KISSsoft User Manual

KISSsoft User Manual
اسم المؤلف
غير معروف
التاريخ
18 نوفمبر 2021
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KISSsoft User Manual
Sharing Knowledge
Table of Contents
I General .43
1 Installing KISSsoft 44
1.1 Basic installation 44
1.2 Downloading a license file .44
1.3 Licensing 45
1.3.1 Test version .45
1.3.2 Student version 45
1.3.3 Single user version with dongle (protection key) .46
1.3.4 Single user version with license code 46
1.3.5 Network version with dongle (protection key) 46
1.3.6 Network version with a license code .47
2 Setting Up KISSsoft 48
2.1 Directory structure 48
2.2 Language settings 48
2.3 Systems of units .49
2.4 Defining your own template files 49
2.5 Rights .49
2.6 Global settings – KISS.ini .50
2.6.1 Definitions in [PATH] .50
2.6.2 Definitions in [SETUP] .51
2.6.3 Definitions in [REPORT] 53
2.6.4 Definitions in [GRAPHICS] 54
2.6.5 Definitions in [LICENSE] 54
2.6.6 Definitions in [CADEXPORT] .542.6.7 Definitions in [INTERFACES] 54
2.6.8 Definitions in [SOLIDEDGE] 55
2.6.9 Definitions in [SOLIDWORKS] .55
2.6.10 Definitions in [INVENTOR] 56
2.6.11 Definitions in [CATIA] 56
2.6.12 Definitions in [PROENGINEER] 57
2.6.13 Definitions in [HICAD] 57
2.6.14 Definitions in [VIDEOENCODING] 57
2.7 User-defined settings .59
2.7.1 Configuration tool 59
2.8 Rules 62
3 Running KISSsoft . 65
3.1 Start parameters 65
3.2 Disconnect license from the network .65
4 Elements of the KISSsoft User Interface . 67
4.1 Menus, context menus and the tool bar .67
4.2 Docking window .68
4.2.1 The module tree 69
4.2.2 The project tree .69
4.2.3 The Results window 70
4.2.4 The Messages window 70
4.2.5 The info window .70
4.2.6 Manual and Search .70
4.3 Graphics window 71
4.3.1 Tool bar and context menu 71
4.3.2 Comment field .73
4.3.3 Context menu 734.3.4 Properties 73
4.3.5 Toothing .75
4.4 Main input area 76
4.4.1 Report Viewer 76
4.4.2 Helptext Viewer .77
4.5 Tooltips and status bar .77
5 KISSsoft Calculation Modules . 78
5.1 Standard and special tabs .78
5.2 Input elements .78
5.2.1 Value input fields .79
5.2.2 Formula entry and angle input .79
5.2.3 Unit switch .80
5.2.4 Tables 80
5.3 Calculating and generating a report .80
5.4 Messages .81
6 Project Management 82
6.1 Generating, opening and closing projects .82
6.2 Adding and deleting files 83
6.3 The active working project .83
6.4 Storage locations .83
6.5 Project properties .83
7 Dynamic User Interface 84
7.1 Modified tabs and dialogs supplied with the system 84
7.2 Adding additional tabs and dialogs 84
7.3 Formatting 85
7.3.1 Elements 857.3.2 Columns 86
7.3.3 Groups .86
7.3.4 Tabs .87
7.3.5 Attributes .87
7.3.6 Comments .89
7.3.7 Special elements .89
8 Results and Reports . 90
8.1 Results of a calculation 90
8.1.1 Add your own texts in the results window 90
8.2 Calculation reports .90
8.3 Drawing data 91
8.4 Report settings .91
8.4.1 General 91
8.4.2 Page layout 91
8.4.3 Header and footer 92
8.4.4 Start and end block 92
8.5 Report templates 93
8.5.1 Storage locations and descriptions 93
8.5.2 Scope of a report .95
8.5.3 Formatting .95
9 Database Tool and External Tables 103
9.1 Viewing database entries .104
9.2 Managing database entries .106
9.2.1 Creating a database entry .106
9.2.2 Deleting a database entry 107
9.2.3 Restoring a database entry .107
9.3 Import and export data from the database tool 1079.4 External tables .108
9.4.1 Functions tables 109
9.4.2 Range tables .111
9.4.3 List tables 112
9.4.4 List of key words used .114
9.5 Description of database tables .115
9.5.1 Center distance tolerances 115
9.5.2 Machining allowance for cylindrical gear .115
9.5.3 Reference profiles .115
9.5.4 Compression springs standard 115
9.5.5 Hobbing cutter selection 116
9.5.6 Basic material Glued and Soldered joints 116
9.5.7 Manufacturing process for bevel and hypoid gears .116
9.5.8 V-belt standard 116
9.5.9 Spline Standard .117
9.5.10 Chain profiles ISO 606 117
9.5.11 Adhesives 117
9.5.12 Modifications 117
9.5.13 Load spectra 117
9.5.14 Solders 118
9.5.15 Surface roughness of shafts and shaft-hub connections .118
9.5.16 Key standard .119
9.5.17 Polygon standard .119
9.5.18 Woodruff key standard 119
9.5.19 Bolts/pins .119
9.5.20 Lubricants 119
9.5.21 Bolts: Tightening factor 121
9.5.22 Bolts: Bore .1219.5.23 Bolts: Strength grade .121
9.5.24 Bolts: Nut strength grade .122
9.5.25 Bolts: Coefficients of friction classes .122
9.5.26 Bolts: Thread type .122
9.5.27 Bolts: Nuts .123
9.5.28 Bolts: Type .123
9.5.29 Bolts: Washer 123
9.5.30 Selection of pinion type cutters 123
9.5.31 Disc spring standard 123
9.5.32 Tolerances standard 123
9.5.33 Beam profiles .124
9.5.34 Multi-Spline standard .124
9.5.35 Materials 124
9.5.36 Material of gears 128
9.5.37 Rolling bearings .129
