Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications

Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications
اسم المؤلف
Nighat Yasmin
التاريخ
12 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
134
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to AutoCAD 2024 for Civil Engineering Applications
Learning to use AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Projects
Nighat Yasmin
Clemson University
TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 1
    1.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1
    1.2. ENGINEERING PROBLEM .2
    1.3. TECHNICAL DRAWING 2
    1.4. DRAWING METHODS 2
    1.5. DRAWING STANDARDS .4
    1.6. SCALE 4
    1.6.1. Type of scale 4
    1.6.1.1. Representative Fraction 4
    1.6.1.2. Equivalence relation . 5
    1.6.1.3. Converting RF to ER 5
    1.6.1.4. Graphical representation 6
    1.7. SCALE OF A DRAWING .7
    1.7.1. Full-scale .7
    1.7.2. Large scale 7
    1.7.3. Small scale .7
    1.8. COMPUTER AIDED GRAPHICS .8
    1.8.1. AutoCAD 2024 8
    1.8.2. AutoCAD and drawing scale .8
  2. GETTING STARTED WITH AUTOCAD 2024 . 11
    2.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 11
    2.2. INTRODUCTION .12
    2.3. FOCUS OF THE BOOK .16
    2.4. INITIAL SETUP 17
    2.5. TYPICAL WINDOW SCREEN 18
    2.6. DRAWING AREA .19
    2.6.1. The Model space 20
    2.6.2. Paper space and layout .22
    2.6.3. Display/hide model and layout tabs 23
    2.7. STATUS BAR .24
    2.8. THE CURSOR 26
    2.8.1. Location of the cursor .27
    2.8.2. Size of the intersecting lines 27
    2.8.3. Size of the aperture 28
    2.8.4. Color of the cursor 28
    2.9. WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM (WCS) .29
    2.10. SCROLL BARS .30
    2.11. VIEWCUBE 30
    2.11.1. ViewCube settings .31
    2.11.2. View switching 32
    2.12. DRAWING DISPLAY FORMAT 33
    2.13. COMMAND LINE WINDOW .35
    2.13.1. Move the CLW 35
    2.13.2. Display/hide the CLW .36
    2.13.3. Resize the CLW .36
    2.13.4. Change the color of the CLW .37
    2.13.5. Change the font of the CLW 38
    2.14. RIBBON 39ii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    2.14.1. Color scheme . 40
    2.14.2. Relocate . 40
    2.14.3. Hide the ribbon 42
    2.14.4. Display the ribbon 43
    2.14.5. States 45
    2.14.6. Ribbon’s tab . 46
    2.14.6.1. Display or hide tabs . 47
    2.14.6.2. Tab relocation 47
    2.14.6.3. New tab 48
    2.14.7. Ribbon’s panel . 53
    2.14.7.1. Panel components 53
    2.14.7.2. Display or hide panel . 55
    2.14.7.3. Panel relocation 56
    2.14.7.4. Floating panel 57
    2.14.7.5. Create new panel 58
    2.14.7.6. Add panel to a tab 61
    2.14.7.7. Add commands to a panel 61
    2.15. WORKSPACE 67
    2.15.1. Save a workspace . 67
    2.15.2. Rename a workspace 68
    2.15.3. Switch a workspace 69
    2.15.4. Delete a workspace 69
    2.16. NEW DRAWING . 71
    2.16.1. Drawing units . 73
    2.16.1.1. ANSI units . 73
    2.16.1.2. ISO units 74
    2.16.2. Convert a drawing from ISO to ANSI (and vice versa) 74
    2.17. BASICS OF A DRAWING FILE . 76
    2.18. DRAWING’S NAME 76
    2.19. DATA INPUT FORMAT 77
    2.19.1. Length 78
    2.19.2. Angle 79
    2.19.3. Insertion scale 80
    2.20. DRAWING LIMITS 81
    2.21. GRID ( ) AND SNAP ( ) COMMANDS . 83
    2.21.1. Toggle grid and snap in the Model space 84
    2.21.2. Toggle the grid and snap in the layout . 85
    2.21.3. Grid properties . 85
    2.21.3.1. Grid style . 86
    2.21.3.2. Grid spacing . 86
    2.21.3.3. Grid behavior . 86
    2.21.3.4. Grid color . 87
    2.21.4. Snap properties 88
    2.21.4.1. Snap spacing 88
    2.21.4.2. Polar spacing 88
    2.21.4.3. Snap type . 88
    2.22. SAVE A FILE 89
    2.22.1. Save As 90
    2.22.2. Save . 91
    2.23. OPEN A PRE-EXISTING FILE 92
    2.24. CURRENT FILE . 94
    2.25. CLOSE A FILE 94
    2.26. EXIT AUTOCAD 96Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications iii
  3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS . 99
    3.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 99
    3.2. INTRODUCTION .100
    3.3. DYNAMIC INPUT 100
    3.3.1. Toggle dynamic input 101
    3.3.2. Components of a dynamic input 101
    3.3.2.1. Pointer input . 102
    3.3.2.2. Dimension input . 103
    3.3.2.3. Dynamic prompts . 105
    3.3.3. Drafting tooltip appearance 106
    3.4. INPUT DATA .107
    3.4.1.1. Tab key 107
    3.4.1.2. Comma key 108
    3.4.1.3. Less than key 109
    3.4.1.4. Remove typing errors from the dynamic input tooltips 109
    3.5. REFERENCE SYSTEM 109
    3.5.1. Cartesian coordinates .110
    3.5.2. Polar coordinates 110
    3.5.3. AutoCAD and the coordinate systems .111
    3.5.3.1. Absolute Cartesian coordinates 111
    3.5.3.2. Relative Cartesian coordinates . 112
    3.5.3.3. Absolute Polar coordinates . 113
    3.5.3.4. Relative Polar coordinates 113
    3.6. LINE 114
    3.6.1. Points selection 115
    3.6.2. Snap points 116
    3.6.3. Cartesian coordinates .117
    3.6.4. Polar coordinates 117
    3.6.5. Orthogonal command .118
    3.7. POLYLINE 120
    3.8. CIRCLE 125
    3.9. RECTANGLE .134
    3.10. POLYGON .140
    3.11. ELLIPSE .143
    3.12. ELLIPTICAL ARC 148
    3.13. CIRCULAR ARC 149
    3.14. POINT 149
    3.14.1. Change style and size of a point .150
    3.14.1.1. Style . 150
    3.14.1.2. Point size 150
    3.15. POINT MEASURE 151
    3.16. REVISION CLOUD 152
    3.16.1. RevCloudArcVariance system variable 152
    3.16.2. The RevCloud Command 153
    3.17. OBJECT APPEARANCE 158
    3.17.1. Color Control .159
    3.17.1.1. Set color of an object before it is drawn . 159
