Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering

Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering
اسم المؤلف
Syed Ali Ashter
التاريخ
3 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
318
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to Bioplastics Engineering
Syed Ali Ashter
R&D Endovascular
Maquet Getinge Group
Merrimack, NH, USA
Table of contents

  1. Introduction
    Abstract
    1.1 Background
    1.2 Understanding Global Markets
    1.3 Current Material Trends
    1.4 Current Market Trends
    1.5 Barriers to Biopolymer Commercialization
    References
  2. Overview of Biodegradable Polymers
    Abstract
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Definitions
    References
  3. Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation
    Abstract
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Polyesters
    3.3 Polyamides
    3.4 Polycarbonates
    3.5 Polyurethanes
    3.6 Polyacetals
    References
  4. Fundamentals on Biodegradability
    Abstract
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Measurement of Biodegradability of Polymers
    4.3 Factors Affecting Biodegradability
    References
  5. Types of Biodegradable Polymers
    Abstract
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Bio-Based Polymers
    5.3 Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers
    5.4 Bio-Derived Polyethylene
    5.5 Polymers from Bio-Based Monomers
    5.6 Bio-Based Materials for Paper/Substrate Coatings
    References
  6. Additives and Modifiers for Biopolymers
    Abstract
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Types of Additives and Modifiers
    6.3 Additives and Modifiers for Bioolefins
    6.4 Additives and Modifiers for Biopolymers
    6.5 Effect on Properties
    References
  7. Processing Biodegradable Polymers
    Abstract
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Injection Molding
    7.3 Compression Molding
    7.4 Film Casting
    7.5 Blow Molding
    7.6 Blown Film Extrusion
    7.7 Thermoforming
    7.8 Fiber Spinning
    References
  8. Extrusion of Biopolymers
    Abstract
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Conventional Extrusion of Biopolymers
    8.3 Starch Extrusion
    8.4 Extrusion Screw Designs
    References
  9. Commercial Applications of Bioplastics
    Abstract
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Packaging
    9.3 Bags
    9.4 Disposable Housewares
    9.5 Agriculture and Horticulture
    9.6 Medical Devices
    9.7 Consumer Electronics
    9.8 Automotive
    References
  10. New Developments
    Abstract
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Materials
    10.3 Processing
    10.4 Applications
    References
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables,
    respectively.
    A
    Abiotic oxidation, 3132
    Absorbable anterior and posterior
    cruciate ligament interference
    screw, 237f
    Absorbable orthopedic pin, 237f
    Acidbase titration, 74
    Acrylic-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA),
    254
    Additives and modifiers, 153
    bio-based, 89
    for bioolefins, 156160
    for biopolymers, 160172
    foamability, 167
    heat resistance, 165167
    mechanical properties, 167172
    processability, 163165
    toughness, 160163
    effect on properties, 172175
    foamability, 174
    heat resistance, 173174
    mechanical properties, 175
    processability, 173
    toughness, 172173
    types of, 154156
    type 1 additives, 155
    type 2 additives, 155156
    type 3 additives, 156
    Aerobes, 3233
    Aerobic biodegradation, 3233, 72
    Agricultural mulches, 234, 234f