9.5.38 Rolling bearing tolerance .139
9.5.39 Rolling bearing fit (tolerance) classes 140
9.5.40 Tooth thickness tolerances 140
9.5.41 Toothed belt standard 140
10 Description of the Public Interface 142
10.1 Interfaces between calculation programs and CAD – Overview .142
10.1.1 Efficient interfaces .142
10.1.2 Open interfaces concept in KISSsoft .143
10.2 Defining input and output .144
10.2.1 Preamble .144
10.2.2 Requirements placed on the third party program 145
10.2.3 Used files .146
10.2.4 Rating life of files .14610.2.5 Explicitly reading (importing) and generating data 147
10.3 Example: Interference fit calculation 147
10.4 Geometry data .149
10.5 COM interface 149
10.5.1 Registering the server .149
10.5.2 Server functionality 150
10.5.3 Example of a call from Excel .152
11 3D Interfaces 157
11.1 Overview of the available CAD interfaces and their functionality 157
11.2 Generation of 3D gears 158
11.3 Generating 3D shafts .159
11.4 Viewer with neutral format interface .160
11.4.1 Parasolid Export of 3D Shafts .161
11.4.2 Face gear – 3D geometry .162
11.4.3 Bevel gears – generating a 3D model 162
11.4.4 Worm wheel – generating a 3D model .163
11.4.5 General information about 3D modeling in Parasolid 164
11.5 3D interface to SolidWorks 164
11.5.1 Gear teeth in case of an existing basic solid .165
11.5.2 Integrating the KISSsoft Add-in (menu options in CAD) 166
11.5.3 Add-in functions (calls) 169
11.6 3D interface to Solid Edge .171
11.6.1 Change to the parameter for generation .171
11.6.2 Gear teeth in case of an existing basic solid .172
11.6.3 Integrating the KISSsoft Add-in (menu options in CAD) 173
11.6.4 Add-in functions (calls) 177
11.6.5 Opening the calculation file for the created gear .178
11.6.6 Simplified view of the gears .17811.7 3D interface to Autodesk Inventor .179
11.7.1 Gear teeth if existing shaft data is present 179
11.7.2 Add-in (menu options in the CAD system) 180
11.7.3 Add-in functions (calls) 183
11.7.4 Opening the calculation file for the created gear .184
11.8 3D interface to Unigraphics NX 184
11.8.1 Add-in (menu options in the CAD system) 186
11.8.2 Running KISSsoft via the Add-in .189
11.9 3D interface to Creo Parametric (ProEngineer) .196
11.9.1 Integrating the KISSsoft Add-in .200
11.9.2 Cutting gear teeth on an existing shaft 204
11.9.3 Modifying the selected 3D model 205
11.9.4 Modifying the teeth on an existing shaft 206
11.9.5 Changing base settings in the interface 207
11.9.6 Save the files to the PTC Windchill working directory .208
11.10 3D interface to CATIA 209
11.10.1 Registering the interface 209
12 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions 211
12.1 Changing the output of angles in reports .211
12.2 Input materials for gear calculations in the database .211
12.3 How can I test the software? 212
12.4 What licenses are available? .212
12.5 Add your own texts in the results window 212
12.6 Restoring a previous stage in the calculation 213
II Gear Teeth 214
13 Introduction . 21513.1 Underlying principles of calculation 215
14 Cylindrical gears . 217
14.1 Basic data 218
14.1.1 Hand of gear for gear teeth .219
14.1.2 Normal module 219
14.1.3 Pressure angle at normal section 219
14.1.4 Helix angle at reference circle .219
14.1.5 Center distance .220
14.1.6 Number of teeth .221
14.1.7 Facewidth 221
14.1.8 Profile shift coefficient 222
14.1.9 Tooth thickness modification factor .225
14.1.10 Quality .225
14.1.11 Geometry details .227
14.1.12 Material and lubrication .229
14.2 Rating (load) 234
14.2.1 Calculation methods 235
14.2.2 Rating life .244
14.2.3 Reliability .245
14.2.4 Application factor .246
14.2.5 Power, torque and speed 247
14.2.6 Strength details 247
14.2.7 Strength details (AGMA) 261
14.2.8 Define load spectrum .262
14.3 Factors .265
14.3.1 Transverse coefficient .265
14.3.2 Dynamic factor .265
14.3.3 Mesh load factor 26614.3.4 Alternating bending factor 266
14.3.5 Load spectrum with alternating torque 268
14.3.6 Face load factor .270
14.3.7 Taking into account shaft bending (face load factor and contact analysis) .290
14.3.8 Z-Y factors and the technology factor 292
14.3.9 General calculation procedure for KHbeta as specified in ISO 6336-1, Annex E 294
14.4 Reference profile 295
14.4.1 Configuration .295
14.4.2 Pre-machining and grinding allowance 304
14.4.3 Tip alteration 305
14.5 Manufacture .305
14.5.1 Details about the grinding process 305
14.5.2 Power skiving 306
14.6 Tolerances .307
14.6.1 Tooth thickness tolerance 308
14.6.2 Tip diameter allowances 310
14.6.3 Root diameter allowances .310
14.6.4 Center distance tolerances 310
14.6.5 Settings 310
14.7 Modifications 311
14.7.1 Type of modification 311
14.7.2 Individual modifications per tooth 312
