Machine Designers Reference

Machine Designers Reference
اسم المؤلف
Jennifer Marrs,P.E.
التاريخ
3 نوفمبر 2017
المشاهدات
417
التقييم
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Machine Designers Reference
Jennifer Marrs,P.E.
BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS
About the Authors .
Acknowledgments .
Introduction
Chapter 1: Design and Analysis
1.1: Design of Machinery .
1.2: Engineering Units
1.3: Equations
Chapter 2: Ergonomics and Machine Safety
(Co-written with E. Smith Reed, P.E.) .
2.1: Ergonomics .
2.2: Machine Safety: Design Process
2.3: Machine Safeguarding
2.4: Other Safety Issues .
2.5: Recommended Resources .
Chapter 3: Dimensions and Tolerances
3.1: Limits, Fits, and Tolerance Grades
3.2: Tolerances on Drawings, and GD&T
3.3: Tolerance Stack-Ups (Written by Charles Gillis, P.E.) .
Chapter 4: Precision Locating Techniques
(Written by Charles Gillis, P.E.)
Chapter 5: Pins, Keys, and Retaining Rings
Chapter 6: Pipe Threads, Threaded Fasteners, and Washers
6.1: Pipe and Port Threads .
6.2: Threaded Fasteners and Washers .
Chapter 7: Welds and Weldments
Chapter 8: Materials, Surfaces, and Treatments
8.1: Materials
8.2: Surface Finish
8.3: Heat Treatment .
8.4: Surface Treatment
Chapter 9: Force Generators .
9.1: Springs .
9.2: Pneumatics
9.3: Electric Motors .
Chapter 10: Bearings
10.1: Plain Bearings
10.2: Rolling Element Bearings .
10.3: Linear Bearings .
Chapter 11: Power Transmission Devices .
11.1: Shafts .
11.2: Shaft Couplings .
11.3: Gears (Written by Gregory Aviza)
11.4: Gearboxes
11.5: Belts and Chains .
11.5.1: Belts .
11.5.2: Chains
11.6: Lead, Ball, and Roller Screws
1. Design and Analysis
1.1. Design of Machinery
• Recommended Resources
• Functional Design Specification
• Research .
• Synthesis and Conceptual Design .
• Detail Design and Analysis
• Factors of Safety .
• Critical Considerations: Design of Machinery .
• Best Practices: Design of Machinery .1
1.2. Engineering Units
• Recommended Resources
• Engineering Units
• Unit Conversions
1.3. Equations .
• Recommended Resources
• Tables of Equations .1
2. Ergonomics and Machine Safety .
2.1. Ergonomics .
• Recommended Resources
• Body and Workspace Dimensions .
• Body Dimensions
• Workspace, Clearances, Enclosures, and Access Openings .
• Operator Physical Capabilities and Limitations:
Reaching / Grasping / Moving / Lifting .
• Critical Considerations: Ergonomics
2.2. Machine Safety: Design Process
• Recommended Resources
• Risk Assessment .
• Risk Reduction
• Critical Considerations: Machine Safety: Design Process .
2.3. Machine Safeguarding .
• Recommended Resources
• Guards .
• Protective Devices .
• Procedural Safeguarding: Information, Instructions and Warnings .
• Warnings Included in the Manual .
2.4. Other Safety Issues
• Recommended Resources .
• Emission of Airborne Substances or Modification of Surrounding
Atmosphere
• Emission of Radiation, Intense Light, Vibration, Heat
• Emission of Noise
• Hand / Arm Vibration .
• Whole Body Vibration .
• Machine Use in Explosive Atmospheres .
• Moving the Machine
• Machine Stability .
• Lubrication
• Danger Warning Alarm Signaling: Audible Signals and Visual
Signals .
• Lockout / Tagout Requirements
• Emergency Stop Devices .
• Critical Considerations: Other Safety Issues .
2.5. Recommended Resources .
• Governmental Regulations, Statutes, Codes, and Publications
• Books
• Industry Safety Standards .
• Internet Web Sites
• Application of Literature to Design Topics .
