Introduction to Robotics – Analysis, Control, Applications

Introduction to Robotics – Analysis, Control, Applications
اسم المؤلف
Saeed B. Niku
التاريخ
4 يوليو 2022
المشاهدات
52
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to Robotics – Analysis, Control, Applications
Third Edition
Saeed B. Niku, Ph.D., P.E.
California Polytechnic State University
California
USA
Contents
Preface xv
About the Companion Website xix
1 Fundamentals 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 What Is a Robot? 2
1.3 Classification of Robots 3
1.4 What Is Robotics? 3
1.5 History of Robotics 3
1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots 4
1.7 Robot Components 5
1.8 Robot Degrees of Freedom 7
1.9 Robot Joints 9
1.10 Robot Coordinates 9
1.11 Robot Reference Frames 11
1.12 Programming Modes 12
1.13 Robot Characteristics 13
1.14 Robot Workspace 13
1.15 Robot Languages 14
1.16 Robot Applications 17
1.17 Other Robots and Applications 23
1.18 Collaborative Robots 28
1.19 Social Issues 29
1.20 Summary 30
References 30
Problems 32
2 Kinematics of Serial Robots: Position Analysis 35
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Robots as Mechanisms 35
2.3 Conventions 37
2.4 Matrix Representation 37
2.4.1 Representation of a Point in Space 37
2.4.2 Representation of a Vector in Space 38
2.4.3 Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a Fixed-Reference Frame 40
2.4.4 Representation of a Frame Relative to a Fixed Reference Frame 41
2.4.5 Representation of a Rigid Body 42
2.5 Homogeneous Transformation Matrices 45
2.6 Representation of Transformations 46
vii2.6.1 Representation of a Pure Translation 46
2.6.2 Representation of a Pure Rotation about an Axis 47
2.6.3 Representation of Combined Transformations 50
2.6.4 Transformations Relative to the Current (Moving) Frame 52
2.6.5 Mixed Transformations Relative to Rotating and Reference Frames 53
2.7 Inverse of Transformation Matrices 54
2.8 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots 59
2.9 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position 60
2.9.1 Cartesian (Gantry, Rectangular) Coordinates 60
2.9.2 Cylindrical Coordinates 61
2.9.3 Spherical Coordinates 63
2.9.4 Articulated Coordinates 65
2.10 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Orientation 65
2.10.1 Roll, Pitch, Yaw (RPY) Angles 65
2.10.2 Euler Angles 68
2.10.3 Articulated Joints 70
2.11 Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position and Orientation 70
2.12 Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots 70
2.13 The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots 84
2.13.1 General Solution for Articulated Robot Arms 86
2.14 Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots 89
2.15 Dual-Arm Cooperating Robots 91
2.16 Degeneracy and Dexterity 92
2.16.1 Degeneracy 92
2.16.2 Dexterity 93
2.17 The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg Representation 93
2.18 Design Projects 95
2.18.1 Stair-Climbing Robot 96
2.18.2 A 3-DOF Robot 96
2.18.3 A 3-DOF Mobile Robot 98
2.19 Summary 99
References 99
Problems 99
3 Robot Kinematics with Screw-Based Mechanics 111
3.1 Introduction 111
3.2 What Is a Screw? 111
3.3 Rotation about a Screw Axis 112
3.4 Homogenous Transformations about a General Screw Axis 115
3.5 Successive Screw-Based Transformations 119
3.6 Forward and Inverse Position Analysis of an Articulated Robot 120
3.7 Design Projects 127
3.8 Summary 127
Additional Reading 128
Problems 128
4 Kinematics Analysis of Parallel Robots 133
4.1 Introduction 133