    3.17.1.2. Change color of an object after it is drawn . 160iv Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    3.17.2. Lineweight Control 161
    3.17.2.1. Change thickness of a line before it is drawn . 161
    3.17.2.2. Change thickness of a line after it is drawn 162
    3.17.3. Linetype Control 162
    3.17.3.1. Load a linetype . 163
    3.17.3.2. Change linetype before an object is drawn 164
    3.17.3.3. Change linetype after an object is drawn . 164
    3.17.3.4. Linetype scale 165
    3.18. TABLE . 167
    3.18.1. Create a table . 169
    3.18.2. Table resize 169
    3.18.3. Modify table’s shape 171
    3.18.4. The cursor movement . 174
    3.18.5. Insert a multiline text in a cell 174
    3.18.6. The data type 175
    3.18.7. Populate the table 176
    3.18.8. Modify the contents of a table 177
    3.18.8.1. Table Style dialog box . 177
    3.18.8.2. Table update using the property palette . 183
  4. TWO-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS’ EDITING . 187
    4.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 187
    4.2. INTRODUCTION 188
    4.3. GRIPS . 188
    4.3.1. Grips toggle 188
    4.3.2. Change the size and color of the grips 189
    4.4. OBJECT SELECTION . 190
    4.4.1. Method #1: Green Method 190
    4.4.1.1. Version #1 (Lasso method) 190
    4.4.1.2. Version #2 (Rectangle method) . 191
    4.4.2. Method #2: Blue Method 191
    4.4.2.1. Version #1 (Lasso method) 191
    4.4.2.2. Version #2 (Rectangle method) . 191
    4.4.3. Method #3 . 192
    4.5. SIMILAR OBJECT SELECTION . 192
    4.6. OBJECT DE-SELECTION . 193
    4.7. ZOOM CAPABILITIES 193
    4.7.1. Zoom window . 193
    4.7.2. Zoom scale . 195
    4.7.3. Zoom center . 195
    4.7.4. Zoom object . 196
    4.7.5. Zoom in 196
    4.7.6. Zoom out 196
    4.7.7. Zoom-wheel . 196
    4.7.8. Zoom all . 197
    4.8. PAN . 197
    4.9. DRAW ORDER . 198
    4.9.1. Bring to front . 198
    4.9.2. Send to back . 198Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications v
    4.10. OBJECT SNAP 198
    4.10.1. Toggle object snap 200
    4.10.2. Size and color of the object snap cursor .201
    4.10.3. Object snap commands .201
    4.10.3.1. Endpoint . 202
    4.10.3.2. Midpoint . 202
    4.10.3.3. Node 203
    4.10.3.4. Intersection . 203
    4.10.3.5. Extension 204
    4.10.3.6. Apparent intersection . 205
    4.10.3.7. Center . 205
    4.10.3.8. Quadrant . 206
    4.10.3.9. Geometric center . 206
    4.10.3.10. Tangent 207
    4.10.3.11. Perpendicular 208
    4.11. THE EDITING COMMANDS 209
    4.12. CANCEL 210
    4.13. ERASE 211
    4.13.1. Erase one object .211
    4.13.1.1. Using delete key . 211
    4.13.1.2. Using Erase tool . 211
    4.13.2. Erase multiple objects simultaneously 211
    4.14. UNDO 212
    4.14.1. Undo one command 212
    4.14.2. Undo several commands .212
    4.15. REDO .212
    4.15.1. Redo one command .213
    4.15.2. Redo several commands 213
    4.16. OOPS 213
    4.17. DELETE DUPLICATE OBJECTS 214
    4.18. COPY .215
    4.19. ARRAY .218
    4.19.1. Rectangular Array .219
    4.19.1.1. Rectangular array’s grip points 223
    4.19.2. Polar array .225
    4.19.2.1. Fill angle 228
    4.19.2.2. Angle between 229
    4.19.2.3. Polar array and grip points . 229
    4.19.3. Path array 230
    4.19.3.1. Path array and grip points . 234
    4.19.4. Edit array 234
    4.20. MIRROR .235
    4.21. OFFSET .237
    4.22. MOVE 240
    4.22.1. Move in xy-plane .242
    4.22.2. Move in z-direction .242vi Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    4.23. ROTATE 243
    4.24. SCALE . 245
    4.25. STRETCH . 247
    4.26. BREAK 249
    4.27. BREAK AT A POINT 250
    4.28. EXPLODE 251
    4.29. JOIN 252
    4.29.1.1. Lines 253
    4.29.1.2. Circular arc 253
    4.29.1.3. Polyline 255
    4.29.1.4. Spline . 255
    4.29.1.5. Combination of objects 255
    4.30. FILLET 256
    4.31. CHAMFER 258
    4.32. TRIM . 262
    4.32.1. Trim: FAQ 264
    4.33. EXTEND 265
    4.34. POLYLINE EDIT . 267
    4.35. GRIPS AND OBJECT EDITING . 272
    4.35.1. Select a point 273
    4.35.2. Stretch/shrink . 273
    4.35.3. Erase 273
    4.35.4. Move . 274
    4.35.5. Scale . 274
    4.35.6. Rotate . 274
    4.36. THE PROPERTIES PALETTE AND OBJECT EDITING 275
  5. ANNOTATIVE OBJECTS 279
    5.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 279
    5.2. INTRODUCTION 280
    5.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNOTATIVE OBJECTS 280
    5.3.1. Add a scale factor to the annotative object’s scale list . 281
    5.3.2. Ghost objects 283
    5.4. ANNOTATIVE OBJECT’S CREATION PROCESS 284
    5.5. TEXT . 285
    5.5.1. Multiline versus single line text 285
    5.5.2. Standard versus annotative text 285
    5.5.3. Annotative text style 286
    5.5.3.1. Text style dialog box 287
    5.5.4. Create multiline annotative text 289
    5.5.5. Text box size 291
    5.5.6. Text Editor 293
    5.5.6.1. Style . 293
    5.5.6.1.1. Font height 294
    5.5.6.1.2. Background mask . 294
    5.5.6.2. Formatting 295
    5.5.6.2.1. Stacked characters 295Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications vii
    5.5.6.3. Paragraph . 297
    5.5.6.3.1. Justification . 297
    5.5.6.3.2. List 298
    5.5.6.3.3. Line spacing 298
    5.5.6.3.4. Paragraph dialog box 299
    5.5.6.4. Insert 300
    5.5.6.4.1. Column . 300
    5.5.6.4.2. Symbol 300
    5.5.6.5. Spell check . 301
    5.5.6.6. Tools 301
    5.5.6.7. Options . 302
    5.5.6.8. Close 303
    5.5.7. Annotate tab and Text panel 303
    5.5.8. Modify multiline annotative text 304
    5.5.9. Delete text style 304
    5.5.10. Add the scales to the text properties .304
