Series rolling-element bearings, 5.23, 5.24
Series-progressive systems, 8.17–8.19
Series-wound motors, 6.9
Service life, of belt drives, 4.73, 4.74
Service valves, 4.66
Severe wear, 7.133–7.134
SFMEA (see Simplified Failure Modes and
Effects Analysis)
SFMECA (Simplified Failure Mode, Effect,
and Criticality Analysis), 3.135
Shaft center line, 5.56
I.28 INDEXShafts:
bent, 7.89
misalignment of, 5.56–5.67
of rolling-element bearings, 5.25–5.26
and vibration, 7.89
Sheaves:
QD-type sheaves, 5.110
TL-type sheaves, 5.110–5.111
V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.121, 5.123
V-belt sheaves, 5.102–5.103
conventional mount, 5.110
diameter of, 5.103
installation procedure for, 5.108–5.112
and QD bushings, 5.111
QD-type sheaves, 5.110
reverse mount, 5.110
and TL bushings, 5.111
TL-type sheaves, 5.110–5.111
vibration, 5.117, 5.122
Sheet metal working, 10.42–10.43,
10.65–10.67
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
10.6–10.9
Shielding, 7.117
Shielding gases, 10.20–10.21
Shop calibration, 7.39–7.40
Shrinkage, of concrete floor surfaces, 4.19–4.20
Shunts, 7.117
Shunt-wound motors, 6.9
Shutdown:
of centrifugal compressors, 4.68
of gear drives, 5.177
Signal delays, 7.68
Signals, common-mode, 7.67
Signature analysis, 2.23, 7.94
Silicon- (semiconductor-) controlled rectifier
(SCR), 7.117
Silicone coatings, 9.43
Simple cyclone air-cleaning equipment, 4.112,
4.119
Simplification (see Work simplification)
Simplified Failure Mode, Effect, and
Criticality Analysis (SFMECA), 3.135
Simplified Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
(SFMEA), 3.133–3.137
and life cycle cost analyses, 3.136
and maintainability analysis, 3.136–3.137
and mean time between failures (MTBF),
3.136
and reliability block diagram (RBD), 3.136
and reliability predictions, 3.136
and Simplified Failure Mode, Effect, and
Criticality Analysis (SFMECA), 3.135
Sine waves, 7.117
Single ladders, 9.94
Single phases, 7.117
Single-function instruments, 7.50–7.66
clamp-on instruments, 7.51–7.52
and currents, 7.53–7.56
frequency counters, 7.63–7.65
for power measurements, 7.57–7.58
for resistance measurements, 7.58–7.63
solid-state circuit testers, 7.65–7.66
tube checkers, 7.65
Single-phase connections, 7.57
Single-ply roofing membranes, 4.5
Single-wedge nourishing-stem gate valve, 5.204
Sintered plates, 6.91
Six Sigma safety, 1.55–1.67
action item matrix (AIM) for, 1.58–1.60
cause-&-effect diagrams for, 1.64–1.67
for continuous improvement, 1.58
control levels for, 1.56–1.57
culture for, 1.55–1.56
five-sigma control, 1.57
four-sigma control, 1.57
one sigma control, 1.56
outcomes of, 1.58
Pareto charts for, 1.61–1.63
process for, 1.58
process maps for, 1.64
purpose of, 1.58
safety taskforces for, 1.60–1.61
six-sigma control, 1.57
three-sigma control, 1.56
tools for, 1.57–1.58, 1.61–1.67
cause-&-effect diagrams, 1.64–1.67
Pareto charts, 1.61–1.63
process maps, 1.64
two-sigma control, 1.56
600-Brinnel flat-seat globe valve, 5.201
Six-sigma control, 1.57
Skewed histograms, 3.150
Slabs, design for, 4.19
Sleeve bearings, 7.81–7.82
oil-lubricated sleeve bearings, 6.12–6.13
rolling-element bearings, 7.81–7.82
Sliding wear, 2.27, 7.132–7.134
and rolling fatigue wear, 2.27, 7.132, 7.133
severe, 2.27, 7.133–7.134
Sludge settling tanks, 4.121
SMAW (shielded metal arc welding), 10.6–10.9
Smoke stains, 4.38
Soaps:
aluminum complex soaps, 8.10
aluminum soaps, 8.9
calcium complex soaps, 8.11
calcium soaps, 8.10
lithium complex soaps, 8.11
lithium soaps, 8.10
sodium soaps, 8.9, 8.10
Sodium soaps, 8.9, 8.10
Soft foot, 5.56, 5.57
Software, for infrared equipment, 7.110
Soldering, 10.64–10.65, 10.67
Solenoids, 7.117
Solids, gravimetric, 8.32
Solids contamination, 8.32
Solids content:
and lubricating oil analysis, 2.25
lubricating oil analysis for, 7.128
Solid-state circuit testers, 7.65–7.66
Solid-state overload relays, 6.66–6.68
Solvents:
alkaline cleaners, 9.20
caustic soda plus potassium permanganate,
9.20
caustic soda-surfactant alkalies, 9.20
for chemical cleaning, 9.19–9.23
copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
inorganic acids, 9.20–9.21
inhibited muriatic acid (HCl), 9.20
inhibited sulfuric acid, 9.20–9.21
nitric acid, 9.21
phosphoric acids, 9.21
sulfuric acid, 9.21
Solvents (Cont.)