14.7.3 Profile modifications 313
14.7.4 Tooth trace modifications 322
14.7.5 Sizing modifications .329
14.7.6 Notes about profile modification 332
14.7.7 Using diamond dressing wheels and grinding worms .332
14.8 Tooth form 33514.8.1 Context menu 336
14.8.2 Operations .337
14.9 Asymmetric gears 354
14.10 Contact analysis .355
14.10.1 Theory of contact analysis .357
14.10.2 Asymmetrical gear teeth in the contact analysis .360
14.10.3 Discretized model 361
14.10.4 Smoothing the tooth form curvature to calculate Hertzian pressure in the contact
analysis .361
14.10.5 Reduced stiffness on the side edges .362
14.10.6 Coupling the individual slices 363
14.10.7 Contact analysis model for planetary systems 364
14.10.8 Base pressure angle of contact analysis .365
14.10.9 Wear iteration 366
14.10.10 Contact analysis with load spectra 367
14.11 Gear pump .367
14.12 Operating backlash 369
14.12.1 Temperatures 371
14.12.2 Relative water absorption during swelling .371
14.12.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion for housing 372
14.12.4 Take into account the bending of the shafts and width modifications .372
14.12.5 Tooth deformation .372
14.13 Master gear 373
14.14 AGMA 925 .374
14.15 Root stress FEM 375
14.16 Rough sizing 376
14.17 Fine sizing 380
14.17.1 Necessary entries in the input window 382
14.17.2 Conditions I 38214.17.3 Conditions II .383
14.17.4 Conditions III 384
14.17.5 Results .388
14.17.6 Graphics 390
14.17.7 Geometry fine sizing for 3 gears 390
14.17.8 Geometry-Fine Sizing for 4 gears 391
14.17.9 Additional strength calculation of all variants .392
14.18 Sizing modifications .392
14.18.1 Conditions I/II .393
14.18.2 Results .394
14.18.3 Graphic I 394
14.18.4 Graphic II .395
14.18.5 Report 395
14.19 Measurement grid 395
14.20 Settings 397
14.20.1 General 398
14.20.2 Plastic 401
14.20.3 Planets .405
14.20.4 Sizings .406
14.20.5 Calculations .407
14.20.6 Required safeties .412
14.20.7 Contact analysis/face load factor .413
14.20.8 Contact analysis 413
14.20.9 Summary .415
14.20.10 Diagrams .416
14.20.11 Generate a 3D model 416
14.21 Tooth thickness 419
14.22 Tooth form export .42015 Bevel and Hypoid Gears . 421
15.1 Underlying principles of calculation 421
15.1.1 General 421
15.1.2 Overview of the bevel gear manufacturing process and the terminology used in it 421
15.1.3 Calculation according to Klingelnberg, Gleason and Oerlikon 422
15.2 Basic data 423
15.2.1 Mean normal module .423
15.2.2 Pitch diameter gear 2 423
15.2.3 Pressure angle at normal section 423
15.2.4 Pressure angle driving/driven flank: Hypoid gears 424
15.2.5 Spiral and helix angle 425
15.2.6 Shaft angle 426
15.2.7 Offset .426
15.2.8 Number of teeth .427
15.2.9 Facewidth 427
15.2.10 Profile shift coefficient 427
15.2.11 Tooth thickness modification factor .428
15.2.12 Quality .428
15.2.13 Addendum angle and root angle .429
15.2.14 Angle modifications .430
15.2.15 Geometry details .430
15.2.16 Manufacturing process 432
15.3 Type .432
15.3.1 Converting or inputting Gleason toothing data 435
15.4 Manufacturing 437
15.4.1 Cutter radius 437
15.4.2 Number of blade groups 438
15.5 Rating (load) 43815.5.1 Methods used for strength calculation .438
15.5.2 Required rating life 441
15.5.3 Power, torque and speed 442
15.5.4 Strength details 442
15.5.5 Application factor .444
15.6 Reference profile 445
15.6.1 Default values for tip clearance .445
15.6.2 Default values for addendum coefficients 446
15.7 Contact analysis .446
15.8 Modifications 446
15.9 Rough sizing 450
15.9.1 Facewidth ratio 450
15.9.2 Module ratio .451
15.10 Fine sizing 451
15.10.1 Required entries in the standard tabs 452
15.10.2 Conditions I 452
15.10.3 Conditions II .453
15.10.4 Conditions III 454
15.10.5 Results .458
15.10.6 Graphics 459
15.11 Notes about calculations according to the Klingelnberg standard .459
15.11.1 Bevel gears with cyclo-palloid® gear teeth .459
15.11.2 Hypoid gears with cyclo-palloid gear teeth 460
15.11.3 Normal module ranges for Klingelnberg machines (cyclo-palloid) 460
15.11.4 Bevel gears with Palloid gear teeth .462
15.11.5 Definitions and dimensions of standard cutters for palloid gear teeth .463
15.11.6 Minimum safeties .463
15.11.7 Surface roughness at tooth root 46315.11.8 Manufacturing quality for bevel gears 464
15.11.9 Characteristic number .464
15.12 Settings 465
15.12.1 General 465
15.12.2 Calculations .465
15.12.3 Differential gears .465
15.12.4 Helpful information about the Generation of 3D model tab .466
15.12.5 Factors .466
15.12.6 Contact analysis 468
15.12.7 Display .469
16 Face Gears . 470
16.1 Underlying principles of calculation 470
16.2 Basic data 473
16.2.1 Normal module 473
16.2.2 Pressure angle at normal section 475
16.2.3 Helix angle at reference circle .475