4.2 Physical Characteristics of Parallel Robots 134
4.3 The Denavit-Hartenberg Approach vs. the Direct Kinematic Approach 139
viii Contents4.4 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Planar Parallel Robots 140
4.4.1 Kinematic Analysis of a 3-RPR Planar Parallel Robot 141
4.4.2 Kinematic Analysis of a 3-RRR Planar Parallel Robot 143
4.5 Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Spatial Parallel Robots 147
4.5.1 Kinematic Analysis of a Generic 6-6 Stewart-Gough Platform 147
4.5.2 Kinematic Analysis of a Generic 6-3 Stewart-Gough Platform 152
4.5.3 Kinematic Analysis of a 3-Axis RSS-Type Parallel Robot 154
4.5.4 Kinematic Analysis of a 4-Axis RSS-Type Parallel Robot 160
4.5.5 Kinematic Analysis of a 3-Axis PSS-Type Parallel Robot 167
4.6 Other Parallel Robot Configurations 169
4.7 Design Projects 169
4.8 Summary 170
References 170
Problems 170
5 Differential Motions and Velocities 173
5.1 Introduction 173
5.2 Differential Relationships 173
5.3 The Jacobian 174
5.4 Differential versus Large-Scale Motions 176
5.5 Differential Motions of a Frame versus a Robot 177
5.6 Differential Motions of a Frame 178
5.6.1 Differential Translations 178
5.6.2 Differential Rotations about Reference Axes 178
5.6.3 Differential Rotation about a General Axis q 179
5.6.4 Differential Transformations of a Frame 181
5.7 Interpretation of the Differential Change 182
5.8 Differential Changes between Frames 183
5.9 Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame 185
5.10 Calculation of the Jacobian 185
5.11 How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator 188
5.12 The Inverse Jacobian 191
5.13 Calculation of the Jacobian with Screw-Based Mechanics 197
5.14 The Inverse Jacobian for the Screw-Based Method 206
5.15 Calculation of the Jacobians of Parallel Robots 206
5.15.1 The Jacobian of a Planar 3-RRR Parallel Robot 207
5.15.2 The Jacobian of a Generic 6-6 Stewart-Gough Parallel Robot 208
5.16 Design Projects 210
5.16.1 The 3-DOF Robot 210
5.16.2 The 3-DOF Mobile Robot 210
5.17 Summary 210
References 211
Problems 211
6 Dynamic and Force Analysis 219
6.1 Introduction 219
6.2 Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview 220
6.3 Effective Moments of Inertia 229
6.4 Dynamic Equations for Multiple-DOF Robots 229
6.4.1 Kinetic Energy 229
Contents ix6.4.2 Potential Energy 234
6.4.3 The Lagrangian 234
6.4.4 Robot’s Equations of Motion 234
6.5 Static Force Analysis of Robots 239
6.6 Transformation of Forces and Moments between Coordinate Frames 242
6.7 Design Project 244
6.8 Summary 244
References 244
Problems 245
7 Trajectory Planning 247
7.1 Introduction 247
7.2 Path vs. Trajectory 247
7.3 Joint-Space vs. Cartesian-Space Descriptions 248
7.4 Basics of Trajectory Planning 249
7.5 Joint-Space Trajectory Planning 252
7.5.1 Third-Order Polynomial Trajectory Planning 252
7.5.2 Fifth-Order Polynomial Trajectory Planning 255
7.5.3 Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends 257
7.5.4 Linear Segments with Parabolic Blends and Via Points 259
7.5.5 Higher-Order Trajectories 260
7.5.6 Other Trajectories 263
7.6 Cartesian-Space Trajectories 263
7.7 Continuous Trajectory Recording 267
7.8 Design Project 268
7.9 Summary 269
References 269
Problems 269
8 Motion Control Systems 273
8.1 Introduction 273
8.2 Basic Components and Terminology 273
8.3 Block Diagrams 274
8.4 System Dynamics 274
8.5 Laplace Transform 278
8.6 Inverse Laplace Transform 281
8.6.1 Partial Fraction Expansion When F(s) Involves Only Distinct Poles 281
