Introduction to Health and Safety at Work – Fourth Edition

Introduction to Health and Safety at Work – Fourth Edition
اسم المؤلف
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH, former Chairman NEBOSH 1995 – 2001 Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng
التاريخ
24 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
142
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to Health and Safety at Work
Fourth Edition
The Handbook for the NEBOSH National General Certificate
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH, former Chairman NEBOSH 1995 – 2001
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE, MIET, CMIOSH,
Vice Chairman NEBOSH 1999 – 2008
Contents
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION xiii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xv
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xvii
LIST OF PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS xviii
ILLUSTRATIONS CREDITS xxi
1 HEALTH AND SAFETY FOUNDATIONS 1
1 .1 Introduction 1
1 .2 Some basic definitions 2
1 .3 The legal framework for health and safety 2
1 .4 The legal system in England and Wales 4
1 .5 The legal system in Scotland 5
1 .6 European Courts 5
1 .7 Sources of law (England and Wales) 6
1 .8 Common law torts and duties 6
1 .9 Levels of statutory duty 8
1 .10 The influence of the European Union on health and safety 9
1 .11 The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSW Act) 9
1 .12 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 16
1 .13 Role and function of external agencies 16
1 .14 Sources of information on health and safety 18
1 .15 Moral, legal and financial arguments for health and safety management 18
1 .16 The framework for health and safety management 22
1 .17 Sources of reference 23
1 .18 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 1 24
2 POLICY 27
2 .1 Introduction 27
2 .2 Legal requirements 27
2 .3 Key elements of a health and safety policy 28
2 .4 Review of health and safety policy 31
2 .5 Sources of reference 32
2 .6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 2 32
Appendix 2.1 Health and Safety Policy checklist 34
3 ORGANIZING FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY 37
3 .1 Introduction 37
3 .2 Control 38
3 .3 Employers ’ responsibilities 38vi
Contents
3 .4 Employees ’ and agency workers ’ responsibilities 40
3 .5 Organizational health and safety responsibilities – directors 40
3 .6 Typical managers ’ organizational responsibilities 42
3 .7 Role and functions of health and safety practitioners and other advisers 43
3 .8 Persons in control of premises 45
3 .9 Self-employed 45
3 .10 The supply chain 45
3 .11 Contractors 48
3 .12 Joint occupation of premises 52
3 .13 Consultation with the workforce 52
3 .14 Sources of reference 56
3 .15 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 3 56
Appendix 3.1 Detailed health and safety responsibilities 58
Appendix 3.2 Checklist for supply chain health and safety management 60
4 PROMOTING A POSITIVE HEALTH AND SAFETY CULTURE 63
4 .1 Introduction 63
4 .2 Definition of a health and safety culture 63
4 .3 Safety culture and safety performance 64
4 .4 Human factors and their influence on safety performance 65
4 .5 Human errors and violations 70
4 .6 The development of a positive health and safety culture 72
4 .7 Effective communication 74
4 .8 Health and safety training 75
4 .9 Internal infl uences 77
4 .10 External influences 79
4 .11 Sources of reference 80
4 .12 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 4 80
Appendix 4.1 List of typical legislation requiring health and safety training 82
5 RISK ASSESSMENT 83
5 .1 Introduction 83
5 .2 Legal aspects of risk assessment 83
5 .3 Forms of risk assessment 85
5 .4 Some definitions 85
5 .5 The objectives of risk assessment 86
5 .6 Accident categories 86
5 .7 Health risks 87
5 .8 The management of risk assessment 87
5 .9 The risk assessment process 88
5 .10 Special cases 90
5 .11 Sources of reference 92
5 .12 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 5 93
Appendix 5.1 Hazard checklist 95
Appendix 5.2 Example of a risk assessment record 96
Appendix 5.3 Risk assessment example 2: hairdressing salon 98
Appendix 5.4 Risk assessment example 3: office cleaning 100Contents
vii
6 PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL 103
6 .1 Introduction 103
6 .2 Principles of prevention 104
6 .3 General control measures 105
6 .4 Controlling health risks 112
6 .5 Safe systems of work 114
6 .6 Lone workers 117
6 .7 Permits to work 117
6 .8 Emergency procedures 122
6 .9 First aid at work 123
6 .10 Sources of reference 126
6 .11 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 6 126
Appendix 6.1 Job safety analysis form 128
Appendix 6.2 Essential elements of a permit-to-work form 129
Appendix 6.3 Asbestos examples of safe systems of work 130
7 MONITORING, REVIEW AND AUDIT 133
7 .1 Introduction 133
7 .2 The traditional approach to measuring health and safety performance 133
7 .3 Why measure performance? 134
7 .4 What to measure 135
7 .5 Proactive or active monitoring – how to measure performance 136
7 .6 Measuring failure – reactive monitoring 138
7 .7 Who should monitor performance? 138
7 .8 Frequency of monitoring and inspections 139
7 .9 Report writing 139
7 .10 Review and audit 141
7 .11 Sources of reference 143
7 .12 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 7 143
Appendix 7.1 Workplace inspection exercises 145
Appendix 7.2 Specimen workplace inspection report form 147
Appendix 7.3 Workplace inspection checklist 148
8 INCIDENT AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION RECORDING AND REPORTING 153
8 .1 Introduction 153
8 .2 Reasons for incident/accident investigation 154
8 .3 Which incidents/accidents should be investigated? 155
8 .4 Investigations and causes of accidents/incidents 156
8 .5 Legal recording and reporting requirements 159
8 .6 Internal systems for collecting and analysing incident data 161
8 .7 Compensation and insurance issues 162
8 .8 Sources of reference 163
8 .9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 8 163
Appendix 8.1 Accident/incident report form 165
Appendix 8.2 Information for insurance/compensation claims 167viii
Contents
9 MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE AND VEHICLES – HAZARDS AND CONTROL 169
9 .1 Introduction 169
9 .2 Hazards to pedestrians 169
9 .3 Control strategies for pedestrian hazards 171
9.4 Hazards in vehicle operations 173
9 .5 Mobile work equipment 175
9 .6 Safe driving 178
9 .7 Control strategies for safe vehicle and mobile plant operations 178
9 .8 The management of vehicle movements 179
9 .9 Managing occupational road safety 179
9 .10 Sources of reference 183
9 .11 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 9 184
10 MANUAL AND MECHANICAL HANDLING HAZARDS AND CONTROL 185
10 .1 Introduction 185
10 .2 Manual handling hazards and injuries 185
10 .3 Manual handling risk assessments 186
10 .4 Safety in the use of lifting and moving equipment 190
10 .5 Types of mechanical handling and lifting equipment 191
10 .6 Requirements for the statutory examination of lifting equipment 197
10 .7 Sources of reference 198
10 .8 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 10 198
Appendix 10.1 Manual handling of load assessment checklist 201
Appendix 10.2 A typical risk assessment for the use of lifting equipment 204
11 WORK EQUIPMENT HAZARDS AND CONTROL 205
11 .1 Introduction 205
11 .2 Suitability of work equipment and CE marking 205
11 .3 Use and maintenance of equipment with specific risks 207
11 .4 Information, instruction and training 208
11 .5 Maintenance and inspection 208
11 .6 Operation and working environment 210
11 .7 User responsibilities 212
11 .8 Hand-held tools 212
11 .9 Hand-held power tools 214
11 .10 Mechanical machinery hazards 218
11 .11 Non-mechanical machinery hazards 220
11 .12 Examples of machinery hazards 220
11 .13 Practical safeguards 222
11 .14 Other safety devices 225
11 .15 Application of safeguards to the range of machines 227
11 .16 Guard construction 233
11 .17 Sources of reference 234
11 .18 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 11 234
12 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS AND CONTROL 237
12 .1 Introduction 237
12 .2 Principles of electricity and some definitions 237Contents
ix
12 .3 Electrical hazards and injuries 239
12 .4 General control measures for electrical hazards 245
12 .5 The selection and suitability of equipment 24 6
12 .6 Inspection and maintenance strategies 247
12 .7 Portable electrical appliances testing 250
12 .8 Sources of reference 253
12 .9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 12 253
13 FIRE HAZARDS AND CONTROL 255
13 .1 Introduction 255
13 .2 The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order (RRFSO) – requirements 256
13 .3 Construction Design and Management Regulations 2007 259
13 .4 Basic principles of fire 259
13 .5 Methods of extinction 261
13 .6 Classification of fire 261
13 .7 Principles of heat transmission and fire spread 262
13 .8 Common causes of fire and consequences 263
13 .9 Fire risk assessment 264
13 .10 Dangerous substances 268
13 .11 Fire detection and warning 270
13 .12 Means of escape in case of fire 271
13 .13 Principles of fire protection in buildings 273
13 .14 Provision of fire fighting equipment 275
13 .15 Maintenance and testing of fire fighting equipment 278
13 .16 Fire emergency plans 278
13 .17 People with special needs 280
13 .18 Sources of reference 281
13 .19 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 13 282
Appendix 13.1 Fire risk assessment as recommended in Fire Safety Guides
published by the Department for Communities and Local Government in 2006 284
Appendix 13.2 Example form for recording significant findings as published in
2006 by the Department for Communities and Local Government in their Fire Safety Guides 286
Appendix 13.3 Typical fi re notice 287
14 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS AND CONTROL 289
14 .1 Introduction 289
14 .2 Forms of chemical agent 290
14 .3 Forms of biological agent 290
14 .4 Classification of hazardous substances and their associated health risks 291
14 .5 Routes of entry to the human body 292
14 .6 Health hazards of specific agents 296
14 .7 Requirements of the COSHH Regulations 299
14 .8 Details of a COSHH assessment 299
14 .9 The control measures required under the COSHH Regulations 304
14 .10 Health surveillance and personal hygiene 311
14 .11 Maintenance and emergency controls 311
14 .12 The transport of hazardous substances by road 311
14 .13 An illustrative example using COSHH controls 312
14 .14 Environmental considerations 312x
Contents
14 .15 Sources of reference 317
14 .16 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 14 317
Appendix 14.1 A typical set of COSHH assessment forms 321
Appendix 14.2 Hazardous properties of waste as listed in the Hazardous Waste
(England and Wales) Regulations 2005 323
15 PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS AND CONTROL 325
15 .1 Introduction 325
15 .2 Task and workstation design 325
15 .3 Welfare and work environment issues 334
15 .4 Noise 337
15 .5 Heat and radiation hazards 343
15 .6 The causes and prevention of workplace stress 347
15 .7 Causes and prevention of workplace violence 349
15 .8 The effects of alcohol and drugs 352
15 .9 Sources of reference 354
15 .10 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 15 355
Appendix 15.1 Workstation self-assessment checklist 358
Appendix 15.2 Example of a noise assessment record form 361
16 CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES – HAZARDS AND CONTROL 363
16 .1 Introduction 363
16 .2 The scope of construction 364
16 .3 Construction hazards and controls 364
16 .4 The management of construction activities 372