16.2.4 Axial offset .476
16.2.5 Profile shift coefficient 476
16.2.6 Quality .477
16.2.7 Geometry details .478
16.2.8 Material and lubrication .479
16.3 Rating (load) 480
16.3.1 Methods used for strength calculation .480
16.3.2 Service life .482
16.3.3 Power, torque and speed 482
16.3.4 Application factor .483
16.3.5 Strength details 483
16.4 Factors .48816.4.1 Face load factor .488
16.5 Modifications 488
16.5.1 Addendum reduction .488
16.5.2 Type of modification 489
16.6 Settings 489
16.6.1 General 490
16.6.2 Sizings .491
16.7 Notes on face gear calculation .491
16.7.1 Dimensioning .491
16.7.2 Pinion – Face gear with Z1 > Z2 492
17 Worms with enveloping worm wheels . 493
17.1 Underlying principles of calculation 493
17.2 Basic data 495
17.2.1 Axial/transverse module 495
17.2.2 Pressure angle at normal section 495
17.2.3 Lead angle at reference diameter 496
17.2.4 Center distance .496
17.2.5 Number of teeth .496
17.2.6 Facewidth 496
17.2.7 Profile shift coefficient 497
17.2.8 Tooth thickness modification factor .497
17.2.9 Quality .498
17.2.10 Geometry details .498
17.2.11 Material and lubrication .499
17.3 Rating (load) 500
17.3.1 Methods used for strength calculation .501
17.3.2 Rating life .501
17.3.3 Application factor .50117.3.4 Permissible decrease in quality .502
17.3.5 Power, torque and speed 502
17.3.6 Strength details 503
17.4 Tolerances .506
17.5 Settings 506
17.5.1 General 507
17.5.2 Reference gearing .508
17.5.3 Calculations .509
17.5.4 Required safeties .511
18 Crossed helical gears, precision mechanics worms and crossed
helical gear with rack . 512
18.1 Underlying principles of calculation 512
18.2 Basic data 513
18.2.1 Normal module 513
18.2.2 Pressure angle at normal section 513
18.2.3 Helix angle reference circle gear 1 513
18.2.4 Center distance .514
18.2.5 Facewidth 514
18.2.6 Profile shift coefficient 514
18.2.7 Quality .514
18.2.8 Define geometry details .515
18.2.9 Material and lubrication .516
18.3 Rating (load) 517
18.3.1 Methods used for strength calculation .517
18.3.2 Rating life .522
18.3.3 Application factor .522
18.3.4 Power, torque and speed 523
18.3.5 Strength details 52318.4 Settings 529
18.5 Notes 529
18.5.1 Checking the contact pattern .529
18.6 Crossed helical gear with rack .529
19 Beveloid Gears . 531
19.1 Underlying principles of calculation 531
19.2 Basic data 532
19.2.1 Normal module 532
19.2.2 Normal pressure angle 532
19.2.3 Helix angle .532
19.2.4 Shaft angle 532
19.2.5 Number of teeth .533
19.2.6 Width .533
19.2.7 Cone angle 533
19.2.8 Profile shift coefficient (center) 533
19.2.9 Quality .533
19.2.10 Material and lubrication .533
19.3 Reference profile 533
19.4 Modifications 534
19.5 Factors .534
19.6 Dimensioning .534
19.7 Manufacturing Data and Working Data 534
20 Non-Circular Gears . 536
20.1 Input data .536
20.1.1 Geometry .536
20.1.2 Tolerances .538
20.1.3 Reference profile .53820.2 Notes on how to operate KISSsoft .539
20.2.1 Angle error .539
20.2.2 Checking the meshing .539
20.2.3 Improving the tooth form 540
20.2.4 Accuracy of the tooth form .540
20.2.5 Exporting individual teeth 541
20.2.6 Report 542
20.2.7 Temporary files 542
21 Report Menu . 544
21.1 Drawing data 544
21.2 Manufacturing tolerances .544
21.3 Summary 545
21.4 Rating life .545
21.5 Sizing of torque 545
21.6 Proposal for the hardening depth EHT 545
22 Graphics Menu . 547
22.1 AGMA 925 .550
22.1.1 Lubricant film thickness and specific oil film thickness 550
22.2 Geometry 2D 551
22.2.1 Gear tooth forms 551
22.2.2 Gear tool 552
22.2.3 Manufacturing a gear .552
22.2.4 Meshing .552
22.2.5 Profile and tooth trace diagram .553
22.2.6 Drawing .556
22.2.7 Assembly .556
22.2.8 Manufacturing drawing 55622.3 Geometry 3D 559
22.3.1 Tooth system .559
22.3.2 Tooth form .560
22.4 Evaluation 560
22.4.1 Specific sliding .560
22.4.2 Contact temperature 560
22.4.3 Flash temperature .560
22.4.4 Hardening depth 560
22.4.5 Theoretical meshing stiffness 561
22.4.6 S-N curve (Woehler lines) for material 562
22.4.7 Safety factor curves .562
22.4.8 Oil viscosity 562
22.4.9 Gap analysis 562
22.4.10 face load distribution 562
22.4.11 Backlash with actual tooth form .563
22.4.12 Tooth flank fracture 563
22.4.13 Sliding velocity (face gear) 563
22.4.14 Contact line (face gear) .563
22.4.15 Stress curve (face gear) 563
22.4.16 Scuffing and sliding velocity (face gear) 563
22.5 Contact analysis .564
22.5.1 Axis alignment .565
22.5.2 Transmission error .565
22.5.3 Transmission error acceleration 565
22.5.4 Amplitude of transmission error .567
22.5.5 Normal force curve 567
Normal force distribution .568
22.5.6 Torque curve .568Single contact stiffness 568
22.5.7 Stiffness curve .568
22.5.8 Amplitude spectrum of the contact stiffness 569