    Agricultural waste, 252253
    Agriculture and horticulture
    applications, 234235
    Agro-polymers, 82
    Ahlstrom Corp., 202
    Aliphatic copolyesters, 83t
    Aliphatic polyamides, thermal
    oxidation of, 43, 44f
    Aliphatic polyester, 36, 83t, 104,
    112
    general degradation mechanism of,
    36, 37f
    Alkyds, 139140, 140f
    Amylopectin, 86, 86f
    Amylose, 86
    Anaerobic biodegradation, 3233
    Arboblend resins, 189
    Arkema
    Biostrength, 161, 163
    ski boot, 267
    ArmorLite roofing material,
    253254, 253f
    Aromatic copolyesters (PBAT), 83t
    Aromatic polyesters
    general degradation mechanism of,
    35, 35f
    thermal degradation mechanism of,
    3536, 36f
    ASTM D6400, 13
    ASTM D6866, 13, 139
    ASTM sub-committee D20-96, 65t
    AT&T, 128
    Automotive applications, 240246
    B
    Bacillus megaterium, 104
    Bacterial polyesters, 33, 104111
    polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs),
    104108
    polyhydroxybutyrate (PHBs),
    108111
    275BASF, 85, 270
    Ecovio resins, 168
    Bioactive substances, 61
    BioBag, 90
    Bio-based additives, 89
    Bio-based bioplastics, 1, 2f, 1415
    Bio-based butadiene (bio-BDO), 85
    Bio-based monomers, polymers from,
    132139
    1, 3 propanediol and DuPont’s
    Sorona, 134135
    bio-based unsaturated polyester,
    136139
    lactic acid and poly(lactic acid),
    133
    succinic acid, 136
    Bio-based plastics, 5, 2627, 27f,
    245f
    advantages of, 2627
    Bio-based polyamides, 240243,
    267, 267f
    Bio-based polyesters, 240243
    Bio-based polyethylene (Bio-PE), 7,
    127128, 128f, 268
    Bio-based polymers, 81, 84111
    bacterial polyesters, 104111
    cellulose-based polymers, 92103
    chitin and chitosan, 103104
    different ways to produce, 85f
    evolvement of, 84t
    starch-based polymers, 104111
    Bio-based resins, 139141
    Bio-based unsaturated polyesters
    (UPEs), 136139
    Bio-BDO. See Bio-based butadiene
    (bio-BDO)
    Bioceta, 9495
    Biodegradability, 23, 31, 61
    example of, 62f
    factors affecting, 7778
    measurement of, 7077
    gas-evolution test system, 7677
    plate test system, 73
    respirometric system, 7476
    standards, 6367
    levels of standardization, 67f
    specifications, 67f
    standardization nomenclature,
    64t
    terminology used in, 65t
    testing, 6770, 68f
    field test, 70
    laboratory test, 68, 70
    simulation tests, 70
    Biodegradability testing, 6770
    Biodegradable bags, 230231, 232f
    Biodegradable bioplastics, 1, 2f
    Biodegradable biopolymers, 1415
    Biodegradable burial pods, 237f
    Biodegradable dental implants,
    235238
    Biodegradable hangers, 233f
    Biodegradable materials, 6162, 180,
    251
    Biodegradable natural polymer, 205f
    Biodegradable plastic staples, 235
    Biodegradable plastics, 2324, 65t,
    72, 227228, 229f, 254
    Biodegradable polymers, 19
    application of, 21f
    classification of, 20f
    definitions, 2228
    bio-based plastics, 2627
    biodegradable plastics, 2324
    biopolymer, 2426
    oxo-degradable plastics, 2728
    Biodegradable polymers, processing,
    179
    blow molding, 192196
    stretch blow molding, 194196
    blown film extrusion, 196197
    compression molding, 187189
    fiber spinning, 199206
    electrospinning, 202206
    melt spinning, 200202
    film casting, 189192
    injection molding, 180187
    DuPont Biomax TPS, 184
    276 INDEXEcovio IS 1335, 186187
    Metabolix Mirel, 184186
    NatureWorks Ingeo Series,
    182183
    Novamont Mater-Bi, 184
    TianAn Biologic, 186
