Landmarks in Mechanical Engineering

Landmarks in Mechanical Engineering
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ASME
التاريخ
1 ديسمبر 2022
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Landmarks in Mechanical Engineering
ASME International History and Heritage
CONTENTS
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Pumping
Introduction 1
Newcomen Memorial Engine 3
Fairmount Waterworks 5
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Scoop Wheel and Steam Engines 8
Holly System of Fire Protection and Water Supply 10
Archimedean Screw Pump 11
Chapin Mine Pumping Engine 12
Leavitt­Riedler Pumping Engine 14
Sidebar: Erasmus D.Leavitt, Jr. 16
Chestnut Street Pumping Engine 17
Specification: Chestnut Street Pumping Engine 18
A. B Wood Low­lift Screw Pump 18
Reynolds­Corliss Pumping Engine 21
Worthington Horizontal Cross­compound Pumping Engine 22
Specifications: Pumping Engine No. 2, York Water Company 23
Mechanical Power Production
Water
Introduction 24
Great Falls Raceway and Power System 27
Lowell Power Canal System and Pawtucket Gatehouse Turbine 29
Sidebar: James B. Francis, the Maker of Lowell 32
Holyoke Water Power System 33
Morris Canal Scotch (Reaction) Turbine 35
Sidebar: James Lee and Plane No. 9 West 36
Boyden Hydraulic Turbines, Harmony Mill No. 3 37
Sidebar: Uriah Atherton Boyden 38Page vi
Steam
Introduction 40
Boulton & Watt Rotative Steam Engine 43
Sidebar: Horsepower 44
Hacienda La Esperanza Sugar Mill Steam Engine 46
Harris­Corliss Steam Engine 48
Sidebar: George H. Corliss and the Corliss Engine 50
Specifications: Harris­Corliss Engine, Randall Brothers 51
Internal Combustion
Introduction 52
Roosa Master Diesel Fuel­injection Pump 55
Electrical Power Production
Water
Introduction 57
Vulcan Street Power Plant 60
Folsom Powerhouse No. 1 62
Idols Station, Fries Manufacturing & Power Company 63
Michigan Lake Superior Power Company Hydroelectric Plant 65
Childs­Irving Hydroelectric Project 68
Rocky River Pumped­storage Hydroelectric Plant 69
Kaplan Turbine 72
Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump­Turbine 74
Specifications: Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 Reversible Pump­Turbine 75
Steam
Introduction 76
Edison “Jumbo” Engine­driven Dynamo 78
Marine­type, Triple­expansion, Engine­driven Dynamo 80
Pratt Institute Power Plant 82
5,000­kilowatt Curtis Steam Turbine­Generator 84
Specifications: 5,000­kilowatt Curtis Steam Turbine­Generator 85
Georgetown Steam Plant 86
East Wells (Oneida) Street Power Plant 88
Edgar Station, Edison Electric Illuminating Company 90
State Line Generating Unit No. 1 92
Port Washington Power Plant 93Page vii
Internal Combustion
Introduction 95
Neuchâtel Gas Turbine 97
Belle Isle Gas Turbine 98
Specifications: Belle Isle Gas Turbine 100
Nuclear
Introduction 101
Shippingport Atomic Power Station 103
Geothermal
Introduction 106
The Geysers Unit 1, Pacific Gas & Electric Company 108
Power Transmission
Introduction 111
Kingsbury Thrust Bearing 113
Minerals Extraction and Refining
Introduction 115
Saugus Ironworks 119
Cornwall Iron Furnace 121
Ringwood Manor Iron Complex 123
Drake Oil Well 125
Sidebar: How Oil Wells Were Drilled 126
Pioneer Oil Refinery (California Star Oil Works Company) 129
Reed Gold Mine Ten­stamp Mill 130
Fairbanks Exploration Company Gold Dredge No. 8 132
Hanford B Reactor 134
First Basic­Oxygen Steelmaking Vessel 136
“Big Brutus” Mine Shovel 138
Manufacturing Facilities and Processes
Introduction 140
Portsmouth­Kittery Naval Shipbuilding Activity 144
Springfield Armory 146
Jackson Ferry Shot Tower 148
Wilkinson Mill 150Page viii
American Precision Museum/Robbins & Lawrence
Armory and Machine Shop 153
Westmoreland Malleable Iron Works 155
Watkins Woolen Mill 157
Creusot Steam Hammer 159
Joshua Hendy Iron Works 161
Owens AR Bottle Machine 162
A. O. Smith Automatic Frame Plant 165
Corning Ribbon Machine 167
Fusion­welded Test Boiler Drum 169
Alcoa 50,000­ton Hydraulic Forging Press 171
Wyman­Gordon 50,000­ton Hydraulic Forging Press 173
First Hot Isostatic Processing Vessels 174
Food Processing
Introduction 177
Graue Mill 179
Anderson­Barngrover Continuous Rotary Pressure Sterilizer 180
FMC Citrus Juice Extractor 182
Sidebar: Whole­Citrus Fruit Juice Extraction: How It Works 184
Materials Handling and Excavation
Introduction 185
Samson Mine Reversible Waterwheel and Man­Engine 187
Buckeye Steam Traction Ditcher 189
“Pit­cast” Jib Crane 191
Sidebar: The Manufacture of Pit­cast Pipe 192
Quincy Mining Company No. 2 Mine Hoist 193
PACECO Container Crane 195
Environmental Control
Introduction 198
Holly System of District Heating 201
Stirling Water­tube Boilers 202
Detroit Edison District Heating System, Beacon Street Plant 203
Holland Tunnel Ventilation System 206
Magma Copper Mine Air­Conditioning System 208
Equitable Building Heat Pump 209Page ix
Water Transportation
Introduction 213
SS Great Britain 216
TV Emery Rice Engine 218
Turbinia 219
Sidebar: The Compound Steam Turbine 221
Vertical Reciprocating Steam Engines, USS Olympia 222
Evinrude Outboard Motor 224
Reciprocating Steam Engines, USS Texas 226
Specifications: Reciprocating Steam Engines, USS Texas 228
SS Jeremiah O’Brien 229
Sidebar: EC2 Cargo Vessels (Liberty Ships) Delivered in 1943, by
Shipyard
231
Sidebar: U.S. Liberty Ship Engine Builders, Number Built 231
NS Savannah 233
Rail Transportation
Introduction 235
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Old Main Line 238
St. Charles Avenue Streetcar Line 240
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Roundhouse and Shops 242
Mount Washington Cog Railway 244
Monongahela and Duquesne Inclines 246
Sidebar: Pittsburgh’s Inclines 248
Ferries & Cliff House Railway 249
Sidebar: Ferries & Cliff House Railway: How It Works 251
Manitou & Pikes Peak Cog Railway 252
Geared Locomotives of the Roaring Camp & Big Trees Narrow Gauge
Railroad: Shay Dixiana, Climax Bloomsburg, and Heisler Tuolumne
255
Sidebar: The Geared Locomotives of Roaring Camp & Big Trees 256
Interborough Rapid Transit System (Original Line) 258
Alternating­current Electrification of the New York, New Haven & Hartford
Railroad
260
Pullman Sleeping Car Glengyle 262
Texas & Pacific No. 610, Lima “Super­Power” Steam Locomotive 265
Specifications: Texas & Pacific No. 610 266
Pioneer Zephyr 268Page x
Pennsylvania Railroad GG1 Electric Locomotive No. 4800 271
Electro­Motive FT Freight­service Diesel­Electric Locomotive 273
Norfolk & Western No. 611, Class J Steam Locomotive 275
Specifications: Norfolk & Western No. 611, Class J Steam Locomotive 276
Southern Pacific No. 4294 “Cab­in­Front” Articulated Steam Locomotive 277
Specifications: Southern Pacific No. 4294, Class AC­12 “Cab­in­Front”
Locomotive
278
Disneyland Monorail System 280
Road and Off­Road Transportation
Introduction 282
Lombard Steam Log Hauler 284
Holt Caterpillar Tractor 286
Jacobs Engine Brake Retarder 288
Sidebar: The Engine without the Jake Brake/The Engine with the Jake
Brake
289
Crawler Transporters of Launch Complex 39 291
Air and Space Transportation
Introduction 294
Sikorsky VS­300 Helicopter 296
Specifications: Sikorsky VS­300 (Final Variant) 297
Atlas Launch Vehicle 298
RL­10 Rocket Engine 301
Saturn V Rocket 303
Research and Development
Introduction 306
Alden Research Laboratory Rotating Boom 309
100­inch Hooker Telescope, Mount Wilson Observatory 310
Cooperative Fuel Research Engine 313
Aerodynamics Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground 315
Icing Research Tunnel, NASA Lewis Research Center 317
Rotating­arm Model­test Facility 320
McKinley Climatic Laboratory 322
Experimental Breeder Reactor I 324Page xi
Association of American Railroads’ Railroad­wheel Dynamometer 326
Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor 329
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center 331
Communications and Data Processing
Introduction 334
Edison Phonograph 336
Paige Compositor 338
Pitney­Bowes Model “M” Postage Meter 339
Xerography 341
Sidebar: The Xerographic Process 343
IBM 350 RAMAC Disk File 345
Biomedical Engineering
Introduction 347
Blood Heat Exchanger 349
Further Reading 351
Page 353
INDEX
Note: Introductory essays set each landmark in context with others within the same chapter. Although additional information may be available in these introductions,
they were not indexed in detail in order to avoid duplication.