22.5.9 Bearing force curve and direction of the bearing forces 569
22.5.10 Kinematics .570
22.5.11 Specific sliding .570
22.5.12 Power loss .570
22.5.13 Heat development .570
22.5.14 Stress curve .570
22.5.15 Flash temperature .571
22.5.16 Micropitting (frosting) .571
22.5.17 Wear 573
22.6 Gear pump .575
22.7 3D export .575
22.8 Settings 575
22.9 Graphics list .575
23 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions 576
23.1 Answers concerning geometry calculation .576
23.1.1 Precision engineering 576
23.1.2 Deep tooth forms or cylindrical gears with a high transverse contact ratio .576
23.1.3 Pairing an external gear to an inside gear that has a slightly different number of teeth
577
23.1.4 Undercut or insufficient effective involute 577
23.1.5 Tooth thickness at tip .577
23.1.6 Special toothing .578
23.1.7 Calculating cylindrical gears manufactured using tools specified in DIN 3972 578
23.1.8 Composites as defined in DIN 58405 579
23.1.9 Automatic change of reference profiles .57923.1.10 Non-identical (mirrored symmetry) tooth flanks .580
23.1.11 Internal teeth – differences in the reference profile if you select different configurations
580
23.1.12 Effect of profile modifications .581
23.1.13 Number of teeth with common multiples .582
23.1.14 Allowances for racks 583
23.2 Answers to questions about strength calculation .583
23.2.1 Differences between different gear calculation programs .583
23.2.2 Difference between cylindrical gear calculation according to ISO 6336 or DIN 3990 .584
23.2.3 Calculation using Methods B or C (DIN 3990, 3991) .584
23.2.4 Required safeties for cylindrical gear units 584
23.2.5 Insufficient safety against scuffing .585
23.2.6 Material hardening factor (for strengthening an unhardened gear) .586
23.2.7 Defining the load stage scuffing (oil specification) .586
23.2.8 The effect of the face load factor KHß for the tooth trace deviation fma is due to a
manufacturing error. .586
23.2.9 Load spectrum with alternating torque 587
23.2.10 Strength calculation with several meshings on one gear 588
23.2.11 Bevel gears: – Determine permitted overloads .591
23.2.12 Taking shot peening data into account when calculating gear strength 591
23.2.13 Calculation according to AGMA 421.06 (High Speed Gears) 592
23.2.14 Comparison of an FEM calculation with the crossed helical gear calculation .592
23.2.15 Determine the equivalent torque (for load spectra) .593
23.2.16 Check changes in safeties if the center distance changes 593
23.2.17 Warning: “Notch parameter qs …. outside RANGE (1.0 to 8.0) .” .594
23.2.18 Tooth root stresses in the contact analysis and stress according to FEM – is there a
difference? 594
23.3 Abbreviations used in gear calculation 595III Shafts and Bearings .602
24 Defining Shafts . 603
24.1 Input window 605
24.1.1 Shaft Editor 606
24.1.2 Element Tree .606
24.1.3 Element List .607
24.1.4 Element Editor .608
24.2 Element overview .608
24.2.1 The shaft element 608
24.2.2 Outer contour .613
24.2.3 Inner contour .620
24.2.4 Forces 620
24.2.5 Bearings 625
24.2.6 Connection elements .629
24.2.7 Cross sections .631
24.3 Basic data 632
24.3.1 Position of shaft axis in space .632
24.3.2 Number of eigenfrequencies .633
24.3.3 Number of buckling cases .633
24.3.4 Speed 633
24.3.5 Direction of rotation .634
24.3.6 Reference temperature 634
24.3.7 Housing temperature .635
24.3.8 Lubricant temperature .635
24.3.9 Load spectra 636
24.3.10 Gears .636
24.3.11 Rolling bearings .63724.3.12 Tolerance field .638
24.3.13 Modified rating life according ISO 281 .640
24.3.14 Consider weight .640
24.3.15 Consider gyroscopic effect 640
24.3.16 Housing material 641
24.3.17 Lubrication .641
24.3.18 Contamination .641
24.4 Module specific settings .641
24.4.1 Non-linear shaft .641
24.4.2 Take into account deformation due to shearing and shear correction coefficient .642
24.4.3 Activating offset of the load application center point .642
24.4.4 Using the 2013 solver 642
24.4.5 Saving temporary results in CSV format with .tmp file extension 643
24.4.6 Standard radius at shoulders .643
24.4.7 Node density 643
24.4.8 Iterative calculation of load distribution 644
24.4.9 Input different numbers of load cycles for bending and torsion (for limited life
calculations) 644
24.4.10 Save user defined bearings in calculation file .644
24.4.11 Read user-defined rolling bearings from calculation file 645
24.4.12 Enter contamination in each bearing separately .645
24.4.13 Axial clearance 645
24.4.14 Failure probability 645
24.4.15 Required rating life 645
24.4.16 Maximum life modification factor .646
24.4.17 Display critical bearings .646
24.4.18 Surface roughness of housing .647
24.4.19 Calculation method for friction .647
