International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008

International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008
اسم المؤلف
Frank T. Lauinger
التاريخ
24 فبراير 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2008
Chairman
Frank T. Lauinger
President and CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
Senior Vice-President, Finance and Administration, CFO
Mark Wilmoth
Senior Vice-President, Audience Development & Book Publishing
Gloria S. Adams
Director
Mary McGee
Managing Editor
Marla Patterson
Editor
Joseph Hilyard
Production Manager
Sheila Brock
Art Director
Susan E. Ormston
ii IPE 2008
Guest Essay viii
Chronology 2007 xii
Encyclopedia & Atlas
North America
United States 1
Gulf of Mexico 46
Alaska 57
Canada 62
Latin America
Argentina 81
Belize 86
Bolivia 86
Brazil 87
Chile 96
Colombia 97
Cuba 101
Ecuador 102
Guatemala 104
Jamaica 106
Mexico 106
Nicaragua 113
Peru 114
Trinidad & Tobago 115
Venezuela 117
Europe
Albania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Republic of Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Turkey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
United Kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Middle East
Bahrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Iran. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Iraq. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Kuwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Oman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Qatar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Yemen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Africa
Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213IPE 2008 iii
Chad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Congo (Brazzaville). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Congo (Former Zaire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Equatorial Guinea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Gabon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Ivory Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Libya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Madagascar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Mauritania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Tanzania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
Former Soviet Union
Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Azerbaijan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
Kyrgyzstan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Lithuania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Tajikistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
Turkmenistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
Uzbekistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
China 275
Asia-Pacific
Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
Brunei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
East Timor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
Mongolia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Myanmar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
Papua New Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Vietnam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332
Key Stats & Tables
Key Stats
Future energy supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Reserves and production . . . . . . . . . .344
Drilling and exploration . . . . . . . . . . .350
Investment and markets . . . . . . . . . 359
Trade and tankers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364
LNG—Industry outlook. . . . . . . . . . . 366
LNG—Liquefaction and receiving . . . .370
LNG—Carrier fleet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374
LNG—Risks and opportunities . . . . . 379
Refining and products . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Gas processing and products . . . . . . .389
Petrochemicals outlook . . . . . . . . . . .393
Statistical Tables
World reserves and production . . . . . 406
Oil consumption, production, reserves,
and trade
World oil consumption. . . . . . . . 408
World petroleum product
consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
World oil production . . . . . . . . . .412
Historical oil reserves . . . . . . . . .416
World oil imports and exports . . . 417
World oil trade movements . . . . .418
World oil balance . . . . . . . . . . . .419
Oil refining
Summary of operating refineries
worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
World refining capacity . . . . . . . .423
World refinery throughput . . . . . . 427
World refining margins . . . . . . . .427
Natural gas consumption, production
and trade
World natural gas consumption . .428
World natural gas production. . . .430
World natural gas trade movements:
pipelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
World natural gas trade movements:
LNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Petroleum prices
Crude oil prices. . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Petroleum product prices . . . . . .433
Comparative energy prices . . . . .434
Price history of oil, gas,
and gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
International rig count . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Information Sources
National oil companies and energy
ministries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
Glossary of abbreviations and
acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Advertiser’s index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Index of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Fold-out Map LegendA
Abanico block, 101
Abbas, Mahmoud, 183
Abiteye field, 233
Abreu e Lima refinery, xvii,
90, 95
Abu Dhabi, 193
Abu Dhabi National Energy
Co (ADNEC), 195
Abu Dhabi National Oil Co
(ADNOC), 194
acquisitions/mergers, 363
Adar-Yale fields, 239
Afghanistan, 293; oil/gas
discoveries in, 270; TAPI
gas pipeline through, 293;
Trans-Afghan natural gas;
pipeline agreement of, 323;
war, 4
Afghan-Tajik basin, 270, 271
Africa, 199–244; Chinese
investment in, 206;
Chinese worker safety in,
284; European summit
with, 206; maps, 200–204,
208–209, 215–216, 218,
223, 225, 230, 233, 235,