    thermoforming, 197199
    Biodegradable polymers, types of, 81,
    84f
    bio-based monomers, polymers
    from, 132139
    1, 3 propanediol and DuPont’s
    Sorona, 134135
    bio-based unsaturated polyester,
    136139
    lactic acid and poly(lactic acid),
    133
    succinic acid, 136
    bio-based polymers, 84111
    bacterial polyesters, 104111
    cellulose-based polymers,
    92103
    chitin and chitosan, 103104
    starch-based polymers, 8692
    bio-derived polyethylene, 127131
    overview of, 83t
    paper/substrate coatings, bio-based
    materials for, 139141
    synthetic biodegradable polymers,
    112127
    poly(glycolide)/poly(glycolic
    acid), 121123
    poly(lactic acid), 114118
    poly(lactide-co-glycolide),
    125127
    poly(p-dioxanone), 123125
    poly(ε-caprolactone), 118121
    Biodegradable synthetic polymer, 205f
    Biodegradation curve, 71, 71f
    Biodegradation of polymers, 32f
    Biodegradation process, 19, 20f, 31,
    6162, 65t
    Bio-derived polyethylene (Bio-PE),
    84, 127131, 128f
    Bio-Fan, 268269
    BIO-FLEX, 194
    Bio-Flex F6510, 195196
    BioFoam, 255, 258, 258f
    Bio-LDPE. See Bio-Low density
    polyethylene (Bio-LDPE)
    Bio-Low density polyethylene
    (Bio-LDPE), 128
    Biomax Strong, 155156, 160161,
    161f
    Biomax Strong 100 and 120,
    160161, 163, 164t
    Biomax Thermal 300, 166
    Biomer, 112t
    Bioolefins, additives and modifiers
    for, 156160
    Bio-PE. See Bio-derived polyethylene
    (Bio-PE)
    Bioplastic touch screen computer
    casing, 241f
    Biopol, 112t
    Biopol B, 107, 108f
    Biopolyesters, 8283
    Biopolymer commercialization,
    barriers to, 1415
    Biopolymer Network, 255257
    Biopolymers, 1415, 2426
    additives and modifiers for, 153,
    160172
    foamability, 167
    heat resistance, 165167
    mechanical properties, 167172
    processability, 163165
    toughness, 160163
    advantages of, 2526
    challenges to, 15
    functions of, 25t
    structures of, 25
    BioPreferred coatings, 141
    categories, 140t
    Biorefinery concept, 9f
    Biostrength, 155156, 170
    Biostrength 130 acrylic modifier,
    161
    INDEX 277Biostrength 150 impact modifier,
    161162
    Biostrength 280 impact modifier, 162
    Biostrength 700 acrylic copolymer,
    163
    Biostrength Advantage, 163
    BioWit-tube, 267268, 267f
    Bisphenol-A, 810, 46
    Blow molding, 192196
    blowing stage, 193
    ejection, 193
    injection stage, 193
    preinjection stage, 192
    stretch blow molding, 194196
    Blown film extrusion, 196197, 196f
    Blow-up-ratio (BUR), 196197
    Braskem, 128129, 130f
    Bulk degradation, 3435, 120f, 121
    BUR. See Blow-up-ratio (BUR)
    Burial pods, biodegradable, 237f
    C
    CA. See Cellulose acetate (CA)
    CAB. See Cellulose-acetate butyrate
    (CAB)
    Calcification, 5152
    Camphor, 101
    characteristics of, 101102
    structure of, 101f
    CAP. See Cellulose-acetate
    propionate (CAP)
    Capa, 254255
    Capa brand polycaprolactone,
    254255
    Caprolactam, 3940
    Carbonic ester, 46
    Cargill, 85
    Cellobiose, 92, 93f
    Celluloid, 99103
    manufacture, flow chart of, 100f
    thermal degradation of, 102f
    Cellulose, 9293, 92f, 100f
    Cellulose acetate (CA), 9598
    preparation mechanism, 96f
    properties of, 97t
    structure of, 98f
    Cellulose esters, 9495
    melting points of, 95t
    Cellulose nitrate, 100101, 101f
    Cellulose-acetate butyrate (CAB), 99,
    99f
    Cellulose-acetate propionate (CAP),
    9899, 98f
    Cellulose-based polymers, 92103
    Cellulosic feedstocks, 78
    CelTiX, 155