monoammoniated citric acids, 9.20
organic, 9.21–9.23
copper complexers, 9.21–9.22
oxidizing agents, 9.22
organic acids, 9.20
organic solvents, 9.21–9.23
oxidizing agents, 9.22
Spalling, 9.47
Span of control ratios, 1.37–1.38
Spare parts:
for air conditioning units, 4.63
CMMS for, 2.94–2.95
identification of, 5.208, 5.210
ordering, 5.208, 5.210–5.211
valves, 5.208, 5.210–5.211
Spare parts inventory, 1.6
Special lifts (see Elevators)
Special-design scaffolds, 9.108–9.111
Specialized personnel, 1.13
Special-purpose industrial multimeters, 7.50
Special-purpose ladders, 9.96
Specific job standards, 3.114
Spectral bands, 7.114
Spectrographic analysis, 7.129
Spectrometals, 8.32
Spectrometric metals, 8.32
Speed:
critical, 7.84–7.85
critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
of plant machinery, 7.84–7.85
of positive-displacement pumps, 5.226
rotating, 5.226
running, 7.84
running speeds, 7.84
and vibration, 7.84–7.85
Speed reducers, 5.161
Spindle couplings, 5.46, 5.48
Spiral actuating elements, 7.16
Spiral heating, 7.113
Splitter, dampers, 4.73
Spot welding, gas-shielded, 10.34
Springs, 7.16–7.18
Sprockets:
conventional mount synchronous, 5.130
QD-type, 5.130
reverse mount, 5.130
reverse mount synchronous, 5.130
synchronous, 5.127–5.129
conventional mount, 5.130
diameter of, 5.127
guidelines for, 5.129
reverse mount, 5.130
troubleshooting, 5.137, 5.141
wear, 5.132
TL-type, 5.130
Stability:
of digital instruments, 7.49
of process, 1.5
Stainless clad steels, 10.38
Stainless steels:
for corrosion control, 9.9
and welding, 10.36, 10.38
Stains:
on brick masonry structures, 4.36–4.40
from bronze, 4.38
brown (manganese) stain, 4.36–4.37
from copper, 4.38
INDEX I.29Stains (Cont.)
from dirt, 4.38
from egg splatter, 4.39
green stain (vanadium salts), 4.36
from iron, 4.37–4.38
from ivy, 4.39
from oil, 4.38
from paint, 4.37
from paper, 4.39
from plant growth, 4.39
from poultice, 4.37
from smoke, 4.38
from straw, 4.39
from tar, 4.38
of unknown origin, 4.39–4.40
from welding splatter, 4.38
from white scum, 4.39
Standard-practice sheets, 1.51–1.53
for cost control, 1.52–1.53
and operating policies, 1.51–1.53
Standards (see Regulations)
Standby-power batteries, 6.100–6.101
Start-up:
for centrifugal pumps, 5.222
for gear drives, 5.174
and ventilating fans, 4.106
Static-adjustment type drives, 5.151–5.153
Statistical analyses tools, 3.141–3.152
control charts, 3.145–3.147
80/20 rule, 3.142–3.144
flow charts, 3.144–3.145
histograms, 3.147–3.150
Pareto analysis, 3.141–3.142
scatter plots, 3.150–3.152
Statistical plans, 3.52–3.56
Stators, 7.117
Steam, 4.33
Steel scaffolding, 9.103, 9.105, 9.106
Steel valves, 5.205–5.207
Steels:
alloy, 10.36–10.39
carbon, 10.35–10.36
for corrosion control, 9.9
galvanized, 9.9
and hard facing, 10.84–10.85
high-carbon, 10.36
high-manganese, 10.39
high-tensile low-alloy, 10.36
low-carbon, 10.35
medium-carbon, 10.36
stainless, 9.9, 10.36, 10.38
stainless clad, 10.38
straight chromium, 10.38
and welding, 10.36–10.39
Stem traps, 9.76–9.77
Stepladders, 9.92–9.96
Stocking requirements, 2.105
Storage:
bulk, 8.7
of equipment, 4.15
on low-sloped roofs, 4.15
of lubricants, 8.7, 8.33
of materials, 4.15
on roofs, 4.15
of ventilating fans, 4.105
Storeroom management, 2.65–2.75
Storerooms:
bar coding for, 2.71–2.73
environment of, 2.68–2.70
Storerooms (Cont.)
functions of, 2.66
housekeeping for, 2.67–2.68
KPIs for, 2.68
locator systems for, 2.70–2.71
operation of, 2.74–2.75
reporting in, 2.66–2.67
storage equipment for, 2.73–2.74
supervisor for, 2.65–2.66
Stores inventory, 2.94–2.95
Stores stock inventory, 2.106
Storeskeeping, as maintenance, 1.11
Straight chromium steels, 10.38
Straight-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96, 4.97
Straw stains, 4.39
Stress-cracking corrosion, 9.7
Stud welding, 10.35
Subgrade, for concrete floor surfaces, 4.19
Submerged arc welding (SAW), 10.10–10.11,
10.40–10.42
and electrodes, 10.41–10.42
equipment for, 10.40–10.41
and fluxes, 10.41–10.42
hard surfacing with, 10.49–10.51
Substitution, of MRO parts, 1.25
Suction:
in centrifugal pumps, 5.215–5.218
and entrained air, 5.217–5.218
net positive suction head, 5.215–5.216
of positive-displacement pumps, 5.226
and volume, 5.216–5.217
Suction conditions, 5.215–5.218
Suction lines, 5.186, 5.187
Sugar, 8.32
Sulfated ash, 8.31
Sulfur, 8.32
Sulfuric acid, 9.21
Sun loads, 4.53
Superflat floors, 4.23
Superimposition, 4.16
Supervision, 1.14
cross-craft, 1.14
front line, 1.32
front line supervision, 1.32
of maintenance organization, 1.37–1.38
planning, 1.32–1.33
reliability engineering, 1.32–1.33
responsibilities of, 1.32
scheduling, 1.32–1.33
Supervisory personnel, 1.14
cross-craft supervision, 1.14
density of, 1.14
selection of, 1.15–1.16
training of, 1.16
Supply, of lubrication, 5.3
Support:
for maintenance organization, 1.37–1.38
for piping, 9.74–9.78
Surface cleaning, 4.14–4.15
Surface deterioration, 5.177–5.183
burning, 5.182
corrosive wear, 5.182
in gear-tooths, 5.177–5.183
grinding cracks, 5.182, 5.183
interference wear, 5.182, 5.183
plastic flow, 5.179–5.180
scoring, 5.180
surface fatigue, 5.180–5.181
wear, 5.178–5.179
Surface fatigue, of gear-tooth,
5.180–5.181
Surface-tolerant coatings, 9.41–9.42
Surfacing:
electrodes, 10.44
low-sloped roofs, 4.6
Surveys:
for painting, 9.36–9.37
plant lubrication surveys, 8.29