8.6.2 Partial Fraction Expansion When F(s) Involves Repeated Poles 282
8.6.3 Partial Fraction Expansion When F(s) Involves Complex Conjugate Poles 283
8.7 Transfer Functions 285
8.8 Block Diagram Algebra 288
8.9 Characteristics of First-Order Transfer Functions 290
8.10 Characteristics of Second-Order Transfer Functions 292
8.11 Characteristic Equation: Pole/Zero Mapping 294
8.12 Steady-State Error 296
8.13 Root Locus Method 298
8.14 Proportional Controllers 303
8.15 Proportional-Plus-Integral Controllers 306
8.16 Proportional-Plus-Derivative Controllers 308
x Contents8.17 Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (PID) 311
8.18 Lead and Lag Compensators 313
8.19 Bode Diagram and Frequency-Domain Analysis 313
8.20 Open-Loop vs. Closed-Loop Applications 314
8.21 Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Systems 314
8.22 State-Space Control Methodology 316
8.23 Digital Control 320
8.24 Nonlinear Control Systems 322
8.25 Electromechanical Systems Dynamics: Robot Actuation and Control 323
8.26 Design Projects 326
8.27 Summary 327
References 327
Problems 327
9 Actuators and Drive Systems 331
9.1 Introduction 331
9.2 Characteristics of Actuating Systems 331
9.2.1 Nominal Characteristics – Weight, Power-to-Weight Ratio, Operating Pressure, Voltage,
and Others 331
9.2.2 Stiffness vs. Compliance 332
9.2.3 Use of Reduction Gears 332
9.3 Comparison of Actuating Systems 335
9.4 Hydraulic Actuators 335
9.5 Pneumatic Devices 337
9.6 Electric Motors 338
9.6.1 Fundamental Differences Between AC- and DC-Type Motors 339
9.6.2 DC Motors 341
9.6.3 AC Motors 344
9.6.4 Brushless DC Motors 345
9.6.5 Direct-Drive Electric Motors 346
9.6.6 Servomotors 346
9.6.7 Stepper Motors 347
9.7 Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors 360
9.7.1 Pulse Width Modulation 361
9.7.2 Direction Control of DC Motors with an H-Bridge 363
9.8 Magnetostrictive Actuators 364
9.9 Shape-Memory Type Metals 364
9.10 Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAPs) 364
9.11 Speed Reduction 365
9.12 Other Systems 367
9.13 Design Projects 367
9.14 Summary 370
References 371
Problems 372
10 Sensors 375
10.1 Introduction 375
10.2 Sensor Characteristics 375
10.3 Sensor Utilization 377
Contents xi10.4 Position Sensors 378
10.4.1 Potentiometers 378
10.4.2 Encoders 379
10.4.3 Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) 382
10.4.4 Resolvers 383
10.4.5 (Linear) Magnetostrictive Displacement Transducer (LMDT or MDT) 383
10.4.6 Hall-effect Sensors 384
10.4.7 Global Positioning System (GPS) 384
10.4.8 Other Devices 385
10.5 Velocity Sensors 385
10.5.1 Encoders 385
10.5.2 Tachometers 385
10.5.3 Differentiation of Position Signal 386
10.6 Acceleration Sensors 386
10.7 Force and Pressure Sensors 386
10.7.1 Piezoelectric 386
10.7.2 Force-Sensing Resistor 386
10.7.3 Strain Gauge 387
10.7.4 Antistatic Foam 388
10.8 Torque Sensors 388
10.9 Microswitches 389
10.10 Visible Light and Infrared Sensors 389
10.11 Touch and Tactile Sensors 390
10.12 Proximity Sensors 391
10.12.1 Magnetic Proximity Sensors 391
10.12.2 Optical Proximity Sensors 391
10.12.3 Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors 392
10.12.4 Inductive Proximity Sensors 392
10.12.5 Capacitive Proximity Sensors 393
10.12.6 Eddy Current Proximity Sensors 393
10.13 Range Finders 393
10.13.1 Ultrasonic Range Finders 394
10.13.2 Light-Based Range Finders 395
10.14 Sniff Sensors 396
10.15 Vision Systems 396
10.16 Voice-Recognition Devices 396
10.17 Voice Synthesizers 397