    CEN, 64, 65t
    Cereplast, 154
    CESA-natur product line, 156
    Chitin and chitosan, 103104, 103f
    Ciba Speciality Chemicals, 159
    Cinnamomum camphora, 101
    Citric acid, 92
    Clariant, 156, 165
    HYDROCEROL chemical foaming
    agents, 167, 168f
    Colorants, 102
    Commercial applications of
    bioplastics, 227
    agriculture and horticulture,
    234235
    automotive, 240246
    bags, 230231
    biodegradable plastics, 227228
    consumer electronics, 240
    disposable housewares, 231233
    medical devices, 235239
    packaging, 228230
    Compatibilizer, 91
    Compostability, 62, 63f, 65t
    Compostable bags, 227228
    Composting, 6162, 7172
    Compression molding, 187189
    arrangement, 188f
    of tractor hood and speakers,
    190f
    process parameters of, 188f
    Consumer electronics, 240, 242f
    278 INDEXConventional extrusion of
    biopolymers, 213216
    Conventional plastic versus Ingeo 3D
    biopolymer, 262t
    Conventional plastics and bioplastics,
    differences between, 15f
    Coordinate system, 34
    Corbion Purac, 240, 244246
    Corn starch, 91
    Cost feasibility, 45
    Cotton fibers, 187188
    Current market trends, 1013
    Current material trends, 610
    Cutlery, 231
    compostable, 233f
    Natur-Ware bio-based, 233f
    D
    Danimer LLC, 154, 165166
    Degree of substitution (DS), 94, 97,
    98t
    Denimite product, 269f
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA),
    chemical structure of, 24f
    Depolymerization, 31
    Derived alkoxy radical,
    decomposition of, 42f
    Devolatilization unit, 255
    DIN, 65t
    Direct extrusion, 213214
    Disintegrability, 23
    Disposable housewares, 231233,
    233f
    Dissolvable medical screws
    promoting bone growth, 237f
    Dow Chemicals, 170172
    Drop-ins, 67, 26
    DS. See Degree of substitution (DS)
    DuPont Biomax TPS, 184
    processing conditions for, 185t
    DuPont Co., 123
    DuPont’s Sorona, 134135
    in flooring applications, 135f
    synthesis of, 135f
    DuPont’s Sorona EP PTT polyester,
    243
    Durabio, 271f, 272
    E
    Ecodear Nanoalloys, 258259
    Eco-Delink, 155
    Eco-PLA, 119t
    Ecovative, 269
    Ecovative Myco foam packaging,
    269f
    Ecover, 129, 131f
    Ecovio IS 1335, 186187
    Ecovio L Foam, 259, 270, 270f
    Electrospinning, 202206
    parameters, 204t
    setup, 203f
    Electrospun fibers, 205207, 206f
    Elvaloy, 155156
    EMforce Bio, 168170
    EMforce Bio additive, 155
    EN 13432, 2224
    Enteric esters, 94
    EPI Oxo-Biodegradable bags, 231
    EPS. See Expanded polystyrene (EPS)
    Ester linkages, 3334, 34f, 263264
    Esterase, 3334
    Ethanol, 127
    Eureka, 254
    European Bioplastics Association, 6
    Expanded PLA (EPLA) bead and
    foams, 255258
    Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 255
    Expansorb, 261263
    Expansorb-B universal expander
    liquid, 263f
    External deckles, 189191
    Extruder screw, 217218
    Extruders
    components of, 211
    single-screw, 211212
    twin-screw, 213
    Extrusion blow molding, 193194,
    193f
    INDEX 279Extrusion blow molding (Continued)
    examples of, 194f
    Extrusion of biopolymers, 211
    conventional extrusion of
    biopolymers, 213216
    LSLF extrusion, 215216
    extrusion screw designs, 217223
    pulverization screw design,
    220221
    reactive extrusion screw design,
    221223
    Turbo-Screw design, 218220
    starch extrusion, 216217
    F
    Fantastic Beach toys, 231
    Feather-g-poly(methyl acrylate)
    plastic, 265
    Fermentation process, 107, 110
    Fiber spinning, 199206