A
AAR. See Association of American Railroads
ABB Combustion Engineering, 170
Aberdeen Proving Ground, 315­17
Abt, Roman, 252­53
accelerator, 331­33
accidents:
air, 301;
boiler, 6, 202;
mill, 179;
nuclear, 36;
rail, 263;
ship, 222
Adams, Calvin, 155
Adams, John Quincy, 238
Adamson United Company, 328
Addressograph Company, 340
aerospace, 291­93, 294­300, 315­17.
See also aircraft, aviation
Agamemon (ship), 229
Age of Steam Railroad Museum, 264
agriculture:
and crawler technology, 284, 286;
and diesel tractors, 56;
and drainage, 189­91;
implements used in, 155­56.
See also food
air­conditioning, 208­9,
See also climatic control, environmental control, HVAC, refrigeration
aircraft:
manufacturing of, 141, 171, 174, 176;
and stationary power, 98;
testing of, 310, 314­19, 321, 322.
See also internal combustion engines
Alabama, 191­93, 303­5
Alameda (California) refinery, 130
Alaska, 132­34
Alaska Railroad, 133
Albacore (submarine), 321
Alcoa hydraulic forging press, 171­72
Alden Hydraulic Laboratory, 309
Alden Research Laboratory rotating boom, 309­10
Allegheny County, Port Authority of, 248
Allegheny River (Pennsylvania), 246­49
Allen, Charles Metcalf, 309
Alliance Machine Company, 192
Allis, Edward P., Company of Milwaukee, 12, 17, 21­22.
See also Allis­Chalmers Company of Milwaukee
Allis­Chalmers Company of Milwaukee, 21­22;
diesel pump, 56;
mill, 158;
motor, 20;
pump­turbine, 75;
turbine, 65, 68, 94.
See also Allis, Edward P., Company of Milwaukee
Allner, Frederick A., 113
alloys, super, 174, 176
alternating­current electrification, 260­62
Aluminum Company of America, 171
Aluminum Corporation of America, 173
Alweg Corporation, 280
America (ship), 14
American Cast Iron Pipe Company, 191­93
American Company, 123
American District Steam Company, 201
American Freedom Train, 267
American Institute of Electrical Engineers. See Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
American Iron and Steel Institute, 120
American Malleable Castings Association, 156
American Merchant Marine Museum, 219
American Motors Company, 224
American Petroleum Institute, 313
American Precision Museum, 153­55
American River (California), 62
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 169
American Society of Civil Engineers, 33, 60­61, 207
Ames, Edward T., 60
Ames Iron Works, 83
Ames Manufacturing Company, 154
Ammonoosic River (New Hampshire), 245
Anderson, John, 88, 90
Anderson­Barngrover Manufacturing Company, 180­82
Anderson, Probst & White, 93
Andrews Station (California), 129­30
A­I demonstrator (rail), 266­67
Apollo, 292­93, 302, 303­5
Apollo­Soyuz Test Project, 293
Appalachia Lake (North California), 75
Appert, Nicolas, 180
Appleton Edison Light Company, 60­61
Appleton Paper and Pulp Company, 60
Applied Research Laboratory, 328
Archimedean screw pump, 11­12
Argonne National Laboratory, 325­26, 329
Arizona, 68­69, 208­9
Arizona Public Service Company, 68­69
Armengaud, René, 99
armories, 142, 146­48, 153­55
Armstrong, E. J., 83
Association of American Railroads, 326­28
Atlantic (rail), 239
Atlas launch vehicle, 298­300
Aurora & Chicago Railroad, 242­43
Australia, 43­46
autoclave, 176
automotive, 165­66, 206­7, 288­91, 313­15
aviation, 292­95, 296­98.
See also aerospace, aircraft
B
Babcock & Wilcox Company, 79, 93, 203;
boilers by, 226, 261
Baldwin Locomotive Works, 271­73, 277­79Page 354
Ballistic Research Laboratory, 315
ballistics, 309­10, 315­17
Baltimore & Ohio railroad, 238­40
Barber, John, 97
Barthel, Oliver E., 224
basic­oxygen steel­making vessel, 136­38
Bath Iron Works, 232
Battelle Memorial Institute, 176, 342, 34
Bay State (ship), 219
Beach, Alfred Ely, 258
Beacon Street Plant (Detroit), 203­5
bearing:
air, 346;
thrust, 19, 37, 111­12, 113­14
Beauregard, P. G. T., 241
Beaver, William, 104
Bechtel, K. K., 162
Bechtel Corporation, 325, 329
Becuna, USS (ship), 224
Bedford (ship), 144
Behr, F. B., 280
Belle Isle:
gas turbine, 98­100;
station, 98
Belluschi, Pietro, 209­10
Belmont, August, 258
Bethlehem Iron Company, 160
Bethlehem Steel Company, 16, 17, 133
bicycle, 153, 165, 281
“Big Brutus” mine shovel, 138­39
Bigelow­Hornsby boilers, 261
Big Sulphur Creek (California), 108­9
Birmingham Special (rail), 277
Bissell, George H., 125
Blackstone River (Rhode Island), 150, 152
Black Swamp (Ohio), 189
Blackwall tunnel (London), 206
Blanchard, Thomas, 146, 154
blood heat exchanger, 349­50
Bloomsburg (rail), 255­57
boats. See ships and boats
Boeing Company, 174, 304
Boilder Code Committee of ASME International, 170
boilers:
Babcock & Wilcox, 79, 93;
Belpaire­firebox, 15;
coal fired, 77;
drum, 169­71;
Edge Moor, 89;
high­pressure, 91;
Lancashire, 47;
Stirling, 22, 87;
water­tube, 87, 89, 91, 202­3, 226, 261
Bollman, Wendel, 239
bonding, gas­pressure, 174­76
Bonneville Power Authority, 114
booms, 309­10
Borda, Jean Charles, 309
Bossart, Karel J., 298
Boston & Albany Railroad, 267
Boston Water and Sewer Commission, 15
bottle machine, 162­64
Boulevard Plant (Detroit), 205
Boulton, Matthew, 44
Boulton & Watt rotative steam engine, 43­46
Bourdon, François, 159
Bowes, Walter, 341
Boyden, Seth, 155
Boyden, Uriah Atherton, 38
Boyden hydraulic turbines, 37­39
brakes, 288­91, 326­28
Brandt, C. A., 322
Braun, Wernher von, 304
breeder reactor, 324­26
Brewer, Watson & Company, 125
Brillhart Pumping Station, 22­23
Brown, Ivan W., 349
Brown Boveri & Company, 98, 99
Brown­Harrison exchanger, 349­50
Browning, Charles, Jr., 279
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom, 159, 216
Brunel, Marc Isambard, 206
Buchanan, Donald, 291
Buckeye Company, 190
Buckeye steam traction ditcher, 189­91
Buckingham, Edgar, 307
Buckland, Cyrus, 147
Bucyrus­Erie Company, 138, 291­92
Budd, Edward G., Manufacturing Company, 269
Budd, Ralph, 269
Buell, Abel, 155
Buffalo Forge Company, 199
Bulls Bridge power station (Arizona), 69, 71
Bureau of Aeronautics, 321
Burlington. See Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad
Burnham, D. H., & Company, 311­12
C
cable railway, 251
Cajon Pass (California), 288
calcium carbide, 66­67
California:
Los Angeles area, 129­30, 280­81, 310­12;
Sacramento area, 62­63, 275­77;
San Diego, 298­300;
San Francisco area, 11­12, 108­10, 195­97, 229­32, 249­52, 286­87, 329­30;