Sweat-type fittings, 10.68–10.69
Sweeps, 7.67, 7.68
Swing-check valve, 5.201
Swinging scaffolds, 9.104
Switches:
defined, 7.117
disconnect, 4.106
and infrared technology, 7.112
load break switches, 7.112
Switchgear:
high voltage, 7.112
and infrared technology, 7.111, 7.112
secondary, 7.111
Synchronous belt drives:
and QD bushings, 5.130–5.131
and TL bushings, 5.131
Synchronous belts, 5.123–5.127,
5.129–5.142
application guidelines for, 5.129
curvilinear belts, 5.124
guidelines for, 5.129
and hot bearings, 5.137, 5.142
installation of, 5.129–5.131
maintenance of, 5.131–5.135
during installation, 5.133, 5.134
misalignment, 5.132
predictive maintenance, 5.133
and takeup allowance, 5.133, 5.134
visual inspection, 5.132
wear, 5.132
misalignment of, 5.132
modified curvilinear belts, 5.124
and noise, 5.137, 5.141
nomenclature for, 5.126–5.127
performance of, 5.137, 5.142
predictive maintenance for, 5.133
premature failure of, 5.136–5.138
and takeup, 5.137, 5.140
and takeup allowance, 5.133, 5.134
tensioning, 5.135–5.137, 5.140
force-deflection method for, 5.135
frequency method for, 5.135–5.136
timing belts, 5.124
tooth pitch, 5.124
tooth profiles, 5.124–5.125
tracking behavior, 5.137, 5.139–5.140
troubleshooting, 5.136–5.142
hot bearings, 5.137, 5.142
noise, 5.137, 5.141
performance, 5.137, 5.142
premature failure, 5.136–5.138
sprockets, 5.137, 5.141
and takeup, 5.137, 5.140
tensioning, 5.137, 5.140
tracking behavior, 5.137, 5.139–5.140
vibration, 5.137, 5.140
wear, 5.136, 5.138–5.139
vibration, 5.137, 5.140
visual inspection for, 5.132
wear, 5.132, 5.136, 5.138–5.139
I.30 INDEXSynchronous sprockets, 5.127–5.129
conventional mount, 5.130
diameter of, 5.127
guidelines for, 5.129
reverse mount, 5.130
troubleshooting, 5.137, 5.141
wear, 5.132
Synthetic elastomers, 9.10
Systems:
analysis of, 2.10
functions of, 2.10
identification of, 2.10
selection of, 2.11
(See also specific types, e.g.: Automatic
lubrication system)
Tabular (matrix form) models, 3.15
Takeup:
and synchronous belts, 5.137, 5.140
and V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.122
Takeup allowance:
and synchronous belts, 5.133, 5.134
and V-belt drives, 5.113
Tangential noise measurement, 7.68
Tanks, liquid-level measurement in, 7.10–7.11
Taper method, 6.84
Tapered-bore bearings, 5.35–5.38
Tar stains, 4.38
Tasks, 2.17
categories of, 2.38
determination of, 2.14
failure-finding tasks, 2.38–2.39
frequencies of, 2.17–2.18
of maintenance programs, 1.19–1.20
proactive tasks, 2.37–2.38
selection of, 2.12–2.14
TDH (total dynamic head) requirement, 5.218
Teams (see Self-directed work teams)
Teamwork, 1.35
Temperature:
of AC induction motors, 6.8–6.9
ambient, 7.113
Celsius degree, 7.113
delta temperature (∆T), 7.113
of digital instruments, 7.50
and electrical motors, 6.13–6.14
Fahrenheit degree, 7.113
for piping, 9.57
of plain bearings, 5.4
and ventilating fans, 4.98–4.99
Temperature gradients, 7.114
Temperature mountings, 5.33, 5.35
Temperature transmitters, pneumatic,
7.28–7.29
Temporary repair, 4.9–4.10
Tensioning, 9.68
in belt drives, 4.74
force-deflection method for, 5.135
frequency method for, 5.135–5.136
synchronous belts, 5.135–5.137, 5.140
force-deflection method for, 5.135
frequency method for, 5.135–5.136
in V-belt drives, 5.115–5.116
Terminal connections, 6.74
Test discharge, 6.86
Tested parts, 3.12
Testing:
acceptance, 7.69
color test, 8.31
Testing (Cont.)
electric motor analysis, 2.30
with foam tests, 8.31
for fuels, 8.31–8.32
for greases, 8.8, 8.9
for lubricants, 8.31–8.32
for oil, 8.34
100% test only, 3.12
100% test-stress-retest, 3.12
Theory of choice, 3.3
Thermal conductivity, 5.4
Thermal emittance, 7.114
Thermal growth, 5.58
Thermal overload relays, 6.65–6.66,
6.75–6.76
Thermal-system bulb designs, 7.22–7.23
averaging bulbs, 7.23
coiled bulbs, 7.23
extension necks, 7.23
union-connected bulbs, 7.23
Thermography, 2.23–2.24, 2.32, 7.105
defined, 7.114
with infrared imaging, 2.24
infrared thermometers, 2.24
line scanners for, 2.24
and materials, 7.118–7.125
qualitative infrared, 7.114
quantitative infrared, 7.114
(See also Infrared technology)
Thermometers, 7.35–7.36
calibration of, 7.36
dry-bulb, 7.24, 7.25
filled-system, 7.19–7.24
classifications of, 7.19–7.23
fully compensated liquid-filled, 7.20
gas-filled thermal systems, 7.22
liquid-filled, 7.19
mercury-filled thermal systems,
7.22–7.23
and thermal-system bulb designs,
7.22–7.23
vapor-pressure thermal systems, 7.20–7.22
fully compensated liquid-filled, 7.20
and gas-filled thermal systems, 7.22
infrared, 7.107
infrared thermometers, 2.24
installation of, 7.35–7.36
liquid-filled, 7.19
maintenance of, 7.36
and mercury-filled thermal systems, 7.22–7.23
and thermal-system bulb designs, 7.22–7.23
and vapor-pressure thermal systems, 7.20–7.22
wet-bulb, 7.24, 7.25
Thermoplastic membranes, 4.11–4.12
Thickeners, grease, 8.9–8.11
Threaded-bonnet globe valve, 5.200
Threading, 9.57
Three phase, 7.117
Three-phase wattmeters, 7.58
Three-sigma control, 1.56
Tightness, of coils, 4.68
Time domain, 7.76
Time Study:
advantages/disadvantages of, 3.39–3.41
and job standards, 3.32–3.34
and standard data, 3.34–3.39
work measurement with, 3.32–3.41
Time-tactors, 6.68–6.70
Timing belts, 5.124
TL bushings:
an V-belt drives, 5.111
and synchronous belt drives, 5.131
and V-belt sheaves, 5.111