    5.5.11. Annotative text and viewport scale .305
    5.5.12. Text relocation 306
    5.5.13. Express Tools tab and Text panel .309
    5.5.13.1.1. Arc Aligned 309
    5.5.13.1.2. Enclose in object 311
    5.5.14. Summary of annotative text creation process .312
    5.6. HATCH .316
    5.6.1. Hatch editor tab .317
    5.6.1.1.1. Boundaries 317
    5.6.1.1.2. Pattern . 318
    5.6.1.1.3. Properties 319
    5.6.1.1.4. origin . 320
    5.6.1.1.5. Options 320
    5.6.1.1.6. Close . 324
    5.6.2. Create annotative hatch .324
    5.6.3. Add the scales to the hatch properties .326
    5.6.4. Update the viewports scales 326
    5.7. LEADER LINES .326
    5.7.1. Annotative leader style 328
    5.7.2. Create annotative leader .329
    5.7.3. Add the scales to the leader properties 331
    5.7.4. Update the viewports scales 332
    5.7.5. Arrow .332
    5.7.6. Arrowhead size 333
    5.8. ANNOTATION – STATUS BAR BUTTON .334
    5.8.1. Annotation visibility .334
    5.8.2. Annotation auto scale .335
    5.8.3. Annotation Scale 337
    5.8.4. Viewport scale sync .337
    5.9. CONVERSION OF ANNOTATIVE OBJECT TO NON-ANNOTATIVE .337
  6. LAYERS 341
    6.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 341
    6.2. INTRODUCTION .342
    6.3. LAYERS IN AUTOCAD .343
    6.4. LAYER COMMAND .344
    6.5. LAYER PROPERTIES MANAGER 344viii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    6.5.1. Characteristics of a layer . 345
    6.5.2. Create a new layer . 349
    6.5.3. Delete an existing layer . 350
    6.5.4. Make a layer to be a current layer 351
    6.6. DRAWING AND LAYERS 351
    6.7. THE DEFPOINTS LAYER . 351
    6.8. MOVE OBJECTS BETWEEN LAYERS . 351
    6.9. UPDATE LAYER PROPERTIES . 352
    6.10. LAYERS: FAQ . 353
    6.11. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE . 354
  7. BLOCKS 359
    7.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 359
    7.2. INTRODUCTION 360
    7.3. BASIC BLOCK 360
    7.3.1. Create a basic block 361
    7.3.2. Block definition dialog box . 361
    7.4. WBLOCK 364
    7.4.1. Create a Wblock . 364
    7.4.2. Write block dialog box 364
    7.5. BLOCK WITH ATTRIBUTES 366
    7.5.1. The initial setup 366
    7.5.2. Attribute definition dialog box 367
    7.5.3. Create attributes . 369
    7.5.4. Create block with attributes 370
    7.5.5. Convert to Wblock 370
    7.6. BLOCK WITH TEXT BOXES 371
    7.7. BASIC BLOCK INSERTION 373
    7.7.1. Insert dialog box . 373
    7.7.2. Insert a block with default values 375
    7.7.3. Change the scale of the block at the insertion 376
    7.7.4. Rotate the block at the insertion . 377
    7.7.5. Insert a Wblock . 378
    7.7.6. Insert a block with attributes 379
    7.7.7. Insert a block with text boxes 380
    7.8. COMBINE BLOCKS . 380
    7.9. MODIFY BLOCK . 380
    7.10. DESIGN CENTER 380
    7.10.1. Insert a block (known dimension) 383
    7.10.2. Insert a block (unknown dimension) 384
  8. LAYOUTS AND TEMPLATE 387
    8.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 387
    8.1. INTRODUCTION 388
    8.2. LAYOUT . 388
    8.2.1. Paper background and shadow 388
    8.2.2. Printable area . 390
    8.2.3. Viewport 393
    8.2.3.1. Viewport resizing . 393
    8.2.3.2. Multiple viewports . 393Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications ix
    8.2.3.3. Non-rectangular viewports . 395
    8.2.3.4. Viewport scaling 397
    8.2.3.5. Rescale a viewport . 397
    8.2.3.6. Lock the scale of a viewport 398
    8.3. ADD AN ENTRY IN THE SCALE LIST 400
    8.4. LAYOUT MANIPULATION .402
    8.4.1. Delete a layout .402
    8.4.2. Move a layout 403
    8.4.3. Copy a layout .404
    8.4.4. Rename a layout 405
    8.4.5. Insert a layout 406
    8.4.5.1. Default layout . 406
    8.4.5.2. Layout from template . 406
    8.4.6. Grid and Snap commands 407
    8.4.7. An Example 407
    8.5. LAYERS FREEZING AND LAYOUTS .409
    8.6. OBJECT APPEARANCE AND LAYOUTS 411
    8.7. TEMPLATE FILE 412
    8.7.1. Landscape template for ISO units 412
    8.7.2. Portrait template for ISO units 417
    8.7.3. Template for ANSI units 419
    8.8. MODIFY ATTRIBUTE OF A BLOCK IN A TEMPLATE FILE 419
  9. DIMENSIONS . 421
    9.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 421
    9.2. INTRODUCTION .422
    9.3. DIMENSIONING IN GENERAL 422
    9.4. TERMINOLOGY .423
    9.5. DIMENSIONS: BASIC RULES 425
    9.6. DIMENSIONS STYLES 426
    9.6.1. Standard dimensions .426
    9.6.2. Annotative dimensions .426
    9.7. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 427
    9.8. DIMENSION STYLE MANAGER .428
    9.9. MODIFY DIMENSION STYLE DIALOG BOX 429
    9.9.1. Lines 430
    9.9.2. Symbols and arrows 431
    9.9.3. Text 432
    9.9.4. Fit 433
    9.9.5. Primary units .433
    9.9.6. Alternate units .434
    9.9.7. Tolerance .434
    9.10. MODIFY DIMENSION STYLE .434
    9.10.1. Modify dimension style using the dialog box 434
    9.10.2. Modify dimension style using the properties palette .434
    9.11. DIMENSIONING TECHNIQUES 436
    9.11.1. Linear dimensions 436
    9.11.1.1. Extension lines . 436
    9.11.1.2. Object selection 437
    9.11.1.3. Text relocation . 438
    9.11.1.4. Space adjustment 439
    9.11.2. Aligned dimensions 441
    9.11.3. Angular dimensions .441
    9.11.3.1. Angles < 180o . 442x Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 9.11.3.2. Angles > 180o 443
    9.11.4. Dimensioning radii . 444
    9.11.5. Dimensioning circles 445
    9.12. CENTER MARK 447
    9.12.1. Command line method . 447
    9.12.2. Panel method . 449
    9.13. SMART DIMENSION . 449
    9.14. TYPES OF DIMENSIONS 452
    9.14.1. Continue dimension 452