San Francisco/Santa Clara Valley, 161­62, 180­82, 255­57, 331­33, 345­46
California Star Oil Works Company, 129­30
California State Railroad Museum, 279
Calley, John, 4
Calumet & Hecla Mining Company, 16, 193
Campbell, Whittier & Company, 245
canals:
ditcher, 190;
diversion, 62;
drainage, 18;
Erie, 201;
Morris, 35­37;
power, 29­30, 33, 39, 66, 71;
pump, 8­9
Candlewood, Lake (Arizona), 70­71
canning, 180­82
Carbide Power Company (Michigan), 67
Cargill Salt Company, 12
Carlson, Chester F., 342
Carnegie (rail), 263
Carnegie Institution, 311
Carnot, Nicolas, Léonard Sadi, 210
Carré, Ferdinand, 199
Carrier, Wills H., 199, 208­9
Carrier Corporation, 318
Carroll, Charles, 238
Cary, Bess, 224­26
castings:
centrifugal, 193;
HIP, 176;
iron, 155­57
caterpillar. See Holt Caterpillar tractor
Caterpillar, Inc., 286­87
Cavalier (rail), 276
Centaur launch vehicle, 300, 301­2
Central Heating Company, 204
Central Military Tract railroad, 242
Central Power & Light Company (Pennsylvania), 73
Central Valley power project (California), 63
Century of Progress Exposition (1934), 270
ceramics, 174­76
Chabannes, Marquis de, 198
Chapin Mine pumping engine, 12­14
Charters, Alexander C., 315
chassis factory, 165­66
Chatanika River (Alaska), 133Page 355
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, 8­9
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, 238
Chestnut Hill Pumping Station (Boston), 14­15
Chestnut Street pumping engine (Erie, Pennsylvania), 17­18
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, 254
Chicago. See Illinois, Chicago area;
Indiana, Chicago area
Chicago & North Western, 242
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 242­43, 268­70
Chicago Herald, 339
Childs­Irving hydroelectric project, 68­69
China, 195­97
Chiswell, John, 148­49
Cincinnati, New Orleans, & Texas Pacific, 274
citrus juice extractor, 182­84
City of New York (rail), 242
Civil War, 16, 34, 144, 147, 246;
and industry, 124, 154;
and oil prices, 128;
and rail transportation, 241;
and woolen goods, 158
Clark, Erastus W., 155
Clay Street Hill Railroad Company, 250
Clemens, Samuel, 339
Clements, Charles, 286
Clergue, Francis H., 65
Clermont (ship), 151
Cleveland Crane & Car Company, 192
climatic control, 317­19, 322­24
Climatic Hangar. See McKinley Climatic Laboratory
Climax locomotive, 255­57
Climax Manufacturing Company, 255
coal:
blast furnace, 116­17;
combustion (rail), 242;
excavation of, 138­39;
feeders, Lopulco, 89;
pulverized, 88, 94
Coalbrookdale Furnace, 121
cogeneration, 205
Coggins Mine, 131
cog railway, 244­46, 252­54
Cohoes Industrial Terminal, Inc., 39
Cold War, 136, 171
Coleman, Robert, 122
Colorado, 252­54, 326­28
Colorado Railway Museum, 254
Colt, Peter, 27, 29
Colt revolver, 27
Columbian Exposition (1893), 79
Columbia River (Washington), 134
Commonwealth Building (Oregon), 209­12
Commonwealth Edison Company:
of Illinois, 329;
of Indiana, 93;
of New York, 84­86
composite materials, 174
compositor, 338­39
computer industry, 345­46
Connecticut:
Hartford area, 55­56, 69­71, 288­91, 338­39;
southwest, 260­62, 339­41
Connecticut Light & Power Company, 69­71
Connecticut River (Massachusetts), 33, 146
Conrail, 273
containerization, 195­97
Conti, Piero Ginori, 106
continuous rotary pressure sterilizer, 180­82
Convair, 298­99
conveyors, 46, 90
Coolidge, W. D., 141
Cooper, Peter, 124, 239
Cooperative Fuel Research engine, 313­15
Corlett, Ewan, 217
Corliss, George H., 50­51
Corliss engines, 14, 80;
as cable­car powerhouse, 251;
and Centennial Engine, 41;
and Reynolds, 21­22;
and Worthington, 22­23.
See also HarrisCorliss steam engine
Corliss Steam Engine Company, 49
Cornell University, 111
Corning Glass Works, 167
Corning ribbon machine, 167­68
Cornish Pump and Mining Museum, 14
Cornwall Iron Furnace, 121­23
Cornwall Ore Banks, 121­22
Cos Cob Power Station, 261­62
Cotton States and International Exposition (1895), 48
Coventry Canal Company, 5
C. P. Huntington (rail), 279
cranes, 137, 191­93, 195­97
crawler transporters, 291­93, 304
Creighton, W. H. P., 20
Creusot steam hammer, 159­60
Crooks, James W., 299
Crosby, Dixi, 125
CrownAmerica, Inc., 203
Cruiser Olympia Association, 223
Cummins, Clessie L., 288, 290
Cummins diesel engines, 254
Cummins Engine Company, 290
Curtis, Charles G., 84
Curtis steam turbine­generators, 84­86, 87
Curtiss­Wright aircraft, 27
D
Daimler, Gottlieb, 282
dams:
Bonneville, 134;
Boulder, 162;
Folsom, 62;
Grand Coulee, 134, 162;
Hiwassee, 74
Dartmouth Museum, 5
Davidson, Kenneth S. M., 320­21
Davidson Ditch (Alaska), 133
Davidson Laboratory, 320­21
Davis, Phineas, 239
Dayton, Russell, 175
defense, 136, 148, 153, 324
De Laval Steam Turbine Company, 234
Delaware River (New Jersey;
Pennsylvania), 35
Delmonico (rail), 242
Depression, 162, 195, 270
Detroit Edison “A” Station (Michigan), 80
Detroit Edison Company, 204­5
Detroit Edison district heating system, 203­5
Detroit United Railway Company, 204
Dewar, James, 301
Dickson Manufacturing Company, 81
die­forging presses, hydraulic, 171­72, 173­74
Diescher, Samuel, 247
diesel, 185­86, 213, 285, 292;
brake, 288­91;
fuel­injection pump, 55­56;
testing, 313­15. See also locomotive, diesel­electric
Diesel, Rudolf, 53­54, 268
Dilworth, Richard M., 273­74
direct­current electrification, 261
Disneyland monorail system, 280­81
ditcher, 189­91
Dixiana (rail), 255­57
Doerell (mine warden), 187
Dominion Foundries & Steel, 138
Dornbrook, Fred, 88­89Page 356
Douglas Aircraft Company, 304
Drake, Edwin L., 125, 127
Drake oil well, 125­28
dredge, 132­34
Dresden Nuclear Power Station (Illinois), 329
Dresser Industries, 315
Dry Lake (Arizona), 68
Duane Street Station (Michigan), 81
Duke Power Company, 65
Duke University School of Medicine, 349
DuPage County Forest Preserve District, 180
Dupont, 134
du Pont de Nemours, E. I., & Company, 134
Duquesne incline, 246­49
Duquesne Inclined Plane Company, 247
Duquesne Light Company (Pittsburgh), 103
Duwamish River, 86
dynamometer, railroad­wheel, 326­28
dynamos, 76, 78­80, 80­82, 154
E
East Wells Street Power Plant, 88­90
Edgar, Charles L., 91
Edgar, Charles L., Station, 90­92, 169
Edison, Thomas Alva, 64, 76, 167, 336.