239, 241–242; Skikda
liquefaction plant damaged
in, 371
Agbami project, 44
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 171
Ainslie Block, 63
Akri field, 233
Alam El Bueib discovery
(AEB), 218
Alaska, 56–61; drilling/
production in, 60;
environmental issues in, 61;
exploration/development
in, 57–59; lease sales in,
60; maps, 56–61; National
Petroleum Reserve in,
58–59; North Slope gas
hydrates in, 57; pipelines
in, 61
Alaska Gasline Inducement Act
(AGIA), 61
Alaska National gas pipeline, 61
Alba field, 222
ALBA Initiative, 122
Albania, 125–127; drilling/
production in, 127;
exploration/development in,
125–127; pipelines in, 127;
refining/processing in, 128
Albania-Macedonia-Bulgaria
pipeline (AMBO), 127, 129
Alberta: bitumen pipelines
in, 74–75; mined
production of, 74; oil
sands development of, 71;
production forecast in, 74;
Royalty Review Panel,
78–79; synthetic crude oil
forecast of, 75
Alberta Energy Research
Institute (AERI), 62
Alexandrite 1X well, 220
Al Gattara, 378
Algeria, 199–207; Block 351c
in, 204; Block 352c in,
204; Block 405B in, 204;
Djebel Bottena Block 129
in, 204; drilling/production
of, 204–205; exploration/
production of, 199–204;
Gassi Touil project in, 206;
Gaz de France seeking
approval of, 206; Hassi
Messaoud plant in, 206;
international activities of,
206–207; licensing blocks
in, 204; liquefied natural
gas in, 206; maps, 200,
202, 204; nomad-class
desert rig in, 204–205;
petrochemical complex
in, 207; Reggane North
concession in, 204; Russia’s
energy accord with, 207,
261; Terga power plant
in, 207
Al-Jabalayan production
facility, 239
Alpine field, North Slope, 60
Al Shaheen oil and gas field, 188
Advertisers
Halliburton 197
Transocean 245
Wilbros Group 335
ContentsIPE 2008 461
Index
alternative fuels: in China, 291; energy
demands requiring, 341; in Japan,
314–315; in United Kingdom, 165;
in United States, 40–42; United
States consumption of, 41
Altmark gas field, 136
Al Uqlah block, 196
Alve field production, 145
Al Wafa gas field, 228
Amal West field, 185–186
Amazon state; oil/gas sought in, 92;
pipelines in, 95
American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, 341, 347
Amoruso area, 16
Amu Darya River basin, 270
Anadarko basin, 12
Anadarko Petroleum Corp , 15, 46, 242
Anchor Loop project, 76
Anglo-Norwegian Statfjord field, xviii, 148
Angola, 207–213; Block 14 activity
in, 207; Block 15 of, 212; Block
16 in, 208; Block 17 in, 209–212;
Block 17 zones of, 212; Block 18
of, 212; Block 31 ultradeep activity
of, 208; Block 32 discoveries of,
208–209; Dalia field oil production
in, 209–212; deepwater fields of,
208; deepwater Rosa fields of, 212;
drilling/production of, 209–212;
exploration/development of,
207–210; future material projects of,
210; Greater Plutonio development
of, 212; Japan’s discussions with,
213; liquefied natural gas of,
212–213; maps, 208–209; Marimba
North project of, 212; Organization
of Petroleum Exporting Countries
joined by, 208
Angore fields, 324
Anguille field, 223
Apache Corp , 45
APEC group, 293
Aquitaine basin permit, 132–133
Aral Sea evaluation, 273
Arctic Circle, x, 146
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
(ANWR), 59
Argentina, 81–86; Bolivia’s agreement
with, 86–87; drilling/production
in, 85; exploration/development in,
81–85; international activities of,
86; map, 85; oil export tax increase
announced by, 85
Armenia; Block 2 of, 247; Iranian natural
gas pipeline to, 247; aromatics
complex, 326; Arthit natural gas
field, 329
Arzew, 207
Asher-Menashe exploration license, 183
Asia: Iran’s joint-venture projects with,
174; liquefied natural gas in, 283;
Pacific, 294–334; Pacific/ maps, 295,
297, 303, 308, 313, 316–317, 320,
332–333; processing capabilities
of, 384; refining capacity of, 385;
southern, 302
Asia-Pacific Network, 294
Assam-Arakan, 306
Association for the Study of Peak Oil
(ASPO), 340
Atasu-Alashankou export pipeline, 257
Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), 70–71
Athena oil project, 166
Attarat Umm Ghudran oil shale deposit
(AUG), 182
Austral basin, 85, 96
Australia, 294–296; Barta Block
development in, 296; Block AC/P36
of, 294–295; Bonaparte Gulf permit
in, 294; Browse basin project in,
296–298; Carnarvon basin W06-12
permit in, 294–295; Casino-Ipswitch
gas pipeline in, 298; coalbed methane
field in, 298; Cooper basin discovery
in, 296; drilling/production in, 296;
exploration/development in, 294–296;
Greater Gorgon Project in, 297;
liquefied natural gas in, 296–298;
LNG export plants in, 370; map, 295;
offshore exploration permits awarded
in, 294; pipelines in, 298; Pluto
LNG gas development in, 296, 371;
Stybarrow development production in,
296; Thylacine gas development in,
296; Van Gogh development in, 294;
Wompi Block in, 296
Austria, 127–128
Azerbaijan, 250–251; field, 158; Georgia
importing gas from, 251, 254;
pipeline corridors in, 250; Shah
Deniz gas-condensate field in, 250;
Turkey importing gas from, 250
Azov-Kuban basin, 264
Azurite oil field, 217
B
back-tax bills, 121
Badami Unit, 57
Bahrain, 169–171; major industries of,
169; oil potentials of, 169
Baja LNG terminals, 31
Bakken, 65
Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, 182, 251
Balakhany VII zone, 250
Balgzand Bacton Line (BBL), 268
Bali agreement, 403
Balkans region, 125
Bana-Bavu structure, 178–179
Bangladesh, 298–299
Begumganj gas field development plans
in, 299
Bibiyana gas field in, 298; Sangu offshore
gas field and, 299
Banten refinery, 311
Baobab oil field, 226
Barbados, 123
Barents Sea, 144, 146, 371
Ba Ria Vung Tau Province, 334
Barrow Island, 297
Barta Block, 296
Barzan gas project, 187
basin reserves, of West Africa, 211
Bay of Campeche, 86, 111–112
Begumganj gas field, 299
Beibu Gulf basin, 279
Belgium, 128, 131
Belize, 86, 104
Benguela Belize-Lobito Tomboco project
(BBLT), 207
Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly, 271–272
B-Golitza well, 128
Bhutto, Benazir, 322
Bibiyana gas field, 298
Bieszczady blocks, 152
Bilabri FPSO, 234
Bina-Bawi-1 exploratory well, 178–179
biodiesel: factory, 259; Guangxi plant
for, 291; plant, xix; production, 343;
project, 96; Singapore plant for, 326462 IPE 2008
Index
bioethanol: fuel production, 291; plant,