10.18 Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device 397
10.19 Design Project 400
10.20 Summary 400
References 401
11 Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems 403
11.1 Introduction 403
11.2 Basic Concepts 403
11.2.1 Image Processing vs. Image Analysis 403
11.2.2 Two- and Three-Dimensional Image Types 403
11.2.3 The Nature of an Image 404
11.2.4 Acquisition of Images 405
xii Contents11.2.5 Digital Images 405
11.2.6 Frequency Domain vs. Spatial Domain 406
11.3 Fourier Transform and Frequency Content of a Signal 406
11.4 Frequency Content of an Image: Noise and Edges 409
11.5 Resolution and Quantization 410
11.6 Sampling Theorem 412
11.7 Image-Processing Techniques 415
11.8 Histograms of Images 415
11.9 Thresholding 418
11.10 Spatial Domain Operations Convolution Mask 419
11.11 Connectivity 424
11.12 Noise Reduction 426
11.12.1 Neighborhood Averaging with Convolution Masks 427
11.12.2 Image Averaging 428
11.12.3 Frequency Domain 429
11.12.4 Median Filters 429
11.13 Edge Detection 430
11.14 Sharpening an Image 436
11.15 Hough Transform 437
11.16 Segmentation 440
11.17 Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting 441
11.18 Binary Morphology Operations 444
11.18.1 Thickening Operation 446
11.18.2 Dilation 446
11.18.3 Erosion 447
11.18.4 Skeletonization 447
11.18.5 Open Operation 448
11.18.6 Close Operation 448
11.18.7 Fill Operation 448
11.19 Gray Morphology Operations 449
11.19.1 Erosion 449
11.19.2 Dilation 449
11.20 Image Analysis 449
11.21 Object Recognition by Features 450
11.21.1 Basic Features Used for Object Identification 450
11.21.2 Moments 451
11.21.3 Template Matching 456
11.21.4 Discrete Fourier Descriptors 456
11.21.5 Computed Tomography (CT) 457
11.22 Depth Measurement with Vision Systems 457
11.22.1 Scene Analysis vs. Mapping 457
11.22.2 Range Detection and Depth Analysis 458
11.22.3 Stereo Imaging 458
11.22.4 Scene Analysis with Shading and Sizes 459
11.23 Specialized Lighting 459
11.24 Image Data Compression 460
11.24.1 Intraframe Spatial Domain Techniques 460
11.24.2 Interframe Coding 461
11.24.3 Compression Techniques 461
Contents xiii11.25 Color Images 462
11.26 Heuristics 462
11.27 Applications of Vision Systems 462
11.28 Design Project 463
11.29 Summary 464
References 464
Problems 465
12 Fuzzy Logic Control 475
12.1 Introduction 475
12.2 Fuzzy Control: What Is Needed 476
12.3 Crisp Values vs. Fuzzy Values 476
12.4 Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Truth and Membership 477
12.5 Fuzzification 477
12.6 Fuzzy Inference Rules 480
12.7 Defuzzification 481
12.7.1 Center of Gravity Method 481
12.7.2 Mamdani Inference Method 481
12.8 Simulation of a Fuzzy Logic Controller 485
12.9 Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics 487
12.10 Design Project 488
12.11 Summary 489
References 489
Problems 490
Appendix A 491
Appendix B 499
Index 501
Index
a
Absolute encoder 376, 379, 381
AC
current 338
induction motor 338
motor 338, 344, 345
sunchronous motor 338, 358
Acceleration 219, 220
angular 219, 225, 235
centripetal 223, 225, 235, 236
Coriolis 223, 225, 235, 236
sensor 386
Accumulator 337
Accuracy 377
AC/DC universal motor 338
Actuator
electroactive polymer 331, 364
hydraulic 331, 335
linear 337
magnetostrictive 364
muscle-wire 331, 364
piezoelectric 331
pneumatic 331, 337
rotary 337
shape-memory 364
Adjoint 493
Aliasing 413
Analog to digital converter (ADC) 321, 360, 375, 410
Angle criterion 301
Angular acceleration 219, 225, 235, 275
Angular momentum 229
Animatronics 28
Antistatic foam 388