See also Vulcan Street Power Plant
Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 81, 90, 169
Edison Electric Light Company, 78
Edison General Electric Company, 81
Edison “Jumbo” dynamo, 78­80
Edison National Historic Site, 337
Edison phonograph, 336­37
Edison Sault Electric Company, 67
Edwards, Victor E., 310
Eglin Air Force Base, 317, 322­24
Ehricke, Krafft, 300
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 101, 103­4, 233, 300
electrical power production, 77, 78­80, 84­86, 203­5
Electric Operating Construction Company, 68
electrification:
alternating current, 260­62;
direct current, 261
Electro­Motive FT freight­service diesel­electric locomotive, 273­75
Elk Cotton Mills, 202
Elk River Coal & Lumber Company, 256
Ellicott’s Mills, 238
Elliott, William Bell, 108
Elto Outboard Motor Company, 225
EMD­103 demonstrator locomotive, 273­75
Emery Rice, TV, engine, 218­19
Emmet, William Le Roy, 84­85
Emmons, W. O., 349
Empire Machine Company, 167
Encinal Terminals (California), 196­97
Endres, John J., 247
Enfield Armory, 154
England, 3­5, 45, 216­17, 219­22
environmental control, 198­212
Epping­Carpenter Company, 21­22
Equitable Building heat pump, 209­12
Equitable Savings & Loan Association, 210
Erie, Lake (Ohio), 189
Erie Canal Museum, 10, 201
Erie City Water Authority, 18
Erskine, Robert, 124
European Bottle Machine Company, 164
Evans, Oliver, 6
Eveleth, Jonathan, G., 125
Everglades (Florida), 190
Evinrude, Ole, 224­26
Evinrude outboard motor, 224­26
excavation, 126­34, 138­39
Exhibition Park (Newcastle upon Tyne), 222
Experimental Breeder Reactor I, 324­26
Experimental Towing Tank, 320­21
Experiment Station (Mississippi), 306
Exposition Cotton Mills of Atlanta, 48
F
Fairbanks Exploration Company, 132­34
Fairmount Waterworks, 5­7
Falkland (ship), 144
Farnham Typesetter Company, 338
Federal Aviation Administration, 323
Fermi, Enrico, 104, 135, 325
Fernández y Martínez, José Ramón, 46
Ferries & Cliff House Railway, 249­52
Ferris, G. W. G., 247
Field, Darby, 244
Fink, Albert, 239
fire hydrant system, 10
First Iron Works Association, 120
Fisk Street Station (New York), 84
Flatiron Power and Pumping Plant (Colorado), 74
Fleming engine, 203
Florida:
east coast, 291­93, 301­2, 303­5;
northeast, 21­22, 322­24;
west coast, 182­84
FMC citrus juice extractor, 182­84
FMC Corporation, 181­82, 182­84
Focke­Achgelis Fa­61, 296
Folsom Lake State Recreational Area, 62
Folsom Powerhouse No. 1, 62­63
food, 177­79;
bottle making for, 162­64;
canning of, 180;
grain, 179­80;
juice, 182­84;
salt, 11­12;
sugar cane, 46­48
Ford, Gerald R., 28
Ford, Henry, 79, 282
Ford, Henry, Museum, 78­80, 80­82, 168, 298
Fore River Ship Yard, 311
forging, 119­20, 123, 140­41, 150­52;
hammer, 159;
hydraulic press, 171­72, 173­74
foundries, 155­57, 172;
and cast­iron pipe, 191­92;
Holyoke, 34
Fourneyron, Benoît, 37­38
Fox River (Wisconsin), 60
France, 159­60, 180
Francis, James B., 29­31, 32­33
Franklin, Benjamin, 198
Franklin Institute, 9, 38
Freeman, Milton H., 206
Fried, Walter, 321
Fries, Henry Elias, 64
Fries Manufacturing & Power Company, 63­65
Froude, William, 307, 320
fuel:
automobile, 313­15;
breeding, 324­26;
cells, 77;
liquid hydrogen, 301­2, 303;
manufacturing, 135, 174.
See also, coal, diesel, nuclear, oil
furnaces:
blast, 115, 119, 121­23;
electric induction, 156;
Horry, 67;
open­hearth, 11;
resistance, 176;
reverberatory, 151
fusion­welded test boiler drum, 169­71
G
Gagarin, Yuri A., 303
Galileo, 310
Gallup, David, 310Page 357
Galvani, Luigi, 347
Garand, John C., 148
gears, 255, 312
General Dynamics Corporation, 298
General Electric Company, 62, 138, 141;
Curtis turbines, 84­86;
gas turbines, 99­100;
generators, 62, 83;
locomotives, 96, 254, 271­73;
and nuclear power, 134, 329­30;
steam turbines, 76­77;
turbine­generators, 93, 109
General Machinery Corporation, 232
General Motors Corporation, 254, 268, 273, 349
Georgetown Steam Plant, 86­88
Georgia, 48­51, 202­3
Georgia Institute of Technology, 49
geothermal power, 106­10
Germany, 187­88
Geysers Unit I, 108­10
GG
1 electric locomotive No. 4800, 271­73
Gilbert, George, 255
Gilbreth, Frank B., 86
Gillespie Fields Airport (California), 300
Glasgow University, 45
glass manufacturing, 162­64, 167­68
Glengyle (rail), 262­64
gold, 130­32, 132­34
Gold Dredge No. 8, 132­33
Goliad (rail), 264
Graff, Frederick, 6­7
Grand Central Palace (1924), 79
Grand Central Terminal (New York), 260­61
Grant, J. D., 108
Graue, Frederick, 179
Graue Mill and Museum, 180
Gray, David E., 168
Gray, john E., 104
Gray, Vernon, 319
Great Britain, SS (ship), 159, 216­17
Great Eastern, SS (ship), 216
Great Egg Harbor River (New Jersey), 191
Great Falls Development Corporation, 28
Great Falls Historic District, 28
Great Falls raceway and power system, 27­29
Great Lakes waterway, 193
Great Western, SS (ship), 216
Great Western Steamship Company, 217
Gren, Axel L. Wenner, 280
Grubb, Peter, 121
H
Hacienda La Esperanza sugar mill, 46­48
Hadley Falls Company, 34
Haggin Museum, 287
Hale, George Ellery, 310
Hallidie, Andrew, 249­50
Haloid Company, 344
Hamilton, Alexander, 27
Hamilton engine, 203
hammers, 140, 159­60, 171­72, 173­74
Hammersmith, See Saugus Ironworks
Hancock Historical Museum, 190
Hanford B Reactor, 134­36
Hanford Science Center, 136
Hansen, W. W., 331
Harmony Manufacturing Company, 37, 39
Harmony Mills, 37­39
Harpers Ferry, 238, 240
Harris, William A., 49
Harris, William A., Company, 48
Harris­Corliss steam engine, 48­51
Harrison Radiator Division, 249
Harvard University, 38
Harwood, Herbert, 240
Hasenclever, Peter, 123
health, 18, 349­50
heating, 201, 203­5, 209­12.
See also air­conditioning, refrigeration
heavy­press program, 171, 173
Hedges­Walsh­Weidner Company, 169
Heisler, Charles L., 257
Heisler locomotive, 255­57
helicopter, 113, 296­98
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 347
Hendy, Joshua, 161
Hendy, Joshua, Iron Works, 161­62
Henry Ford Museum, 78­80, 80­82, 168, 298
Herschel, Clemens, 34
Hetch Hetchy & Yosemite Valley Railroad, 256
Hewitt, Abram S., 124
Hill, James B., 189
HIP. See hot isostatic processing vessels
Historic American Building Survey, 179
Historic American Engineering Record, also documented by:
electrical power, 65­67, 86­88;
environmental control, 206­7;
excavation, 193­95;
manufacturing, 150­53, 157­58, 173­74;
mechanical power, 27­29, 37­39, 46­48;
pump, 5­7, 8­9, 14­15;
rail, 238­40, 249­52, 258­59
Hiwassee Dam Unit 2 reversible pump­turbine, 74­75
Hiwassee River (North Carolina), 74
Hodge, Edwin, 175
hoist, 192, 193­95, 247.