165; production, 343; biofuels,
95; China’s policies toward, 291;
environmental harm from, 343; flexible
strategies needed for, 343; Philippines
projects in, 325; pipelines, 90;
transport fuel consumption for, 343
Bioko Island LNG facility, 222, 223, 371
biomass fuel, 41
Biotitt prospects, 143
bitumen: Alberta pipelines for, 74–75;
estimates, 350; upgrader, 75
Blacktip gas-condensate field, 294
Black Warrior basin, 402
Blane field production, 145
Bleue Loraine Permit, 133
Blind Faith project, 44, 52
Blue Nile basin, 240
Bohai Bay discovery, 281
Bohai Gulf, 281
Bolivia, 86–87; Argentina’s agreement
with, 86–87; Brazil’s gas pact
with, 87, 93; gas reserves in, 86;
international activities of, 87;
refining/products in, 87; bomb
attacks, 112
Bomu manifold, 233
Bonaparte basin, 294
Bonaparte Gulf permit, 294
Bongs South West, 234
Bonny Island: LNG train, 234; trains, 236
Borneo, 309
Bosi FPSO, 234
Bou Draa field, 231
Bowen basin, 298
BP Alaska, 45
BP PLC, 55, 69
BP Products North America Inc , 44
Brass LNG terminal, 234
Brazil, 87–96
Bolivia’s gas pact with, 93
Bolivia’s gas-price agreement with,
87; Campos basin in, 88; drilling/
production in, 93–94; energy
consumption of, 87; ethanol
production of, 89, 314–315;
exploration/development in, 90–93;
gas production in, 89; lease sales in,
92; liquefied natural gas in, 94; maps,
88, 90, 94, 97; National Petroleum
Agency of, 92; natural gas liquids
in, 89; natural gas reserves of, 88;
new field discoveries in, 91; oil/NGL
projects of, 89; pipelines in, 95;
refining in, 95–96; ultra-deepwater
exploration drilling by, 358; United
States partnership with, 95–96;
Venezuela’s agreement with, 121
Brazilian National Social and Economic
Development Bank (BNDES), 95
Brazilian Petroleum and Gas Institute
(IBP), 87
Brazos Belle field records, 17
Brigham Exploration Co , 15
Brindisi terminal, 139
British Columbia, 79
British Emerald LNG carrier, 378
Browse basin, 294–295
Browse basin project, 296–298
Brunei, 299; Japan’s trade agreement
with, 299, 314; map, 317; natural
gas discovery in, 299
Bulgaria, 128–129
Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 25, 61
Burgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline (BA),
257, 265
Burren Energy PLC, 166
Bush, George, xii, xix, 4, 95, 183
Buzzard field, xii, 162
C
Cabinda, 209
Cabinda Gulf Oil Co , 207
Cabrillo Port project, 31
Cacouna Energy, xvi
Cakerawala production platform (CKP), 331
Calhoun LNG facilities, 29
California: greenhouse gas standards in,
43; oil spills and, 43
Camamu-Almada basin, 91
Camarupim field, 92
Cameroon, 213–214; Block MLHP 5
of, 213; Block MLHP 7 of, 213;
Block PH-77 of, 213; Ngosso Block
offshore of, 213–214; Nigeria’a
boundary demarcation with, 214;
North Matanda oil project feasibility
study and, 214
Campo Junin field, 121
Campos basin, 88, 91, 93
Canada, 62–79; Beaufort Sea Paktoa
C-60 wildcat in, 63, 68; British
Columbia royalty program of, 79;
carbon emissions tax in, 403; coalbed
methane in, 69; crude oil markets in,
73; crude oil production in, 72–73;
depressed drilling activity of, 66–67;
drilling/production in, 64–68; energy
company news in, 79; environmental
issues of, 78; exploration/development
in, 63–64; gas exports from, 77; gas
production/consumption in, 62; gas
shales of, 401; liquefied natural gas
in, 63, 76; LNG import terminals
in, 372; maps, 62, 65, 71, 73–74, 77;
natural gas declining deliverability in,
63; natural gas resources in, 62; oil/
gas capital spending in, 64; oil sands
in, 69–76, 347–350; pipelines in, 76;
refining capacity of, 78; refining in,
77; United States drilling compared to,
19; western/drilling activity in, 67–68
Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador
Offshore Petroleum Board
(C-NLOPB), 68
Canada-Nova Scotia Petroleum Board, 67
Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling
Contractors (CAODC), 67
Canadian Association of Petroleum
Producers (CAPP), 62–63
Canadian Beaufort Sea, 63, 68
Ca Ngu Vang field, 333
Cano Sur project, 99
Cantarell field, Mexico, 106–107
cap-and-trade system, 403
capital expenditures: forecast, 358;
increases, 76; on LNG facilities, 369
Carabobo field, 119
Carandayty subbasin, 123
carbon capture and storage (CCS), xi,
149, 150, 403; coal-fired power plant
using, 405; as emissions reduction
method, 405; geologic sequestration
system for, 404
carbon dioxide, xiv, 136, 297
capture venture, 193; flood project, 24;
from Sleipner field, xi; storage, 166;
web sites related to, 405
carbon emissions: Lithuania’s lawsuit
regarding, 259–260; Quebec tax on, 78,
402; reduction, 165–166; tax, xv, 403IPE 2008 463
Index
carbon sequestration: projects, 405;
strategy, 44
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum
(CSLF), 405
Carbon Sequestration Regional
Partnership, 405
Caribbean-Pacific oil pipeline, 122
Caril-1 well, 209
Carnarvon basin, 294–295
Carpathian blocks, 152
Casino-Ipswitch gas pipeline, 298
Caspian gas Pipeline, xix
Caspian Kashagan oil field, xvi
Caspian Pipeline Consortium, 257
Caspian Pipeline System, 258
Caspian region oil pipelines, 257
Caspian Sea, 252; basin, 137;
development in, 272; natural gas
pipeline in, 272; Cassiopee Est
Marine-1 well, 215
Catatumbo basin, 100
Catguas block, 100
Caucasus, Kura basin, 253
Cauvery basin, 306
Cavendish field, 162
Centauro Sur field, 100
Cepu Block, 310
Chaco basin, 123
Chad, 214
Changbei field, xiii, 281, 318–319
Changpang oil field, 306
Chavez, Hugo, xii, 117, 119–122, 153, 284
Cheal oil field, 321
Chemchemal gas fields, 177
Chetopa field, 24
Chile, 96–97; exploration/development
in, 96; lease sales in, 96–97; liquefied
natural gas in, 97; Magallanes basin
blocks in, 97
China, 275–291; African investment
of, 206; alternative fuels in, 291;
Beibu Gulf basin production-sharing
contracts in, 279; biofuels policy of,
291; Bohai Bay discovery in, 281;
Changbei field production in, 281;
Chuanhu pipeline plan in, 287;
Chuanhu pipeline schematic and,
287; coalbed methane project in, 283;
coal v other fuels in, 369; crude
production/import requirements in,
278; Daqing multiple-output plant
in, 290; deepwater oil drilling in,
282; domestic upstream spending
increases in, 279; drilling/production