    electrospinning, 202206
    melt spinning, 200202
    Field tests, 68f, 70
    Film casting, 189192, 191f
    product examples, 192f
    First-generation additives, 154
    FIS Green 300T, 266267, 266f
    Fischer esterification, 94
    Fischerwerke, 266267
    FKUR, 194
    Foam extrusion process, Turbo-Screw
    in, 218
    Foam packaging, 227228
    Foamability, 167, 174
    Food packaging, 228
    Ford Motor Co, 1
    Fringed-micelle regions, 93
    G
    Galactic (Belgium), 119t
    Gas-evolution test system, 7677
    GE Geloy, 253
    General Electric, 253
    General-purpose screw, 180, 182f
    Genomatica, 85
    G-Kup Coffee, 271, 271f
    Global markets, 56
    Global production capacities of
    bioplastics, 7f
    by 2018, 10f
    by material type, 8f
    Glycolide, 122123
    Glycoprotein, 24
    Grab-n-Go, 230
    Green Guard, 139
    Green Seal, 139
    Guided-tissue-regeneration
    membranes, 235238, 238f
    H
    HDT. See Heat deflection
    temperature (HDT)
    Heat deflection temperature (HDT),
    165, 173174
    Heat resistance, 165167, 173174
    Heated nozzles, 187
    High impact polystyrene (HIPS),
    198199
    High-shear screws, 180
    High-speed energy input (HSEI)
    TSEs, 215
    HIPS. See High impact polystyrene
    (HIPS)
    Hot runner systems, 187
    HYDROCEROL chemical foaming
    agents, 167
    Hydrolysis, 3334
    of acetals, 5556
    Hyperform
    HPN-20E, 157158, 158f
    I
    Impact modifiers, 172173
    Infrared (IR) radiation, 198199
    Ingeo 3D Series, 259261
    Ingeo 3251D TDS, 180, 182
    Inherent biodegradability, 65t
    Injection blow molding, 192193
    examples of, 194f
    process, 193f
    280 INDEXInjection molding, 180187, 181f
    DuPont Biomax TPS, 184
    Ecovio IS 1335, 186187
    Metabolix Mirel, 184186
    NatureWorks Ingeo Series,
    182183
    Novamont Mater-Bi, 184
    TianAn Biologic, 186
    Injection stretch blow molding
    (ISBM). See Stretch blow
    molding
    InnoCore, 254
    Insorb absorbable skin stapler, 237f
    Invista, 85
    IRGACLEAR XT 386, 159, 160f
    IRGASURF SR 100, 159160
    Iris Industries, 269
    ISO 472, 65t
    Isosorbide-based
    copolyesters, 910
    J
    Japanese Biodegradable Plastics
    Society, 65t
    Johnson & Johnson, 129, 131f
    K
    Kenaf fiber, 187188
    Kickstarter, 269
    Knitted cellulosic high-performance
    fibers, 107, 108f
    Kuredux PGA data sheet, 123f
    Kureha Chemical Industries, 123
    L
    Lacear (Mitsui Toatsu Chemical,
    Japan), 119t
    LACTEL absorbable polymers,
    263264, 264f
    Lactic acid, 115
    and poly(lactic acid), 133
    Lactron (Kanebo Goshen, Japan), 119t
    Lacty (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan),
    119t
    Lenzing AG, 202
    Life cycle of bioplastics, 3, 3f
    Low-speed late fusion (LSLF)
    extrusion, 215216
    twin-screw extruders, 215
    LSLF. See Low-speed late fusion
    (LSLF)
    M
    Masterbatch, 153154, 165
    Material classification system, 4f
    Medical devices, 235239
    Melt spinning, 200202, 201f
    Melting temperature, 7778
    Mer units, 19, 20f
    Meredian, 167168
    Metabolix Inc., 910, 9f, 167168
    Metabolix Mirel, 184186
    processing properties of, 185t
    MHG Biopolymers, 154, 165168
    Microbial degradation, 31
    Millad 3988i, 156157
    Millad NX8000, 156157
    Mineralization, 32, 5152
    Minerals, 155
    Minimum renewable carbon
    content categories
    (MRCC), 139, 141
    Mirel, 910, 184186
    processing properties of, 185t
    Mitsubishi Chemical, 910, 272
    Mixing and conveying elements, 213f
    Modifiers, additives and.