See also man­engine, Morris Canal Scotch (reaction) turbine
Holland, Clifford Milburn, 206
Holland, John Philip, 29
Holland submarine, 27
Holland Tunnel ventilation system, 206­7
Holly, Bridsill, 10, 201, 204
Holly Manufacturing Company, 10
Holly Steam Combination Company, 201
Holly system:
of district heating, 201;
of fire protection and water supply, 10
Holmes, Howard Carleton, 249­40
Holt, Benjamin, 286
Holt Caterpillar tractor, 286­87
Holt Manufacturing Company, 286
Holtwood hydroelectric station, 113
Holyoke Heritage State Park, 34
Holyoke water power system, 33­34
Holzwarth, Hans, 95­96
Hooker, John D., 311
Hooker telescope, 310­12
Hopatcong, Lake (New Jersey), 35
Hornblower, Jonathan, 17
Horning, Harry L., 314
horsepower, origin of, 44
hot isostatic processing vessels, 174­76
Houdry catalytic converters, 99
Housatonic River (Connecticut), 69­71
Howd, Samuel B., 30
Hubble, Edwin Powell, 312
Hudson River (New Jersey; New York), 206Page 358
Huey, Arthur S., Station (New York). See Belle Isle Station
Hunterian Museum, 45
Huntington, C. P. (rail), 279
hurricanes, 22­23
HVAC, 318
hydraulic:
brake retarder, 289­90;
die­forging presses, 171­72, 173­74;
experiments, 34, 309;
leveling system, 291, 293;
screw pumps, 11­12;
turbines, 5­7, 34, 37­39
hydrodynamics testing, 320­21
hydroelectric:
plants, 60­61, 63­65, 65­67, 68­69;
pumped storage, 69­71, 74­75;
turbines, 72­73, 114
hydro­pneumatic pressure system, 172
I
IBM, 304, 345­46
IBM 350
RAMAC disk file, 345­46
Icing Research Tunnel, 317­19
Idaho, 324­26
Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 326
Idols Station (North Carolina), 63­65
Illinois, Chicago area, 179­80, 242­43, 268­70
II’ya Muromets (aircraft), 296
incline, 35, 245, 246­49
Indiana, Chicago area, 92­93
Industrial Revolution, 142, 198
Information Age, 345
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 60­61, 79
Insull, Samuel, 84, 92
Interborough Rapid Transit system, 258­59
intercontinental ballistic missiles, 299­300
internal combustion engines, 52­56, 95­100, 224­26, 254;
brake retarder for, 288­91;
and fuel research, 313­15
International Standards Organization, 197
iron:
charcoal, 122;
hammer, 159;
malleable, 120, 155­57
Iron Age, 115
Iron Man Museum, 162
ironworks, 14­15, 119­21, 123, 155­57, 161­62
IRT system. See Interborough Rapid Transit system
Italy, 106
J
Jackson, Thomas, 149
Jackson Ferry shot tower, 148­50
Jacksonville, City of, Water Division, 22
Jacobs engine brake retarder, 288­91
Jacob’s Ladder, 245­46
Jacobs Manufacturing Company, 288­91
Jacomini, Clement, 312
Jake brake, 288­91
Jamestown (rail), 263
Jauriet firebox, 242
Jefferson, Thomas, 238
Jeremiah O’Brien, SS (ship), 229­32
John Bean Spray Company, 182
John F. Kennedy Space Center, 291­93, 303­5
Johnson, Lyndon B., Space Center, 303­5
Johnson, John, 189
Jones, John Paul, 144
Jouglet, A., 199
Joy, David, 81
juice extractor, 182­84
”Jumbo” dynamo, Edison, 78­80
K
Kaiser, Henry J., 162
Kaiser Wilhelm II (ship), 229
Kansas, 138­39
Kaplan, Viktor, 72
Kaplan, turbine, 72­73
Kelvin, Lord. See Thomson, Sir William
Kendall, Nicanor, 153
Kennedy, John F., 291, 303
Kennedy, John F., Space Center, 291­93, 303­5
Kent, Robert H., 315
Kent Machine Company, 164
Kerr coal chute, 242
Kettering, Charles F., 268
Kingsbury, Albert, 113
Kingsbury thrust bearing, 113­14
Kittery Historical and Naval Museum, 145
Knight, Jonathan, 238
Kooistra, J. F., 209
Kornei, Otto, 342
Kortum, Karl, 219
Kroeker, J. Donald, 210
Kruesi, John, 336
Krupp Works, 68
L
labor:
child, 31, 164;
immigrant, 31, 252;
improved conditions, 209;
prison, 62;
reduction in, 165, 167, 195;
savings in, 167, 181, 190, 197;
skilled, 120;
slave, 46, 149;
women, 29, 321.
See also health, safety
Ladd Field (Alaska), 322
La Esperanza sugar mill, 46­48
lakes:
Appalachia, 75;
Candlewood, 70­71;
Dry, 68;
Erie, 189;
Great (waterway), 193;
Hopatcong, 35;
Michigan, 93;
Stehr, 68;
Superior, 122, 193
Lakeside Power Plant (Wisconsin), 90
Lake Walk plant (Texas), 73
lamp, incandescent, 78, 167
land, Emory Scott, 229
land reclamation, 189
Larderello, Italy, 106
Lartigue, C. F. M. T., 280
lathes, 146, 154
Lawrence, Richard S., 153
Leader, Richard, 120
Leavitt, Erasmus D., Jr., 14­15, 16­17
Levitt­Riedler pumping engine, 14­15
Lee, James, 35­37
legislation, 260, 341
Lemale, Charles, 99
L’Enfant, Pierre Charles, 27
Lenoir, J. J. E., 52
Leslie Salt Company, 11
Lewis, George W., 317
Lewis & Claflin, 64
Libbey, 167
Libbey, Edward Drummond, 163
Liberty ships, 162, 229­32
lighting, 60­61, 76, 163, 167­68
Lima Locomotive Works, 255, 265­68
Lima “Super­Power” steam locomotive, 265­68
Linotype, 338­39
Livermore, Horatio P., 62
Locomotive Pulverized Fuel Company, 89
locomotives:
Baldwin tank, 253:
“cab­in­front” articulated steam, 277­80;
diesel­electric, 254, 268­71, 273­75;
double­truck, 261;
electric, 260, 271­73;
first common­carrier steam service, 238;Page 359
geared steam engines, 255­57;
last standard­gauge steam, 275­77;
Mallet, 278­79;
Mogul, 243;
steam cogwheel, 245;
superpower steam, 265­68
Loewy, Raymond, 272
Loewy Construction Company, 173
Lombard, Alvin O., 284­85
Lombard steam log hauler, 284­85
London Crystal Palace Exhibition (1851), 154
Long, Stephen H., 238
Los Angeles Aqueduct, 287
Los Angeles Petroleum Company, 129
Louisiana, 18­20, 240­42;
Purchase Exposition (1904), 79
Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, 33
Lowell Manufacturing Company, 16
Lowell National Historical Park, 31
Lowell Power Canal System, 29­32, 38
lubrication, 111­12
Ludington Mine (Michigan), 13
lumber industry, 284­85
Lycoming engine, 297
Lyman, George W., 33
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 303­5
Lyons Station (California), 129
M
machines, “simple,” 185
machine shops, 34, 151, 153­55, 165, 242­43
machine tools, 150­53, 153­55, 176
Magma Copper Mine, 208­9
Magma Power Company, 109
magnetic disks, 345
Maine, 144­45, 284­85
Maine State Museum, 285
Main Street Pumping Station (Jacksonville), 22
Makepeace, C. R., & Company, 64
Malleable Founders Society, 156
man­engine, 187­88
Manhattan Project, 134
Manitou & Pikes Peak Cog Railway, 245, 252­54
Manitou Springs station, 254
manufacturing, 140­76;
American system of, 142, 153­55;
fuel, 313;
glass, 162­64, 167­68;
rail, 273, 327;
salt, 11­12;
water transportation, 230, 232, 225­26.
See also labor, textile industry
Marcus Hook refinery, 99
Mariner (spacecraft), 302
marine­type triple­expansion engine­driven dynamo, 80­82
Marion Power Shovel Company, 291­92
Maritime Administration, 233
Mark Twain House, 339
Mark Twain Zephyr (rail), 270
Marsh, Sylvester, 244­45, 253
Marshall Space Flight Center, 303­5
Marshfield Base Station (New Hampshire), 246
Maryland:
Baltimore area, 238­40, 315­17;
Delaware area, 8­9
Massachusetts:
Boston area, 14­15, 90­92, 119­21;
central, 173­74, 309­10;
north of Boston, 29­32;
western, 33­34, 146­48.
See also Lowell entries
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 268
Massachusetts Nautical Training School, 219
Master Car Builders’ Association, 327
Mastodon Mill. See Harmony Mills
materials handling, 185­97;
and manufacturing 168, 181, 183, 232;
and people movers, 280­81.
See also cranes, mills
Matson Navigation Company, 195­97
McCormick, John B., 34
McDonald, Forrest, 90
McKinley, Ashley C., 322
McKinley, Climatic Laboratory, 322­24
McLean, Malcolm, 195
McLouth Steel Products Corporation, 136­68
McQuaid (rail), 264
Mecklenburg Iron Works, 131
medical technology, 347­50
Melpomene Pumping Station No. 1 (New Orleans), 20
Menominee Range Historical Foundation, 14
Mercury spacecraft, 299
Mergenthaler, Ottmar, 339
Mergenthaler Linotype Company, 339
Merrick, Samuel V., 8
Merrick & Son, 8­9
Merrimack River, 29­31
Mersey Iron Works, 216
Messerschmitt, Bolkow & Blohm, 281
Mesta Machine Company, 172
Metcalf, E. C., 156
Metropolitan Edison Company, 72
Mianus River (Connecticut), 261­62
Michell, A. G. M., 112
Michigan:
Detroit area, 78­80, 80­82, 136­38, 167­68, 203­5, 296­98;
northern, 12­14, 65­67, 193­95
Michigan, Lake, 93
Michigan Central No. 8000, 266
Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, 65­67
Michigan Northern Power Company, 67
Midvale Steel Company, 91
military, 171, 284, 286, 298­300, 320­21.
See also armories, defense
Millholland engines, 247
Mill River (Massachusetts), 146
mills, 29, 60, 123, 152, 177;
development of, 33­34;
grist, 179­80;
rolling and slitting, 119, 151;
saw, 179­80, 245, 256;
sugar, 46­48;
ten­stamp, 130­32;
textile, 29, 31, 34, 39, 157­58, 202­3;
water system, 6, 27
Mills, James K., 33
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, 88, 93­94
Milwaukee Repertory Theater, 90
“Miner’s Friend, The,” 4
mining, 22, 138­39, 161­62, 185­86, 291­92;
coal, 3­5, 138­39;
copper, 68, 193­95, 208­9;
gold, 130­32, 132­34;
iron, 12­14;
lead, 148­50;
silver, 187­88
missiles, 299­300
Mississippi River, 238, 241­42
Missouri:
Kansas City area, 157­58;
St. Louis, 273­75
Mistele, Ray, 88
models, 306­7, 320­21.