in, 281–283; eastern, 277; East
Siberia Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
in, 285; energy investment of, 362;
energy mix of, 275; exploration/
development in, 279–281; foreland
basins/thrust belts in, 281; gas
balance in, 283; Gorgon project in,
371; Guangxi biodiesel plant in, 291;
horizontal well plans in, 282; Inner
Mongolia methanol-to-propylene
facility in, 290; international
activities in, 284–285; Iranian gas
supply agreement collapses with,
283; Japan’s meetings with, 312;
Jilin City propylene plant in, 290;
Jiuxi basin exploration in, 279–280;
joint venture shipping considered in,
284; Kazakhstan’s gas line to, 286;
as leading coal producer/user, 279;
liquefied natural gas in, 283–284;
liquids technologies sought in, 289;
LNG carrier orderbook of, 374; LNG
shipbuilding goals of, 374; maps,
276–277, 280–282, 284–286, 288;
Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basin in,
280; Myanmar oil pipeline with, 287,
319; Nanjing’s synthesis gas plant
in, 290; Nanpu Block production
in, 281; Nansha refining facility in,
289; natural gas energy production
of, 283; natural gas requirements
increasing in, 278–279; Ningbo
POSM manufacturing plant in, 290;
Ningbo refinery proposal in, 289;
oil/gas reserves in, 275; oil import
sources of, 278–279; oil pipeline
projects in, 286; oil production
capacity of, 278; oil production v
consumption in, 278; oil tank farms
planned in, 284–285; Pearl River
Mouth basin in, 279; Peng Lai 19-3
oil field in, 281; petrochemicals
in, 290; pipeline contract of, 194;
pipelines in, 285–287; refinery
capacity expansion in, 289; refinery
increases of, 383; refining capacity
increasing in, 279; refining joint
venture in, 289; refining/products
in, 289; Sichuan province gas fields
production; in, 279; south, 282;
strategic petroleum reserve site
details in, 288; strategic petroleum
reserve timeline in, 287–288;
terminals in, 284; Thailand drilling
successful for, 330; Turkmenistan
gas line with, 272–273, 285;
underground coal gasification
system in, 289; Venezuela exporting
oil to, 121; West-East Pipeline
Project in, 285; western, 276; west
products pipeline in, 285; worker
safety demanded by, 284; Wuhan
ethylene project in, 290; Yacheng gas
supply outlook in, 282–283; Zhong
Ximentang Island LNG terminal in,
284; Zhoushan oil port in, 286
China National Petroleum Corporation
(CNPC), 214, 285
Chinguetti oil field, 230–231
Chiswick field, 161
Chouech Es Saida concessions, 242
Christian, Louis, 172
Chuanhu pipeline plan, 287
Chuanhu pipeline schematic, 287
Clean Air Act, xv
clean fuel production, 388
Cleveland basin, 160
climate change, xi
climate change (statistics), 403–405
coal, 267; China and, 369; China leading
producer/user of, 279; FischerTropsch projects based on, 384, 386;
mine accident, 273; in San Juan basin,
402; world reserves of, 386
coalbed methane (CBM)
in Australia, 298; in Black Warrior
basin, 402; in Canada, 69; in China,
283; in France, 133; India’s sale
of, 306; in Midcontinent, 401;
opportunities for, 400; Powder River
production of, 26; Powder River well
drilling for, 26; production outlook
of, 402; Russia’s pilot project of, 264;
in Sindh Province, 322; in United
States, 25–26; United States basins
with, 400
coal-fired power plant, 405
Cobra discovery, 159
coiled tube drilling, 23, 359464 IPE 2008
Index
Colombia: drilling/production in,
100–101; energy company news
in, 101; exploration/development in,
99; lease sales in, 99–100; map, 98;
natural gas in, 98; oil production
in, 98; pipelines in, 101; refining/
products in, 101
Colorado: coiled tube drilling in, 23;
oil shale development in, 2; Roan
Plateau in, xv, 12
Colorau-1 exploration well, 209
Columbia basin, 401
Columbia River basin, 14
commercial cellulosic ethanol plant, 40
commercial pipeline operation, 331
concession L44/43, 331
condensate-bitumen blend (dilbit), 72
condensate production, 392
Condor block, 99
Congo (Brazzaville), 215–216; Marine 1
Block of, 216; Marine XII oil reserves
of, 216; Perenco fields of, 216; Persee
Nord Est Marine-1 discovery of, 215;
ultra-deep offshore block of, 215;
Yombo field of, 215–216
Congo (former Zaire), 217; Azurite oil
field of, 217; Lake Kivu natural gas
of, 217
Conservation of Clean Air and Water in
Europe (CONCAWE), 388
Constanta-Trieste Pipeline (C-T), 154
construction: drilling rigs, 356; gas
plants, 391; liquefied natural
gas, 367; pipelines cost for, 34;
containment systems, 377
Continental Resources Inc , 14
continuous catalyst regeneration
operation (CCR), 190
contractors, drilling rigs, 355
Cooper basin, 296
Cooper oil project, 296
Corocoro field, 117
Correa, Rafael, 102, 104
Corvina field, 114
Coryton refinery, 165
Costa Rica, 123
Cottonwood field, xiii, 53
Cove Pointe terminal, 148
Cretaceous Carbonate Play, 252, 253
Cretaceous Donga formation, 244
Cretaceous-Tertiary Madame
formations, 244
Croatia, 129
crude oil: Alberta’s synthetic, 75;
Canadian production of, 72–73;
China’s import requirements of, 278;
cumulative production growth in,
337; global price statistics on, 433;
global production fo, 388; markets
for, 73; offshore supplies of, 336–338;
production capacity increase of, 342;
spill, 327
crude slate, 388
Cuba, 101–102; exploration/development in,
102; map, 110; oil production in, 102
Cubatao refinery, 95
Cuejdiu block, 154
Curupayty subbasin, 123
Cuu Long basin, 333
Cyclone Sidr, 298
Cyprus, republic of, 158
Czech Republic, 129–131; Belgium
pipeline to, 128, 131, 135–136
D
Daandine CBM field, 298
Dabayaa-1 well, 220
Daewoo yard, 234
Dalia field, 209–212
Dalian petrochemical project, 290
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, 19
Danish Tyra field, 132
Daqing field, 279, 290
Darfur: oil production from, 239–240;
violence in, 238
Darkhovin oilfield phase 3, 171
Darling, Alistair, 161
da Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula, 103
Davis Strait blocks, 131
deck lift record, 53
Decommissioning Cost Provision Deed
(DCPD), 164
Deep Bossier, East Texas, 16–17, 401
deep-draft semisubmersible (DDS), 52
Deep Panuke development project, 68
Deep Panuke field, 64–65
deepwater drilling, 282; of China, 282;
gas production with, 358; Gulf of