    See Additives and modifiers
    Monomers, defined, 31
    MRCC. See Minimum renewable
    carbon content categories
    (MRCC)
    MSU respirometric
    systems, 7476
    cumulative measurement
    respirometric system, 74, 74f
    direct measurement respirometric
    system, 7476, 75f
    Mushroom packaging, 269
    Myco Foam, 269, 269f
    INDEX 281N
    Nanoalloy technology, 258259
    properties of, 260t
    National standards, 6467
    Natural biodegradable polymers, 82
    Natural polymers, 1, 2f, 19, 8182
    Natural resins, 2f
    NatureWorks, 119t, 166
    NatureWorks Ingeo Series, 182183,
    270
    Natur-Ware cutlery, 231
    Nestle´ & Tetra Pak, 129
    New developments of bioplastics, 251
    applications, 266272
    materials, 251264
    Ecodear Nanoalloys, 258259
    Ecovio L Foam, 259
    expanded PLA (EPLA) bead and
    foams, 255258
    Expansorb, 261263
    Ingeo 3D Series, 259261
    LACTEL absorbable polymers,
    263264
    processing, 264265
    Nodax, 112t
    Non-biodegradable biopolymers,
    1415
    Nonenteric esters, 94
    Nontoxic biodegradable polymer
    sutures, 235
    Nova Institute, 5
    Novamont Mater-Bi, 184
    processing conditions for, 184t
    Novamont resins Inc., 90
    Novozymes, 85
    Nucleic acids, 24
    function of, 25t
    Nylon, types of, 38f
    O
    OctoDEX, 239, 254
    Octoplus, 239, 254
    OnCap Bio, 170, 171f
    OnCap BIO Antifog, 155156
    OPS. See Oriented polystyrene (OPS)
    Oriented polystyrene (OPS),
    198199
    Oxo-Biodegradable bags, 231
    Oxo-degradable additives, 27
    Oxo-degradable plastics, 2728
    P
    Packaging applications, 1112, 11f,
    63, 228230
    Pantene, 130131
    Paper/substrate coatings, bio-based
    materials for, 139141
    Paraloid BPM-500, 170172, 171f
    Parietex ProGripTM laparoscopic selffixating mesh, 239, 239f
    Parison, 193194
    Patented additives, 252253
    PBS. See Polybutylene succinate
    (PBS)
    PBSA. See Polybutylene succinate
    adipate (PBSA)
    PCL. See Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)
    PDO. See 1, 3 Propanediol (PDO)
    PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
    PEA. See Polyesteramide (PEA)
    Pebax RNew 80R53, 267
    Percent mineralization, 72
    Perstorp, 254
    PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
    (PET)
    Petroplastics versus bioplastics, 5f
    PGA. See Poly(glycolide)/poly
    (glycolic acid) (PGA)
    PHA-based polymeric modifier,
    910, 9f
    PHAs. See Polyhydroxyalkanoates
    (PHAs)
    PHB. See Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
    PHBV. See Polyhydroxybutyratevalerate (PHBV)
    Photolysis, 42, 54
    PLA. See Polylactic acid (PLA)
    Plantura, 244246
    282 INDEXPlastic sutures, 235
    Plasticizers, 89, 9192, 175, 217
    Plate test system, 73
    PLGA. See Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)
    (PLGA)
    Pliable braided sutures, 235
    Polestar 200P, 155
    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), 3132,
    83t, 90, 118121
    applications of, 122f
    -based bioplastics, 254
    structure of, 119f
    synthesis of, 120f
    Poly(diphenolic acid-isophthaloyl
    chloride), 3536
    Poly(glycolide)/poly(glycolic acid)
    (PGA), 112, 121123, 124f
    applications of, 124f
    structure of, 122f
    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA),
    125127, 126f
    Poly(p-dioxanone) (PDS), 123125
    commercial products of, 125t
    structure of, 124f
    Poly(propylene succinate) (PPSu), 36
    Polyacetals, 5356
    depolymerization reaction of, 54f
    depolymerization under UV
    radiation, 55f
    hydrolysis of, 5556
    photo-oxidation of, 54, 55f
    thermal oxidation of, 53