    9.14.2. Baseline dimensions 453
    9.14.3. Ordinate dimensions . 455
    9.14.4. Tabular dimensions 456
    9.14.5. Combined dimensions 457
    9.15. QUICK DIMENSION 457
    9.16. DIMENSIONING FILLETS AND ROUNDS 458
    9.17. CENTERLINE 458
    9.18. LINE OF SYMMETRY 459
  10. TOLERANCE . 461
    10.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 461
    10.2. INTRODUCTION 462
    10.3. TERMINOLOGY 463
    10.4. TOLERANCE REPRESENTATIONS 463
    10.4.1. Plus-minus method . 463
    10.4.1.1. Unilateral . 464
    10.4.1.2. Bilateral 464
    10.4.1.3. Tolerance expression . 464
    10.4.1.4. Unilateral values 464
    10.4.1.5. Bilateral values 465
    10.4.1.6. Usage of Plus-minus tolerance . 466
    10.4.2. Limits tolerance . 466
    10.5. STANDARD TOLERANCE 466
    10.6. DOUBLE DIMENSIONING 467
    10.6.1. Double dimensioning: an error 467
    10.6.2. Solution #1 . 468
    10.6.3. Solution #2 . 468
    10.7. CHAIN AND BASELINE DIMENSION . 468
    10.8. TOLERANCE STUDY . 469
    10.9. TOLERANCE IN AUTOCAD 470
    10.9.1. Tolerance tab . 471
    10.9.1.1. Tolerance format 471
    10.9.1.2. Tolerance Alignment . 473
    10.9.1.3. Zero Suppression . 473
    10.9.2. Add or modify tolerance . 474
    10.9.2.1. Add or modify tolerance using the dialog box . 474
    10.9.2.2. Add or modify tolerance using the property palette . 474
  11. LAND SURVEY 477
    11.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 477
    11.2. INTRODUCTION 478Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xi
    11.3. LOCATION 478
    11.3.1. Longitudes 478
    11.3.2. Latitudes .478
    11.3.3. Location on a map 479
    11.4. ANGULAR MEASUREMENT .479
    11.4.1. Units of measurement .480
    11.4.2. Direction .480
    11.4.2.1. Azimuth 480
    11.4.2.2. Bearing . 480
    11.4.2.3. Relationship between azimuth and bearing 480
    11.5. TRAVERSE 481
    11.5.1. Open traverse 482
    11.5.2. Closed traverse .482
    11.5.2.1. Connecting traverse 482
    11.5.2.2. Loop traverse 482
    11.6. DRAWING A TRAVERSE USING AUTOCAD 483
    11.6.1. Traverse for the given azimuths 483
    11.6.2. Traverse for the given bearings 486
    11.7. ADD DIMENSIONS TO A TRAVERSE 487
    11.7.1. Length .487
    11.7.2. Add reference line to a traverse 488
    11.7.3. Azimuth angle .489
    11.7.4. Bearing angle 489
    11.7.5. Save the file .489
    11.8. PARCEL 489
    11.9. DEED 489
    11.10. LAND SURVEY 490
    11.11. RECTANGULAR SYSTEM .490
    11.11.1. Reference lines 490
    11.11.2. Township and range .491
    11.12. METES AND BOUNDS .494
    11.12.1. Land description using metes and bounds 494
    11.12.2. AutoCAD And Metes And Bounds .495
    11.13. LOTS AND BLOCKS 497
    11.13.1. Terminology 497
    11.13.2. Lots And Blocks 498
    11.13.3. AutoCAD And Lots And Blocks .498
    11.13.4. Area of a lot 504
    11.13.4.1. Closed boundary method 504
    11.13.4.2. Hatch method . 505
    11.13.4.3. Area command method 505
  12. CONTOURS 509
    12.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 509
    12.2. INTRODUCTION .510
    12.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONTOUR LINE .511
    12.4. TERMINOLOGY .511
    12.5. AUTOCAD AND CONTOUR MAP 515
    12.5.1. Create Script file .516
    12.5.2. Create layers .516
    12.5.3. Change point style 516
    12.5.4. Read the script files 516
    12.5.5. Create the contour map 517
    12.5.6. Curve fitting 519
    12.5.7. Add the labels to the index contours .519xii Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
  13. DRAINAGE BASIN . 521
    13.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 521
    13.2. INTRODUCTION 522
    13.3. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE . 522
    13.4. TERMINOLOGY 522
    13.5. DRAINAGE BASIN OR WATERSHED 524
    13.6. DRAINAGE BASIN CHARACTERISTICS 524
    13.6.1. Drainage area 524
    13.6.2. Drainage basin length 525
    13.6.3. Drainage basin slope . 525
    13.6.4. Miscellaneous 525
    13.7. MAJOR STEPS IN A DRAINAGE BASIN DELINEATION PROCESS 525
    13.8. DRAINAGE BASIN DELINEATION USING AUTOCAD 526
  14. FLOODPLAINS 537
    14.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 537
    14.2. INTRODUCTION 538
    14.3. TERMINOLOGY 538
    14.4. MAJOR STEPS IN A FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION PROCESS . 541
    14.5. FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION USING AUTOCAD . 541
  15. ROAD DESIGN 557
    15.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 557
    15.2. INTRODUCTION 558
    15.3. PLAN AND PROFILE . 558
    15.3.1. Plan 559
    15.3.2. Profile 559
    15.4. DRAW ROAD PLAN USING AUTOCAD 559
    15.5. PLOT A ROAD PROFILE USING AUTOCAD 562
    15.6. CROSS-SECTION 567
    15.7. DRAW A CROSS-SECTION USING AUTOCAD 568
  16. EARTHWORK . 577
    16.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 577
    16.2. INTRODUCTION 578
    16.3. EARTHWORK . 578
    16.3.1. Cut 578
    16.3.2. Fill 578
    16.3.3. Location of a road 578
    16.4. SLOPE 578
    16.5. ANGLE OF REPOSE 579
    16.6. ROAD: PLAN AND EXISTING PROFILE 580
    16.7. PROPOSED PROFILE OF A ROAD 580
    16.8. DELINEATE THE EARTHWORK USING AUTOCAD . 582
  17. FLOOR PLAN 591
    17.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 591
    17.2. INTRODUCTION 592
    17.3. FLOOR PLAN 594
    17.4. WALL 594
    17.4.1. Exterior 595
    17.4.2. Interior . 595
    17.4.3. Load bearing 595
    17.4.4. Non-load bearing . 595Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xiii
    17.4.5. Wall thickness .595
    17.5. DOORS 595
    17.5.1. Types of Doors 595
    17.5.2. Door sizes .598
    17.5.3. Door selection .598