Mexico oil production with, viii;
natural gas discovery with, 143; of
Norway, 143; oil discoveries, 211; oil
production, 358; of Sabah, 315; ultra,
52, 208, 215, 358; of West Africa, 210
deepwater fields: of Angola, 208, 212;
capital expenditures forecast of, 358;
of Malaysia, 315; of Mauritania, 231
deepwater wells, 197
deep well drilling, 309
Degeh Bur zone, 284
delayed coker process, 191
Denmark, 131–132; exploration/
development in, 131–132; pipelines
in, 132
Denver-Julesburg basin, 23
Department for Business, Enterprise, and
Regulatory Reform (DBERR), 161
Department of Trade and Industry
(DTI), 161
Det Norske Oljeselskap ASA, 151
al-Dhabi region, 184
Dhahran field, 189
diesel fuel: changing specifications for,
387; forecast for, 382; global demand
for, 387; regional supply/demand
balances of, 390; renewable, 138
Dihok area, 177
Disko phase 1 blocks, 131
Djebel Bottena Block 129, 204
Dodds-Roundhill clean coal gasification
project, 69
Doina Sister prospect, 154
Dolphin project, 193–194
domestic upstream spending, 279
Dominion, 45
Dominion assets, 55
DONG Energy’s offshore pipeline, 132
Douala basin, 213–214
Dreki area licenses, 144
drilling: fleets, 354; forecast, 67;
Switzerland’s plans for, 139
drilling activity: offshore/onshore, 353;
in Saudi Arabia, 190
drilling and exploration: of Egypt,
220; in New Zealand, 320–321; of
Romania, 154
drilling and exploration (statistics),
350–359; coiled tube, 359
deepwater/ultradeepwater, 358; floating
production systems and, 357–358;IPE 2008 465
Index
gas production cost and, 355; rig
activity in, 350–354
drilling and production: Alaska, 60;
Albania, 127; Algeria, 204–205;
Angola, 209–212; Argentina, 85;
Australia, 296; Brazil, 93–94; Canada,
64–68; China, 281–283; Colombia,
100–101; Georgia, 253–254; Gulf
of Mexico, 50–54; India, 306;
Indonesia, 310; Israel, 183; Italy,
139; Kazakhstan, 256; Libya, 228;
Mexico, 107–111; Nigeria, 234;
Norway, 145–146; Pakistan, 322;
Peru, 114; Poland, 151–152;
Portugal, 153; Russia, 261–265;
South Africa, 237; Tajikistan, 271;
Thailand, 329–331; Trinidad, 116;
Turkey, 158; ultradeepwater, 52;
United Arab emirates, 192; United
Kingdom, 162; United States, 15–24,
18; Venezuela, 120; Vietnam, 333
drilling contractors: offshore/merger
of, 351; offshore/onshore utilization
of, 352; drilling rigs; active fleet
of, 354; activity, 350; contractors
ordering, 355; counts (by region) of,
351; global statistics of, 436–437;
international count of, 353; offshore
construction of, 356; shortages, 228;
United States owners of, 354; in
Venezuela, 120
Droshky appraisal well, 46
dry gas: production, 16; reserves, 12
Duart field production, 166
Dubai fields, 193
Dubai Mercantile Exchange, xv
Dubai Petroleum Establishment, 192
Dulisminskoye field, 269
Dung Quat refinery, 334
Durresi block, 127
Dussafu Marin area, 223
E
East China Sea, 312
East Coast basin, 319–320
Eastern Gas Program, 261
East Falcon block, 120
East Mediterranean Gas (EMG), 221
East Siberia Pacific Ocean pipeline
(ESPO), 268–269, 285
East Texas Deep Bossier, 16–17
East Timor, 300; Block 06-103 seismic
survey in, 300; Masela block appraisal
wells in, 300
Ebberston Moor gas field, 160
Ebro basin, 156
Ech Chouech concessions, 242
Economic Development and Trade
Ministry, 266
economic expansion, 89–90
Ecuador, 102–104
energy policy in, 104
exploration/development in, 103; gas
processing in, 104; human rights
abuses in, 104; LPG facilities built
by, 104; map, 103; oil production
in, 103
Edmonton: bitumen upgrader near,
75; hydrogen facility in, 78;
Scotford upgrader near, 70–71;
TransMountain transports from, 76
Egina oil field, 234
Egypt, 217–221; Alexandrite 1X well of,
220; drilling/exploration of, 220
exploration/development of, 218–220;
gas liquids plant in, 171; gas
processing of, 221; Giza North-1 well
of, 220; Gulf of Suez oil production
of, 217; Israel’s oil imports from,
221; Jade-1X well of, 219; Jade-4
well of, 218; Kahraman B-22 wildcat
well of, 219; Kom Ombo Concession
of, 220; Meleiha concession extension
of, 219; natural gas growth engine
of, 217; NGL recovery plant of,
221; North Ramadan Block of, 220;
pipelines of, 221; refining/products of,
221; Salam gas plant of, 221; Syrah
5x well of, 219; Western Desert wells
of, 218, 220; Zaina-2 well of, 219
electricity, cost comparison, 225
electric power generation, 76, 232
Elk-2 appraisal well, 324
El Paso Natural Gas Co (EPNG), 32–34
emissions reduction method, 405
Empresa Nacional del Petr-leo (ENAP), 103
EnCana Corp , 13–14
energy: China’s investment in, 362
Energy Information Administration
projections on, 9–10; funding,
11; Georgia’s security of, 251;
Guatemala’s mining policies and,
105; India’s investment in, 362;
Japan’s changing mix of, 312;
Japan’s production innovations
in, 314; parameters, 4–5; Taiwan’s
innovations in, 328; Tajikistan crisis
of, 269; technology/efficiency, 294;
United States supply/demand of, 4
Energy Charter Treaty, 265
energy company news, 79, 101; in
Canada, 79; in Colombia, 101; of
Gulf of Mexico, 54–55; of Norway,
150–151; in Romania, 155; of United
States, 44–45
energy consumption
of Brazil, 87; efficiency and, 11; oil
exports v , 360
energy demands
alternative resources pursued for, 341;
in Italy, 139; sources of, 344; Energy
Independence and Security Act of
2007, 4
Energy Information Administration
(EIA); Brazil’s energy consumption
from, 87
energy parameters of, 4–5
energy projections of, 9–10; LNG import
growth predicted by, 32; state energy
profiles from, 8
Energy Infrastructure Rehabilitation
Project, 251
energy policy: APEC group recommends
diversified, 293; in Ecuador, 104;
of Germany, 136; of India, 301; of
Nigeria, 235–236; Turkmenistan
changes in, 271
Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE),
133, 134
energy sector: global comparative price
statistics on, 434; Indian companies
in, 300
energy supply statistics, 336–343; giant
oil discoveries and, 338–341; of oil
production, 336–338, 340; of peak
oil, 340–342
Energy White Paper, 162
enhanced oil recovery (EOR), 44,
185–186, 346–347466 IPE 2008
Index
Eni Petroleum Co , 55
Enoch field, xv, 145
environment: biofuel harming, 343;
issues involving, 43, 61, 78; law