Articulated 10, 60, 65, 120
ASIMO 4
Aspect ratio 450
Asymmetry 150
Asymptote 301, 314
ATAN2 496
Austenitic 364
Averaging filter 428
b
Back emf 323, 338, 342, 345, 357, 362
Bifilar stepper motor 351, 355
Binary code 381
Binary morphology 444
Bipolar stepper motor 355
Bit 412
Bitmap 405
Block diagram 274, 288
Bode diagram 313, 320
Breakaway point 301
Breakdown voltage 357
Break-in point 301
Brushes 342, 349
Brushless DC motor 338, 345, 349
Byte 360, 412
c
Caliper 354
Can-stack stepper motor 349–351
Capacitance 276, 385
Capacitive 393
Capek, Karel 3
Cartesian coordinates 9, 35, 60
Cartesian space 248, 263
CAT scan 404
Center of area 452
Center of gravity 481
Center-tapping 345, 351, 353–356
Centripetal acceleration 223, 225, 229, 235, 236
Centroid 452
Cermet 379
Characteristic equation 294, 298–303
Charge-coupled device (CCD) 499
Charge-integrated device (CID) 499
Chasles’s theorem 111, 115
Chord length 450
Closed loop 274, 286, 291, 300, 314
Close operation 448
CMYK 404
Cobots 28
Coefficient of friction 333
Collaborative robot 28, 240, 347, 463, 487
Common normal 71
Commutator 342, 344, 349
Compensator 313, 397
Complex conjugate 283, 295
Compliance 332, 336, 398
Compression 461
Computed tomography 404, 457
Conductive polymer 379
Connectivity 424, 443, 446
Constant area quantization (CAQ) 461
Continuous trajectory 267
Contrast 416
Convolution mask 419, 427
Cooperating robots 91, 241, 347
Coordinates
Cartesian 35, 60
cylindrical 35, 60, 61
rectangular 60
spherical 35, 60, 63
Coriolis acceleration 223–236
Correspondence 458
Coupled angles 66, 198
Coupling inertia 229
Crisp value 476
Critical damping 292, 295, 298, 301
Current frame 52
Cylindrical coordinates 10, 35, 60
d
Damping 275, 292, 303, 324
coefficient 326
ratio 292
Data compression 460
DC
brushed motor 338
current 342
motor 338–345
Decoupling 66, 85, 89, 122
Deflection 35
Deformation 332
Defuzzification 476, 481
Degeneracy 91, 208
Degrees of freedom (DOF) 7, 35, 43, 93, 133, 143, 147,
154, 160, 208, 220, 338
Denavit-Hartenberg 35, 70, 93, 119, 139, 173, 197,
199, 230
Depth analysis 458
Depth measurement 403, 457, 459
Detent torque 348
Determinant 56, 208, 483
Dexterity 93
Differential
dithering 338
motion 173, 177, 264, 240
operator 181, 183, 188
Digital control 320
Digital to analog converter (DAC) 320, 360
Dilation 444–449
Direct drive
DC motor 338
electric motor 331, 346
system 333
Directional cosine 41, 43, 114
Direction vector 39
Discrete Fourier descriptors 456
Discriminant 146, 283
Disk motor 343
Disparity 458
Displacement sensor 383
Dithering 460
Dominant frequency 406
Dual arm robot 29, 91
e
Eccentricity 450
Eddy current 339, 393
Edge detection 419, 430–437, 440
Edge detectors
left-right 435
Prewitt 434
Roberts 434
Sobel 434
Effective moment of inertia 229
Electric motor 331–338
Electroactive polymer actuator (EAP) 331, 364
Electromotive force 338
Encoders 345–347, 379–385
absolute 379, 381
incremental 379
optical 380
velocity sensor 385
Erosion 444–449
Error signal 274
Estimator 319
Euler 65, 68
Expert system 475
f
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) 409
Feature extraction 450
Feed-forward transfer function (FFTF) 286, 288, 303
502 IndexFifth-order polynomial 255, 260
Fill operation 448
Filters
Gaussian 428
high-pass 410, 436
low pass 428
median 429
Final value theorem 292, 280
Finite difference 432
First moment of area 452
Flexspline 366
Flux vector control 345
Force analysis, static 239
Force decomposition 206
Force sensor 387
Forcing function 275