TL-type sheaves, 5.110–5.111
TL-type sprockets, 5.130
Toluene, 8.32
Tooth pitch, 5.124
Tooth profiles, 5.124–5.125
Torch motion, 10.76
Total acid number, 2.26, 7.129
Total backlogs, 2.79
Total base number, 2.26
Total dynamic head (TDH) requirement, 5.218
Total flow measurement, 7.7–7.8
Total plant management, 2.20
Total productive maintenance (TPM),
2.41–2.58
autonomous maintenance, 2.41–2.42, 2.54
and autonomous maintenance, 2.47
barriers to, 2.48–2.49, 2.52
benefits of, 2.55–2.58
components of, 2.54–2.55
conflict in, 2.49
data availability for, 2.49
education for, 2.54
and equipment, 2.44–2.45
focus of, 2.50
implementation of, 2.47–2.48
for improvement, 2.51–2.52
and inventory, 2.57–2.58
with just-in-time training, 2.50
master plan for, 2.47
metrics for, 2.46–2.47
and morale, 2.58
objectives of, 2.53
and operator ownership, 2.50
and performance, 2.45
planned maintenance, 2.42–2.44
and planned maintenance, 2.48
preventative maintenance, 2.54–2.55
priority for, 2.49
and process losses, 2.53–2.54
and productivity, 2.57
quality rate for, 2.45–2.46
for reduction of maintenance, 2.44, 2.48
and reliability engineering, 2.55
and safety considerations, 2.58
and start-up management, 2.55
strategic direction for, 2.49
support for, 2.50
training for, 2.54
and union buy-in, 2.51
Total system head (TSH) requirement, 5.218
Total work load, 1.40
Towers, cooling, 4.71–4.73
Traces, dual, 7.67
Tracking behavior, 5.137, 5.139–5.140
Traction-type drives, 5.157
Traffic, on low-sloped roofs, 4.15
Trained maintenance planners, 2.5
Training:
for air-conditioning equipment, 4.63
of craft personnel, 1.15
cross-training, 1.35
for estimators, 3.119–3.120
formal instruction, 1.15
informal instruction, 1.15
for lubrication programs, 8.27–8.28
INDEX I.31Training (Cont.)
for maintenance, 1.15, 1.16, 4.63
on-the-job training, 1.15
of personnel, 1.15, 1.16
for self-directed work teams, 1.35
of supervisory personnel, 1.16
for work force, 1.46–1.47
Transducers, velocity, 7.97
Transformers:
bushings of, 7.112
current, 7.57
defined, 7.117
and infrared technology, 7.111–7.112
oil-filled, 7.111–7.112
potential, 7.58
Transmission loads, 4.53–4.54
Transmissions, belt, 5.153–5.155
Transmittance, 7.114
Transmitters:
diaphragm-actuated flowmeter, 7.26
flow, 7.34
pneumatic, 7.27–7.28
pneumatic pressure, 7.28–7.29
pneumatic temperature, 7.28–7.29
Traps:
and piping, 9.72–9.74
stem traps, 9.76–9.77
Trending:
broadband, 2.22–2.23
narrowband, 2.23
tribology, 7.130
for vibration, 7.102
for wear particle analysis, 7.130
Tribology, 2.24–2.28, 2.32, 7.127–7.136
accuracy of samples for, 7.135
capital cost of, 7.134
cost of, 7.134
cost-benefit analysis for, 7.135
ferrography, 2.27–2.28, 7.129
limitations of, 7.134–7.136
lubricating oil analysis, 2.25–2.26, 7.128–7.129
for contamination, 7.128
cost-benefit analysis for, 7.135
for fuel dilution, 7.128
for fuel soot, 7.128
for nitration, 7.129
for oxidation, 7.128
for particle count, 7.129
for solids content, 7.128
for total acid number, 7.129
for total base number, 7.129
for viscosity, 7.128
monitoring, 7.130
and particulate matter, 7.130–7.134
recurring cost of, 7.134
results of, 7.135
samples for, 7.135
spectrographic analysis, 7.129
trending, 7.130
wear particle analysis, 2.26–2.28, 7.129–7.134
cost-benefit analysis for, 7.135
monitoring and trending, 7.130
for particulate matter, 7.130–7.134
Trickle charges, 6.94–6.95
Triggering, automatic, 7.66
Triggers, 7.68
Trimetals, 5.5
Truncated histograms, 3.150
TSH (total system head) requirement, 5.218
Tube checkers, 7.65
Tube scaffolds, 9.105, 9.106
Tuckpointing, 4.28–4.29
Twin-line systems, 8.19–8.20
Two-rate method, 6.84
Two-sigma control, 1.56
Ultraviolet bands, 7.114
Unblanking, 7.68
Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc., 9.93–9.94
Uniform cash flow method, 3.14
Uniform corrosion, 9.5, 9.6
Union-bonnet regrinding valve, 5.200
Union-connected bulbs, 7.23
Unit ohms (µ), 7.113
Unloading, of air compressors, 5.193
“Upside-down” roof system (protected roof
membrane assembly), 4.5
Urethanes, 9.44
Utilities, 1.10
V (see Volts)
Vacuum contactors, 6.51
Valves, 5.197–5.211
of air compressors, 5.189–5.191
air-compressor check valve, 5.201–5.202
ball, 5.207–5.208
ball check valve, 5.201–5.202
bolt tension for, 9.68
bronze, 5.199–5.204
check valves, 5.201–5.203
gate valves, 5.203–5.204
globe valves, 5.200–5.201
bronze check valves, 5.201–5.203
bronze gate valves, 5.203–5.204
bronze globe valves, 5.200–5.201
butterfly, 5.208
check valves, 9.68
air-compressor check valve, 5.201–5.202
ball check valve, 5.201–5.202
bronze, 5.201–5.203
nonmetallic-disk lift-check valve, 5.201
regrinding lift-check valve, 5.201
Renewo lift-check valve, 5.201
swing-check valve, 5.201
description of, 5.197–5.199
double-wedge rising-stem gate valve, 5.204
flow direction of, 9.63, 9.66
gate valves, 5.203–5.204
bronze, 5.203–5.204
double-wedge rising-stem, 5.204
renewable-wedge-and-seat bronze, 5.204
screw-and-yoke rising-stem, 5.204
single-wedge nourishing-stem, 5.204
solid-wedge rising-stem, 5.204
globe valves
bronze, 5.200–5.201
nonmetallic-disk, 5.201
plug-type Renewo, 5.201
600-Brinnel flat-seat, 5.201
threaded-bonnet, 5.200
union-bonnet regrinding valve, 5.200
identification of, 5.210–5.211
iron, 5.204–5.205
check valves, 5.204
gate valves, 5.204–5.205
globe valves, 5.204
Valves (Cont.)