16 .5 Working above ground level or where there is a risk of falling 381
16 .6 Excavations 389
16 .7 Sources of reference 390
16 .8 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 16 391
Appendix 16.1 Inspection recording form with timing and frequency chart 393
Appendix 16.2 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 395
Appendix 16.3 Summary of application and notification under CDM 2007 396
Appendix 16.4 Pre-construction information 397
Appendix 16.5 Construction phase plan 398
17 SUMMARY OF THE MAIN LEGAL REQUIREMENTS 401
17 .1 Introduction 401
17 .2 The legal framework 401
17 .3 List of Acts, orders and Regulations summarized 405
17 .4 HSW Act 1974 408
17 .5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 413
17 .6 Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations
2002 and Amendment Regulations 424
17 .7 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 430
17 .8 Construction (Design and Management) (CDM) Regulations 2007 432
17 .9 Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 444
17 .10 Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996 445
17 .11 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2005 Amendment 446
17 .12 Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 450Contents
xi
17 .13 Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 453
17 .14 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 455
17 .15 Employers ’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 and Regulations 1998 amended in 2002 458
17 .16 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 459
17 .17 Health and Safety (First aid) Regulations 1981 as amended in 2002 467
17 .18 Health and Safety (Information for Employees) Regulations 1989 467
17 .19 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005 468
17 .20 Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 469
17 .21 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended in 2002 471
17 .22 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 as amended in 2003 and 2006 474
17 .23 Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002 477
17 .24 Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 480
17 .25 Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 484
17 .26 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (except Part IV) as amended in 2002 486
17 .27 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 491
17 .28 Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 493
17 .29 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 495
17 .30 Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992 and amendments 497
17 .31 Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005 502
17 .32 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 as amended in 2002 504
17 .33 Work at Height Regulations 2005 as amended in 2007 507
17 .34 Other relevant Regulations in brief 511
18 INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY 519
18 .1 Introduction 519
18 .2 The role and function of the ILO 521
18 .3 Major occupational health and safety management systems 524
18 .4 Other key characteristics of a health and safety management system 531
18 .5 The role of the regulatory authorities 534
18 .6 The benefits and problems associated with occupational health and safety management systems 535
18 .7 Conclusions on the three health and safety management systems 535
18 .8 Other minor additions to the International General Certificate 535
18 .9 Practice NEBOSH questions for the International General Certificate 537
Appendix 18.1 Scaffolds and ladders 538
19 STUDY SKILLS 539
19 .1 Introduction 539
19 .2 Finding a place to study 539
19 .3 Planning for study 540
19 .4 Blocked thinking 540
19 .5 Taking notes 540
19 .6 Reading for study 540
19 .7 Organizing for revision 541
19 .8 Organizing information 541
19 .9 How does memory work? 542
19 .10 How to deal with exams 543
19 .11 The examiners ’ reports 544
19 .12 Conclusion 545
19 .13 References 545xii
Contents
20 SPECIMEN ANSWERS TO NEBOSH EXAMINATIONS 547
20 .1 Introduction 547
20 .2 The written examinations 547
20 .3 Hand drawn sketches 553
20 .4 NGC3 – the practical application 554
Appendix 20.1 The practical assessment 558
INDEX 565xiii
List of principal abbreviations
Most abbreviations are defined within the text. Abbreviations are not always used if it is not appropriate within the
particular context of the sentence. The most commonly used ones are as follows:
ACL Approved carriage list
ACM Asbestos -containing material
ACOP Approved Code of Practice
ACPO Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland
AIB Asbestos Insulation Board
ALARP As low as reasonably practicable
APAU Accident Prevention Advisory Unit, now Operations Unit
ARCA Asbestos Removal Contractors Association
BA Breathing apparatus
BAT Best available techniques
BRE Building Research Establishment
BSI British Standards Institution
CAR Control of Asbestos Regulations
CBI Confederation of British Industry
CD Consultative document
CDM Construction (Design and Management) Regulations
CECA The Civil Engineering Contractors Association
CEN Comite Europeen de Normalisation
CENELEC Comite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
CHIP Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations
CIB Chartered Institute of Building
CIRA Construction Industry Research and Information Association
CLAW Control of Lead at Work Regulations
CONIAC Construction Industry Advisory Committee
COPFS Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service
CORGI Council for Registered Gas Installers
COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
COSLA Convention of Scottish Local Authorities
dB(A) Decibel (A-weighted)
dB(C) Decibel (C-weighted)
DSE Display screen equipmentxix
DSEAR Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations
DWP Department for Work and Pensions
E & W England and Wales
EAV Exposure action value
EC European Community
ELV Exposure limit value
EMAS Employment Medical Advisory Service
EPA Environmental Protection Act 1990
EU European Union
FSA Financial Services Authority
FSB Federation of Small Businesses
HAV Hand– arm vibration
HGV Heavy goods vehicle
HIE Highlands and Islands Enterprise
HOPE Healthcare , Occupational and Primary for Employees
HSAC Health and Safety Advice Centre
HSCER Health and Safety (Consultation with Employers) Regulations
HSE Health and Safety Executive
HSL Health and Safety Laboratory
HSW Act Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
HWL Healthy Working Lives
IAC Industry Advisory Committee
ILO International Labour Office
IOSH Institution of Occupational Safety and Health
LBRO Local Better Regulation Office
LEAL Lower exposure action level
LOLER Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
MCG The Major Contractors Group
MEL Maximum exposure limit
MHOR Manual Handling Operations Regulations
MHSW Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations
MORR Management of Occupational Road Risk
MoT Ministry of Transport (still used for vehicle tests)
NAWR Control of Noise at Work Regulations
NEBOSH National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health
NVQ National Vocational Qualification
OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series
OSH Occupational Safety and Health
PF Procurator Fiscal
PHASS The Partnership on Health and Safety in Scotland
POOSH Scotland Professional Organisations in Occupational Safety & Health
PPE Personal protective equipment
ppm Parts per million
PUWER The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
RCD Residual current device
REACH Registration Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals
RES Representative (s) of employee safety
RIDDOR The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
RoSPA Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
List of principal abbreviationsxx
List of principal abbreviations
RPE Respiratory protective equipment
RRFSO Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Order
RTA Road traffic accident
SaHW Safe and Healthy Working
SBSA Scottish Building Standards Agency
ScotPHO Scottish Public Health Observatory
SCVO Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations
SE Scottish Executive
SEPA Scottish Environment Protection Agency
SHAW Scotland ’s Health at Work
SPL Sound pressure level
STEL Short -term exposure limit
STUC Scottish Trades Union Congress
SWL Safe working load
SWP Safe working pressure
TLV Threshold limit value
TUC Trades Union Congress
TWA Time -weighted average
UEAL Upper exposure action level
UK United Kingdom
VAWR Vibration at Work Regulations
WAHR Work at Height Regulations
WBV Whole body vibration
WEL Workplace exposure limit
WHO World Health Organization
WRULD Work -related upper limb disorderxxi
Figure 1.5 HSE © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and
Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
Figure 1.12 From HSG65 Successful Health and Safety Management (HSE Books 1997) ISBN 0717612767. © Crown
copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
for Scotland.
Figure 3.7 HSE INDG232 (rev) page 1 HSE Web.
Figure 4.3 From HSG57 Seating at Work (HSE Books 1998) ISBN 0717612317. © Crown copyright material is
reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
Figure 4.7 From HSG48 Reducing Error and Influencing Behaviour (HSE Books 1999) ISBN 0717624528. © Crown
copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
for Scotland.
Figure 5.1 From HSG149 Backs for the Future: Safe Manual Handling in Construction (HSE Books 2000) ISBN

  1. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of
    HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 6.1 Reproduced with permission from The Argus, Brighton.
    Figure 6.4 Courtesy of Stocksigns.
    Figure 6.7 Courtesy of Stocksigns.
    Figure 6.15 From HSG150 (rev 1) Health and Safety in Construction (HSE Books 2006) ISBN 0717661822. © Crown
    copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
    for Scotland.
    Figure 6.18 Adapted from PUWER 2008. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998: Open Learning
    Guidance (HSE Books 1999) ISBN 9780717662852. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with
    the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 6.19 Cover of INDG98 Permit-to-Work Systems (HSE 1998) ISBN 0717613313. © Crown copyright material
    is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 7.1 From HSG65 Successful Health and Safety Management (HSE Books 1997) ISBN 0717612767. © Crown
    copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
    for Scotland.
    Illustrations creditsxxii
    Illustrations credits
    Figure 7.2 From Guide to Measuring Health and Safety Performance (HSE 2001). © Crown copyright material is
    reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 8.5 From BI 510 Accident Book (HSE Books 2003) ISBN 0717626032. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 9.1 From HSG155 Slips and Trips (HSE Books 1996) ISBN 0717611450. © Crown copyright material is
    reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 9.4(a) From HSG76 Health and Safety in Retail and Wholesale Warehouses (HSE Books 1992) ISBN
  2. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of
    HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 9.6 From HSG6 Safety in Working with Lift Trucks (HSE Books 2000) ISBN 0717617815. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for
    Scotland.
    Figure 10.4 From L23 Manual Handling Operations – Guidance on Regulations (HSE Books 2004) ISBN
    071762823X. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of
    HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 10.5 From Manual Handling in the Health Services (HSE Books 1998) ISBN 0717612481. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for
    Scotland.