    PolyActive, 239, 254
    Polyamide 4,6 (PA-4,6), 38
    Polyamide 6 (PA-6), 38
    cis-elimination reaction in, 40
    degradation of, 40f
    monomer formation mechanisms
    in, 39f
    Polyamide 6,6 (PA-6,6), 38
    Polyamide 11 (PA-11), 38
    Polyamides, 3843
    photo-oxidation, 4143
    thermal degradation, 3941, 41t
    thermal oxidation, 43
    Polybutylene succinate (PBS), 91
    Polybutylene succinate adipate
    (PBSA), 91
    Polycarbonates, degradation of,
    4451
    Davis and Golden mechanism for,
    44, 45f
    Kuroda’s mechanism for, 47f
    Lee’s degradation
    mechanism, 46, 46f
    McNeill and Rincon’s mechanism
    for, 47, 49f
    Montaudo and Puglisi’s mechanism
    for, 50f
    Polyesteramide
    (PEA), 83t, 254
    Polyesters, 3338
    hydrolytic degradation mechanism
    of, 52f
    polycondensation and hydrolysis
    of, 33, 34f
    structure of, 34f
    Polyethylene (PE), 1112, 127
    bio-derived, 127131
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
    1112, 3133, 114115, 244
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs),
    3334, 83t, 104108
    applications of, 109f
    function of, 25t
    structure of, 105f
    typical properties of, 108t
    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB),
    108111
    commercial
    products, 112t
    life cycle of, 111f
    Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate
    (PHBV), 166167, 186
    Polyisocyanates, 51, 52f
    Polyketals, 252, 252f
    Polylactic acid (PLA), 7, 3132, 81,
    83t, 112, 114118, 154,
    161166, 165f, 180, 182, 197,
    213, 227, 255
    INDEX 283Polylactic acid (PLA) (Continued)
    applications of, 115f
    glass transition and melting
    temperatures, comparison, 116f
    glass transition temperatures for, 117f
    main products of, 119t
    PLA golf tee, 237f
    PLA/PLGA biopolymers, 261263
    synthesis of, 116f, 134f
    thermal degradation of, 117, 118f
    Polymer degradation, mechanisms of,
    31
    modes and corresponding factors
    of, 33t
    polyacetals, 5356
    hydrolysis, 5556
    photo-oxidation, 54
    thermal oxidation, 53
    polyamides, 3843
    photo-oxidation, 4143
    thermal degradation, 3941
    thermal oxidation, 43
    polycarbonates, 4451
    polyesters, 3338
    polyurethanes, 5153
    Polymer drying, 180
    Polymer matrix characteristics, 239
    Polymeric materials, biodegradation
    of, 23f
    Polymers, defined, 19, 31
    Polyolefins, 156
    PolyOne, 166167, 170
    OnCap bioadditives, 171f
    Polyoxymethylene (POM), 53
    degradation mechanisms of, 53
    thermal degradation of, 53, 54f
    Polyphenols, function of, 25t
    Polyphosphates, function of, 25t
    Polypropylene (PP), 157159
    Polypropylene/polylactic acid (PP/
    PLA), 244
    Polysaccharides, function of, 25t
    Polysulfates, function of, 25t
    Polyurethanes (PU), 5153, 51f
    POM. See Polyoxymethylene (POM)
    PPSu. See Poly(propylene succinate)
    (PPSu)
    Processability, 163165, 173
    Processing aids, 153
    Processing of biopolymers, 211
    Processing temperature profile, 183t
    1, 3 Propanediol (PDO), 134135
    Proteins, function of, 25t
    Proton-initiated degradation, 4142
    Pseudomonas, 3334, 104
    Pulverization screw design, 220221
    Purac, 257
    Pyranose rings, structure of, 93f
    Q
    QMILK, 266, 266f
    R
    Reactive extrusion, 221222
    two-stage screw design for, 223f
    types of, 223t
    Reactive extrusion screw design,
    221223
    Recycled chicken feathers, 265, 265f
    Recycled polymers, 252253
    Recycled wood by-product, 252253,
    253f
    Reedy International, 167
    Regional standards, 6467
    Renewable polymers, 82, 85
    Resin synthesis, bio-based building