machining, 9.69
maintenance of, 9.66
nonmetallic-disk globe valve, 5.201
nonmetallic-disk lift-check valve, 5.201
packing for, 9.66, 9.68
and piping, 5.211, 9.63, 9.66, 9.68–9.70
plug-type Renewo globe valve, 5.201
refacing, 9.70
regrinding lift-check valve, 5.201
renewable-wedge-and-seat bronze gate
valve, 5.204
Renewo lift-check valve, 5.201
reseating kits, 9.70
screw-and-yoke rising-stem gate valve, 5.204
seat rings, 9.69–9.70
service, 4.66
single-wedge nourishing-stem gate valve, 5.204
600-Brinnel flat-seat globe valve, 5.201
solid-wedge rising-stem gate valve, 5.204
spare parts, 5.208, 5.210–5.211
steel, 5.205–5.207
swing-check valve, 5.201
threaded-bonnet globe valve, 5.200
union-bonnet regrinding valve, 5.200
Vanadium salts (green stain), 4.36
Vane(s):
dynamics of, 7.83
variable-inlet, 4.103, 4.106
and vibration, 7.83
Vane pumps, 5.225–5.226
Vapor-pressure thermal systems, 7.20–7.22
Variable-inlet vanes, 4.103, 4.106
Variable-speed controls, 4.104
V-belt drives, 5.99–5.143
application guidelines for, 5.103–5.108
and banded belts, 5.120–5.121
datum length of, 5.101
dimensions of, 5.99–5.103
effective length of, 5.101, 5.102
force-deflection method for, 5.115–5.116
frequency method for, 5.115–5.116
and hot bearings, 5.118, 5.123
installation of, 5.113
length of, 5.101–5.102
maintenance of, 5.112–5.115
for installation, 5.113
misalignment, 5.112, 5.113
predictive, 5.115
pullet wear, 5.112
takeup allowance, 5.113
visual inspection, 5.112
misalignment, 5.112, 5.113
and noise, 5.117, 5.122
and performance, 5.118, 5.123
predictive maintenance of, 5.115
and premature failure, 5.117, 5.118
and pullet wear, 5.112
QD bushings, 5.111
and sheaves, 5.117, 5.121, 5.123
and takeup, 5.117, 5.122
and takeup allowance, 5.113
tension of, 5.115–5.116
tensioning, 5.115–5.116
force-deflection method for, 5.115–5.116
frequency method for, 5.115–5.116
and TL bushings, 5.111
troubleshooting, 5.117–5.123
I.32 INDEXV-belt drives, troubleshooting (Cont.)
banded (joint) belts, 5.120–5.121
banded (joint) problems, 5.119–5.120
hot bearings, 5.118, 5.123
noise, 5.117, 5.122
performance, 5.118, 5.123
premature failure, 5.117, 5.118
sheaves, 5.117, 5.121, 5.123
and takeup, 5.117, 5.122
vibration, 5.117, 5.122
wear, 5.117, 5.119–5.120
and V-belt sheaves, 5.102–5.103,
5.108–5.112
and ventilating fans, 4.106, 4.108
and vibration, 5.117, 5.122
visual inspection of, 5.112
and wear, 5.117, 5.119–5.120
V-belt sheaves, 5.102–5.103
conventional mount, 5.110
diameter of, 5.103
installation procedure for, 5.108–5.112
and QD bushings, 5.111
QD-type sheaves, 5.110
reverse mount, 5.110
and TL bushings, 5.111
TL-type sheaves, 5.110–5.111
vibration of, 5.117, 5.122
Velocity:
liquid, 9.86
and piping, 9.86
of vibration, 7.77
Velocity transducers, 7.97
Vendors:
procurement function of, 1.25
selection of, 1.25
specifications for, 3.170
Ventilating fans, 4.87–4.110
and abrasion, 4.99–4.100
axial fans, 4.95
backward-curved-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96
balancing of, 4.108–4.109
bearings, 4.107
and bearings, 4.107
bearings, overheated, 4.110
and belt guards, 4.106
capacity of, 4.109
and corrosion, 4.99
and coupling guards, 4.106
couplings, 4.107–4.108
and couplings, 4.107–4.108
and dampers, 4.106
and disconnect switches, 4.106
drivers, 4.110
fan laws, 4.91, 4.94
and fan wheel, 4.105–4.106
and fan wheels, 4.105–4.106
and flammable gases, 4.100
and flow, 4.87
forward-curved-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96
handling of, 4.105
in-line-flow centrifugal fans, 4.97
inspection of, 4.104, 4.107–4.109
balancing, 4.108–4.109
bearings, 4.107
couplings, 4.107–4.108
for installation, 4.104
periodic, 4.107–4.109
problems with, 4.109–4.110
Ventilating fans, inspection of (Cont.)