violations against, 258; United States
expenditures on, 44
environmental issues: in Germany, 136;
of Norway, 149–150; of United
Kingdom, 165–166
Eocene Sokor formation, 244
Equatorial Guinea, 221–223; Blocks I
of, 221–222; Blocks O of, 221–222;
exploration/development of,
221–222; lease sales in, 222; liquefied
natural gas of, 222–223; production
sharing contracts of, 222; Zafiro oil
field of, 223
Erawan field, 331
Erika oil spill, 135
Ermintrude prospects, 143
Espirito Santo basin, 92
ethanol: Brazil’s production of, 89,
314–315; capacity increases for,
95; commercial cellulosic plant
producing, 40; demand for, 40;
gasoline prices v , 41; market
constraints on, 42; price pressure
influencing, 42; production capacity
for, 42; supply/demand estimates of,
42; United States production/demand
of, 43
ethylene: capacity, 289; company
expansions, 395; global capacity
of, 393; largest complexes dealing
with, 393; national capacities of, 394;
prices, 396; propane and, 389; top 10
producers of, 394; trade, 396; United
States comparisons with, 395; United
States production of, 395; Wuhan
project of, 290
ethylene pipeline, 176
Europe, 125–166; African summit with,
206; crude slate of, 388; as largest
offshore oil/gas producer, 340; Libya
oil supplier to, 226; maps, 126, 130,
140; refinery outlook in, 388; refining
capacity of, 385
European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (EBRD), 263
European Commission, 403
European Trading Scheme (ETS), 405
European Union (EU): Morocco
cooperation from, 231; processing
capabilities of, 384
Exmouth basin, 294, 296
exploration and development: of Alaska,
57–59; of Albania, 125–127; of
Angola, 207–210; of Argentina,
81–85; of Australia, 294–296; of
Brazil, 90–93; of Canada, 63–64;
of Chile, 96; of China, 279–281;
of Colombia, 99; of Cuba, 102; of
Denmark, 131–132; of Ecuador, 103;
of Egypt, 218–220; of Equatorial
Guinea, 221–222; of France,
132–133; of Georgia, 252–253; of
Ghana, 224; of Guatemala, 105;
of Gulf of Mexico, 46–50; of India,
304–305; of Indonesia, 308–309; of
Iraq, 177–179; of Israel, 183; of Jiuxi
basin, 280; of Kazakhstan, 254–255;
of Netherlands, 141–142; of New
Zealand, 319–320; of Nicaragua,
113; of Nigeria, 234; of Norway,
143; of Pakistan, 321; of Peru, 114;
of Qatar, 187; of Romania, 154; of
Russia, 260–261; of Saudi Arabia,
189; of South Africa, 237; of Sudan,
238–240; of Taiwan, 327–328;
of Tajikistan, 270; of Tanzania,
240–241; of Thailand, 329; of
Trinidad, 115–117; of Turkey, 157;
of Turkmenistan, 272; of United
Kingdom, 159–161; of United States,
12–14; of Venezuela, 117
exploration and production: of Algeria,
199–204; global spending on, 355,
360; in Libya, 226–227; oil/gas, 355;
in Vietnam, 332–333
exploration drilling: Iraqi bid rounds for,
180; ultradeepwater, 358
Exploration Study Agreement (ESA), 141
exploration wells: for oil/gas, 144; of
StatoilHydro, v–vi; ultradeepwater, 358
extended reach drilling (ERD), 18, 262
ExxonMobil Corp , vii
Exxon Valdez verdict, 45
F
Fachi West-1 exploration well, 244
FACTS Global Energy, 175
Faroe-Shetlan channel, 144
Fateh field, 193
Federal energy legislation, 4
Fell block gas deal, 96
Fergana basin: oil/gas production of, 258;
seismic surveys in, 259
Fergana basin exploration block, 270
Finland, 132
Fischer-Tropsch fuels (F-T), 384, 386
Flax East-1 well, 296
fleet development: handy, 365;
panamax, 365
floating production, storage, and
offloading vessels (FPSOs), 357–358;
Bilabri/Bosi, 234; Nigeria’s
development of, 234; Nigeria’s future
in, 235; Okoro Setu, 234; flood
project, 24
foreign investment: of China, 206;
of Taiwan, 327; Turkmenistan
seeking, 272
foreign-owned refinery, 334
foreland basins, 281
formation characteristics, 152
Former Soviet Union (FSU), 247–273;
eastern, 249; maps, 248–253, 255,
257–258, 260, 262–263, 266;
western, 248
Fort Hills: economics of, 70; oil sands
project, 70
Fos Cavaou terminal, 134
fossil fuel: production, 267;
thermochemical conversion of, 404
Fos-sur-Mer terminal, 134
France, 132–135; coalbed methane wells
in, 133; exploration/development in,
132–133; gas suppliers in, 133; gas
transmission/distribution in, 134;
high-profit taxes imposed in, 133;
Iran pressured by, 133; liquefied
natural gas in, 134; LNG terminals
in, 134; refining/products in, 135
Frontier basin geoscience surveys, 308
fuel consumption, 343
fuel demand, 381
fuel oil: Japan’s demand dropping for, 312;
North/South Korea pact on, 326–327IPE 2008 467
Index
fuel production, 291
Fuerte blocks, 99
Fujian Fuels JV, 289
Fula field, 239
Funiwa field, 233
FutureGen project, 405
G
Gabon, 223; Anguille field of, 223;
Dussafu Marin area of, 223
Galoc oil field, 325
Gambat Block, 322
Garibay block, 100
gas: China’s balance of, 283; -condensate
test, 166; Dallas/Fort Worth
International Airport well of, 19;
Egypt’s liquids plant for, 171;
French supplies of, 133; Hungary’s
diversifying supply of, 138; India’s
reduced estimates of, 304–305;
Iran’s consumption of, 177; Iran’s
resource development of, 175; largest/
unconventional fields for, 402;
Myanmar’s Gulf deposits of, xv; price
trends of, 392; processing survey,
390; processing trends of, 392;
Sichuan province production of, 279;
Songo Songo Island plant for, 241;
trade movement, 364; transmission/
distribution, 134; United States
resource estimates of, 399; worldwide
plant construction for, 391
gas consumption, 5, 62, 107; in Iran,
177; LNG imports and, 367
gas exports: of Canada, 77; of Iran, 171;
of Nigeria, 232–233
gas field: Al Shaheen, 188; Altmark,
136; Al Wafa, 228; Arthit, 329;
Arthit natural, 329; Begumganj, 299;
Bibiyana, 298; Changbei, 318–319;
Chemchemal, 177; Ebberston Moor,
160; Gazprom evaluation of, 270;
India’s natural, 304; Karan, 190;
Kormor, 177; Kovykta, 260, 266;
Kudu, 244; Kyzyloi, 256; Minke,
162; Ormen Lange, vi; Permian, 183;
Punta Ballenas, 101; Sangu offshore,
299; Sawan, 322; Shah sour, 193;
Sichuan province, 279; Tangguh,
311; Touat, 206; Wilmington, 16
gas hydrates: in North Slope, xiii, 57; in
South Korea, xiv, 327; Taiwan with,
328; United States resource of, 23
gas-oil separation plant (GOSP), 190
gasoline: changing specifications for, 387;
demand decrease of, 382; ethanol