3. Dimensions and Tolerances
3.1. Limits, Fits, and Tolerance Grades
• Recommended Resources .
• Types of Fits and Their Limits .
• Machining Tolerances .
• Limits of Size Data
• Critical Considerations: Limits, Fits, and Tolerance Grades .
• Best Practices: Limits, Fits, and Tolerance Grades
3.2. Tolerances on Drawings, and GD&T
• Recommended Resources .
• Implied Tolerances
• Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)
• Critical Considerations: Tolerances on Drawings, and GD&T .
• Best Practices: Tolerances on Drawings, and GD&T
3.3. Tolerance Stack-Ups .
• Recommended Resources .
• Design Practice .
• The Tolerance Stack-Up Chain
• Practical Applications .
• Summary .
• Critical Considerations: Tolerance Stack-Ups .
• Best Practices: Tolerance Stack-Ups
4. Precision Locating Techniques
• Recommended Resources
• Design Requirements .
• The Two-Hole Problem .
• Datum Reference Frame .
• Design Process
• Precision Locating Techniques .
• Critical Considerations: Precision Locating Techniques .
• Best Practices: Precision Locating Techniques
5. Pins, Keys, and Retaining Rings .
• Recommended Resources
• Pins and Keys in Shear
• Pins .
• Keys
• Retaining Rings .
• Critical Considerations: Pins, Keys, and Retaining Rings
• Best Practices: Pins, Keys, and Retaining Rings .
• Component Data .
6. Pipe Threads, Threaded Fasteners and Washers .
6.1. Pipe and Port Threads .
• Recommended Resources
• Standards
• Critical Considerations: Pipe and Port Threads
• Best Practices: Pipe and Port Threads .
• Pipe and Port Thread Dimensions .
6.2. Threaded Fasteners and Washers .
• Recommended Resources
• Fastener Threads .
• Tap Drills
• Fastener Types, Materials, and Selection
• Grades and Strength of Fasteners
• Torque of Fasteners
• Critical Considerations: Threaded Fasteners and Washers
• Best Practices: Threaded Fasteners and Washers .
7. Welds and Weldments .
• Recommended Resources
• Weld Types .
• Weld Symbols
• Weldment Drawings
• Materials and Treatments
• Critical Considerations: Welds and Weldments
• Best Practices: Welds and Weldments .
8. Materials, Surfaces, and Treatments
8.1. Materials
• Recommended Resources
• Metals Nomenclature .
• Material Properties .
• Common Material Choices .
• Materials Data
• Critical Considerations: Materials .
• Best Practices: Materials
8.2. Surface Finish .
• Recommended Resources
• Surface Finish Symbols .
• Surface Finish and Tolerance .
• Surface Finish Data
• Critical Considerations: Surface Finish
• Best Practices: Surface Finish
8.3. Heat Treatment .
• Recommended Resources
• Hardness .
• Heat Treatment Processes .
• Heat Treatment and Distortion
• Hardness from Heat Treating .
• Critical Considerations: Heat Treatment
• Best Practices: Heat Treatment .
8.4. Surface Treatment
• Recommended Resources
• Common Surface Treatment Types
• Selection of Surface Treatments
• Critical Considerations: Surface Treatment .
• Best Practices: Surface Treatment
9. Force Generators .
9.1. Springs
• Recommended Resources .
• Spring Types .
• Spring Materials
• Helical Coil Spring Terminology .
• Helical Coil Spring Fatigue .
• Helical Coil Compression Springs
• Helical Compression Spring Catalog Selection Steps .
• Helical Compression Spring Design Steps .
• Helical Coil Extension Springs
• Helical Extension Spring Catalog Selection Steps .
• Helical Extension Spring Design Steps
• Helical Coil Torsion Springs
• Helical Torsion Spring Catalog Selection Steps .
• Helical Torsion Spring Design Steps
• Belleville Spring Washers
• Belleville Spring Washer Catalog Selection Steps .
• Belleville Spring Washer Design Steps
• Critical Considerations: Springs .