24.4.20 Grease lifetime 64724.4.21 Oil level 647
24.4.22 Type of oil lubrication .647
24.4.23 Moment of friction, seals 648
24.4.24 Bearing manufacturer 648
24.4.25 Show coordinates system 648
24.4.26 Show automatic dimensioning .648
24.4.27 Equivalent stress for sizings 649
24.4.28 Maximum deflection for sizings .649
25 Calculating Shafts . 650
25.1 Deflection and Bearing Forces, Distribution of Force and Torque .651
25.1.1 Calculating force on bearings with a contact angle .653
25.2 Eigenfrequencies .654
25.2.1 Bending critical speed .655
25.2.2 Torsion critical speed .655
25.3 Buckling .655
25.4 Rough sizing of shafts 655
25.5 Strength .656
25.5.1 Calculation method 658
25.5.2 Type of calculation .662
25.5.3 Rating life .664
25.5.4 Strength parameters according to Hänchen and Decker 664
25.5.5 Strength parameters according to FKM .665
25.5.6 Strength parameters according to DIN 668
25.5.7 Strength parameters according to AGMA 669
25.5.8 Stress 670
25.5.9 Stress ratio 671
25.5.10 Load factor for static analysis 671
25.5.11 Load factor endurance calculation .67225.5.12 Cross sections .672
25.5.13 Sizing .674
25.5.14 Cross-section types .674
25.5.15 General entries 679
25.5.16 Thermally safe operating speed 679
25.6 Tooth trace modification .680
25.7 Campbell diagram 682
25.8 Forced vibrations .684
25.8.1 Calculation procedure 684
25.8.2 Results .684
26 General Bearing Calculation . 685
26.1 Classification of bearings .685
26.1.1 Properties 685
27 Rolling Bearings (Classic Analysis) 687
27.1 Selecting the type of rolling bearing .688
27.1.1 Properties of the most important bearing types .688
27.1.2 Comparing types .690
27.1.3 Hybrid bearings .692
27.2 Load capacity of rolling bearings .693
27.2.1 Dynamic load capacity .693
27.2.2 Static load capacity 693
27.2.3 Rolling bearing calculation with inner geometry 694
27.3 Thermally safe operating speed .695
27.3.1 Thermal reference speed 696
27.3.2 Process for calculating thermally safe operating speed (DIN 732-2) 697
27.4 Moment of friction 699
27.4.1 Calculation according to SKF Catalog 1994 69927.4.2 Calculation according to SKF Catalog 2018 700
27.4.3 Calculation according to Schaeffler 2017 (INA, FAG) .703
27.5 Grease lifetime .704
27.5.1 Calculation according to Schaeffler 2014 (INA, FAG) .704
27.5.2 Calculation according to SKF Catalog 2018 704
27.6 Maximum Speeds 705
27.7 Rating life .705
27.7.1 Modified rating life calculation according to the Supplement to DIN ISO 281 (2007) 705
27.7.2 Rating life calculation with load spectra .707
27.8 Failure probability .708
27.9 Bearing with radial and/or axial force .708
27.10 Calculating axial forces on bearings in face-to-face or back-to-back arrangements .709
27.11 Oil level and lubrication type 710
28 Rolling Bearings (Internal Geometry) 711
28.1 Bearing data tab .711
28.1.1 File interface 712
28.1.2 Bearing data 713
28.2 Rating (load) tab 717
28.2.1 Rating (load) 717
28.2.2 Modified rating life calculation in accordance with ISO 281 718
28.3 Tab Elastic Rings .718
28.3.1 Basic data 718
28.3.2 Details 719
28.4 Graphics .721
28.5 Fine sizing 721
29 Hydrodynamic Plain Journal Bearings 723
29.1 Calculation methods 72329.2 Module specific entries 724
29.3 Thermal expansion coefficients .724
29.4 Average surface pressure 725
29.5 Geometries according to DIN 31657 .725
29.6 Stiffness .728
29.7 Lubrication arrangement 728
29.8 Heat transfer coefficient .730
29.9 Heat transfer surface .730
29.10 Oil temperatures 731
29.11 Mixture factor .731
29.12 Sizing the bearing clearance 731
29.13 Sommerfeld number 732
29.14 Bearing width .733
29.15 Permissible lubricant film thickness .733
30 Hydrodynamic Plain Thrust Bearings 734
30.1 Calculation .736
30.2 Sizings .737
30.3 Calculation of volume-specific heat .738
30.4 Limiting values in the calculation .738
31 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions 739
31.1 Intersecting notch effects .739
31.2 Notch effects on hollow shafts .739
31.2.1 Notches on the outer contour 739
31.2.2 Notches on the inner contour 740
31.3 Fatigue Limits for New Materials 740
31.4 Taking double helical gearings into account in the shaft calculation .741IV Connections .742
32 Cylindrical Interference Fit 743
32.1 Inputting Tolerances 745
32.2 Coefficients of friction .746
32.3 Variable external diameter of the hub 748
32.4 Convert external pressure with multiple interference fit .748
32.5 Materials 750
32.6 Settings 751
32.7 Sizings .752
33 Conical Interference Fit . 754
33.1 Calculation .756
33.2 Application factor .757
33.3 Axial spanning with nut 757
33.4 Variable external diameter of the hub 759
33.5 Conicity 759
33.6 Materials 760
33.7 Settings 761
33.8 Sizings .761
34 Clamped Connections 763
34.1 Calculations .763