recordkeeping for, 4.107
V-belt drives, 4.108
installation of, 4.104–4.106
considerations with, 4.104–4.105
dampers, 4.106
fan wheel, 4.105–4.106
foundations for, 4.105
mountings for, 4.105
prestart check for, 4.105
and startup, 4.106
variable-inlet vanes, 4.106
V-belt drive, 4.106
jet pumps, 4.98
mountings for, 4.105
multirating tables for, 4.88, 4.91
noise of, 4.101–4.102
elimination of, 4.101–4.102
as problem, 4.109–4.110
volume-control devices for, 4.102–4.104
packaged ventilating equipment, 4.98
performance data for, 4.88–4.91
on density changes, 4.91
multirating tables for, 4.88, 4.91
standards for, 4.88
periodic inspection of, 4.107–4.109
power roof exhausters, 4.98
pressure of, 4.109
prestart check for, 4.105
propeller fans, 4.95
protective devices, 4.107
and protective screens, 4.106
radial-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96, 4.97
recordkeeping for, 4.107
safety devices, 4.106
belt guards, 4.106
coupling guards, 4.106
disconnect switches, 4.106
protective screens, 4.106
selection of, 4.98–4.100
standards for, 4.88
and startup, 4.106
storage of, 4.105
straight-blade centrifugal fans, 4.96, 4.97
and temperatures, 4.98–4.99
terminology, 4.87–4.88
types of, 4.94–4.98
uses of, 4.94–4.98
and variable-inlet vanes, 4.106
and V-belt drive, 4.106
and V-belt drives, 4.108
vibration, 4.109–4.110
volume-control devices for, 4.102–4.104
outlet damper, 4.102
variable-inlet vanes, 4.103
variable-speed control, 4.104
Vertical alignment:
for face/rim alignment, 5.63, 5.66
for flexible couplings, 5.67–5.70
and shaft misalignment, 5.59–5.61, 5.63, 5.66
Vertical expansion joints, 4.31
Vessels, 9.25
Vibration, 7.69–7.104
acceleration of, 7.75, 7.77
and accelerometers, 7.97
and acceptance testing, 7.69
and aircraft engines, 7.71
alert (alarm) limits for, 7.94–7.95
Vibration (Cont.)
amplitude of, 7.77
analysis of, 7.69–7.71
for acceptance testing, 7.69
for aircraft engines, 7.71
for engineering, 7.71
for leak detection, 7.70
for loose parts detection, 7.70
for machine design, 7.71
for noise control, 7.70
parameters for, 7.94
for predictive maintenance, 7.69
for production optimization, 7.71
for quality control, 7.70
techniques for, 7.104
of bearings, 7.80–7.82
of belt drives, 7.83–7.84
and bent shafts, 7.89
of blades, 7.83
of blowers, 7.91
broadband data for, 7.104
causes of, 7.74
characteristics of, 7.74–7.77
acceleration, 7.75, 7.77
amplitude, 7.77
displacement, 7.75, 7.77
frequency, 7.76
frequency domain, 7.76
order (harmonic), 7.76–7.77
phase, 7.75–7.76
time domain, 7.76
velocity, 7.77
of compressors, 7.91–7.92
of continuous-process systems, 7.79, 7.93
and critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
with data-acquisition frequency, 7.93–7.94
and databases, 7.93–7.95
alert (alarm) limits for, 7.94–7.95
analysis parameters for, 7.94
with data-acquisition frequency, 7.93–7.94
signature analysis boundaries for, 7.94
defining, 7.72–7.73
displacement of, 7.75, 7.77
and displacement (eddy-current) probes,
7.96–7.97
and electric motors, 7.90
and electrical motors, 6.13–6.14
and engineering, 7.71
and failure, 7.87–7.93
from bent shafts, 7.89
of blowers, 7.91
of compressors, 7.91–7.92
of continuous-process lines, 7.93
of electric motors, 7.90
of fans, 7.91
of gearboxes, 7.90–7.91
of generators, 7.92
from imbalance, 7.87–7.88
from looseness, 7.89
from mechanical rub, 7.89
from misalignment, 7.88–7.89
of pumps, 7.92–7.93
of fans, 7.91
frequency domain of, 7.76
frequency of, 7.76
and gear mesh, 7.82–7.83
of gearboxes, 7.90–7.91
of gears, 7.82–7.83
INDEX I.33Vibration (Cont.)
of generators, 7.92
from imbalance, 7.87–7.88
and induced loads, 7.86–7.87
and installed systems, 7.100–7.101
and leak detection, 7.70
and linear-motion machinery, 7.78
and loose parts detection, 7.70
from looseness, 7.89
and machine design, 7.71
machine vibration, 7.74
measurement of, 7.96–7.101
with accelerometers, 7.97
with displacement (eddy-current) probes,
7.96–7.97
with installed systems, 7.100–7.101
mounting techniques for, 7.98
with velocity transducers, 7.97
with vibration analyzers, 7.98–7.100
with vibration meters, 7.98
from mechanical rub, 7.89
from misalignment, 7.88–7.89
and mode shape, 7.85–7.86
mounting techniques for, 7.98
and narrowband data, 7.104
and noise control, 7.70
order (harmonic) of, 7.76–7.77
phase of, 7.75–7.76
of plant machinery, 7.77–7.87
bearings, 7.80–7.82
belt drives, 7.83–7.84
blades, 7.83
continuous-process systems, 7.79
critical speeds, 7.84–7.85
dynamics of, 7.79–7.87
gears, 7.82–7.83
induced loads, 7.86–7.87
linear-motion machinery, 7.78
mode shape, 7.85–7.86
preloads, 7.86–7.87
process variables, 7.87
reciprocating machinery, 7.78
resonance, 7.86
rotating machinery, 7.77–7.78
running speeds, 7.84
vanes, 7.83
and predictive maintenance, 7.69
predictive maintenance program for,
7.101–7.104
analysis techniques for, 7.104
with databases, 7.93–7.95, 7.101–7.102
program maintenance, 7.102
trending techniques for, 7.102
and preloads, 7.86–7.87
and process variables, 7.87
and production optimization, 7.71
program maintenance for, 7.102
of pumps, 7.92–7.93
and quality control, 7.70
and reciprocating machinery, 7.78
and resonance, 7.86
of rolling-element bearings, 7.80–7.81
and root-cause failure analysis, 7.104
and rotating machinery, 7.77–7.78
and running speeds, 7.84
signature analysis boundaries for, 7.94
of synchronous belts, 5.137, 5.140
time domain of, 7.76
Vibration (Cont.)