    17.5.4. Door appearance in floor plan .598
    17.6. WINDOWS 599
    17.6.1. Types of windows 599
    17.6.2. Window sizes .600
    17.6.3. Window selection 600
    17.7. STAIR .601
    17.7.1. Terminology 601
    17.7.2. Important points 602
    17.7.3. Types of stairs .603
    17.8. BASICS OF FLOOR PLAN DESIGN 603
    17.9. DESIGN TECHNIQUE .605
    17.10. AUTOCAD AND FLOOR PLAN 605
    17.10.1. New file .606
    17.10.2. The input units 606
    17.10.2.1. Architectural 606
    17.10.2.2. Precision . 606
    17.10.3. Load linetypes .606
    17.10.4. Orthogonal lines .607
    17.10.5. Layers .607
    17.10.6. The floor plan .607
    17.10.6.1. Exterior wall . 607
    17.10.6.2. Interior walls 609
    17.10.6.3. Label 610
    17.10.6.4. Doors 610
    17.10.6.5. Walls cleanup . 613
    17.10.6.6. Windows 614
    17.10.6.7. Wall hatch 616
    17.10.6.8. Roofline 616
    17.10.6.9. Front porch . 617
    17.10.6.10. Back patio . 618
    17.10.6.11. Kitchen 618
    17.10.6.12. Master bathroom . 621
    17.10.6.13. Other bathroom . 624
    17.10.6.14. North direction 624
    17.10.6.15. The complete floor plan 624
    17.11. DIMENSIONING AN ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING 624
    17.11.1. Create Layers .625
    17.11.2. Set Dimension Style dialog box 625
    17.11.3. Add dimensions to the floor plan 627
  18. ELEVATIONS 635
    18.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 635
    18.2. INTRODUCTION .636
    18.3. ROOF 638
    18.3.1. Terminology 638
    18.3.2. Types of roofs 638
    18.3.3. Important points 638
    18.4. AUTOCAD AND ROOF PLAN 639
    18.4.1. Open file .639
    18.4.2. Load linetypes .639
    18.4.3. Layers .639
    18.4.4. The roof plan 640xiv Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    18.5. THE FRONT ELEVATION . 643
    18.5.1. Open file . 643
    18.5.2. Load linetypes 643
    18.5.3. Orthogonal lines 643
    18.5.4. Layers . 643
    18.5.5. Draw the front elevation 644
    18.5.5.1. Ground level 644
    18.5.5.2. Slab level . 645
    18.5.5.3. Doors . 645
    18.5.5.4. Windows 647
    18.5.5.5. Front wall . 650
    18.5.5.6. Roof . 651
    18.5.5.7. Front porch . 653
    18.5.5.8. Landscaping . 654
    18.5.5.9. Complete front elevation 654
    18.6. THE RIGHT-SIDE ELEVATION 655
    18.6.1. Open file . 655
    18.6.2. Load linetypes 656
    18.6.3. Layers . 656
    18.6.4. Orthogonal lines 656
    18.6.5. Miter line 657
    18.6.6. Ground and slab level 657
    18.6.7. Windows . 658
    18.6.8. Wall 660
    18.6.9. Roof 660
    18.6.10. Complete right-side elevation 664
    18.6.11. Front and right-side elevations 665
    18.7. BACK AND LEFT-SIDE ELEVATIONS 665
  19. SITE PLAN . 667
    19.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 667
    19.2. INTRODUCTION 668
    19.3. TERMINOLOGY 668
    19.4. COMPONENTS OF A SITE PLAN 668
    19.5. AUTOCAD AND SITE PLAN . 669
    19.5.1. Open file . 669
    19.5.2. Layers . 671
    19.5.3. Units . 671
    19.5.4. Load linetypes 671
    19.5.5. Property line 672
    19.5.6. North 673
    19.5.7. Ground slope 673
    19.5.8. Setbacks . 674
    19.5.9. Road . 675
    19.5.10. Adjacent properties 676
    19.5.11. Building 677
    19.5.12. Driveway 678
    19.5.13. Walkway . 679
    19.5.14. Swimming pool . 681
    19.5.15. Utilities . 683
    19.5.16. Template file . 684
  20. CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS 687
    20.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES . 687
    20.2. INTRODUCTION 688
    20.3. DRAWING FORMAT 688Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xv
    20.4. BLOCKS USED 688
    20.5. FAMILY OF CONSTRUCTION DRAWING 690
    20.5.1. Cover sheet .690
    20.5.2. General information .690
    20.5.3. Quantity sheet .690
    20.5.4. Survey or mapping 691
    20.5.5. Soil information 691
    20.5.6. Erosion control .691
    20.5.7. Landscape drawings .692
    20.5.8. Structural drawings 692
    20.5.9. Fire protection drawings 692
    20.5.10. Architectural drawings .692
    20.5.11. Plumbing drawings .692
    20.5.12. Mechanical drawings 692
    20.5.13. Electrical drawings .693
    20.5.14. Telecommunication drawings .693
    20.5.15. Plan and profile drawings 693
  21. PLOTTING FROM AUTOCAD 2024 695
    21.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 695
    21.2. INTRODUCTION .696
    21.3. PRINT .696
    21.3.1. Plot dialog box 698
    21.3.1.1. Page setup 698
    21.3.1.2. Printer/plotter . 699
    21.3.1.3. Paper size . 699
    21.3.1.4. Plot area . 700
    21.3.1.5. Plot offset . 705
    21.3.1.6. Plot scale 705
    21.3.1.7. Shaded viewport options 706
    21.3.1.8. Plot options 707
    21.3.1.9. Drawing orientation . 708
    21.3.1.10. Preview 709
    21.3.1.11. Plot to layout 709
    21.3.1.12. OK and cancel 709
    21.4. PLOT FROM LAYOUTS 710
    21.5. CHANGE LAYOUT’S ORIENTATION .712
    21.6. PAGE SETUP FROM LAYOUTS .715
    21.7. LAYOUT PLOTTING: FAQ .717
    21.8. EMAIL DWG FILE 718
    21.9. PORTABLE DOCUMENT FORMAT (PDF) .718
    21.9.1. Create a PDF file 718
    21.9.2. Import a PDF file into AutoCAD 721
    21.10. OPTION DIALOG BOX .723
  22. EXTERNAL REFERENCE FILES (XREF) . 725
    22.1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 725
    22.2. INTRODUCTION .726
    22.3. AUTOCAD AND REFERENCING AN EXTERNAL FILE 726
    22.3.1. Attach command .726
    22.3.2. Attach external reference dialog box 727
    22.3.2.1. Name 727
    22.3.2.2. Preview 728
    22.3.2.3. Reference type 728
    22.3.2.4. Scale . 728
    22.3.2.5. Insertion point 729xvi Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    22.3.2.6. Path type 729