See also wind tunnels
Monongahela incline, 246­49
Monongahela River (Pennsylvania), 246­49
monorail, 280­81
Montgomery, Murray, 196
Moore, Charles E., 162
Morris Canal Scotch (reaction) turbine, 35­37
Morro­Velho Mine, 208Page 360
Moses, A. J., 170
Moss, Sanford, 99
Moultrop, Irving E., 90
Mt. Clare Station (Maryland), 240
Mount Washington cog railway, 244­46
Mount Washington Steam Railway, 245
Mount Wilson Observatory, 310­12
Muley, Alfred, 321
Mulholland, William E., 287
Murphy Power Company, 204
Museum of Man and Industry, 160
Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago), 270
museums:
cable­car, 252;
canal, 10;
electric power, 88;
furnace, 193;
lumber, 285;
manufacturing, 153­55, 162;
mill, 180;
mining, 14, 188;
Newcomen, 5;
rail, 240, 254, 264, 273, 279;
science and industry, 45, 160, 270;
shipping, 145, 219;
steamship, 217;
transportation, 274­75, 277;
urban transit, 259.
See also Great Falls Historic District, Haggin Museum, Henry Ford Museum, Hunterian Museum, Paterson Museum, Smithsonian Institution
N
Nanjing, 197
Nantucket (ship), 219
NASA, 291­93, 298­300, 301­2, 303­5, 320;
Lewis Research Center, 317­19;
testing, 323
Nasmyth, James, 159
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. See NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. See NASA
National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 170
National Historic Landmark, 28, 326
National Historic Site, 119, 146­48, 157­58
National Liberty Ship Memorial, 232
National Maritime Museum (San Francisco), 219
National Museum of Transportation, 274­75
National Park Service, 121, 337
National Road, 238
National Science Foundation, 323
Natoma Water and Mining Company, 62
natural gas, 92, 100
Naval Ordnance Laboratory, 317
Neuchâtel gas turbine, 97­98
Newcomen engine, 3­5, 43
Newcomen, Thomas, 3­5
New England Glass Company, 163
New England Shipbuilding Corporation, 232
New Hampshire, 144­45, 244­46
New Jersey:
Division of Parks and Forestry, 125;
Highlands Historical Society, 125;
Menlo Park, 78­79, 336;
north, 27­29, 123­25, 206­7, 320­21, 336­37;
northwest, 35­37
New Orleans:
Advisory Board on Drainage, 18;
Regional Transit Authority of, 241;
Sewerage and Water Board, 18, 20
New Orleans & Carrollton Rail Road (NO&C), 240
Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Company, 226­27
New River, 148­50
New York:
Buffalo area, 10, 201, 349­50;
Hudson River area, 84­86, 98­100;
New York City area, 82­84, 206­7, 218­19, 258­59;
Syracuse area, 155­57
New York, USS (ship), 226
New York & New Jersey, Port Authority of, 207
New York Central Railroad, 260
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 260­62
New York Stock Exchange, 199
Niagara Falls, 62
Nobel Prize of 1976, 332­33
Nordberg Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, 19, 193
Norfolk & Western No. 611, Class J steam locomotive, 275­77
Norfolk­Southern Corporation, 277
Norris, William, 240
North, Charles R., 338
North American Aviation, Inc., 303­4
North Carolina, 63­65, 74­75, 130­32
Northern Cross railroad, 242
North German Lloyd Line, 227­28
Northrop­Grumman, 162
nuclear:
equipment manufacturing, 174;
reactors, 101­2, 103­5, 134­36, 329­30;
research, 324­26, 329­30, 331­33;
ship propulsion, 233­34;
waste, 102, 134
Nuclear Power Group, Inc., 329
nuclear warheads, 299
O
Oak Hill Malleable Iron Company, 155
Office of Naval Research, 331
Office of Scientific Research and Development, 321
office products, 339­41, 341­44
Ohio:
central, 174­76, 341­44;
northeast, 171­72, 317­19;
northwest, 162­64, 189­91
Ohio Locomotive Crane Company, 190
Ohio River, 103, 238, 249
oil, 126­27, 190.
See also petroleum industry
Oil Creek (Pennsylvania), 125, 127
Oklahoma, USS (ship), 229
Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company, 98­100
Oliver Salt Company, 11
Olympia, USS (ship), 222­24
Oneida Street Power Plant, 88­90
O’Neill, William Gibbs, 238
Optical Society of America, 344
Oregon, 209­12
Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation, 230
Otto, Nicholas A., 52­53
outboard motor, 224­26
Outboard Motors Corporation, 225­26
Owens, Michael Joseph, 163
Owens AR bottle machine, 162­64
P
PACECO container crane, 195­97
Pacific Coast Engineering Company, Inc., 196­97
Pacific Gas & Electric Company (California), 62, 108­10, 329­30
Paige, James W., 338
Paige compositor, 338­39
Palmer, Henry Robinson, 280
Palomar reflector, 310
Panic of 1857 (U.S.), 34
papermaking industry, 28, 34
Papin, Denis, 4
Paprocki, Stan, 175
Parsons, C. A., & Co., 220
Parsons, Charles A., 76, 82, 214, 219­21
Passaic River (New Jersey), 27
Paterson Museum, 29
Patriots Point Development Authority, 234Page 361
Patten Lumberman’s Museum, 285
Patterson, Thomas J., Jr., 219, 232
Pawtucket Falls:
in Massachusetts, 30;
in Rhode Island, 150
Pawtucket Gatehouse turbine, 29­32
Pearl Street Station (New York), 60, 79­80
Pease, Francis G., 311
Peerless Motor Car Company, 165
Pelican (rail), 277
Pelton generators, 68
Penn Central, 273
Pennsylvania:
Erie area, 17­18, 125­28;
Philadelphia area, 5­7, 222­24;
Pittsburgh area, 103­5, 246­49;
Susquehanna area, 22­23, 72­73, 113­14, 121­23, 271­73
Pennsylvania Engineering Corporation, 137
Pennsylvania Fireplace, 198
Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission, 123, 128
Pennsylvania Railroad, 263, 271­73
Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company, 125
Pennsylvania Water & Power Company, 113­14
Peoria & Oquawka railroad, 242
“Peppersass,” 245
Perkins, Jacob, 199
petroleum industry, 117, 125­28, 129­30
Philadelphia:
Museum of Art, 7;
Water Commission, 7, 191;
Water Department, 6­7
Philadelphia Phoenix Manufacturing Company, 285
phonograph, 336­37
photocopying. See Xerography
photography, 315­16, 343
physics:
accelerator, 331­33
Pico Canyon (California) oil well, 129­30
Pike, Zebulon, 252
Pikes Peak Auto Highway Company, 254
Pioneer (spacecraft), 302
Pioneer Oil Refinery, 129­30
Pioneer Zephyr (rail), 268­71
pipe, 191­93
Piscataqua River (Maine; New Hampshire), 144
“pit­cast” jib crane, 191­93
Pitney, Arthur Hill, 339­41
Pitney­Bowes postage meter, 339­41
Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Company, 138
pneumatic:
die­forging press, 172;
railroad car, 258
Pocahontas (rail), 276
Poiseuille, J. L., 347
pollution, 7, 48, 77
Pope, Arthur W., Jr., 314
Port Authority:
of Allegheny County, 248;
of New York & New Jersey, 207
Port of Nanjing, 197
Portsmouth­Kittery naval shipbuilding activity, 144­45
Port Washington Power Plant, 93­94
postage meter, 339­41
Potomac River (Maryland), 238
powder metallurgy, 141, 176
Power House Museum (Sydney), 45
power transmission, 111­14
Powhatan Arrow (rail), 276
Pratt, Charles, 82
Pratt & Whitney, 301­2, 339
Pratt Institute Power Plant, 82­84
press, hydraulic die­forging, 171­72, 173­74
Prest, S. F., 81
Pring, Martin, 144
printing, 338­39, 339­40
propeller design, bearing, 113
Proprietors of Locks and Canals (Lowell), 29­30, 32
Providence River (Rhode Island), 151
Puerto Rico, 46­48
Puget Sound Power & Light Company, 86­87
Pullman, George M., 263
Pullman sleeping car Glengyle, 262­64
pulverized coal, 77, 88
pumped storage, 69­71, 75
pumps:
bottle machine, 163;
C&D, 8;
centrifugal, 17, 71;
Cornish, 13;
fire, 203;
fuel injection, 55­56;
heat, 209­12;
large­scale station, 5­7;
malleable iron products, 157;
plunger­type, 17;
pressure governor, 10;
Riedler, 14;
screw, 11­12, 18­20;
turbine, 17, 74;
water, 3­5, 17, 22­23.