trending techniques for, 7.102
and vanes, 7.83
of V-belt drives, 5.117, 5.122
of V-belt sheaves, 5.117, 5.122
velocity of, 7.77
and velocity transducers, 7.97
of ventilating fans, 4.109–4.110
and vibration analyzers, 7.98–7.100
and vibration meters, 7.98
Vibration analyzers, 7.98–7.100
Vibration meters, 7.98
Vibration monitoring, 2.22–2.23, 2.31
broadband trending, 2.22–2.23
narrowband trending, 2.23
signature analysis, 2.23
Viscosity:
chain drives, 5.79, 5.80
and lubricant analysis, 8.32
and lubricating oil analysis, 2.25, 7.128
of oil, 5.79, 5.80
of positive-displacement pumps, 5.226
Viscosity index, 8.32
Visible bands, 7.114
Visual inspection, 2.30
and root cause analysis, 3.159–3.161
for synchronous belts, 5.132
of V-belt drives, 5.112
Volts (V):
AC volts, 7.53–7.55
accelerating, 7.66
accelerating voltages, 7.66
constant
charging with, 6.93–6.94
constant voltage, 6.93–6.94
DC volts, 7.53
defined, 7.117
Volume, and suction, 5.216–5.217
Volume-control devices:
outlet damper, 4.102
variable-inlet vanes, 4.103
for variable-speed control, 4.104
for ventilating fans, 4.102–4.104
Vortex dampers, 4.76
Vulcanized elastomers, 4.11
W (watts), 7.117
Wage rate, 3.70
Walls:
cracked, 4.30–4.31
leaky, 4.27–4.30
Warranties, for elevators, 4.51–4.52
Waste disposal, 1.11
Water:
and lubricant analysis, 8.32
treatment of, 4.71
Water coils, 4.84
Water conditioning:
and air-conditioning equipment,
4.84–4.85
corrective measures for, 4.85
definitions of, 4.85
problems with, 4.84–4.85
Water distribution, 4.72
Water filters, 4.77–4.78
Water hammers, 9.56
Water heaters, 4.79–4.80
Water jetting, high-pressure, 9.25, 9.26
Water level, 4.72
Water lines, 4.84
Water repellents, 4.30
Waterborne coatings, 9.42
Water-cooled condensers, 4.70–4.71
cleaning, 4.70–4.71
freeze protection for, 4.71
freezing of, 4.71
maintenance of, 4.70–4.71
and refrigerated joints, 4.71
and water treatment, 4.71
Watering, of nickel-iron batteries, 6.101
Wattmeters, 7.52
clamp-on, 7.52
three-phase, 7.58
Watts, 7.53
Watts (W), 7.117
Wave lengths, 7.110
Wear:
abrasive, 10.43–10.44
of contacts, 6.49
corrosive, 5.182
cutting, 2.27, 7.131, 7.132
fatigue spallwear, 7.131, 7.132
in gear drives, 5.177–5.184
of gear-tooth, 5.177–5.184
impact, 10.44
of plain bearings, 5.9, 5.11
pullet, 5.112
rolling, 2.27
rolling fatigue, 2.27, 7.131–7.133
rubbing, 2.27, 7.131
severe, 2.27, 7.133–7.134
sliding, 2.27, 7.132–7.134
and rolling fatigue wear, 7.132, 7.133
severe, 7.133–7.134
of synchronous belts, 5.132, 5.136,
5.138–5.139
of synchronous sprockets, 5.132
and V-belt drives, 5.112, 5.117,
5.119–5.120
and welding, 10.44
Wear particle analysis, 2.26–2.28
cutting wear, 2.27, 7.131, 7.132
monitoring and trending, 7.130
for particulate matter, 7.130–7.134
cutting wear, 7.131, 7.132
fatigue spallwear, 7.131, 7.132
rolling fatigue wear, 7.131–7.133
rubbing wear, 7.131
sliding wear, 7.132–7.134
rolling fatigue, 2.27
rolling wear, 2.27
rubbing wear, 2.27
sliding wear, 2.27
Welded aluminum scaffolds, 9.101–9.102
Welded steel scaffolds, 9.103
Welding, 10.3–10.89
and abrasive wear, 10.43–10.44
accessory equipment for, 10.52–10.55
air-acetylene appliances, 10.63–10.71
applications of, 10.70–10.71
automobile body soldering, 10.67
electrical connections, 10.67–10.68
paint burning, 10.69–10.70
precautions with, 10.63–10.64
safety considerations with, 10.63–10.64
sheet metal working, 10.65–10.67
I.34 INDEXWelding, air-acetylene appliances (Cont.)
soldering, 10.64–10.65
sweat-type fittings, 10.68–10.69
air-carbon arc cutting (CAC-A), 10.27–10.30
and alloy steels, 10.36–10.39
high-manganese steels, 10.39
high-tensile low-alloy steels, 10.36
stainless clad steels, 10.38
stainless steels, 10.36, 10.38
straight chromium steels, 10.38
and aluminum, 10.39
arc welding, 10.3–10.60
flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 10.10
gas-shielded metal arc welding
(GMAW), 10.11–10.13
role of, 10.3–10.6
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
10.6–10.9
submerged arc welding (SAW), 10.10–10.11
atomic hydrogen welding, 10.34
and automobile body soldering, 10.67
and base metals, 10.35–10.39
alloy steels, 10.36–10.39
carbon steels, 10.35–10.36
nonferrous metals, 10.39
braze welding, 10.74–10.75
and carbon steels, 10.35–10.36
cast iron, 10.36
high-carbon steels, 10.36
low-carbon steels, 10.35
medium-carbon steels, 10.36
check welding procedure, 10.48–10.49
and copper, 10.39
and copper alloys, 10.39
and distortion, 10.39–10.40
and electrical connections, 10.67–10.68
electrode material for, 10.21–10.22
electrogas welding, 10.34
equipment for
accessory equipment for, 10.52–10.55
installation of, 10.55
machines for, 10.51–10.52
maintenance of, 10.57–10.59
operation of, 10.56–10.57
flame adjustment
in braze welding, 10.74–10.75
in fusion welding, 10.75
fusion welding cast iron, 10.78
and gouging, 10.82–10.83
heavy braze welding, 10.76–10.77
oxygen cutting, 10.78–10.82
torch motion, 10.76
weld preparation, 10.75–10.76
flame adjustment for, 10.74–10.83
flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 10.10
with gas, 10.10
self-shielded, 10.10
fusion welding, 10.75
fusion welding cast iron, 10.78
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
10.13–10.27
advantages of, 10.17–10.18
applicability of, 10.15–10.17
disadvantages of, 10.17–10.18
electrode material for, 10.21–10.22
flow rates, 10.20–10.21
manual techniques, 10.24
mechanical welding parameters for, 10.25
Welding, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
(Cont.)