    22.3.2.7. Rotation 729
    22.3.2.8. Block unit . 729
    22.3.3. File attachment 729
    22.3.4. Unreconciled layers . 731
    22.4. REFERENCE AN IMAGE FILE 732
    22.5. REFERENCE A PDF FILE 733
    22.6. CLIP . 735
    22.7. REMOVE CLIP . 737
    22.8. FILE UPDATE . 737
    22.9. VIEW REFERENCE FILES 738
    22.9.1. External Reference Palette . 739
    22.9.1.1. Attach . 740
    22.9.1.2. Refresh . 740
    22.9.1.3. Change path . 740
    22.9.1.4. Help 740
    22.9.1.5. Details 740
    22.9.1.6. Preview . 740
    22.10. OPEN A REFERENCED FILE 740
    22.11. DETACH A REFERENCED FILE . 741
  23. SUGGESTED IN-CLASS ACTIVITIES 743
    23.1. INTRODUCTION 743
    23.2. DOWNLOAD AUTOCAD 2024 744
    23.3. CUSTOMIZE A WORKSPACE . 745
    23.4. LINE AND ERASE COMMANDS GRID & SNAP CAPABILITIES 746
    23.5. LINE (ORTHO), POLYLINE, ERASE, OFFSET, AND JOIN . 748
    23.6. POINT, CIRCLE, POLYGON, MOVE, TRIM, EXTEND, AND ZOOM . 750
    23.7. OBJECT APPEARANCE 754
    23.8. OBJECT APPEARANCE, HATCH, COPY, MIRROR, AND SCALE . 756
    23.9. ELLIPSE, ARRAY, MIRROR, TEXT, QLEADER, AND DRAW ORDER 758
    23.10. LAYERS . 760
    23.11. MAKE & INSERT BLOCK, AND TEMPLATE FILES 762
    23.12. CREATE LAYOUTS AND CREATE VIEWS BY FREEZING LAYERS 764
    23.13. DIMENSION 768
    23.14. AZIMUTHS, BEARING, AND CLOSED TRAVERS . 770
    23.15. CLOSED TRAVERS 772
    23.16. LOTS AND BLOCKS 774
    23.17. ROTATE, TEXT, BACKGROUND MASK COMMANDS AND CONTOUR MAP . 776
    23.18. DRAINAGE BASIN DELINEATION . 778
    23.19. FLOODPLAIN DELINEATION . 780
    23.20. ROAD DESIGN: PLAN AND PROFILE . 784
    23.21. ROAD DESIGN: CROSS-SECTIONS 786
    23.22. ROAD DESIGN: EARTHWORK . 788
    23.23. FLOOR PLAN 790
    23.24. FLOOR PLAN (CONT.) 792
    23.25. DIMENSIONS (ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING) . 796
    23.26. ROOF PLAN 800
    23.27. FRONT ELEVATION 802
    23.28. RIGHT SIDE ELEVATION 804
    23.29. SITE PLAN . 806Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications xvii
    23.30. TABLES 808
  24. HOMEWORK DRAWINGS . 811
    24.1. GRID-1 (UNITS: INCHES) 811
    24.2. GRID-2 (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) 812
    24.3. CIRCLES (UNITS: INCHES) 812
    24.4. LIGHT SIGNAL (UNITS: INCHES) .813
    24.5. PLATE WITH HOLES (UNITS: INCHES) .814
    24.6. CIRCLE-TTR (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .814
    24.7. BRIDGE PIER (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .815
    24.8. OBJECT PROPERTIES (UNITS: INCHES) 815
    24.9. PIPE CUTTER (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .816
    24.10. POLYGONS AND CIRCLES (UNITS: INCHES) 816
    24.11. RECTANGULAR ARRAY (UNITS: INCHES) .817
    24.12. POLAR ARRAY (UNITS: INCHES) .817
    24.13. MIRROR, COPY, AND SCALE (UNITS: INCHES) 818
    24.14. SPIRAL OF ARCHIMEDES (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .820
    24.15. ELEVATOR SYSTEM (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) .822
    24.16. FERRIS WHEEL (UNITS: MILLIMETERS) 826
  25. BIBLIOGRAPHY . 829
  26. INDEX 833
  27. Index
    A
    Angular measurement, 479
    Azimuth, 480, 504, 505
    Bearing, 480
    Conversion, 480
    Units, 480
    Annotation, 285
    Convert annotative to non-annotative, 337
    Hatch, 316, 324
    Qleader, 326
    Status bar button, 334
    Text, 285
    Annotative, 280
    Leader style dialog box, 286
    Text style dialog box, 328
    Annotative Objects, 280
    Add scale to scale list, 281
    Characteristics, 280
    Creation And Display Process, 284
    Ghost objects, 283
    Area of a lot, 504
    Array, 218
    Edit, 234
    Path, 230
    Grip points, 234
    Polar, 225
    Angle between, 229
    Fill angle, 228
    Rectangular, 219
    Grip points, 223
    Arrow, 332
    Arrow head size, 333
    AutoCAD, 89
    Start, 12
    Azimuth, 480, 483, 489, 504, 505
    B
    Bearing, 480, 486, 489
    Blocks, 360
    Attributes, 366
    Basic, 360
    Combine, 380
    Convert to wblock, 370
    Create, 361
    Design center, 380
    Insert
    Default values, 375
    Known dimensions, 383
    Unknown dimensions, 384
    Insert dialog box, 373
    Modify, 380
    Text, 371
    Update attribute, 419
    Wblock, 364
    Break, 249
    Break at a point, 250
    C
    Cancel, 210
    Center mark, 447
    Centerline, 447, 458, 459
    Chamfer, 258
    Circle, 125
    Diameter, 126, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
    Radius, 126, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
    Tangent, tangent, radius, 130
    Tangent, tangent, tangent, 132
    Three points, 128
    Two points, 127
    Circular Arc, 149
    Command line, 35
    Color, 37
    Display, 36
    Font, 38
    Hide, 36
    Move, 35
    Resize, 36
    Contour, 510
    AutoCAD, 515
    Characteristics, 511
    Curve fitting, 519
    Depression, 513
    Index contour, 512
    Intermediate contour, 512
    Labels, 519
    Peak, 513
    Ridge, 514
    Saddle, 513
    Script file, 516
    Slope, 513
    Stream, 514
    Supplementary contour, 512
    Terminology, 511
    Coordinate systems, 109
    AutoCAD, 111
    Cartesian coordinates, 110
    Absolute, 111
    Relative, 112834 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    Polar coordinates, 110
    Absolute, 113
    Relative, 113
    Copy, 215
    Cursor, 26
    Customization, 24
    D
    Data input format, 77
    Angle, 79
    Insertion scale, 80
    Length, 78
    Deed, 489
    Design Center, 380
    Dimensions, 422
    Aligned, 441
    Angular, 441
    Angle < 180o, 442 Angle > 180o, 443
    Annotative, 426
    Basic Rules, 425
    Center mark, 447