    Figure 10.6 From HSG115 Manual Handling Solutions You Can Handle (HSE Books 1994) ISBN 0717606937. ©
    Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s
    Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 10.8(a) – (c) From HSG115 Manual Handling Solutions You Can Handle (HSE Books 1994) ISBN 0717606937. ©
    Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s
    Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 10.9 From HSG149 Backs for the Future: Safe Manual Handling in Construction (HSE Books 2000) ISBN
  3. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of
    HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 10.10 From HSG76 Health and Safety in Retail and Wholesale Warehouses (HSE Books 1992) ISBN
  4. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO
    and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 10.13 From HSG150 (rev 1) Health and Safety in Construction (HSE Books 2001) ISBN 0717621065. © Crown
    copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
    for Scotland.
    Figure 11.4 Courtesy of Draper.
    Figure 11.6 Courtesy of Draper. Speedy catalogue 2004, page 23.
    Figure 11.11 Reprinted from Safety with Machinery Second Edition, John Ridley and Dick Pearce, pages 26 – 34,
    2005, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 11.15 Reprinted from Safety with Machinery Second Edition, John Ridley and Dick Pearce, pages 26 – 34,
    2005, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 11.16 Courtesy of Allen-Bradley Guardmaster brand from Rockwell Automation.
    Figure 11.17 Reprinted from Safety with Machinery Second Edition, John Ridley and Dick Pearce, page 74, 2005,
    with permission from Elsevier.Illustrations credits
    xxiii
    Figure 11.18 Reprinted from Safety with Machinery Second Edition, John Ridley and Dick Pearce, pages 72 and 73,
    2005, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 11.19 Courtesy of Allen-Bradley Guardmaster brand from Rockwell Automation.
    Figure 11.20 Reprinted from Safety with Machinery Second Edition, John Ridley and Dick Pearce, page 90, 2005,
    with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 11.21 Courtesy of Canon.
    Figure 11.22 Courtesy of Fellowes.
    Figure 11.23 Courtesy of Draper.
    Figure 11.24 Courtesy of Draper.
    Figure 11.25 Courtesy of Atco-Qualcast.
    Figure 11.28 Picture supplied courtesy of STIHL GB.
    Figure 11.29 Courtesy of Pakawaste.
    Figure 11.30 Courtesy of Winget.
    Figure 11.31 From L114 Safe Use of Woodworking Machinery (HSE Books 1998) ISBN 0717616304. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for
    Scotland.
    Figure 12.2 Courtesy of Stocksigns.
    Figure 12.7 (a) – (c) Courtesy of DeWalt.
    Figure 12.9 (a), (b) From Essentials of Health and Safety (HSE Books 1999) ISBN 071760716X. © Crown copyright material
    is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 12.10 (a), (b) From Essentials of Health and Safety (HSE Books 1999) ISBN 071760716X. © Crown copyright material
    is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 13.9 Courtesy of Armagard.
    Figure 13.10 Courtesy of NEBOSH.
    Figure 14.3 Reprinted from Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, ninth edition, Waugh and Grant, pages
    240 and 248, 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 14.4 Reprinted from Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, ninth edition, Waugh and Grant, page 9,
    2002, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 14.5 Reprinted from Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, ninth edition, Waugh and Grant, page 8,
    2002, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 14.6 Reprinted from Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, ninth edition, Waugh and Grant, page
    340, 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 14.7 Reprinted from Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, ninth edition, Waugh and Grant, page
    363, 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 14.9 Courtesy of Draeger Safety UK Limited.
    Figure 14.13 From HSG53 The Selection, Use and Maintenance of Respiratory Protective Equipment (HSE Books 1998)
    ISBN 0717615375. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller
    of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.xxiv
    Illustrations credits
    Figure 14.14 Courtesy of Draper.
    Figure 15.1 From HSG121 A Pain in Your Workplace (HSE Books 1994) ISBN 0717606686. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 15.3 From INDG175 (rev 1) Health Risks from Hand-Arm Vibration (HSE Books 1998) ISBN 0717615537. ©
    Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s
    Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 15.4 From HSG170 Vibration Solutions (HSE Books 1997) ISBN 0717609545. © Crown copyright material is
    reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 15.9 Reprinted from Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, ninth edition, Waugh and Grant, page
    195, 2002, with permission from Elsevier.
    Figure 15.12 Heat Stress Card published by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, USA.
    Figure 15.15 From INDG69 (rev) Violence at Work: A Guide for Employers (HSE Books 2000) ISBN 0717612716.
    © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and
    Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 16.1 From HSG151 Protecting the Public – Your Next Move (HSE Books 1997) ISBN 0717611485. © Crown
    copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
    for Scotland.
    Figure 16.3 From HSG185 Health and Safety in Excavations (HSE Books 1999) ISBN 0717615634. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for
    Scotland.
    Figure 16.7 From CIS49 (rev 1) General Access Scaffolds and Ladders. Construction Information Sheet No. 49
    (revision) (HSE Books 2003). © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the
    Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 16.9 From www.brattsladders.com .
    Figure 16.10 From HSG149 Backs for the Future: Safe Manual Handling in Construction (HSE Books 2000) ISBN
  5. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of
    HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 16.13 From HSG185 Health and Safety in Excavations (HSE Books 1999) ISBN 0717615634. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for
    Scotland.
    Figure 17.1 From INDG350 The Idiot’s Guide to CHIP: Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply)
    Regulations 2002 (HSE Books 2002) ISBN 0717623335. © Crown copyright material is reproduced
    with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 17.8 From L23 Manual Handling Operations – Guidance on Regulations (HSE Books 2004) ISBN
    071762823X. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of
    HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland.
    Figure 18.6 From HSG65 Successful Health and Safety Management (HSE Books 1997) ISBN 0717612767. © Crown
    copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen’s Printer
    for Scotland.
    Figure 20.1 Courtesy of Robert Kirkham.
    Index
    A
    Abrasion hazards , 220
    Absolute duty , 8
    Access control , 352
    Accident books , 159
    Accident reports, key data to be covered
    in , 160
    Accidents:
    see also incidents
    categories of , 86 – 87
    causes of , 153 , 174
    costs of
    direct , 21
    indirect , 22
    defi nitions , 2 , 85 , 153
    electrical , 250
    incident rate , 65
    investigations , 66
    benefits from , 155
    high-level , 156
    legal reasons for , 154 – 155
    logic and understanding , 154
    low-level , 156
    managers role , 155
    medium-level and minimal-level , 156
    range of adverse events , 153 – 154
    rates , 18 – 20
    at work , 18 – 19 , 85 , 159 – 160
    Accident triangle , 86
    Accommodation for clothing , 335
    ACOP see Approved Code of Practice
    Action level values , 339
    Active monitoring , 23
    Adjustable guards , 224
    Advisers, health and safety , 43 – 45
    Agency workers ’ responsibilities under
    HSW Act , 40
    Air pollution , 313 – 314
    Air receivers, examination , 209 – 210
    Alarms , 352
    voice , 281
    Alcohol abuse damages , 352 – 354
    Alpha particles , 344
    Ammonia , 296
    Anthropometry , 326
    Appointed persons, first-aid , 123 – 124
    Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) , 11 , 12 ,
    335 , 371 , 401 , 410 , 432 , 433 , 534
    Arcing, electric , 242 – 243
    Asbestos, work involving , 130 – 132
    Assembly and roll call:
    in emergencies , 122 – 123
    in event of evacuation , 279
    Assessments:
    see also risk assessment
    exposure , 113
    health surveillance , 113 – 114
    safe systems of work , 115
    Attenuation, of noise levels , 341 – 342
    Audit:
    of health and safety management
    system , 23 , 141 – 142
    B
    Back pain, in truck drivers , 331
    BATNEEC see Best Available Techniques
    not Entailing Excessive Cost
    Bench-top grinder:
    hazards , 222
    safeguards , 227 – 228
    Best Available Techniques not Entailing
    Excessive Cost , 313
    Best Practicable Environmental Option
    (BPEO) , 313
    Beta particles , 344
    Biological agents, forms of , 290
    Biological health hazards , 290
    Blocked thinking , 540
    Boiler examination , 209 – 210
    BPEO see Best Practicable Environmental
    Option
    Breathing apparatus , 308 – 309
    Brush cutter/strimmer:
    hazards , 221
    safeguards , 229
    Building, fire protection of , 273 – 275
    Burns , 239 – 240
    Buying problems , 47 – 48
    C
    Carbon dioxide , 296
    Carbon monoxide , 296 – 297
    Cardiovascular system , 294
    Case law see civil law; common law;
    criminal law
    CDM see Construction Design and
    Management
    CDM Regulations 2007 , 372 – 373 , 432
    CE markings , 47 – 48 , 205 – 207
    Cement/concrete mixer:
    hazards , 222
    safeguards , 233
    Cement dust , 371
    Certificate of conformity , 206
    Chainsaw:
    boots , 232
    hazards , 221
    with rear handle , 230
    safeguards , 229
    Checklist:
    hazard , 95
    health and safety policy , 30 – 31
    manual handling of load assessment ,
    201 – 203566
    Index
    Checklist: (continued)
    scaffolding faults , 52
    sign , 110
    for supply chain health and safety
    management , 60 – 61
    workplace inspection , 148 – 152
    Checkout conveyor system:
    hazards , 222
    safeguards , 232 – 233
    Chemical agents, forms of , 290
    Chemicals (Hazard Information and
    Packaging for Supply) Regulations
    2002 and Amendment Regulations
    classification – regulation , 4 , 424
    collection authority , 422
    globally harmonized system of
    classification and labelling of
    chemicals , 429
    information and labelling – regulations
    5 – 10 , 424
    packaging of dangerous substance
    – regulation 7 , 424 – 425
    REACH strategy , 425 – 429
    regulation 11 , 425
    retention of data – regulation 12 , 425
    supplier of a dangerous chemical ,
    424 – 425
    transfer note , 423
    Chemical warning signs , 109
    Chlorine , 296