Foreshortening 459
Forward kinematics 35, 59, 120, 133, 140, 151
Fourier series 406
Fourier transform 406, 409, 413, 427, 429
Fourth-order polynomial 260
Frameless motor 344
Frames, current 52
Free body diagram 333
Frequency
content 406
domain 313, 406, 409, 427, 429
response 376
spectrum 406–409, 413, 429
Fully parallel robot 137
Fuzzification 476
Fuzzy
control 476
description 475
inference 476
inference engine 480
inference rules 476, 480
logic 487
sets 476, 477
g
Gain, proportional 292
Gaussian
elimination 191
filter 428
membership function 478
Global Positioning System (GPS) 384
Gradient 431
Gravity matrix 234
Gray code 381
Grey morphology 449
Greyness level 416
Gruber-Kutzbach 135
Gyroscopic steering 369
h
Halbach array 350
Half step operation 349, 356
Hall-effect sensor 345, 380, 384
Harmonic drive 365
Harmonics 409
H-bridge 363
Heat dissipation 248, 339–340, 345
Heat generation 339
Heuristics 462
Hexapod 133
Higher order
derivative 231
differentials 179
polynomial 267
High-pass filter 410, 433, 436
Histogram 406, 415, 428, 434, 450
equalization 416
Holding torque 356
Hollow-rotor motor 343
Homogeneous matrix 42, 45, 56, 114, 233
Hough transform 437, 457
Humanoid 487
Hydraulic
actuator 331
pump 335, 337
system 332, 335
Hysteresis 322, 339
i
Image
acquisition 499
analysis 403, 449
averaging 428
binary 406, 412
processing 403, 415, 424, 450
sharpening 436
Incremental encoder 379
Independent joint control 323
Indexer 348
Indirect amplitude modulation 395
Inductance 276, 324
Inductive 393
Inertia 143, 154, 219, 233, 275, 333, 339, 343, 357
Inertia tensor 233
Infrared sensor 389
Instantaneous center 398
Integral gain 307
Integrated hybrid servo 347
Integrator 311
Intercept 437
Interfacing 376
Interframe 461
Intraframe 460
Index 503Inverse
Jacobian 191, 206
kinematics 35, 59, 64, 69, 84, 89, 120, 133, 137,
140, 191, 248, 259, 264
Laplace transform 281
matrices 54
transformation matrix 54
j
Jacobian 173, 185, 188, 206, 241
inverse 191, 197, 199, 206, 208
Jerk 255
Joint offset 73, 83
Joint reference frame 12
Joint space 248, 252
JPEG, JPG 461
k
Kinematics
chain 134, 147
forward 35, 59, 120, 133, 140, 151
inverse 35, 59, 64, 69, 84, 89, 120, 133, 137, 140,
191, 248, 259, 264
loop 134
Kinetic energy 222, 229, 232
Kirchhoff’s law 276
Knot point 257
l
Lag compensator 313
Lagrangian 220, 229, 234
Laplace transform 278, 281, 313, 316, 325
Laplacian 432–434
Lapsed time 393
Lead compensator 313
Lead-lag compensation 313
Lead-through 12
Left-Right edge detector 435
Lift-off 260
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) 395, 441, 457
Linear actuator 337
Linearity 376
Linear magnetostrictive displacement transducer
(LMDT) 383
Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) 382, 390
Logarithmic scale 313
Look-up table 450
Lossless compression 461
Lossy compression 461
Low pass filter 362, 409, 427, 428
m
Magnetic field 276, 338
Magnetic flux 339, 340
Magnetostrictive actuator 364
Magnetostrictive sensor 383
Magnitude criterion 300
Mamdani inference method 481
Manipulator 2, 5, 36, 133
Mapping 457
Martensitic 364
Mask 430
Matrix
adjoint 56, 493
algebra 491
determinant 56, 492
diagonal 492
homogeneous 42, 56
inversion 493
multiplication 491
trace 495
transpose 56, 491
unitary 56
Mechanism 35, 174, 177, 208, 219, 249, 398
Median filter 429
Membership function 477
Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) 28
Microprocessor 7, 320, 358, 360
Microstepping 357
Modulus of elasticity 332
Moment invariant 453
Moment of inertia 225, 229, 227, 276