methods for, 10.25–10.27
and polarity, 10.18–10.20
power supplies, 10.22–10.23
principles of, 10.18
process for, 10.13–10.15
shielding gases, 10.20–10.21
torches, 10.23–10.24
gas welding, 10.63–10.89
air-acetylene appliances, 10.63–10.71
flame adjustment for, 10.74–10.83
and hard facing, 10.83–10.89
oxyacetylene appliances, 10.71–10.74
gas-shielded metal arc welding (GMAW),
10.11–10.13
gas-shielded spot welding, 10.34
and gouging, 10.82–10.83
and hard facing, 10.83–10.89
for cast iron, 10.85
finishing for, 10.85–10.89
material for, 10.45–10.48
rods, 10.84
for steel, 10.84–10.85
and hard surfacing, 10.43
heavy braze welding, 10.76–10.77
and high-carbon steels, 10.36
and high-manganese steels, 10.39
and high-tensile low-alloy steels, 10.36
and impact wear, 10.44
and low-carbon steels, 10.35
machines for, 10.51–10.52
mechanical welding parameters for, 10.25
and medium-carbon steels, 10.36
and nonferrous metals, 10.39
oxyacetylene appliances, 10.71–10.74
and brazing, 10.71–10.72
and cutting, 10.72
precautions for, 10.71
safety considerations with, 10.71
setup for, 10.73
oxyacetylene cutting, 10.27
oxygen cutting, 10.78–10.82
equipment for, 10.81
preparation for, 10.81
process for, 10.81–10.82
and paint burning, 10.69–10.70
for piping, 9.83
plasma arc cutting, 10.30–10.31
plasma arc welding, 10.34–10.35
and polarity, 10.18–10.20
and power supplies, 10.22–10.23
procedures for, 10.32–10.33
qualifications for, 10.33
resistance welding, 10.35
safety considerations with, 10.59–10.60
sheet metal welding, 10.42–10.43
and sheet metal working, 10.65–10.67
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW),
10.6–10.9
and shielding gases, 10.20–10.21
soldering, 10.64–10.65, 10.67
spot welding, 10.34
and stainless clad steels, 10.38
and stainless steels, 10.36, 10.38
for steel, 10.84–10.85
and straight chromium steels, 10.38
stud welding, 10.35
Welding (Cont.)
submerged arc welding (SAW),
10.10–10.11, 10.40–10.42
and electrodes, 10.41–10.42
equipment for, 10.40–10.41
and fluxes, 10.41–10.42
hard surfacing with, 10.49–10.51
and surfacing electrodes, 10.44
and sweat-type fittings, 10.68–10.69
torch motion, 10.76
Welding splatter, 4.38
Welding torches, 10.23–10.24
Well pumps, 4.84
Wet centrifugal scrubbers, 4.119–4.120
Wet collectors (scrubbers), 4.112, 4.113
maintenance of, 4.119–4.120
orifice type, 4.120
packed scrubbers, 4.119
particulate, 4.114, 4.115
wet centrifugal, 4.119–4.120
wet dynamic, 4.120
Wet dynamic scrubbers, 4.120
Wet-bulb thermometers, 7.24, 7.25
Wheatstone bridge, 7.61–7.62
Wheels, fan, 4.76
White scum, 4.39
Windage, 5.79
Winter protection, for cooling towers, 4.73
Wondering, in scientific method, 3.92
Work allocation:
for breakdown maintenance, 1.41–1.42
operating policies for, 1.39–1.43
for preventative maintenance, 1.41–1.42
and reliability engineering, 1.42–1.43
scheduling, 1.39–1.41
Work controls, 2.89
Work culture, 2.113
Work force (see Personnel)
Work load, 1.40
Work measurement, 3.19–3.63
application of, 3.131
and assignment maintenance mechanics,
3.58–3.59
comparative time estimating, 3.130–3.131
for efficiency, 3.60–3.62
and efficiency estimation, 3.60–3.62
and engineers, 3.19–3.21
and equipment, 3.26–3.27
equipment records, 3.31
for estimations
of efficiency, 3.60–3.62
standards, 3.62
familiarity for, 3.130
and KPIs, 3.129–3.132
levels of, 3.132
methods for, 3.21–3.26
methods-time measurement (MTM) data
for, 3.41–3.52
with past-performance method, 3.52–3.56
and personnel, 3.27–3.31
for planning, 3.31–3.32
programs for, 3.63
random sampling with, 3.56–3.58, 3.60
with ratio delay, 3.56–3.62
accuracy of, 3.60
for allowance determination, 3.59, 3.60
and assignment maintenance mechanics,
3.58–3.59
INDEX I.35Work measurement, with ratio delay (Cont.)
and efficiency estimation, 3.60–3.62
random sampling with, 3.56–3.58,
3.60
studies on, 3.60
and work simplification, 3.59
for scheduling, 3.31–3.32
and standards, 3.62
with statistical plans, 3.52–3.56
with Time Study, 3.32–3.41
with work sampling, 3.56
Work order system, 2.84–2.85
Work orders:
analysis of, 2.88
and CMMS, 2.95–2.97, 2.105
computerized, 2.79
computerized systems for, 2.82–2.83
history of, 2.97
initiation, 2.99–2.100
planning, 2.100
scheduling, 2.101
Work plans, 2.79
Work requests, 2.79
Work sampling, 3.56
Work simplification, 3.89–3.105
applications of, 3.104–3.105
charting techniques for, 3.95
and decision-making, 3.105
and efficiency, 3.104–3.105
and flow diagrams, 3.98
with flow process chart, 3.95–3.98
creation of, 3.95, 3.98
and flow diagrams, 3.98
points in, 3.98
with law of intelligent action, 3.90–3.92
ability, 3.91
capacity, 3.91–3.92
desire, 3.90–3.91
and manpower, 3.105
with motion economy, 3.102–3.104
checklist for, 3.103–3.104
principles of, 3.102–3.103
with multiple-activity process chart,
3.99–3.102
creation of, 3.99
usage of, 3.99–3.100
Work simplification (Cont.)
and ratio delay, 3.59
with scientific method, 3.92–3.95
and application, 3.93
generalizing in, 3.92–3.93
for methods improvement,
3.93–3.95
questioning in, 3.92
wondering in, 3.92
and technical decisions, 3.105
Work teams (see Self-directed
work teams)
Work unit, scheduling by, 1.40
Workers (see Personnel)
Wound-rotor motors, 6.61
Wrinkling, 9.47
X-ray, 7.114
Z (see Impedance)
Zinc, for corrosion control, 9.9
Zinc coatings, 9.43
Zone-control systems, 8.21, 8.2

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