    Chronic hearing effects , 338
    Circular saw, bench-mounted:
    hazards , 222
    safeguards , 233
    schematic representation of , 234
    Civil law , 4 , 5
    Collisions:
    pedestrians and flying objects , 171
    pedestrians and moving vehicles ,
    170 – 171
    pedestrians and stationary objects , 171
    Combined Code of Corporate Governance
    2003 , 531
    Commercial stakeholders:
    and health and safety standards , 80
    Common law , 5 – 6
    based on judgements , 6
    Common law torts and duties:
    duty of care , 7
    negligence , 6 – 7
    Communication:
    effective , 74 – 75
    with employees and contractors , 35
    influence on health and safety issues ,
    75 – 77
    report writing , 139 – 141
    Compactor:
    hazards , 222
    safeguards , 232
    Company car driver rules , 183
    Compensation:
    accidents/incidents , 162 – 163
    claims , 167 – 168
    Competence:
    assessment , 229 – 232
    defi nition , 73
    Competent persons , 73 – 74
    responsibities in permit system , 121
    Confined space permit , 120
    Confined Spaces Regulations (1997):
    defi nitions , 430
    emergency arrangements , 431
    employer duties , 430
    overview , 430 – 431
    risk assessment , 430 – 431
    safe system of work , 431
    training , 432
    work in confined space , 430
    Construction Design and Management
    (CDM2007) Regulations , 49 , 259
    Construction (Design and Management)
    (CDM) regulations 2007:
    background and introduction , 432
    civil liability , 445 – 446
    duties of clients, CDM co-ordinators,
    principal contractors and
    contractors , 434 – 437
    enforcement , 444
    health and safety at construction sites ,
    439 – 442
    health and safety file , 439
    regulation 2 , 433 – 434
    regulations, application and notification ,
    432 – 433
    requirements under Section 17.8.3 , 437
    roles of duty holders , 437 – 439
    welfare facilities , 442 – 443
    Construction (Head Protection)
    Regulations (1989):
    application , 444
    provision and maintenance , 444
    rules regulating wearing of suitable
    head protection , 445
    Construction industry:
    accidents involving ladders , 382 – 383
    Centre of the Regulations (Regulation 6) ,
    365 – 366
    Construction Design and Management
    (CDM) Regulations 2007 , 364
    construction phase health and safety
    plan , 374
    demolition work , 376
    drowning prevention , 368
    electrical hazards , 370
    excavations , 368 , 389 – 390
    fatality statistics , 363
    fire and other emergencies , 369 – 370
    hazards and control , 364 – 372 , 381 – 389
    hazards associated with fragile surfaces ,
    366 – 367
    hazards associated with scaffolding
    structures , 384 – 388 , 395
    hazards associated with stepladders,
    trestles and staging , 383 – 384
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE) spot
    checks , 363
    health and safety file , 374 , 380
    health hazards , 370 – 372
    inspection and maintenance , 388 – 389 ,
    390
    management of construction activities ,
    372 – 381
    management of demolition work ,
    367 – 368
    method statement , 374
    mobile elevated work platforms , 388
    noise hazards , 370
    notifiable work , 375
    pre-construction health and safety
    information , 374 , 397 – 398
    protection against falling objects , 367
    protection against falls from work at
    height , 366
    responsibilities of duty holders for nonnotifiable projects , 375 – 378
    role of CDM Co-ordinator , 374 , 378
    role of clients , 376 – 378
    role of designers , 373 – 374 , 377 ,
    378 – 379
    role of other workers , 380
    role of principle contractor , 374 ,
    377 – 378
    scope of construction , 364
    selection and control of contractors ,
    380 – 381
    vehicles and traffic routes , 368 – 369
    waste disposal , 372
    welfare facilities , 370
    work at height deaths , 364
    work at height regulations , 365 – 366
    Construction plant with driver protection ,
    177
    Construction site entrance signs , 109
    Continual improvement , 533
    Contractors:
    authorization , 50
    CDM2007 regulations and , 49
    defi nition , 48
    permit system , 120
    rules for , 51 – 52
    safety rules for , 50 – 51
    selection , 49 – 50
    at work , 50
    Control:
    see also risk control
    COSHH measures , 292
    electrical hazards , 245
    fire hazards , 264 – 265
    Control measures for electrical hazards ,
    245Index
    567
    Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006 ,
    511 – 512
    Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 ,
    514
    Control of Noise at Work Regulations , 339 ,
    341
    Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005:
    decision chart , 481
    elimination or control of exposure ,
    482 – 483
    employer requirements , 481
    exposure limit values and action levels ,
    480 – 482
    health surveillance , 483 – 484
    hearing protection , 483
    maintenance and use of equipment ,
    483
    risk assessment , 482
    suitable and sufficient information,
    instruction and training , 484
    Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 , 515
    Control of Pollution (Oil Storage)
    Regulations 2001 , 314
    Control of risks see risk control
    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
    Regulations (COSHH):
    control measures required under
    engineering , 305 – 306
    example using , 312
    hierarchy of , 304
    personal protective equipment ,
    307 – 311
    preventative , 304 – 305
    supervisory , 306 – 307
    maintenance and emergency controls ,
    311
    principles of good practice , 88
    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
    Regulations (COSHH) 2002/2005:
    assessment forms , 321 – 322
    assessments , 299 – 303
    requirements , 299
    role , 292
    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
    Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and
    2005 Amendment:
    accidents and emergencies , 449 – 450
    assessment of health risk , 447 – 448
    COSHH requirements , 447
    defence , 450
    definition of substance hazardous to
    health , 447
    duties under COSHH , 447
    health surveillance , 449
    information, instruction and training ,
    450
    monitoring exposure , 449
    overview , 446 – 447
    prevention or control of exposure ,
    448 – 449
    use, maintenance, examination and test
    of control measures , 449
    Control of Vibration at Work Regulations
    2005:
    application , 502
    assessment of risk to health created
    by vibration at the workplace ,
    502 – 503
    elimination or control of exposure to
    vibration at workplace , 503 – 504
    exposure limit values and action values ,
    502
    health surveillance , 504
    information, instruction and training ,
    504
    interpretation , 502
    introduction , 502
    Convection of heat , 262
    Conveyors:
    hazards and preventative measures , 193
    roller, overhead, and slat , 192
    Corporate homicide , 15
    Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate
    Homicide Act 2007 , 15 , 513
    Corporate responsibility:
    defi nitions , 1
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE) , 1 – 2
    COSHH see Control of Substances
    Hazardous to Health Regulations
    COSHH Essentials HSG193 , 371
    Courts , 4 – 6
    Cranes , 195 – 197
    Criminal law:
    government agencies enforcing , 3
    Magistrates Court and Crown Court , 5
    prosecution in criminal case , 4
    Crown Court:
    penalties, health and safety offences , 14
    powers , 5
    Crushing hazards , 220
    Customer information , 47
    Cutting hazards , 213 – 214
    Cylinder mower:
    hazards , 221
    safeguards , 228 – 229
    D
    Damping , 342
    Dangerous occurrence:
    defi nition , 2 , 86
    fire , 153
    Dangerous substances:
    control measures , 269
    DSEAR regulations and , 268
    fire hazards , 268fl
    ammable gas cylinders , 270
    mitigation measures , 269
    risk assessment , 268
    storage , 269 – 270
    substitution , 268 – 269
    Dangerous Substances and Explosive
    Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR)
    2002
    accidents, incidents and emergencies ,
    452
    applications , 451
    classification of workplaces , 452
    contents of containers and pipes ,
    452 – 453
    elimination or reduction of risks , 451
    information instruction and training ,
    452
    overview , 450
    risk assessments , 451
    scope , 450 – 451
    Decibel (dB) , 338
    Departmental managers, health and safety
    responsibilities of , 43 , 58
    Dermatitis , 295
    Detector , 345
    Direct burning, fire spread , 263
    Directors, health and safety
    responsibilities:
    board members and , 40 – 41
    health and safety policy development ,
    41
    management system , 41 – 42
    monitoring and reporting, health and
    safety information , 42
    review of health and safety
    performance , 42
    Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) , 280
    Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 ,
    513
    Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (DDA
    2005) , 513
    Display screen equipment (DSE):
    basic ill-health hazards , 333 – 334
    basic requirements of the regulations ,
    333
    eye strain , 334
    keyboard and chair adjustments , 334
    musculoskeletal problems , 334
    psychological problems , 334
    risk assessment of , 333
    visual problems , 334
    Documentation, safe systems of work ,
    116 – 117
    Document shredders:
    machinery hazards , 220
    safeguards , 227
    Doors, means of escape from fire , 271
    Double insulation:
    on portable power tools , 247
    sign , 247
    Drawing-in hazards , 220
    Drinking water , 335
    Drivers:
    of cars on company business, health and
    safety rules for , 183568
    Index
    Drivers: (continued )
    ergonomic considerations , 182
    fitness and health , 181 – 182
    risk evaluation , 180 – 183
    route planning , 182
    safety equipment , 182
    scheduling , 182
    time , 182
    training , 180 – 181
    vehicle condition , 182
    weather conditions , 183
    Drug abuse damages , 352 – 354
    Duty of care , 7
    E
    Ear, human , 337 – 338
    Ear defenders (earmuffs) , 343
    Earplugs , 342 – 343
    Earthing , 238
    Economics:
    and health and safety standards , 80
    Effective audit , 532 – 533
    Ejection hazards , 220
    Electrical equipment:
    inspection strategies , 249 – 250
    maintenance strategies , 247 – 249
    protective systems
    fuse , 246 – 247
    insulation and isolation , 247
    reduced voltage systems , 247
    selection of suitable , 236
    Electrical fires and explosions , 241 – 242
    Electrical hazards:
    arcing , 242 – 243
    control measures for , 245
    electrical fires and explosions , 241 – 242
    electric shock and burns , 239 – 240
    portable electrical equipment , 243 – 245
    secondary hazards , 245
    static electricity , 243
    Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations
    1994 , 513 – 514