34.2 Sizings .765
34.3 Settings 766
34.4 Materials 767
35 Keys . 768
35.1 Main window 76835.1.1 Additional inputs for DIN 6892 Method B 770
35.2 Application factor .772
35.3 Contact coefficient .773
35.4 Own inputs .774
35.5 Permissible pressure .774
35.6 Materials 774
35.7 Settings 774
35.8 Sizings .775
36 Straight-sided splines . 776
36.1 Standard profiles 776
36.2 Application factor .777
36.3 Torque curve/Number of changes of load direction .778
36.4 Occurring contact stress 778
36.5 Length factor 778
36.6 Share factor .779
36.7 Permissible pressure .779
36.8 Materials 780
36.9 Settings 780
36.10 Sizings .781
37 Splines (Strength) . 782
37.1 Standard profiles 782
37.2 Application factor .783
37.3 Torque curve/Number of changes of load direction .784
37.4 Occurring contact stress 784
37.5 Length factor 784
37.6 Share factor .785
37.7 Permissible pressure .78637.8 Materials 787
37.9 Settings 787
37.10 Sizings .787
38 Splines (Geometry and Strength) . 789
38.1 Underlying principles of calculation 789
38.1.1 General 789
38.1.2 Calculation of spline connections as described in DIN 5480 with diameter centering.789
38.1.3 Calculating spline connections according to DIN 5480 with flank centering 790
38.2 Basic data 791
38.2.1 Geometry standards 791
38.2.2 Normal module 792
38.2.3 Pressure angle at normal section an .792
38.2.4 Number of teeth .792
38.2.5 Profile shift coefficient 792
38.2.6 Quality .793
38.2.7 Niemann geometry data 794
38.2.8 Geometry details .794
38.2.9 Define details of strength .795
38.2.10 Materials 801
38.3 Tolerances .801
38.3.1 Tooth thickness tolerance 801
38.3.2 Effective/Actual 802
38.3.3 Shaft/hub: diameter of ball/pin .803
38.4 Gauges 803
38.5 Tooth form 804
39 Polygons . 805
39.1 Standard profiles 80539.2 Application factor .806
39.3 Torque curve/Number of changes of load direction .806
39.4 Occurring contact stress 806
39.5 Permissible pressure .808
39.6 Materials 809
39.7 Settings 809
39.8 Sizings .809
39.9 Graphics .810
40 Woodruff Keys 811
40.1 Standard profiles 811
40.2 Application factor .812
40.3 Torque curve/Number of changes of load direction .812
40.4 Occurring contact stress 813
40.5 Length factor 813
40.6 Share factor .814
40.7 Permissible pressure .814
40.8 Materials 815
40.9 Settings 815
40.10 Sizings .815
41 Bolts and Pins . 816
41.1 Influence factors .817
41.2 Materials 818
41.3 Settings 819
41.4 Permitted values 819
41.5 Sizings .820
42 Bolts . 82142.1 Special features in KISSsoft 821
42.2 Inputs for Basic data 822
42.2.1 Operating data .822
42.2.2 Bolt data 834
42.2.3 Type of bolted joint 837
42.2.4 Washers 838
42.2.5 Extension sleeves without external forces .839
42.2.6 Tightening technique .839
42.3 Data input for clamped parts 840
42.3.1 Geometry of clamped parts (connecting solids) 840
42.3.2 Distances for eccentric clamping/load .842
42.3.3 Load introduction .843
42.4 Constraints data .844
42.4.1 Technical Explanations 846
42.4.2 Coefficients of friction 847
42.4.3 Rotation-angle controlled tightening 848
42.5 Stripping strength .849
42.6 Settings 849
43 Welded Joints . 853
43.1 Welded joints .853
43.2 Seam length .854
43.3 Welded seam equivalent stress .855
43.4 Weld seam boundary stress 855
43.5 Part safety coefficient .855
43.6 Boundary safety coefficient 855
43.7 Materials 856
44 Glued and Soldered Joints . 85744.1 Basic materials .858
44.2 Settings 858
44.3 Sizings .859
44.4 Bracket connection 859
44.5 Shaft connections 859
45 Retaining rings (self-locking rings, snap rings) 860
45.1 Basic data 860
45.2 Automatic calculation of load factor q 862
45.3 Automatic calculation of the dishing angle ψ .863
45.4 Module specific settings .864
46 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions 865
46.1 Adding new bolt types to the database 865
46.1.1 Extending an existing bolt series .865
46.1.2 Creating a new bolt type 868
V Springs 870
47 Compression Springs . 871
47.1 Strength values 872
47.2 Shear stress values .872
47.3 Bearings coefficient 873
47.4 Materials 874
47.5 Tolerances .874
47.6 Relaxation 875
47.7 Drawing data 876
47.8 Sizings .877
48 Tension Springs 87848.1 Strength values 879
48.2 Shear stress values .879
48.3 Manufacturing type 880
48.4 Eyes window 880
48.5 Materials 882
48.6 Settings 883
48.7 Tolerances .883
48.8 Relaxation 883
48.9 Drawing data 884
48.10 Sizings .885
49 Leg Springs 886
49.1 Strength values 887
49.2 Bending stress values 887
49.3 Spring design .888
49.4 Assumptions made for the calculation .889
49.5 Materials 890
49.6 Tolerances .890
49.7 Drawing data 891
49.8 Sizings .891
50 Disc Springs . 892
50.1 Strength values 893
50.2 Stress values .893
50.3 Materials 895
50.4 Calculate number .895
50.5 Limit dimensions 896
51 Torsion-Bar Springs 897
51.1 Tip forms 898