    Centerline, 447
    Circle, 445
    Dimension Style Manager, 428
    Example, 427
    Extension Lines, 436
    Fillets, 458
    Linear, 436
    Modify styles, 429
    Arrow, 431
    Center mark, 431
    Lines, 430
    Text, 432
    Tolerance, 434
    Units, 433
    Modify using dialog box, 434
    Modify using property palette, 434
    Object selection, 437
    Quick dimensions, 457
    Radii, 444
    Rounds, 458
    Smart dimensions, 449
    Space adjustment, 439
    Standard, 426
    Standard vs Annotative, 426
    Terminology, 423
    Text relocation, 438
    Types of dimensions, 452
    Baseline, 453
    Combined, 457
    Continue, 452
    Ordinate, 455
    Tabular, 456
    Doors, 595
    Door appearance, 598
    Selection, 598
    Size, 598
    Types, 595
    Drafting & Annotation Interface, 16
    Switch, 16
    Workspace, 18
    Drainage basin, 524
    Area, 524
    Delineation steps, 525
    Delineation using AutoCAD, 526
    Length, 525
    Miscellaneous, 525
    Slope, 525
    Draw order, 198
    Bring to front, 198
    Send to back, 198
    Drawing, 19
    ANSI units, 73
    ANSI-ISO conversion, 74
    Area, 19
    Display format, 33
    ISO units, 74
    Limits, 81
    Name, 76
    New, 71
    Drawing methods, 2
    Drawing standards, 4
    Dynamic input, 100
    Components, 101
    Dimension input, 103
    Dynamic prompts, 105
    Pointer input, 102
    Drafting tooltip appearance, 106
    On/Off, 101
    E
    Earthwork, 578
    Angle of repose, 579
    AutoCAD, 582
    Cut, 578
    Fill, 578
    Road location, 578
    Slope, 578
    Elevation, 636
    Front and AutoCAD, 643
    Right side and AutoCAD, 655
    Ellipse, 143
    Elliptical Arc, 148
    Email drawing file, 718
    Erase, 211
    Existing profile of a road, 580
    Explode, 251
    Extend, 265
    F
    File, 76Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 835
    Basic, 76
    Close, 94
    Current, 94
    Open, 92
    Save, 89
    Fillet, 256
    Floodplain, 538
    Delineation step, 541
    Delineation using AutoCAD, 541
    Terminology, 538
    Floor plan, 594
    AutoCAD, 605
    Back porch, 618
    Design Basic, 603
    Design techniques, 605
    Dimension, 624
    Doors, 610
    Exterior wall, 607
    Front porch, 617
    Interior wall, 609
    Label, 610
    North, 624
    Roofline, 616, 624
    Windows, 613, 614
    G
    Grid, 83
    Behavior, 86
    Color, 87
    Properties, 85
    Spacing, 86
    Style, 86
    Toggle (Layout), 85
    Toggle (Model space), 84
    Grips, 188
    Color, 189
    Object editing
    Erase, 273
    Move, 274
    Resize, 273
    Rotate, 274
    Scale, 274
    Selection, 273
    Size, 189
    Toggle, 188
    H
    Hatch, 316
    Annotation, 324
    Boundaries, 317
    Hatch creation, 317
    Hatch edit, 320, 324
    Options, 320, 324
    Pattern, 318
    Properties, 319
    Hydrograph, 540
    Discharge, 540
    Stage, 540
    Station-Stage, 540
    Hydrologic cycle, 522
    Terminology, 522
    I
    Input data, 107
    Comma key, 108
    Less than key, 109
    Tab key, 107
    Typing error, 109
    J
    Join, 252
    Circular arc, 253
    Combination, 255
    Line, 253
    Polyline, 255
    Spline, 255
    L
    Latitudes, 478
    Layers, 343
    Characteristics, 345
    Command, 344
    Create, 349
    Current, 351
    Defpoints, 351
    Delete, 350
    Drawing with layers, 351
    Example, 354
    FAQ, 353
    Manager, 344
    Move object, 351
    Update, 352
    Layout, 22, 388
    Background, 388
    Change orientation, 712
    Copy, 404
    Delete, 402
    Display tabs, 23
    Grid, 407
    Hide tabs, 23
    Insert
    Default layout, 406
    From template file, 406
    Layer example, 407
    Layer freeze, 409
    Move, 403
    Object appearance, 411
    Page setup, 715
    Plot, 710836 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    Printable area, 390
    Rename, 405
    Snap, 407
    Leader
    Create annotative Qleader, 329
    Leader
    Annotative
    Leader style dialog box, 286
    QLeader style dialog box, 286
    Create annotative leader, 329
    Leader lines, 326
    Arrow, 332
    Arrow head size, 333
    Line, 114
    Orthogonal line, 118, 150, 151
    Points section, 115
    Polar coordinate, 117
    Snap points, 116
    Line of symmetry, 458, 459
    Linetype scale, 165
    Longitudes, 478
    Lots and blocks, 498
    Area, 504
    AutoCAD, 498
    Terminology, 497
    M
    Metes and bounds, 494
    Mirror, 235
    Model space, 20
    Move, 240
    In xy-plane, 242
    In z-direction, 242
    O
    Object Appearance, 158
    Color, 159
    Linetype, 162
    Lineweight, 161
    Object de-selection, 193
    Object selection, 190
    Object selection – select similar, 192
    Object snap, 198
    Apparent Intersection, 205
    Center, 205, 206
    Endpoint, 202
    Extension, 204
    Intersection, 203
    Midpoint, 202
    Perpendicular, 208
    Quadrant, 206
    Tangent, 207
    Toggle, 200
    Offset, 237
    Oops, 213, 214
    Orthographic views, 592
    P
    Page setup:, 715
    Pan, 197
    Panel, 53
    Add commands, 61
    Command expender, 55
    Display, 55
    Expender, 53, 54, 55
    Floating, 57
    New, 58
    Relocate, 56
    Paper space, 22
    Parcel, 489
    PDF
    Create, 718
    Import, 721
    Plan of a road, 580
    Plot, 696
    Layout, 710
    Layout plotting problems, 717
    OK and cancel, 709
    Option dialog box, 723
    Orientation, 708
    Page setup, 698
    Page setup, 715
    Paper size, 699
    Plot area, 700
    Display, 700
    Extents, 704
    Layout, 704
    Limits, 702
    Window, 702
    Plot Offset, 705
    Plot options, 707