prices v , 41; forecast for, 382; global
demand for, 387; global historic price
statistics of, 435; Iran’s shortage of,
174; market balance in, 38; market
raising price of, 383; production/
prices, 37; rationing program, xv;
United Kingdom sales of, 165;
United States demand/deficit of, 39
Gasparovic, Ivan, 155
gas processing: in Ecuador, 104; of Egypt,
221; in Kazakhstan, 258; in Mexico,
113; in Qatar, 188; of Tanzania, 241;
in Thailand, 331–332; worldwide, 391
gas processing and products statistics,
389–392
gas-to-liquids, 390; global gas
production growth in, 391; propane
overview in, 389
gas production, 62; in Brazil, 89; costs
rising of, 363; deepwater, 358; from
Mari-B field, 183; of Mexico, 107;
of Nigeria, 232–233; NWECS,
340–341; offshore/spending on, 360;
in private sector, 304; rising costs
of, 355; Sonatrach taking control of,
206; of Sudan, 239; top 20 in, 346;
of Turkmenistan, 271; United States
unconventional, 403; worlds largest
in, 391
gas reserves: in Bolivia, 86; in China,
275; by company type, 361; countries
with, 267; in Gulf of Mexico, 46;
in Sarikamysh Block, 270; top 20
in, 346; unchanged, 344; of United
States, 12
gas shales: of Canada, 401; next big play
in, 399; production outlook of, 402;
United States plays of, 400
Gassi Touil, 206
gas-to-liquids (GTL): existing/planned
plants for, 390; global capacity for,
390; outlook, 390; plant, xiii
Gaza Marine-1 well, 182
Gaz de France, 206
Gazprom, 260, 262–265; -Beltransgaz
pipeline deal, 269; oil/gas field
evaluation in, 270
GDF Suez, xvii
generalized structural features, 14
Genghis Khan, xvii, 51–52
geologic sequestration system, 404
Georgia, 252–254; Azerbaijan exporting
gas to, 251, 254; drilling/production
in, 253–254; energy security in,
251; exploration/development in,
252–253; Kura basin successes in,
252–253; Nazvrevi/Block XIII area
of, 253
geoscience surveys, 308
Germany, 135–136; energy policy of,
136; environmental issues in, 136;
pipelines in, 135–136; refining/
processing in, 136
Ghadames basin, 228, 241–242
Ghana, 224–225; exploration/
development in, 224; Hyedua-1
well of, 224; Keta Block of, 224;
Mahogany-1 well of, 224; pipelines of,
224–225; Tano blocks of, 224; West
African gas pipeline of, 224–225
Ghard-ST1 discovery well, 220
Ghawar oil field reserves, 189–190
giant offshore oil fields, 339
Giza North-1 well, 220
Gjaerum, Reidar, viii
Gjøa field development, 144
Global capacity growth, 387
global market trends, 379
global reserves, natural gas, 381
GlobalSantaFe/Transocean merger, 45
global spending, 355, 360
global statistics: on comparative energy
prices, 434; on crude oil prices, 433;
of historic gasoline prices, 435;
on historic oil/gas prices, 435; on
international rig count, 436–437; of
liquefied natural gas exports, 433; on
natural gas consumption, 428–429;
of natural gas pipeline exports,
431–433; on natural gas production,
430; on oil balance, 419–420; of
oil consumption, 408–409; on oil
exports, 417; of oil/gas reserves/
production, 406–407; on oil imports,468 IPE 2008
Index
417; on oil production, 412–415;
on oil reserves, 416; on oil trade
movements, 418; on operating
refineries summary, 421–422; of
petroleum product consumption,
410–411; on petroleum products,
434; on refinery throughput, 427;
on refining capacity, 423–426; on
refining margins, 427
global warming, 312
Gobi desert block, 318
Golfo San Jorge basin, 85
Goliat oil license, 144
Gonu cyclone, 187
Gorgon project, 371
Gotland prospect, 156
Greater Gorgon Project, 297
greater Plutonio development, 212
Great South basin, 320
Great Wall Drilling Co (GWDC), 330
Greece, 136–137; high-pressure gas
network in, 137; Italian pipeline
interconnection with, 138–139;
Libya gas pipeline to, 229; map, 137;
Turkey gas pipeline link with, 136;
Turkey’s pipeline with, 158
Green Canyon Block 599, 46
greenhouse emissions: cap-and-trade
system for, 403; climate change
(statistics) and, 403; promising
technologies for, 403
greenhouse gas (GHG), 43
Greenland: Davis Strait blocks in, 131;
Disko phase 1 blocks in, 131;
Guangdong Dapeng, 283
Guangxi biodiesel plant, 291
Guardian natural gas pipeline, 32
Guatemala, 104–105; energy/mining
policies of, 105; exploration/
development in, 105; map, 105; oil
exports of, 104; oil production in,
104; refining/products of, 105
Guercif Beni Znassen license, 231
Guinea-Bissau, 243
Gujarat refinery, 306
Gujarat-Saurashtra basin, 305
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 174
Gulf Gateway energy bridge terminal, 28
Gulf Keystone, 204
Gulf Landing, 30
Gulf of Campeche, 106
Gulf of Gabes, 241
Gulf of Honduras, 86
Gulf of Martaban, 319
Gulf of Mexico (GoM), 46–55; deepwater
production in, viii; drilling/
production in, 50–54; energy
company news of, 54–55; exploration/
development in, 46–50; lease sales
in, 47–50; Lower Tertiary tests in,
12–13; maps, 47–49, 51, 54–55;
natural gas production in, 52; oil/
gas exploration in, xix, 102; oil/gas
reserves in, 46; oil production of,
53; potential reserves of, vii; strong
storms in, 111; structures removed
from, 55; ultradeepwater drilling
activity in, 52
Gulf of Suez, 217, 220, 221
Gulf of Thailand, 329, 331
Gulf of Tonkin, 333
Gullfaks field, 146
Guyana, 123
Gwydyr Bay prospect area, 57
H
Haciqabul-Qazax-Tbilisi trunkline,
251, 254
Hai Su Trang discovery, 333
Halliburton Co , 195
Halliburton Energy Services, 268
Hamaneh, Kazem Vaziri, 171
Hammerfest LNG plant, 148
Haradh-íUthmaniyah natural gas
pipeline, 190
Haricha field, 231
Harrison exploration well, 159
Hassi Messaoud plant, 206
Hathor Deep IX well, 218
Health and Safety Executive (HSE),
163–164
Hebei Spirit, 327
Hebron-Ben Nevis project, 63
Heletz-Kokhav field, 183
Hercules Offshore Inc, 45
High Island Block 31, 46
High Island Block A268, 52
high-pressure gas network, 137
high-profit taxes, 133
HiLoad unit, 28
Hin Leong, 325
Homs basin, 192
horizontal well, 282
al-Humaidhi, Bader Mishari, 184
human rights, 104
Hungary, 137–138, 311; Croatia’s border
with, 129; gas supply diversification
in, 138
Hunt Oil Co , 46
hurricane Dean, 52, 111
hurricane destruction, 54
hurricane management system, 55
Husky Energy Inc , 69
Hussein, Saddam, 177
Hutton, John, 161