51.2 Strength values 898
51.3 Shear stress .899
51.4 Limiting values .899
51.5 Sizings .900
VI Belts and chain drives 901
52 V-Belts 902
52.1 V-belts data 903
52.2 V-belt standards .903
52.3 Configuring tensioning pulleys .904
52.4 Application factor F1 904
52.5 Center distance 904
52.6 Belt length 905
52.7 Effective number of V-belts 905
52.8 Tensioning pulley diameter 905
52.9 Position of tensioning pulley (x/y) 905
52.10 Inspecting V-belts 905
53 Toothed Belt . 906
53.1 Technical notes (toothed belts) 906
53.2 Toothed belt standard 908
53.3 Possible sizings/suggestions .909
53.4 Configuring tensioning pulleys .909
53.5 Application factor and summand for operational behavior .910
53.6 Center distance 910
53.7 Belt length and number of teeth on belt .910
53.8 Effective belt width .91153.9 Tensioning pulley tooth number .911
53.10 Position of the tensioning pulley x/y .912
54 Chain Drives . 913
54.1 Sizings .913
54.2 Tensioning pulleys .914
54.3 Standard 914
54.4 Chain type 914
54.5 Number of strands .914
54.6 Application factor .914
54.7 Speed/number of teeth/ratio 915
54.8 Configuration 915
54.9 Center distance 916
54.10 Polygon effect 916
54.11 Number of links 917
54.12 Sprocket geometry .917
VII Automotive 919
55 Synchronization 920
55.1 Geometry .920
55.2 Operating data .921
56 Friction couplings 922
56.1 Calculation .923
56.2 Definition of spring forces 926
56.3 Definition of the coefficients of sliding friction and velocities .927
56.4 Graphics .927
56.5 Settings 927VIII Various .929
57 Tolerance Calculation . 930
58 Proof of strength with local stresses . 931
58.1 General 931
58.1.1 Software functionality 931
58.1.2 Areas of application for the FKM Guideline .931
58.2 Background 932
58.2.1 The FKM Guideline: Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis für Maschinenbauteile .932
58.2.2 Usefulness of the rating life calculation .933
58.3 Implementation in KISSsoft 935
58.3.1 Main screen .935
58.3.2 Stress cases 937
58.3.3 S-N curve (Woehler lines) .938
58.3.4 Number of load cycles .938
58.3.5 Temperature 938
58.3.6 Temperature duration 938
58.3.7 Protective layer thickness, Aluminum, section 4.3.4, Figure 4.3.4 938
58.3.8 Stress ratios .938
58.3.9 Spectra 939
58.3.10 Surface factor KV, section 4.3.3, Table 4.3.7 940
58.4 Materials 940
58.4.1 Surface roughness 940
58.5 Settings 941
58.5.1 General settings 941
58.5.2 Required safeties .943
58.6 Estimation of the endurance limit for surface-treated parts (section 5.5) .944
59 Hertzian Pressure . 94659.1 Settings 948
60 Hardness Conversion . 949
61 Linear Drive Train . 951
61.1 Calculation .952
61.2 Sizings .956
61.3 Settings 957
61.4 Materials 957
62 Deformation of the Gear Body 959
62.1 Calculation procedure 959
62.2 Results .960
63 Plastics Manager 961
63.1 Gear test results .962
63.1.1 Case I. Test results measured on identical test gears .962
63.1.2 Case II. Test results available from gears with different gear geometry 963
63.2 Additional settings in the “Test data” tab .963
63.3 Settings in the Module specific settings .965
63.4 Extrapolation of the calculated permissible root and/or flank stresses 966
63.5 Other calculation options .966
63.6 Writing material data to the KISSsoft database .967
63.7 Graphics .967
63.8 Import material files from mBase .967
IX KISSsys 968
64 KISSsys: Calculation Systems 969
64.1 General 96964.1.1 Structure of KISSsys .969
64.1.2 Ways in which KISSsys can be used 969
64.1.3 The user interface 970
64.2 Creating Models in KISSsys 974
64.2.1 Classic method 974
64.2.2 Element Assistant 974
64.2.3 System Assistant .974
64.2.4 Setup with icon 975
64.2.5 Creating and modifying tables .975
64.2.6 Adding variables to tables .975
64.2.7 Individual names for elements .976
64.3 Extended functionality for developers 977
64.3.1 Properties dialog 977
64.3.2 Table view .979
64.4 The following elements are available .979
64.4.1 Variables 979
64.4.2 Calculation elements .981
64.4.3 Elements for shafts 983
64.4.4 Connection elements .983
64.4.5 Displaying elements in a 3D graphic .984
64.4.6 System settings .985
64.5 Programming in the Interpreter 985
64.5.1 Expressions in variables 985
64.5.2 Functions .987
64.5.3 Important service functions 989
64.5.4 Variable dialogs .990
64.5.5 Defining 2D graphics .999
64.6 Specific functions .100264.6.1 Load spectrum calculation .1002
64.6.2 Efficiency Calculation 1003
64.6.3 Taking into account housing deformation in static KISSsys calculations 1003
64.6.4 Modal analysis of shaft systems 1006
64.6.5 Campbell diagram for shaft systems .1007
64.6.6 Analysis of unbalance response of shaft systems .1008
X Bibliography and Index 1010
65 Bibliography 1011

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