See also man­engine
Q
Quincy Mine Hoist, 193­95
Quintard Iron Works of New York, 14
R
Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, 273
railroad transportation:
heavyweight era of, 262;
origins of, 235, 238­39, 240;
and research, 326­28;
and wheel dynamometer, 326­28
railroad­wheel dynamometer, 326­28
rail (track):
beamway, 280;
rack, 245, 252­53;
rollediron T, 239;
third, 261;
unflanged, 235
Raleigh (ship), 144
RAMAC disk file, 345­46
Ramapo Mountains (New Jersey), 123
Ramsden, Dean, 196
Randall Brothers, Inc., 48­51
Ranger, USS (ship), 144, 218­19
Raper, Robert, 150
Rayleigh, Lord, 307
reactors. See nuclear
Reed, John, 130
Reed Gold Mine ten­stamp mill, 130­32
refinery. See petroleum industry
refrigeration, 199, 210, 318, 322­24
Renwick, James, 35
Research Corporation of America, 320
Revolutionary War (U.S.), 27, 121­22, 144, 146, 148
Reynolds, Edwin, 12, 17, 21
Reynolds, Osborne, 112, 307
Reynolds­Corliss pumping engine, 21­22
Rhode Island, 48, 50, 64, 150­53
Rice, Emery, 219
Richey, George Willis, 311
Rickover, Hyman G., 101, 103­4
Riedler, Alois, 14­15
Rietschel, Herman, 199
Riggenbach, Klaus, 253
Ringwood Manor Iron Complex, 123­25
Ringwood State Park, 125
rivers:
Allegheny, 246­49;
American, 62;
Ammonoosic, 245;
Blackstone, 150, 152;
Chatanika, 133;
Columbia, 134;
Connecticut, 33, 146;
Delaware, 35;
Duwamish, 86;
Fox, 60;
Great Egg Harbor, 191;
Hiwassee, 74;
Housatonic, 69­71;
Hudson, 206;
Merrimack, 29­31;
Mianus, 261­62;
Mill, 146;
Mississippi, 238, 241­42;
Monongahela, 246­49;
New, 148­50;
Ohio, 103, 238, 249;
Passaic, 27;
Piscataqua,Page 362
rivers (continued) 144;
Potomac, 238;
Providence, 151;
Seine, 191;
Rocky, 70;
Sacramento, 279;
Saugus, 119;
Schuykill, 5;
St. Marys, 65­67;
Susquehanna, 73;
Verde, 68;
Yadkin, 64
RL­10 rocket engine, 301­2
Roanoke (Virginia) Shops, 275
Roaring Camp & Big Trees Narrow Gauge Railroad, 255­57
Robbins, Samuel E., 153
Robbins & Lawrence armory and machine shop, 153­55
Robins, Benjamin, 309
Robinson Deep Mine, 208
robots, 142
Rocketdyne Division, North American Aviation, Inc., 303
rockets, 315.
See also aerospace
Rockport, USS (ship), 219
Rocky River (Arizona), 70
Rocky River pumped­storage hydroelectric plant, 69­71
Rogers, H. J., 60
Rogers steam locomotive, 27, 29
Roosa, Vernon D., 55­56
Roosa Master diesel fuel­injection pump, 55­56
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 229
Rotating­arm model­test facility, 320­21
Rotherhithe tunnel (London), 206
roundhouse, 242­43
Royal Navy, 144
Ryerson, Martin J., 124
S
Sacramento Electric Power & Light Company, 62
Sacramento Power Plant, 109
Sacramento­Reno line, 278
Sacramento River (California), 279
safety, 10, 169, 188, 202, 330.
See also accidents
St. Charles Avenue streetcar line, 240­42
St. Gobain Plate Glass Company, 311
St. Marys River (Michigan; Ontario), 65­67
Saller, Henry, 175
salt, 11­12, 127
Salt Creek (Illinois), 179
Samson Mine, 187­88
Sandeen, Emil, 138
San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, 12
San Francisco cable­car powerhouse, 249­52
San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, 161
San Jacinto Battleground State Park, 227, 229
San Jose Research and Development Laboratory, 345­46
Santa Susana Mountains, 129
Saranac (ship), 145
Sargent & Lundy, 93
Saturn V rocket, 292­93, 303­5
Saugus Ironworks, 119­21
Saugus River, 119
Savannah, NS (ship), 233­34
Savery, Thomas, 4
Schneider, Eugène, 159
Schneider & Company, 159
Schubert, W. E., 88
Schuykill River (Pennsylvania), 5
Schwebebahn monorail, 280
Science Museum (London), 45
Scotch (reaction) turbine, 35­37
Scotland, 45
Scott, J. A., 129
Sea­Land Service, Inc., 195
Seanor, Rex C., 328
Seattle City Light, 86­88
Seattle Electric Company. See Puget Sound Power & Light Company
Seine, River (France), 191
Seneca Oil Company, 127
sewing machine, 153
Sharp, George G., Inc., 234
Shay, Ephraim, 255
Shay locomotive, 255­57
Sheldon Oil Company, 290
Shenandoah river valley, 238
shipbuilding, 144­45
Shippingport Atomic Power Station, 103­5, 174­75
ships and boats, 213­34;
nuclear, 233­34;
outboard motor, 224­26;
steam engine, 216­17, 218­19, 222­24, 229­32;
steam turbine, 219­22;
testing, 320­21
shot tower, 148­50
Shot Tower & New River Trail State Park, 150
Shriver, A. L., 180
Sikorsky VS­300 helicopter, 296­98
Simmons, Zalmon G., 252
Simpson, John W., 104
Sims, Gardiner, 79
Sinclair Mine, 138
Singstad, Ole, 206
Skylab, 293, 305
SLAC. See Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
Slater, Samuel, 151
Slater Mill Historic Site, 152
sleeping car (rail), 262­64
slide­rest screw machine, 151­52
Sloss Furnace Museum, 193
Smeaton, John, 307, 309
Smith, A. O., automatic frame plant, 165­66
Smith, Arthur O., 165
Smith, C. J., & Sons, 165
Smith, Charles Jeremiah, 165
Smith, Lloyd R., 165­66
Smith, S. Morgan (company), 62, 64, 72
Smith, William, 155
Smithsonian Institution, 176
Snow Holly Works, 22­23
Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures (S.U.M.), 27­29
Society for the Preservation of the Duquesne Heights Incline, 248
Society of Automotive Engineers, 313
Soho Manufactory, 44
South Carolina, 233­34
Southern Car Company, 241
Southern Pacific Railroad, 129, 161, 327;
Mallet locomotives, 278;
No. 4294, 277­80
Southern Public Utilities Company. See Duke Power Company
Southern Railway, 265, 274
South Lawe Street Station. See Vulcan Street Power Plant
Southwark Foundry & Machine Company, 79
spacecraft, 291­93, 294­95, 298­305
space shuttle, 291­93, 305
Spanish­American War, 223Page 363
Sprague, Frank J., 64
spray system, 319
Springfield Armory, 146­48, 154
Springfield Armory National Historic Site, 148
Springfield Technical Community College, 148
Sputnik (spacecraft), 300
stamps, postage, 339­41
Stanadyne Auto Corp., 55­56
Standard Oil, 82
standards, 169­71, 182, 197
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 331­33
Stanley Electric Manufacturing Company, 64
State Line Generating Unit No. 1, 92­93
States Marine Lines, 234
State University of New York­Amherst, 350
steam engines:
Armington­Sims, 79;
atmospheric, 3­5;
beam 3­5, 6, 8­9, 12­14, 41, 46­48;
Boulton & Watt, 43­46;
compound, 12­14, 17, 22­23, 218­19;
early, 3­5;
Hacienda La Esperanza sugar mill, 46­48;
locomotive, 27, 29, 255­57, 265­68, 275­77, 277­80;
marine, 76, 213­14;
“mill,” 83­84;
mining, 12­14, 194;
Newcomen, 3­5, 43;
nuclear, 233­34;
Porter­Allen, 79;
and propulsion, 151;
reciprocating, 21, 226­29;
screw propeller, 216;
triple­expansion, 14, 17­18, 80­82, 222­24, 226­32;
Watt, 43­46.