    Electric arcing , 242 – 243
    Electric burns , 239 – 240
    Electric current, forms of , 237 – 238
    Electric drills , 216 – 217
    Electricity:
    defi nitions , 238
    hazards associated with see electrical
    hazards
    legislation to control and regulate use
    of , 237 – 238
    principles and measurement of ,
    237 – 238
    static , 243
    Electricity at Work Regulations 1989:
    adverse or hazardous environments , 456
    competence , 457
    connections , 457
    cutting of supply and isolation , 457
    defi nitions , 456
    duties , 456
    earthing, integrity and other suitable
    precautions , 457
    excess current protection , 457
    strength and capability of equipment ,
    456
    systems, work activities and protective
    equipment , 456
    working space access and lighting , 457
    work on dead electrical equipments , 457
    Electric shock:
    effect of , 239 – 240
    treatment , 240
    Elevators , 193
    Emergencies:
    assembly and roll call , 122 – 123
    procedures , 34 , 35 , 122 – 123
    supervisors , 122
    Emergency fi rst aid at work (EFAW) , 126
    Emergency lighting , 335 – 336
    Employees:
    duties under
    HSW Act 1974 , 13 , 40
    Management of Health and Safety at
    Work Regulations 1999 , 16
    duties when buying plant and
    equipment , 47 – 48
    representation , 79
    Employers:
    duties under HSW Act 1974 , 12 – 13
    case study , 39
    health and safety of workers , 38 – 39
    night workers , 39
    temporary workers , 39 – 40
    visitors and general public , 39
    duties under MHSW 1999 , 16
    Employers ’ Health and Safety Policy
    Statements (Exception) Regulations
    1975 , 27
    Employers ’ Liability (Compulsory
    Insurance) Act , 4
    Employers ’ Liability (Compulsory
    Insurance) Act 1969 and
    Regulations 1998 amended in 2002
    application , 458
    coverage , 458 – 459
    display of certificate , 459
    overview , 458
    penalties , 459
    retention of certificates , 459
    Employers ’ liability insurance , 17 – 18
    Employment tribunals , 5
    Enforcement notices, HSW act:
    improvement notice , 13 – 14
    prohibition notice , 14
    Engineering controls:
    chemical safety , 305 – 306
    COSHH regulations , 105
    England and Wales:
    court system in , 4 – 5
    legal system , 4 – 5
    sources of law , 6
    Environment Agency , 17
    role and function of , 17
    Environmental considerations , 312
    Environmental protection:
    defi nitions , 2
    Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990 ,
    312
    application procedures , 419
    best available techniques (414) , 413
    duty of care , 421 – 422
    EC Directive 96/61/EC on IPPC , 413
    enforcement , 420 – 421
    environmental impacts , 421
    environmental permit applications ,
    417 – 418
    environmental permitting , 415
    exempt and excluded waste operations ,
    416 – 417
    facilities for environmental permitting ,
    416
    framework , 413 – 415
    hazardous waste , 422 – 423
    integrated pollution prevention and
    control (IPPC) , 413
    management systems , 420
    overview , 413
    overview of the regulatory process , 415
    permit conditions , 419
    role of regulator , 417
    standard rules , 419 – 420
    standard permits , 420
    transitional arrangements , 418
    waste management licence , 423
    Equipment:
    controls , 210
    operating and working environment ,
    210 – 212
    Ergonomics , 67
    consequences of poor , 326 – 330
    and Control of Vibration at Work
    Regulations , 330 – 332
    of display screen equipment , 333 – 334
    principle and scope , 325 – 326
    welfare and work environment issues ,
    334 – 337
    Errors, human see human errors
    Escape routes, fire , 272
    Escape times, fire , 273
    EU see European Union
    European Courts , 5 – 6
    European Six Pack , 9
    European Union (EU):
    directives , 9
    infl uence on health and safety , 9
    Examination:
    air receivers and boilers , 209 – 210
    lifting equipment , 197 – 198Index
    569
    Excavations:
    hazards associated with , 389
    inspection and reporting requirements ,
    390
    precautions and controls , 389 – 390
    Expectant mothers, risk assessment , 91 – 92
    Explosions, electrical , 241 – 242
    Exposure limit values , 339
    External agencies:
    Environment Agency , 17
    Fire and Rescue Authority , 16
    insurance companies , 17 – 18
    External influences , 79 – 80
    External sources, information on health
    and safety , 18
    Eye protection , 310
    F
    Falling from height , 172
    Falling object protective structures (FOPS) ,
    177 – 178
    Falling object signs , 109
    Fault and no-fault injury compensation
    schemes , 536 – 537
    Fines see penalties
    Fire:
    action signs , 108 , 109
    basic principles , 259 – 260
    causes of , 263 – 264
    classification , 261 – 262
    compartmentation , 274 – 275
    consequences of , 264
    detection , 270 – 271
    drills , 280
    electrical , 262
    emergency plans , 278 – 280
    extinguishers , 275 – 276
    hazards and control , 264 – 265
    loading , 273
    means of escape in case of , 267 , 271 – 273
    methods of extinguishing , 261
    notices , 271 , 279 – 280 , 287
    persons at risk , 265 – 266
    plans , 268
    protection in buildings , 273 – 275
    and rescue authority, role and function
    of , 16
    resistance of structural elements , 274
    risk assessment
    findings , 267 , 286fi
    re hazards identification , 264 – 265
    maintenance and refurbishment,
    combustible materials , 267 – 268
    monitoring and reviewing , 267
    recommended in Fire Safety Guides ,
    284 – 285
    structural features , 267
    routines , 279
    RRFSO:
    enforcement , 258
    offences , 258
    safety duties , 257 – 258
    safety signs , 109
    spread , 262 – 263
    surface spread of , 273 – 274
    warning , 270 – 271
    Fire fighting equipment (FFE):
    extinguishing media , 275 – 277
    maintenance and testing of , 278
    sprinklers , 277 – 278
    Fire hazards:
    dangerous substances , 268 – 270
    identification , 264 – 265
    Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations
    1999 , 256
    Fire Services Act of 1947 , 255
    First-aid:
    appointed persons , 124
    box , 124
    personnel numbers , 125
    provision on work site, minimum , 123
    signs , 109
    training and approval arrangements,
    changes to , 124 – 126
    First aiders , 123 – 124
    Fixed guards , 223
    Food Safety Act 1990 , 515
    FOPS see falling object protective
    structures
    Fork-lift trucks:
    hazards associated with use of , 193 – 194
    uses of , 193
    Forms:
    incident investigation , 159
    job safety analysis , 128
    Fragile roof sign , 110
    Fuses , 246 – 247
    G
    Gamma rays , 344
    Gas Appliances (Safety) Regulations 1995 ,
    514
    Gas Safety (Installation and Use)
    Regulations 1998 , 514
    Genetic effects , 345
    Guards:
    adjustable , 224
    construction , 233 – 234
    fixed , 223
    interlocking , 224 – 225
    Guidance:
    best practice , 12
    legal , 12 – 13
    H
    Hand – arm vibration , 330 – 331
    Hand-held power tools:
    physical hazards and safeguards relating
    to , 214 , 215
    electric drills , 216 – 217
    sanders , 217 – 218
    safety controls and instructions , 215 – 216
    Hand-held tools:
    hazards from misuse of , 212 – 213
    safety considerations , 213 – 214
    Hand protection , 309 – 310
    Hazard defi nition , 2
    Hazardous substances:
    classifi cation and health risks , 291 – 292
    principles of good practice for control of
    exposure to , 304
    routes of entry into human body , 292
    transport by road , 311 – 312
    Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
    Regulations 2005 , 468 – 469
    Hazardous Waste Regulations , 316
    Hazards:
    checklist , 33 , 95
    defi nition , 85
    fire , 268 – 270
    heat and radiation , 343 – 347
    identification , 88
    manual handling , 185
    mechanical handling , 191
    mechanical machinery , 220 – 222
    of mobile work equipment , 175 – 176
    non-mechanical , 220
    to pedestrians
    being struck by moving objects , 171
    collisions with moving vehicles ,
    170 – 171
    falls from work at height , 170
    slips, trips and falls on same level , 170
    striking against fixed objects , 171
    and risk assessments , 60 – 61
    in vehicle operations , 173 – 175
    Health and safety:
    human failures in
    human errors , 70 – 71
    violations , 71 – 72
    legal framework for , 2
    civil law , 4
    criminal law , 3 – 4
    management see health and safety
    management
    responsibilities, detailed
    departmental managers , 58 – 59
    employees and agency workers , 60
    managing directors/chief executives ,
    58
    supervisors , 59 – 60
    sources of information on , 18
    training
    benefits of , 75
    job-specific , 77
    legislation requiring , 82
    needs and opportunities , 75 – 76
    new employees and contractors ,
    76 – 77
    supervisory and management , 77570
    Index
    Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSW
    Act):
    approved code of practice , 11
    background to , 9 – 10
    CEO responsibility under , 28 , 42 – 43
    duties of persons in control of premises
    under , 45
    duties of self-employed under , 45
    enforcement of
    enforcement notices , 13 – 14
    penalties , 14
    powers of inspectors , 13 , 14
    work-related deaths , 14
    general duties and key sections of ,
    12 – 13
    general duties in management
    regulations , 11
    guidance , 11 – 12
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE) ,
    10 – 11
    section 2(3) of , 27
    Health and Safety Commission (HSC):
    guidance on safety duties of company
    directors , 67
    Health and safety committee:
    objectives of , 53 – 54
    Health and Safety (Consultation with
    Employees) Regulations 1996 ,
    54 – 56
    application , 445
    civil proceedings , 446
    employer duties , 445
    functions of RES , 446
    ideas for elections , 446
    information to be provided , 445 – 446
    role of Representative(s) of Employee
    Safety (RES) , 445 , 446
    Health and safety culture:
    components of , 64
    consultation with workforce in
    Health and Safety (Consultation with
    Employees) Regulations 1996 and ,
    54 – 56
    on health and safety issues , 53
    importance of , 52
    Safety Representatives and Safety
    Committees Regulations 1977 and ,
    53 – 54
    defi nition of , 63 – 64
    development of positive
    commitment by management ,
    72 – 73
    health and safety standards
    promotion , 73 – 74
    factor affecting , 65
    human factors and
    jobs , 67 – 68
    organization , 66 – 67
    personal factors , 68 – 70
    indicators of , 64 – 65
    Health and Safety (Display Screen
    Equipment) Regulations 1992:
    daily work routine of users , 454
    defi nitions , 453
    exemptions , 453
    eyes and eyesight , 454
    information on all aspects of health and
    safety , 455
    overview , 453
    risk assessment , 454