    blocks, 141t
    Respirometric system, 7476
    MSU respirometric systems,
    7476
    UMIC Lab I, 76
    Ribonucleic acid (RNA), chemical
    structure of, 24f
    Ro¨chling automotive, 244246, 246f
    S
    Safoam RPC-20MS1 and 20MS2, 167
    Scarpa, 267, 267f
    284 INDEXScrew flight circulation channel
    geometry, 219f
    Seeding strips, 234, 234f
    Semicrystalline polyesters, 34
    Simulation tests, 68f, 70
    Single-screw extruders, 211212,
    212f, 216
    Single-stage stretch blow molding,
    195
    Ski boot, 267
    SMR. See Sulzer Mixer Reactor
    (SMR)
    Solanyl (Rodenburg Biopolymers,
    Netherlands), 119t
    Solaplast compostable films, 236f
    Solaplast mulching films, 234235
    Solaplast resins, 228230, 230f
    Solid-state shear pulverization
    (SSSP), 220221, 221f, 222f
    Sorona EP PTT polyester, 243
    Spandex, 85
    Spin pack, 201, 202f
    Spinning temperature, 200
    Spunbond Ingeo PLA fiber, 203f
    SSSP. See Solid-state shear
    pulverization (SSSP)
    Stabilizers, 153
    for translucent celluloid, 102
    Standardization procedure, tests
    under, 68t
    Stannous octoate, 118119, 125126
    Starch, 83t
    Starch extrusion, 216217
    screw designs in, 217f
    Starch synthetic aliphatic polyester
    blends, 8990
    Starch-based PCL polymers, 90t
    Starch-based polymers, 8692, 227
    starchPBS/PBSA polyester
    blends, 91
    starchPVOH blends, 9192
    starch synthetic aliphatic polyester
    blends, 8990
    thermoplastic starch (TPS), 8789
    Starch-based resins, 7
    StarchPBS/PBSA polyester blends,
    91
    StarchPVOH blends, 9192
    Stretch blow molding, 194196
    single-stage, 195
    two-stage, 195196, 195f
    Succinic acid, 136
    applications of, 137t
    products of, 136f
    Sukano PLA im S550, 172
    Sulzer Chemtech, 255, 257
    Sulzer Mixer Reactor (SMR), 255
    Superoxide dismutase, 252
    SUPLA, 240
    Surface erosion
    of polycaprolactone, 120121
    of polyesters, 3435
    SurModics, 254
    Symmetrical splined screw shafts,
    214, 215f
    SynBiosys, 254
    Synbra Technology, 257
    Synthetic biodegradable polymers,
    112127, 113t
    poly(glycolide)/poly(glycolic acid),
    121123
    poly(lactic acid), 114118
    poly(lactide-co-glycolide),
    125127
    poly(p-dioxanone), 123125
    poly(ε-caprolactone), 118121
    Synthetic polymers, 19, 3132, 81,
    204205
    T
    Tapes, 234, 234f
    Tetra Pak, 129, 269
    milk cartons, 269f
    Textile fiber and bioplastic, 266, 266f
    Thermoforming, 197199
    Thermoplastic starch (TPS), 8789
    formulation of wheat starch-based,
    89t
    INDEX 285TianAn Biologic, 167168, 186
    processing conditions for, 186t
    Toray, 258259
    Toughness, 160163, 172173
    Toyota, 244
    TSE. See Twin-screw extruder (TSE)
    Turbo-Screw design, 218220
    Twin-bed desiccant dryers, 180
    Twin-screw extruder (TSE), 212f, 213
    high-speed energy input TSEs, 215
    low-speed late fusion TSEs, 215
    Twin-screw extrusion, 214
    Two-stage stretch blow molding,
    195196, 195f
    TYRX absorbable antibacterial
    envelope, 238, 238f
    U
    Ultimate biodegradability, 65t
    UMIC Lab I, 76
    Unsaturated polyesters (UPEs),
    136139
    UPE. See Unsaturated polyesters
    (UPEs)
    US Department of Agriculture
    (USDA), 13
    USDA BioPreferred Program, 139
    V
    Vehicles containing bio-based
    plastics, 245f
    Virgin biopolymers, mechanical
    properties of, 175
    Virgin PLA resins, 167168
    W
    Wautersia eutropha, 104
    Witasek, 267268
    Y
    Yogurt, 270f
    Z
    Zeolite, 255
    ZIEHL-ABEGG, 268269
    Bionic Bio-Fan, 268269
    ZinCo GmbH, 268

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