• Best Practices: Springs
9.2. Pneumatics .
• Recommended Resources .
• Pressure and Regulation
• Pneumatic Circuits
• Pneumatic Symbols .
• Air Actuators
• Sizing Air Actuators .
• Calculating Cv
• Pneumatic Valves .
• Sizing Valves
• Critical Considerations: Pneumatics
• Best Practices: Pneumatics .
9.3. Electric Motors
• Recommended Resources .
• Electrical Power
• Motor Terminology .
• AC Motors
• DC Motors
• Electric Motor Controls
• Electric Motor Frames and Enclosures
• Electric Motor Sizing
• Critical Considerations: Electric Motors .
10. Bearings .
10.1. Plain Bearings .
• Recommended Resources .
• Lubrication of Plain Bearings .
• Bearing Materials for Boundary Lubrication
• Boundary Lubricated Sleeve Bearings .
• Sleeve Bearing Selection Procedure for Boundary Lubrication .
• Critical Considerations: Plain Bearings .
• Best Practices: Plain Bearings .
10.2. Rolling Element Bearings
• Recommended Resources .
• Lubrication, Seals, and Shields
• Bearing Characteristics .
• Bearing Types
• Radial Ball and Roller Bearing Dimensions and Tolerances .
• Bearing Arrangements .
• Loads on Bearings
• Bearing Load Ratings and Life Expectancy
• Bearing Selection Procedure for a Rotating Shaft Application
• Critical Considerations: Rolling Element Bearings
• Best Practices: Rolling Element Bearings .
10.3. Linear Bearings
• Recommended Resources .
• Lubrication
• Plain Linear Bearings
• Rolling Element Linear Bearings .
• Critical Considerations: Linear Bearings
• Best Practices: Linear Bearings .
11. Power Transmission Devices
11.1. Shafts
• Recommended Resources .
• Methods of Attachment
• Materials and Treatments .
• Deflection, Stress, and Fatigue .
• Critical Speeds .
• Shaft Design Procedure
• Critical Considerations: Shafts
• Best Practices: Shafts
11.2. Shaft Couplings
• Recommended Resources .
• Coupling Types
• Flexible Coupling Types .
• Coupling Selection
• Critical Considerations: Shaft Couplings
• Best Practices: Shaft Couplings .
11.3. Gears .
• Recommended Resources .
• Terms and Definitions .
• Gear Types
• Gear Trains
• Shaft Attachment Methods
• Gear Quality Ratings
• Backlash
• Materials and Treatments .
• Lubrication and Wear
• Spur Gears
• Spur Gear Selection and Sizing
• Helical Gears
• Bevel Gears .
• Worm Gears .
• Critical Considerations: Gears
• Best Practices: Gears
11.4. Gearboxes
• Recommended Resources .
• Gearbox Characteristics
• Loads on Gearboxes .
• Gearbox Selection
• Critical Considerations: Gearboxes .
• Best Practices: Gearboxes
11.5. Belts and Chains
• Recommended Resources .
• Drive Calculations
11.5.1 Belts .
• Flat Belt Drive Design and Selection Procedure
• V-Belt Drive Design and Selection Procedure
• Synchronous Drive Design and Selection Procedure .
• Critical Considerations: Belts
• Best Practices: Belts
11.5.2 Chains
• Chain Selection and Sizing .
• Critical Considerations: Chains .
• Best Practices: Chains
11.6. Lead, Ball, and Roller Screws
Screw Characteristics
• Screw Stresses, Deflection, and Buckling
• Critical Speed
• Linear Motion Screw Types .
• Lead Screws .
• Ball Screws
• Lead or Ball Screw Selection Procedure .
• Critical Considerations: Lead, Ball, and Roller Screws .
• Best Practices: Lead, Ball, and Roller Screws
12. Machine Reliability and Performance .
• Recommended Resources .
• Machine Reliability .
• Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis .
• Safety Category
• Manufacturing Equipment Performance .
• Condition Monitoring
• Critical Considerations: Machine Reliability and Performance .
• Best Practices: Machine Reliability and Performance
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