Moments 450–451
Morphology 419, 444, 449
MOSFET 362
Motion control 273
Motion simulator 133
Motor
AC 338, 344, 345
AC/DC universal 338
AC induction 338
AC synchronous 338, 358
bifilar stepper 351, 355
bipolar stepper 355
brushless DC 345–349
can-stack stepper 349–351
DC 338, 341, 345
DC brushed 338
DC brushless 338
direct drive DC 338
direct-drive electric 331, 346
disk 343
electric 331, 338
frameless 344
hollow-rotor 343
pancake 343
reactance 343
reversible AC 345
504 Indexservo 331, 346
squirrel-cage 344
stepper 331, 338, 3475, 347
switched reluctance 338
unipolar stepper 355
Multiple input/output (MIMO) 314
Muscle-wire actuator 331, 364
n
Natural frequency 292, 326, 362, 376
Neighborhood averaging 427, 429
Neodymium 343
Newtonian mechanics 220
Nibble 360
Noise 415, 409, 437
Noise reduction 406, 426
Nonlinear control 322
Nonlinearity 376
Nutating gear train 367
o
Object recognition 430, 450–456
Offset 149
Open loop 36, 274, 313–314
transfer function 285
Open operation 448
Operating pressure 332
Optical encoder 345, 380
Outer arm 154, 160, 167
Overdamped 295, 298
Overshoot 301, 305, 306
p
Pancake motor 333, 343
Parabolic blend 252, 257, 259
Parallel axes theorem 452
Parallel robot 11, 36, 133, 206
Partial fraction expansion 281, 292, 296
Passive DOF 135, 138, 154
Payload 13
Peak time 293
Percentile 429
Percent overshoot 293
Permeability 382
Phoneme 397
Photodetector 380
Photosite 499
Phototransistor 379, 389
Piezoelectric actuator 331
Pitch 65, 111, 120, 125
Planetary gear train 365
Pneumatic actuator 331, 337
Point-to-point 90
Pole
complex conjugate 283
distinct 281
mapping 294
placement 303
repeated 282
Pole/zero
cancellation 311
mapping 294
Polynomial
fifth-order 255, 260
fourth order 260
higher order 267
third-order 252, 260
Portable Gray Map (PGM) 405
Position sensor 378
Potential energy 222, 229, 234
Potentiometer 347, 378
wire wound 379
Power to weight ratio 331, 336, 343
Precision 13
Predictive coding 460
Prewitt edge detector 434
Prismatic 9, 71, 120, 134, 141, 147, 167, 230, 240, 323
Product of inertia 453
Programmable logic controller (PLC) 5, 12
Proportional control 303
Proportional gain 292, 303, 307
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control 311
Proportional-plus-derivative (PD) controllers 308
Proportional-plus-integral (PI) controllers 306
Prosthesis 26
Proximity sensor 391
Pseudo inertia matrix 233
Pseudorandom quantization 460
Pull-out torque 356
Pulse width modulation (PWM) 361
q
Quadrant 62, 156, 158, 162, 496
Quadratic equation 145, 168
Quantization 410
r
Rabota 3
Radius of curvature 398
Ramp function 278
Random noise 429
Range array acquisition 394, 395
Range detection 376, 458
Range finder 393, 394
Rare earth metals 343
Reach 13
Reactance of motors 343
Reduction gears 333, 336
Index 505Reference frame, joint 11, 12
Reflectance 459
Region
growing 430, 440
nucleus 442
splitting 441
Reliability 377
Reluctance 349, 352–357
Remote-center compliance (RCC) 397–400
Repeatability 13, 377
Reset position 77, 83, 98, 120, 124, 148, 156–168
Residual torque 348
Residue 281, 282, 283
Resistance 276, 387
Resolution 376, 381, 410
Resolver 345, 347, 383
Response time 376
Reversible AC motor 345
Revolute 9, 71, 120, 134, 147, 230, 240, 323
Red, green, and blue (RGB) 405, 412, 462
RFID 387
Rise time 291, 293, 301, 376
Roberts edge detector 434
Robot
collaborative 28, 463, 487
dual arm 29
fixed sequence 2
four limbed 137
parallel 11, 133
payload 13
playback 3
precision 13
repeatability 13
three limbed 137
validity 13