    Plot scale, 705
    Plot to layout, 709
    Preview, 709
    Printer, 699
    Shaded viewport options, 706
    Plot dialog box, 698, 740
    Point, 149
    Point measure, 545, 569
    Point Measure, 151
    Point Size, 150
    Point Style, 150
    Pointer, 26
    Polygon, 140
    Polyline, 120
    Angle, 121
    Arc, 121
    CEnter, 122
    Direction, 123
    Halfwidth, 124
    Polyline edit, 267
    Close, 268Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 837
    Decurve, 271
    Edit vertex, 271
    Fit, 271
    Join, 269
    Open, 269
    Spline, 271
    Undo, 272
    Width, 270
    Print, 696
    Properties Palette
    Object editing, 275
    Proposed profile of a road, 580
    Q
    Qleader lines, 326
    Arrow, 332
    Arrow head size, 333
    R
    Rectangle, 134
    Rectangular system, 490
    Range, 491
    Township, 491
    Redo, 212
    Reference system, 109
    Cartesian coordinates, 110
    Absolute, 111
    Relative, 112
    Polar coordinates, 110
    Absolute, 113
    Relative, 113
    Revision Cloud, 152, 153
    RevCloudArcVariance, 152
    Ribbon, 39
    Color, 40
    Display, 43
    Hide, 42
    Move, 40
    Panel, 53
    Add commands, 61
    Command expender, 55
    Components, 53
    Display, 55
    Expender, 53, 54, 55
    Floating, 57
    New, 58
    Relocate, 56
    States, 45
    Tab, 46
    Add panel, 61
    Display, 47
    Hide, 47
    New, 48
    Relocate, 47
    Road design, 558
    Cross-section, 567
    Cross-section and AuotCAD, 568
    Plan, 559
    Plan and AuotCAD, 559
    PnP, 558
    Profile, 559
    Profile and AuotCAD, 562
    Roof, 638
    Roof plan, 639
    Terminology, 638
    Types, 638
    Rotate, 243
    S
    Scale, 4, 245
    AutoCAD, 8
    Conversion, 5
    Equivalence relation, 5
    Full, 7
    Graphical representation, 6
    Large, 7
    Representative Fraction, 4
    Small, 7
    Type, 4
    Scale list, 400
    Add an entry, 400
    Scroll bars, 30
    Site plan, 668
    AutoCAD, 669
    Component, 668
    Terminology, 668
    Snap, 83
    Polar spacing, 88
    Properties, 88
    Spacing, 88
    Toggle (Layout), 85
    Toggle (Model space), 84
    Type, 88
    Stair, 601
    Terminology, 601
    Types, 603
    Status bar, 24
    Customization, 24
    Status bar button
    Annotation, 334
    Stretch, 247
    T
    Tab, 46
    Add panel, 61
    Display, 47
    Hide, 47
    New, 48
    Relocate, 47
    Table, 167838 Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications
    Create, 169
    Cursor movement, 174
    Data type, 175
    Dialog box, 169
    Modify contents, 177
    Multiline text, 174
    Populate, 176
    Property palette, 183
    Reshape, 171
    Resize, 169
    Style dialog box, 177
    Technical Drawing, 2
    Template file, 412
    Create Landscape, 412
    Create Portrait, 417
    Update title block, 419
    Text, 285
    Annotate tab, 303
    Annotative
    Text style dialog box, 328
    Arc aligned, 309
    Background mask, 294
    Column, 300
    Create multiline annotative text, 289
    Create multiline text, 289
    Delete text style, 304
    Enclose in object, 311
    Express tools, 309
    Insert, 300
    Justification, 297
    Line spacing, 298
    List, 298
    Modify multiline text, 304
    Multiline vs single line, 285
    Options, 302
    Paragraph, 297
    Paragraph dialog box, 299
    Spell check, 301
    Stacked characters, 295
    Standard vs annotative text, 285
    Summary of text creation process, 312
    Symbol, 300
    Text box size, 291
    Text editor, 293
    Background mask, 294
    close, 303
    Column, 300
    Font height, 294
    Format, 295
    Line spacing, 298
    List, 298
    Options, 302
    Paragraph, 297, 299
    Spell check, 301
    Stacked character, 295
    Style, 293
    Symbol, 300
    Tools, 301
    Tools, 301
    Viewport scale, 305
    Tolerance, 462
    Add or Modify, 474
    Using dialog box, 474
    Using properties palette, 474
    AutoCAD, 470
    Chain and baseline dimension, 468
    Double dimensioning, 467
    Limits, 466
    Plus-minus, 463
    Bilateral, 464
    Expression, 464
    Unilateral, 464
    Usage, 466
    Representations, 463
    Standard, 466
    Terminology, 463
    Tolerance study, 469
    Tolerance tab, 471
    Traverse, 481
    Add dimension, 487
    Add NS to traverse, 488
    AutoCAD, 483
    Azimuth, 483, 489
    Display, 489
    Draw, 483
    Bearing, 486, 489
    Display, 489
    Draw, 486
    Closed, 482
    Open, 482
    Trim, 262
    FAQ, 264
    U
    Undo, 212
    V
    ViewCube, 30
    Setting, 31
    Switching, 32
    Viewport, 393
    Lock scale, 398
    Multiple, 393
    Non-rectangular, 395
    Rescale, 397
    Resize, 393
    Scale, 397
    W
    Wall, 594
    Exterior, 595
    Interior, 595Introduction to AutoCAD for Civil Engineering Applications 839
    Load bearing, 595
    Non-load bearing, 595
    Thickness, 595
    Watershed, 524
    Window, 599
    Selection, 600
    Size, 600
    Types, 599
    Working drawing, 688
    Workspace, 67
    Delete, 69
    Rename, 68
    Save, 67
    Switch, 69
    World Coordinate System, 29
    X
    Xref, 726
    Attach drawing file, 726
    Attach external reference dialog box, 727
    Clip, 735
    Detach referenced file, 741
    File update, 737
    Image file, 732
    Open referenced file, 740
    PDF file, 733
    Remove clip, 737
    Unreconciled layers, 731
    View reference files, 738
    Z
    Zoom, 193
    Zoom center, 195
    Zoom object, 196
    Zoom scale, 195
    Zoom window, 193
    Zoom-all, 197
    Zoom-in, 196
    Zoom-out, 196
    Zoom-wheel, 196

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