    training , 454 – 455
    workstation regulations , 454
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE):
    corporate responsibility , 1 – 2
    first-aid training courses , 124 – 126
    guidance for manual lifting , 188
    level of investigation of incident , 156
    merger with Health and Safety
    Commission , 10 – 11
    Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations
    1981 , 123
    Health and Safety (First aid) Regulations
    1981 as amended in 2002:
    duties of employer , 467
    employees information , 467
    self employed regulations , 467
    Health and Safety Information
    (Amendment) Regulations , 15
    Health and Safety (Information for
    Employees) Regulations , 15
    Health and Safety (Information for
    Employees) Regulations 1989 , 467
    Health and safety management:
    auditing
    aims of , 141
    process of , 141
    checklist for supply chain , 60 – 61
    control arrangements , 38
    financial arguments for , 21 – 22
    key elements for effective , 22 – 23
    legal arguments for , 20 – 21
    levels of control of , 135 – 136
    moral arguments for , 18 – 20
    performance measurement
    failures in risk control , 138
    inspections , 136 – 138
    safety sampling , 138
    performance review , 142 – 143
    responsibilities of
    competent persons , 43 – 44
    departmental managers , 43 , 58 – 59
    directors , 40 – 42
    health and safety practitioner , 44
    managing directors/chief executives ,
    42 – 43 , 58
    supervisors , 43 , 59 – 60
    Health and Safety Offences Act 2008 , 515
    penalties under , 5
    Health and safety performance
    measurement:
    active monitoring , 136 – 138
    effective risk control , 135 – 136
    frequency of monitoring and
    inspections , 139
    measurement at each management
    level , 138 – 139
    purpose of measuring , 134 – 135
    reactive monitoring , 136
    traditional approach to measuring ,
    133 – 134
    Health and safety policy:
    checklist , 34 – 35
    clear , 22
    effective , 27
    key elements/sections of
    arrangements section , 30 – 31
    health and safety adviser , 30
    responsibilities, management , 29
    statement of intent , 28 – 29
    legal requirements of , 27 – 28
    review of , 31 – 32
    Health and safety practitioner , 44
    Health and safety representatives,
    functions of , 55
    Health and safety rules, company car
    drivers , 183
    Health and Safety (Safety Signs and
    Signals) Regulations 1996:
    defi nitions , 495
    functions of colours, shapes and
    symbols in safety signs , 495 – 497
    information, instruction and training ,
    495
    introduction , 495
    provision and maintenance of safety
    signs , 495
    Health and safety standards:
    influences on
    external , 79 – 80
    internal , 77 – 79
    promotion , 73 – 74
    Health definition , 2
    Health hazards:
    chemical , 291 – 293
    specific agents , 296 – 299
    Health risks:
    categories of , 87
    health surveillance of workers to assess ,
    113
    principles of control for , 112
    survey techniques , 302 – 303
    from work activities , 112 – 113
    Health surveillance , 113 – 114 , 311
    Heat hazards , 343 – 344
    see also radiation hazards
    Heat stroke , 343
    Heat transmission principles , 262 – 263
    Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratio , 66
    High voltage apparatus, work permit , 120
    Highway Code , 11 , 182Index
    571
    Hoists , 196
    Hold-to-run controls , 226
    Hot work permit , 120 – 121
    Housekeeping, risk control , 111 , 138
    HSC see Health and Safety Commission
    HSE Guidance document L108 , 340
    HSG , 65 , 525
    HSW Act see Health and Safety at Work Act
    HSW Act 1974:
    duties of employees , 409
    duties of employers , 408
    duties of manufacturers/suppliers , 409
    duties of owners/occupiers , 408 – 409
    modernization of health and safety law
    in Great Britain , 410 – 413
    offences , 409 – 410
    powers of inspectors , 409
    Schedule 3A , 411 – 412
    Human body, routes of entry , 292 – 296
    Human errors:
    mistakes , 71
    slips and lapses , 70 – 71
    steps to reduce likelihood of , 71
    Human factors:
    defi nition of , 66
    jobs , 67 – 68
    organization , 66 – 67
    personal factors , 68 – 70
    I
    ICC see Incident Contact Centre
    Ignition sources , 259
    Ill-health effects, of ergonomic hazards:
    due to vibration , 327
    hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) ,
    327 – 328
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
    measures , 329 – 330
    preventative and precautionary
    measures , 329 – 330
    whole-body vibration (WBV) , 328 – 329
    work-related upper limb disorders
    (WRULDs) , 327
    Ill health reports, key data to be covered
    in , 160
    Ill-health statistics in isolation, problems
    with use of , 134
    ILO-OSH 2001 guidelines , 529 – 530 , 534
    Improvement notice , 13 – 14
    Incident Contact Centre (ICC) , 161
    Incident reports, key data to be covered
    in , 160
    Incidents:
    causes of , 153
    data analysis/collection , 161 – 162
    investigation
    basic elements to , 157
    benefits from , 155
    follow-up , 158
    form , 159
    high-level , 156
    immediate , 156 – 157
    key date for medium level of , 159
    legal reasons for , 154 – 155
    logic and understanding , 154
    low-level , 156
    managers role in , 155
    medium-level and minimal-level ,
    156
    range of adverse events , 153 – 154
    recommendations , 158
    by supervisors , 156
    training of people involved in ,
    158 – 159
    witnesses , 158
    legal recording and reporting
    requirements , 159 – 161
    Individual capability, manual handling
    assessment , 187 , 190
    Induction training , 76 – 77
    Infrared radiation , 346
    Injuries:
    see also accidents
    accident investigation , 155 – 156
    manual handling , 186 , 189 – 190
    risk to employees , 174 – 175
    Injury/ill-health statistics in isolation,
    problems with use of , 134
    Inspections:
    frequency , 139
    proactive monitoring and measuring
    performance , 136 – 138
    Provision and Use of Work Equipment
    Regulations 1998 , 167
    reports, workplace , 147
    standards , 138
    Inspectors, powers of:
    decision to prosecute , 14
    under HSW Act , 13
    Insulating materials , 274
    Insurance:
    accidents/incidents , 162 – 163
    claims , 167 – 168
    companies influence on health and
    safety standards , 17 , 80
    premiums , 18
    Interlocking guard , 224 – 225
    Internal infl uences , 77 – 79
    Internal roadway with markings , 175
    Internal sources, information on health
    and safety , 18
    International aspects, of health and safety:
    benefits and problems associated with
    occupational health and safety
    systems , 535
    characteristics of a successful
    occupational health and safety
    management system , 531 – 533
    fault and no-fault injury compensation
    schemes , 536 – 537
    hazards of working in unfamiliar
    countries and/or climates , 536
    International General Certificate exam ,
    537
    occupational health and safety
    management systems , 524 – 530
    role and function of the International
    Labour Organization (ILO) , 521 – 523
    role of regulatory authorities , 534 – 535
    scope , 519 – 521
    International General Certificate exam , 537
    International Labour Organization (ILO),
    role and function:
    Codes of Practice, guidance and
    manuals , 522 – 523
    continual improvement , 533
    conventions and recommendations ,
    521 – 523
    effective audit , 532 – 533
    guiding policies for action , 521 – 522
    main principles , 521
    protection measures , 522
    stakeholders , 532
    Investigation:
    basic elements to , 157 – 158
    benefits from , 155
    follow-up , 158
    form , 159
    high-level , 156
    immediate , 156 – 157
    key date for medium level of , 159
    legal reasons for , 154 – 155
    logic and understanding , 154
    low-level , 156
    managers role in , 155
    medium-level , 156
    minimal-level , 156
    range of adverse events , 153 – 154
    recommendations , 158
    by supervisors , 156
    training of people involved in , 158 – 159
    witnesses , 158
    Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
    (IRR99):
    duties of self-employed people , 469
    general requirements , 469 – 470
    radiation employers , 469
    risk assessment , 470
    working with ionizing radiation , 469
    Ionizing radiation see radiation hazards
    Isocyanates , 297
    Isolation of the workers , 342
    Isolators , 248
    J
    Job:
    considerations in design of , 67 – 68
    health and safety, causes for failures in , 68
    safety analysis form , 128
    training , 77572
    Index
    L
    Lagging , 342
    Lasers , 346
    Legal arguments , 20 – 21
    Legal framework , 3 – 4
    Legal guidance , 11 – 12
    Legal reasons, incidents/accidents
    investigations , 154 – 155
    Legal requirements, health and safety:
    acts and regulations, summarized ,
    405 – 408
    agreement between the Scottish
    Executive and the Health and
    Safety Executive , 402 – 404
    general framework , 401 – 402
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE) , 402
    relationship between the regulator and
    industry , 402
    in Scotland , 402
    Legal system:
    in England and Wales , 4 – 5
    in Scotland , 5
    Legionella , 298
    Legislation and enforcement , 79
    Leptospirosis see Weil’s disease
    Levels of statutory duty , 8 – 9
    Lifting equipment:
    code of practice for safe use of , 197
    cranes , 195 – 197
    fork-lift trucks , 193 – 194
    positioning and installation of , 190
    risk assessment for use of , 204
    statutory examination , 197 – 198
    types of , 191 – 197
    Lifting operations:
    organization of , 191
    requirements for , 191
    Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
    Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as
    amended in 2002:
    applications , 471
    defi nitions , 471
    lifting equipment for lifting persons ,
    472
    marking of lifting equipment , 472
    organization of lifting operations , 472
    overview , 471
    positioning and installation , 472
    reports and defects , 473
    strength and stability , 471 – 472
    thorough examination and inspection ,
    473
    Lifting tackle, cranes , 197
    Lifts , 196
    see also hoists
    Lighting:
    means of escape from fire , 272
    Load, manual handling assessment , 188 ,
    189
    Lone workers , 92 , 117
    M
    Machinery:
    hazards , 220 – 222
    safeguards , 227 – 233
    safety notice , 205
    Magistrates Court:
    penalties, health and safety offences , 14
    powers , 5
    Maintenance:
    fire fighting equipment , 277 – 278
    work equipment hazards and control ,
    208 – 209
    Management:
    commitment , 72 – 73 , 78
    HSW Regulations 1999 , 402
    occupational road safety see
    occupational road safety
    management
    organizing for HSW see health and
    safety management
    training , 77