See also Corliss engines, Harris­Corliss steam engine
steam power:
vs. diesel locomotives, 274, 277;
ditcher, 189­91;
for electrical production, 76­94;
hammer, 159;
for heating, 201;
log hauler, 284­85;
machining, 151;
mechanical production, 40­51;
nuclear plant, 104;
pumping, 1­23
steam turbines, 203­5, 219­22, 221;
bearings, 112;
Curtis, 84­86;
high­pressure, 91;
large­scale, 86­88;
turbine­generators, 77, 93, 104, 261;
Westinghouse­Parsons, 261
Stearns Manufacturing Company, 256­57
steel:
automobile frames, 165;
high­speed tool, 176;
for nuclear reactor, 104;
rail cars, 259, 262­64;
ships, 222;
specialty, 122;
testing, 328
steelmaking, 116, 136­38
Stehr Lake (Arizona), 68
sterilizer, 180­82
Stevens Institute of Technology, 17, 320­21
Stevenson power station, 69, 71
Stillman, Howard, 279
Stirling, Allan, 202
Stirling water­tube boilers, 87, 202­3.
Stone & Webster, 86, 91
streetcars, 240­42
Sturtevant, Benjamin F., 199
Sturtevant, B. F., Company, 207
submarine, 145
subway, 258­59
sugar mill, 46­48
S.U.M. See Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures
Sunkist Exchange Plant, 182
Sun Oil Company, 99
superheaters, 77, 89, 94, 228, 266
Superior, Lake, 122, 193
“Super Power” steam locomotive, 265­68
Susquehanna River (Pennsylvania), 73
Swinton, Ernest D., 287
Swiss Locomotive Works, 254
Switzerland, 97­98
Sydney Technological Museum, 45
Sylvanus Brown House, 152
T
telescope, 310­12
Tennessean (rail), 277
Tennessee, 169­71
Tennessee, USS (ship), 145
Tennessee Valley Authority, 74, 114, 323
Texas, 226­29, 262­64, 265­68, 303­5
Texas, USS (ship), 226­29
Texas & Northern Railroad, 264
Texas & Pacific No. 610, 265­68
Texas State Railroad Historical Park, 265, 267­68
Texas State Railroad, 267­68
textile industry, 27­29, 142, 150­52, 157­58, 202
Thames (vehicular tunnel), 206
Thomas, Perley A., Car Company, 241
Thomas Car Company, 241
Thompson, Albert R., 181
Thomson, Sir William, 210
Thorpe, William, 155
Thurston, Robert H., 111, 213, 215
Toledo Glass Company, 163
Tom Thumb (rail), 239
Towne, John H., 8
Townsend, James M., 125
traction, 235­93
tractor, 284­85, 286­87
Transit Museum (New York), 259
transmission, electrical, 62­63, 63­65, 68­69
transportation, 213­305
Trenton Iron Company, 124
tribology. See bearing
Tulane University, 20
tunnels, 206­7, 258­59.
See also wind tunnels
Tuolumne (rail), 255­57
turbines:
Boyden, 37­39;
Francis, 30­31, 38, 65, 68, 71, 74;
gas, 95­100;
hydraulic, 34, 37­39, 309;
Jolly­McCormick, 67;
Kaplan, 72­73;
Leffel, 179;
McCormick, 33­34, 62, 64;
Scotch (reaction), 35­37.
See also internal combustion engines, steam turbines
Turbinia (ship), 219­22
turret lathe, 154
Twin Zephyrs (rail), 270
Tyne and Wear Museums Service, 222
typesetting, 338­39
typewriter, 153
U
Union Carbide Company, 66­67
Union Iron Works, 222
United Aircraft Corporation, 297
United Gas Improvement Company, 70
United Kingdom. See England, Scotland
United States. See entries under U.S. and individual state names
United Technologies, Inc., 302
United Verde Copper Company, 68
University of California­Berkeley, 331
University of Illinois, 206
University of Manchester, 112
Upton, Francis, 78
urban planning, 201, 203­5, 258­59, 260
U.S. Air Force, 171, 173, 298­99, 302, 319
U.S. Air Proving Ground Command, 322
U.S. Army, 146, 153, 297;
aerodynamics, 315;
surveyors, 238
U.S. Army Air Corps, 322Page 364
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 9, 306
U.S. Army Test & Evaluation Command, 315­17
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 103, 174, 233, 324
U.S. Bureau of Mines, 206
U.S. Capitol, 200
U.S. Coast Guard, 323
U.S. Department of Commerce, 233
U.S. Department of Energy, 331
U.S. Department of Interior, 326
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 48
U.S. Government Armory, 142
U.S. Maritime Administration, 234
U.S. Maritime Commission, 229
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, 219
U.S. Navy, 162, 218, 222, 226, 321
U.S. Post Office, 340­41
U.S. Smelting, Refining, & Mining Company, 132
U.S. Steel Corporation, 328
U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Company, 68
V
Vallecitos boiling water reactor, 329­30
Vallecitos Nuclear Center, 330
valve gear, 3, 15, 81, 313
valves:
exhaust, 288;
releasing mechanism, 22;
steam engine, 42;
water mixing, 350
Van Vleck, John, 81
ventilation, 206­7, 208, 323.
See also climatic control
venturi flowmeter, 34
Verde River (Arizona), 68
Vermont, 153­55
vernier caliper, 154
Vickery, Howard L., 230
Viking (spacecraft), 302
Virginia, 148­50, 277­80
Virginia Museum of Transportation, 277
von Schon, Hans, 66
Vought­Sikorsky Aircraft, 296
V­2, 298
Vulcan Street Power Plant, 60­61
W
Walt Disney Imagineering, 281
Wandrisco, Joseph M., 328
Warner, Thomas, 147
Washington, George, 146
Washington (ship), 144
Washington (state), 86­88, 134­36
Waterman Porto outboard motor, 224­25
Waterman, Cameron B., 224
water power:
and electrical production, 57­75;
and mechanical production, 24­38;
and waterworks, 5­7.
See also waterwheels
water supply, 10
Waterville Iron Works, 285
waterwheels:
breast, 6­7, 151­52;
Great Falls, 28;
overshot, 120, 122, 187­88;
reversible, 187­88;
scoop, 8­9;
undershot, 179;
vertical, 177
Watkins, Walrus L., 157
Watkins Mill State Historic Site, 157­58
Watkins Woolen Mill, 157­58
Watt, James, 43­46
Watts, William, 149
Waukesha Engine Division Product Training Center, 315
Waukesha Motor, 313
weapons. See armories, defense
weather laboratory. See climatic control
Webster, Camp & Lane Company, 67
welding, 141, 169­71, 176, 232, 268
Western Union, 78
Westinghouse, 77, 104, 248
Westinghouse and Baldwin Locomotive, 261
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, manufacturing, 162
Westinghouse Electric of Pittsburgh, 101
Westinghouse­Parsons steam turbine, 261
Westlake Machine Company, 167
Westmoreland Malleable Iron Works, 155­57
West Point Foundry, 47­48, 122
West Side Flume & Lumber Company, 256
West Virginia, 238, 240
Wever, Caspar W., 238
Weymouth Furnace, 191
Wheeler, Walter H., Jr., 341
Whitaker, Halbert, 319
Whitbread, Samuel, 45
White, Sanford, 259
White Mountains (New Hampshire), 244­45
Wilcox, Stephen, 202
Wiles, Howard M., 314
Wilkinson, David, 150­53
Wilkinson, Oziel, 150
Wilkinson Mill, 150­53
Willis Plant (Detroit), 205
wind power, 11­12
Windsor­Cornish Bridge, 155
wind tunnels, 317­18
Winton Engine Corporation, 268
Wisconsin:
Milwaukee, 88­90, 224­26;
Milwaukee area, 60­61, 93­94, 165­66, 313­15
Wisconsin Electric Power Company, 94
Wisconsin Michigan Power Company, 61
Wolff, Alfred, 199
Wood, A. B., screw pump, 18­20
Wood, Albert Baldwin, 19­20
Woodard, William E., 265­66
Woodbury, Johnson, 284
Woods, William J., 167
Woolf, Arthur, 17
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 309­10
World’s Fair (1962), 234
World War I:
arms 147, 310;
manufacturing delays, 165;
ships, 223;
tractors, 287
World War II:
air, 99, 171, 297, 315, 317;
arms, 148, 298, 315;
nuclear, 134, 324;
ships, 162, 227, 229­32
Worthington horizontal cross­compound pumping engine, 22­23
Wright (brothers):
Curtiss­Wright aircraft, 27
Wyman­Gordon forging press, 173­74
X
Xerography, 341­44
Xerox Corporation, 344
X­ray, 91, 141, 170, 331
Y
Yadkin River (North Carolina), 64
Yale University, 206
York (rail), 239
York Water Company, 22­23
Young, Alfred, 318
Z
Zelanko, Charles, 318
Zellerbach Paper Company, 345
Zephyr. See Pioneer Zephyr (rail)
Zinn, Walter H., 325
Zircaloy bonding, 174­75
Zweifel, Chuck, 196

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