variability 13
workspace 13
Rodrigues’ rotation formula 113
Roll 65
Root locus 298, 314, 320
Rossum’s Universal Robots 3
Rotary actuator 337
Rotation matrix 56
s
Sampling rate 410, 412
Sampling theorem 320, 412, 413
Scalar 43, 113, 234, 240
Scale factor 39
Scaling gradient 459
Scene analysis 457
Screw based mechanics 111, 197, 206
Screw based transformations 119
Second moment of area 452
Segmentation 430, 440
Selective compliance 398
Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm
(SCARA) 10, 71, 169
Sensitivity 376
Sensors 6, 241, 337, 347, 375
acceleration 386
antistatic foam 388
displacement 383
force 387
global reference frame (GPS) 384
Hall effect 380, 384
infrared 389
light detection and ranging (LIDAR) 395
linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) 382
magnetostrictive 383
position 378
pressure 387
proximity 391
range finder 393, 394
resolver 383
sniff 396
tachometer 385
tactile 389–390
torque 388
touch 389–390
velocity 385
voice recognition 396
Servo controller 273
Servomechanism 323
Servomotor 331, 335, 339, 346, 361
Set down 260
Set theory 444
Settling time 291, 293, 376
Shading 459
Shape-memory metal 364
Single-input, single-output (SISO) 314
Singleton 476
Singularity 142, 208
Skeletonization 444, 446, 447
Slope 437
Sniff sensor 396
Sobel operator 434
Spatial domain 406, 419, 427
Speed reduction 365
Spherical 10, 134, 147, 160, 167
center 137
coordinates 35, 60, 63
Spot checking 394, 395
Squirrel-cage motor 344
Stability 314
State-space control 316
Static force analysis 239
Static position error 297
506 Indexcoefficient 306
Steady state
error 296, 304, 306, 311, 314
gain 290, 292
value 280
Step function 278, 292, 306
Stepper
driver 358
motor 331, 338, 345, 347
translator 358
Stereo imaging 395, 458
Stereo vision 457
Stewart-Gough platform 133, 147, 152, 208
Stiffness 275, 287, 332, 336
Strain gauge 387
Successive transformations 119
Switched reluctance motor 338
Symmetrical parallel robot 136
System dynamics 275, 323
System type 311
t
Tachometer 325, 347, 385
Tactile sensor 389–390
Taylor series 322
Template matching 456
Tensor 233
Thickening 446
Thinness 451
Third-order polynomial 252, 260
Three-phase AC motor 338
Threshold 434
Thresholding 406, 415, 418, 430, 442
TIFF 405
Time
constant 290, 295, 376
delay 395
of flight 393
response 292
Time-to-amplitude converter (TAC) 395
Tool reference frame 12
Torque
constant 340, 342
detent 348
residual 348
sensors 388
Touch sensor 389–390
Trace 232, 234, 238, 495
Trajectory 90, 247, 262
Transfer function 285, 296, 298, 324
closed-loop 286
feed-forward 286, 288
first order 290, 291
higher order 295
open loop 285, 297–299
second order 292, 295
Transformation 46, 91
combined 50
relative 52
Transpose 491–495
Trapezoidal membership function 478
Triangular membership function 478
Triangulation 393–395
Twist angle 73, 83
u
Ultrasonic 392
Underdamped 283, 295, 298
Union 444
Unipolar stepper motor 355
Unit vector 179
v
Validity 13
Variability 13
Vector 38, 492
Vector-loop method 206
Velocity error 298
Velocity sensor 385
Via point 251, 259, 260
Virtual reality 384
Virtual work 240, 242
Viscosity 336
Viscous coefficient of friction 276
Voice coil 346
Voice recognition 396
Voice synthesis 397
Voltage divider 378
Voxel 404, 424
Voyager 461
w
Walking machine 370
Wheatstone bridge 387
Workspace 13, 37, 133
World reference frame 11
y
Yaw 65
z
Zener diode 357
Zero 294
Zero-pole cancellation 311
z-plane 320
z-transform 321
Index 507

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