    vehicle movements , 179
    Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations 1999 as amended in
    2003 and 2006:
    aim , 474
    capabilities and training , 476
    competent assistance , 475
    co-operation and co-ordination ,
    475 – 476
    duties on employees , 476
    effective arrangements , 474 – 475
    health surveillance , 475
    information for employees , 475
    new or expectant mothers , 476
    principles of prevention , 474
    procedures for serious and imminent
    danger and contact with external
    services , 475
    protection of young persons , 476
    provisions as to liability , 476
    restriction of civil liability for breach of
    statutory duty , 477
    risk assessment , 474
    Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations (MHSW) 1999 , 16 , 29
    emergency planning procedures under ,
    122
    joint occupation of premises under , 52
    principles of prevention in , 104 – 105
    regulation 7 of , 73 – 74
    Managing directors, health and safety
    responsibilities of , 42 – 43 , 58
    Manual handling:
    hazards , 185 – 186
    injuries caused by
    musculoskeletal , 186
    reducing risk of , 189 – 190
    of load assessment checklist , 201 – 203
    risk assessment
    capability of individual , 188
    hierarchy of measures for , 186 – 187
    load , 188
    task , 187
    working environment , 188
    Manual Handling Operations Regulations
    (MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002:
    assessment of risk , 479
    avoidance of manual handling , 477 – 479
    duties for reducing injury , 479
    duty of employees , 480
    general , 477
    individual capability regulations , 480
    provision on additional information on
    load , 479
    review of assessment , 479
    Manual lifting, HSE guidance for , 188
    Maximum exposure limit , 300
    Mechanical assistance , 189
    Mechanical handling equipments:
    conveyors , 192 – 193
    elevators , 193
    fork-lift truck , 193 – 194
    hazards related to , 191 – 192 , 194
    Mechanical machinery hazards , 220
    Medicines Act 1968 , 515
    MEL see maximum exposure limit
    MHSW see Management of Health and
    Safety at Work
    Microwaves , 346
    Mistakes, human errors , 71
    Mobile work equipment:
    employees carried on , 176 – 177
    hazards of , 175 – 176
    rolling over of , 177
    Mobile work equipment PUWER 1998 Part
    III , 176 – 178
    Monitoring, types of , 133
    Monitoring performance see health and
    safety performance measurement
    Moral arguments:
    accidents at work , 18 – 20
    work -related ill-health and
    occupational disease , 20
    Multiplugs , 249
    Musculoskeletal problems , 20
    N
    Near miss, definition , 2 , 29 , 85 , 153 – 154
    NEBOSH National General Certificate
    exam, preparation
    see also studying
    model question paper and answers ,
    548 – 563
    student assessment criteria , 555 – 556
    written examinations , 547
    Negligence , 6 – 7
    Nervous system , 293 – 294
    Night workers, employer’s responsibilities
    of , 39Index
    573
    Noise:
    assessment of , 338 – 341 , 361
    control techniques , 341 – 342
    health effects , 337 – 338
    personal ear protection , 342 – 343
    Non-ionizing radiation see radiation
    hazards
    Non-mechanical machinery hazards , 220
    Nursing mothers, risk assessment , 91 – 92
    O
    Occupational exposure limits , 300
    Occupational Exposure Standard , 300
    Occupational noise , 338
    Occupational road safety management:
    benefits , 180
    occupational road risk , 180
    risk assessment
    drivers , 180 – 182
    route planning , 182 – 183
    vehicles , 182
    Occupational/work-related ill health , 2 , 85
    Occupiers Liability Acts 1957 and 1984
    – Civil Law , 514 – 515
    OEL see occupational exposure limits
    OES see Occupational Exposure Standard
    OHSAS 18001 , 526 – 529
    Operating environment, equipment ,
    351 – 352
    Organic solvent hazards , 294 , 296 , 312
    Oxygen, fire hazards , 261
    P
    Peak exposure action and limit values ,
    340
    Peak sound pressure , 339
    Pedestal drill:
    hazards , 221
    safeguards , 228
    Pedestrian hazards:
    control strategies , 171 – 173
    preventative measures , 173
    Pedestrians:
    collisions with flying objects , 172 – 173
    collisions with moving vehicles , 172
    collisions with stationary objects , 173
    Penalties, Health and Safety (Offences)
    Act , 14
    People with special needs:
    fire emergencies and precautions , 281
    voice alarms , 281
    Performance:
    audit and review , 141 – 143
    reason for measuring , 134 – 135
    Performance assessment phase, of
    occupational health and safety
    management systems , 524
    Performance improvement phase, of
    occupational health and safety
    management systems , 524 – 525
    Performance phase, of occupational health
    and safety management systems ,
    524
    Permits to work:
    form, essential elements of , 129
    principles , 118
    procedure , 118
    responsibilities in , 121 – 122
    Personal ear protection , 342 – 343
    Personal factors , 68 – 70
    Personal hygiene , 311
    Personal Protective Equipment at Work
    Regulations 1992 as amended in
    2002 , 345 , 516
    accommodation , 485
    assessment , 485
    compatibility , 485
    information, instruction and training ,
    485
    maintenance , 486 – 487
    principles , 484
    provisions , 484 – 485
    use and reporting of defects , 488
    Personal protective equipment (PPE):
    COSHH regulations , 307 – 308
    gloves , 309 – 310
    protective clothing , 310 – 311
    respiratory protective equipment ,
    308 – 309
    risk control , 110 – 111
    spectacles, goggles and face visors , 310
    Personal radiation exposure,
    measurement , 345
    Persons at risk , 88
    Persons in control of premises, duties of , 45
    Petrol-driven brush cutter , 231
    Photocopiers:
    machinery hazards , 220
    safeguards , 227
    Plan-Do-Check-Act, for occupational
    health and safety management ,
    525
    Planning phase, of occupational health
    and safety management systems ,
    524
    Plant checklist , 34 – 35
    Policy see health and safety policy
    Portable electrical appliance testing:
    inspection and testing
    advantages and limitations of , 251
    faulty equipment , 250
    frequency , 251
    records of , 251
    suggested intervals for , 252
    user checks , 250
    Portable electrical equipment , 243 – 245
    Portable hand-held electric power tools ,
    244
    Power tools, hand-held , 212 , 214 , 215 ,
    216 – 218
    PPE see personal protective equipment
    Practicable, definition , 8
    Precautions, excavations , 47
    Premises:
    joint occupation of , 52
    persons in control , 159
    signs used in , 108 – 110
    Presbycusis , 338
    Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000
    (PSSR) , 209 , 515
    Preventative control measures:
    COSHH regulations , 304 – 305
    pedestrian hazards , 173
    Proactive monitoring , 133
    Prohibition notice , 14
    Promotion, health and safety standards ,
    73 – 74
    Protective clothing , 310 – 311
    Protective systems , 246 – 247
    Provision and Use of Work Equipment
    Regulations 1998 (except Part IV)
    as amended in 2002:
    conformity and community
    requirements , 487
    controls , 488 – 489
    dangerous parts of machinery , 488
    defi nitions , 486
    duty holders , 486
    information, instruction and training ,
    487
    inspection , 487
    isolation from sources of energy , 489
    lighting , 489
    maintenance operations , 486 – 487 , 489
    markings and warnings , 489
    mobile equipments , 489 – 490
    power presses , 490
    protection against specified hazards ,
    488
    protection from high temperature , 488
    requirements , 486
    specific risks , 487
    stability , 489
    suitability of work equipment , 486
    Provision and Use of Work Equipment
    Regulations 1998 (PUWER) , 205
    PUWER see Provision and Use of Work
    Equipment Regulations 1998
    R
    Radiation:
    health risk , 112
    protection advisers , 44 , 347
    transmission of heat , 263
    Radiation dose meter , 345
    Radiation hazards:
    see also heat hazards
    ionizing , 344 – 345
    non-ionizing , 345 – 346
    protection strategies , 346 – 347574
    Index
    Radiation protection:
    adviser , 44 , 347
    supervisor , 347
    Reactive monitoring , 23 , 133 , 138
    Reasonable, defined , 335
    Reasonably practicable, level of duty:
    defi nition of , 8
    diagrammatic view of , 8
    Records:
    portable electrical appliance testing ,
    251
    risk assessment , 96 – 97
    Reduced time exposure , 341
    Reduced voltage systems , 247
    Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
    2005:
    additional emergency measures in
    respect of dangerous substances ,
    463 – 464
    capabilities and training , 465
    co-operation and co-ordination , 465
    elimination or reduction of risks from
    dangerous substances , 462
    emergency routes and exits , 462 – 463
    enforcement , 465 – 466
    firefighting and fire detection , 462
    general duties of employees at work ,
    465
    general fire precautions , 461
    interpretation – Articles , 1 – 7 , 460 – 461
    maintenance , 464
    offences and appeals , 466
    overview , 458
    principles of prevention to be applied
    and fire safety arrangements , 462
    procedures for serious and imminent
    danger and for danger areas ,
    463
    provision of information to employees
    and others , 464
    risk assessment and fire safety
    arrangements , 461
    safety assistance , 464
    Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
    (RRFSO):
    enforcement , 258
    fire safety duties , 257 – 258
    general fi re precautions meaning ,
    256 – 257
    offences , 268
    outline of , 256
    premises covered under , 257
    Repetitive strain injury (RSI) , 327 , 333
    Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
    Dangerous Occurrences
    Regulations 1995:
    dangerous occurrences , 492 – 493
    defi nitions , 491
    enforcing authority , 492
    general , 491
    notification and reporting of
    major injuries and dangerous
    occurrences , 491
    record of incidents , 492
    reporting of cases of disease , 491 – 492
    reporting of three-day plus accidents ,
    491
    Reporting of Injuries Diseases and
    Dangerous Occurrences
    Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) ,
    159 – 161
    Report writing, monitoring , 139 – 141
    Representatives of employee safety (RES):
    elected , 53
    employer consultation with , 55
    functions of , 54
    Residual current devices (RCD) , 247 , 248
    Respiratory protective equipment ,
    308 – 309
    Respiratory system , 293
    Retail checkout conveyor see checkout
    conveyor system
    Retail compactor see compactor
    Reviewing:
    performance of management system ,
    23 , 142 – 143
    risk control , 90
    RIDDOR see Reporting of Injuries Diseases
    and Dangerous Occurrences
    Regulations 1995
    Risk:
    avoiding , 106
    control see risk control
    defi nition , 2 , 85
    evaluation , 88 – 89
    Risk assessment:
    Confined Spaces Regulations (1997) ,
    430 – 431
    Control of Noise at Work Regulations
    2005 , 482
    Control of Vibration at Work Regulations
    2005 , 502 – 503
    cost – benefit analysis and , 90
    Dangerous Substances and Explosive
    Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR)
    2002 , 450
    of display screen equipment (DSE) , 333
    examples
    hairdressing salon , 98 – 99
    offi ce cleaning , 100 – 101
    findings, records of , 90fi
    re , 264 – 268
    forms of , 85
    Health and Safety (Display Screen
    Equipment) Regulations 1992 ,
    453 – 455
    health risks , 87
    HSE approach to , 88 – 90
    Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
    (IRR99) , 469 – 471
    legal aspects of
    HSW Act 1974 , 83
    MHSW and COSHH regulations , 84 ,
    123
    management of , 87 – 88
    Management of Health and Safety
    at Work Regulations 1999 as
    amended in 2003 and 2006 ,
    474 – 477
    manual handling , 186 – 190
    monitoring and review , 90
    objectives of , 86
    post-accident , 90
    records , 96 – 97
    Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order
    2005 , 459
    special cases , 90 – 92
    for use of lifting equipment , 204
    violence at workplace, prevention
    strategies , 350 – 351
    Risk control:
    effective , 135 – 136
    hierarchy , 9 – 90
    legal requirements , 103 – 104
    measures
    deduced WELs , 106
    hazards , 85
    health and safety information , 107
    hierarchy of control , 105 – 106
    isolation/segregation , 106
    monitoring and supervision , 111
    personal protective equipment ,
    110 – 111
    personnel training , 107
    risk elimination or substitution , 106
    safety signs , 107 – 110
    welfare facilities , 111
    principles of prevention , 104 – 105
    prioritization , 90
    Road safety management see occupational
    road safety management
    Rollover protective structures (ROPS) , 177
    ROPS see rollover protective structures
    Routine violation , 71 – 72
    RRFSO see Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety)
    Order 2005
    S
    Safe driving:
    lift trucks , 195
    mobile equipment , 178
    Safeguards, machinery , 222 – 225
    Safe systems of work:
    assessment , 115
    checklist for use in preparation of , 116
    defi nition , 114
    development , 115 – 116
    documentation , 116 – 117
    legal requirements
    COSHH regulations , 105Index
    575
    HSW Act , 115
    monitoring , 117
    training , 117
    work involving asbestos , 130 – 132
    Safety:
    culture see health and safety culture
    defi nition , 2
    devices , 196 , 225
    hooks , 197
    performance see health and safety
    performance measurement
    rules for contractor , 50 – 52
    Safety Committees Regulations 1977 , 53
    Safety culture see health and safety
    culture
    Safety representative:
    accident and ill-health investigations ,
    54
    functions of , 53
    Safety Representatives and Safety
    Committees Regulations 1977 ,
    53 – 54
    appointment , 494
    complaints , 495
    employer’s duties , 494
    functions , 494
    information , 494
    inspections , 494
    safety committees , 494 – 495
    Safety sampling , 138
    Safety signs:
    checklist , 110
    colour categories and shapes of , 108
    fire , 108
    warning, mandatory and prohibition ,
    108
    in workplace , 107
    Sanders , 217 – 218
    Sanitary conveniences , 335
    Scotland, legal system , 5
    Scottish Environment Protection Agency
    see Environment Agency
    Secondary hazards , 245
    Self-adjusting guard , 224
    Self-employed, duties of , 45
    Self-propelled work equipment , 177
    Shear hazards , 219
    Shielding , 346
    Shock, electric , 239 – 240
    Signs, means of escape from fire , 272
    Silencers , 342
    Silica hazards , 298
    Single European Act 1986 , 9
    Site manager, responsibities in permit
    system , 121
    Situational violations , 72
    Skin , 294
    dermatitis , 295 – 296
    protection , 309 – 310
    Slips and lapses, human errors , 70 – 71
    Smoke-free (Premises and Enforcement)
    Regulations , 516 – 517
    Smoke spread in buildings , 263
    Societal expectations , 79
    Solvents Emissions Directive (SED) , 313
    Somatic effects , 345
    Sound intensity , 338
    Sources of law (England and Wales) , 6
    Specialist health and safety training , 77
    Sprinkler installations , 277
    Standards, promotion , 73 – 74
    see also health and safety standards
    Statement of intent, health and safety
    policy:
    performance targets , 29
    points considered for drafting , 28 – 29
    Static discharge prevention , 243
    Static electricity , 243
    Statute law , 6
    Statutory duty, levels of see levels of
    statutory duty
    Stressors, at workplace , 348
    Studying:
    blocked thinking and , 540
    examiners’ report , 544 – 545
    locating a place to study , 539
    organize information , 541 – 542
    organizing for revision , 541
    planning , 540
    process of remembering , 542 – 543
    reading for , 540 – 541
    stages to taking an exam , 543 – 544
    taking notes , 540
    Supervisors:
    health and safety responsibilities of , 43 ,
    59 – 60
    health and safety training , 75
    incident investigations by , 156
    responsibilities in emergency
    procedures , 122
    Supply chain:
    buying problems , 47 – 48
    customer information and , 47
    health and safety management,
    checklist for , 60 – 61
    HSW Act and , 46 – 47
    management, advantages of good ,
    46
    in manufacturing and retail businesses ,
    45
    Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations
    1992 , 177 , 206
    conformity assessment , 499
    coverage , 498
    declarative procedure , 499 – 500
    Electrical Equipment (Safety)
    Regulations 1994 , 497
    Electromagnetic Compatibility
    Regulations 1992 , 497
    enforcement , 500
    essential health and safety
    requirements , 499
    exceptions , 498
    general requirements , 499
    introduction , 497
    machinery excluded , 498 – 499
    marking , 500
    penalties , 500
    standards , 499
    Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations
    2008:
    introduction , 500 – 501
    main requirements , 501
    objectives , 501
    principle changes , 501 – 502
    T
    Task, manual handling assessment , 187 ,
    189
    Task and workstation design see
    ergonomics
    Telescopic materials handler , 176
    Temporary workers, employer’s
    responsibilities of , 39 – 40
    Tenosynovitis , 334
    Tetanus , 372
    Toolbox talks , 74
    Torts and duties , 6 – 7
    Trade unions and health and safety
    standards , 80
    Training:
    courses , 54
    fire emergency plans , 278 – 280
    incident investigation , 158
    induction , 76
    job-specific , 77
    management , 77
    manual handling , 190
    risk control , 107
    safe systems of work , 105
    safety , 107
    supervisors , 77
    work equipment hazards and control ,
    208 , 213 – 214
    Trip devices , 225
    Tripping hazards , 170
    Two-handed control devices , 225 – 226
    U
    Ultraviolet radiation , 346
    Urinary system , 294
    User checks, portable electrical appliances
    testing , 250
    V
    Vehicle movement management , 179
    Vehicle operation:
    control strategies , 178 – 179
    hazards in , 173 – 175
    Ventilation, of the workplace , 335
    Violations, health and safety rules , 71 – 72576
    Index
    Violence at workplace, prevention
    strategies:
    appropriate actions , 352
    effective actions , 352
    equipment availability and expert
    advice , 352
    Home Office and the HSE report , 349
    job design as preventive measure , 352
    risk assessment , 350 – 351
    Visual inspection, portable electrical
    appliances testing , 250 – 251
    W
    Washing facilities , 335
    Waste:
    disposal , 315 – 317
    hazardous properties of , 323 – 324
    management , 314 – 315
    Water pollution , 314
    Weil’s disease , 298
    Welding operation , 347
    Welfare:
    defi nition , 2
    facilities , 61 , 111
    risk control , 111
    Welfare and work environment issues:
    condition of floors, stairways and traffic
    routes , 337
    general lighting requirements , 335 – 336
    heating and temperature , 335
    workstations and seating , 336 – 337
    Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) , 344
    Wet cement , 371
    Wet floor signs , 108
    Whole-body vibration (WBV) , 328 – 329
    actions for controlling the risks , 332
    measurement of , 332
    Wood dust , 371
    Work at Height Regulations 2005 as
    amended in 2007:
    defi nitions , 507
    duties of persons at work , 511
    falling objects and danger areas ,
    510
    fragile surfaces , 510
    general principles for selection of work
    equipment , 508
    inspection of places of work at height ,
    510
    inspection of work equipment , 510
    introduction , 507
    organization, planning and competence ,
    507
    requirements for particular work
    equipment , 509
    risk avoidance , 507
    Work equipment:
    controls
    emergency stop , 211
    start , 210 – 211
    stop , 211
    hand-held power tools , 216 – 218
    hand-held tools , 212 – 214
    information and instructions for using ,
    208
    inspection under PUWER , 209
    isolation of , 211
    maintenance , 208 – 210
    markings on , 212
    mobile see mobile work equipment
    with specific risks, uses of , 207
    stability , 211 – 212
    suitability , 205 – 207
    training for using , 208
    user responsibilities , 212
    Workers with disability, risk assessment
    of , 92
    Workforce, consultation with , 52 – 56
    Working environment:
    equipment , 210 – 212
    manual handling assessment , 188 , 189
    poor , 68
    Working Time Regulations 1998 as
    amended by 2003 and 2007
    Regulations , 517
    Work on high-voltage apparatus , 120
    Work permits see permits to work
    Workplace
    exposure limits , 300 – 301
    stress, causes and prevention of ,
    347 – 349
    Workplace:
    claims , 167
    inspection checklist , 138 , 148 – 152
    inspection exercises , 145 – 146
    inspection report form, specimen , 138 ,
    147
    risks in , 123
    Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
    Regulations 1992 , 334
    Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
    Regulations 1992 as amended in
    2002:
    accident prevention measures ,
    505 – 506
    general , 504 – 505
    welfare provisions , 506
    working environment , 505
    Work-related deaths , 14
    Work-related ill health, definition , 2
    Work related upper limb disorders , 48 , 86 ,
    186
    Work-related upper limb disorders
    (WRULDs) , 327 , 334
    Workstation self-assessment checklist ,
    358 – 360
    Work systems, risk control , 89 , 105 ,
    135 – 136
    WRULDs see work related upper limb
    disorders
    Y
    Young persons, risk assessment , 91

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