hydraulic fracturing program, 256
hydrocarbons, 64, 123, 141; in
Balakhany VII zone, 250; fields
of, 261; fluids plant, 326; liquid,
244; Norway development of,
146; in Pliocene Fasila zone, 250;
resources, 358; StatoilHydro/Norsk
Hydro production of, 150; Sudan’s
production of, 238
hydrogen facility
in Edmonton, 78
in Poland, 152–153
Hyedua-1 well, 224
I
Ignalina nuclear power plant, 260
Illizi basin, 204–205
import terminals, 372–373
Independence Hub platform, xvi, 51
natural gas production from, 52
subsea layout of, 51
Independencia III well, 123
Independent Royalite Petroleum Co , 15
Independent Scully Energy Corp , 15
India, 300–307; Cauvery basin discovery
in, 306; coalbed methane sale in,
306; drilling/production in, 306;
economic/population growth in,
300; energy investment of, 362;
energy policy of, 301; energy sector
companies of, 300; exploration/
development in, 304–305; gas
discovery estimates reduced
in, 304–305; gas pipelines in,
304; Gujarat refinery in, 306;IPE 2008 469
Index
Gujarat-Saurashtra basin in, 305;
Krishna-Godavari basin in, 304–305;
Krishna-Godavari Block D6 in,
305; Krishna-Godavari Block
KG-OSN-2001/3 in, 306; liquefied
natural gas in, 307; LNG imports
of, 307; map, 302; natural gas
demand in, 304; natural gas fields
in, 304; natural gas production in,
301; oil consumption v production
in, 301; oil reserves of, 301; ONGC
investment plans in, 305; pipeline
v refinery in, 306; private sector gas
production in, 304; refining capacity
in, 301; refining/products in, 306;
regasification terminals in, 307;
Venezuela supplying oil to, 121
Indian Oil Corp , xv, 180, 301
Indonesia, 308–311; Banten refinery in,
311; Cepu Block operations in, 310;
domestic energy use in, 360; drilling/
production in, 310; exploration/
development in, 308–309; Frontier
basin geoscience surveys of, 308; lease
sales in, 309; liquefaction plant in,
371; liquefied natural gas in, 311;
liquefied natural gas supplies of, 30;
Mahakam block of, 309; maps, 316,
332; oil/gas block offerings in, 309;
oil/gas in, 308; Oyong oil field
production of, 310; pipelines in, 311;
piracy around, 310; Premier oil’s
offshore acreage of, 332; productionsharing contract and, 309; refining
in, 311; Sebuku production-sharing
contract of, 309; Senoro LNG plant
in, 311; South Flores area surveyed
and, 310; Suban field gas delivery
of, 310; survey program in, 308;
Tangguh gas field project in, 311; tax
cuts offered in, 309
Injra oil/gas block, 322
Inner Mongolia: Autonomous Region,
318, 319; methanol-to-propylene
facility in, 290
in situ production, 73, 349–350
in situ projects, 349–350
international activities: of Algeria,
206–207; of Argentina, 86; of Bolivia,
87; in China, 284–285; of Japan,
312–314; of Portugal, 153–514; of
Trinidad/Tobago, 116–117
International Energy Agency (IEA),
10–12, 121, 161, 180
international growth, vii
International Maritime Bureau (IMB), 232
international oil companies (IOCs),
360–361; resource/technology
mapping, 361; upstream v
downstream, 362
International Tribunal for the Law of the
Sea, 123
interstate gas pipeline companies, 33
interstate pipeline mileage, 33
investments/markets (statistics), 359–363
IOC/NOC dynamics and, 360–362; labor
market and, 363; offshore spending
and, 360; oil prices and, 359–360;
stranded natural gas and, 362–363
Iran, 171–177; Asian joint-venture
projects of, 174; China’s gas supply
agreement collapses with, 283;
Darkhovin oilfield phase 3 in, 171;
domestic energy use in, 360; France
pressuring, 133; gas consumption
in, 177; gas exports of, 171; gasoline
rationing program in, xv; gasoline
shortage in, 174; gas resources
development of, 175; liquefied
natural gas in, 173–174; maps,
173, 176; natural gas liquefaction
capacity of, 173; natural gas pipeline
from, 247; oil discoveries in, 171;
oil minister removed in, 171; oil
production of, 171; Oman’s agreement
with, 173; Persian LNG project of,
173–174; petrochemical production
capacity of, 175; petrochemical
production/demand/exports of, 175;
petrochemical projects of, 175–177;
Qeshm Island liquefaction plant
in, 174; refining capacity of, 174;
refining/products in, 174; Venezuela’s
refinery agreement with, 121; west
ethylene pipeline in, 176
Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline (IPI), 323
Iraq, 177–181; Bana-Bavu structure
in, 178–179; Chemchemal gas
fields in, 177; Dihok area in, 177;
exploration blocks bid rounds in,
180; exploration blocks in, 178;
exploration/development in, 177–179
Indian Oil Corp invited by, xv, 180;
Japan’s financial assistance to, 180;
Kormor gas fields in, 177; maps,
178–179; oil output of, xviii;
oil production capacity of, 179;
oil production increase in, 180;
petroleum systems of, 179; Taq Taq
field in, 177–178; Tawke oil field in,
177; Tawke oil field production in,
180; western desert prospects of, 179
Ireland, 138
Irving Oil Co refinery, xiii
Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha oil
fields, xiv
Isle of Grain terminal, 164
Isongo E discovery, 213
Israel, 182–183; Asher-Menashe
exploration license of, 183; drilling/
production in, 183; Egypt’s oil
exports to, 221; exploration/
development in, 183; HeletzKokhav field in, 183; Mari-B field
gas production in, 183; natural gas
production in, 182; oil imports of,
182; Palestinian peace talks with,
183; Permian oil and gas fields in,
183
Italy, 139–141; drilling/production
in, 139; energy demands in, 139;
Greece pipeline interconnection
with, 138–139; liquefied natural gas
in, 139; LNG terminals projected in,
139; pipelines in, 139–141; refining/
products in, 141
Italy-Greece Interconnector (IGI),
137, 141
Ivory Coast, 226; Baobab oil field of,
226; refineries in, 226
J
Jade-1X well, 219
Jade-4 well, 218
Jamaica, 106; lease sales in, 106; LGN
terminal in, 106; Petrocaribe
Initiative signed by, 106
Jan Mayen Ridge, 144
Japan, 312–315; alternative fuels in,
314–315; Angola’s discussions with,
213; Brunei’s trade agreement with,470 IPE 2008
Index
299, 314; China’s meetings with,
312; energy mix changing in, 312;
energy production innovations in,
314; expanding Libyan operations
of, 227; fuel oil demand dropping
in, 312; international activities of,
312–314; Iraq borrowing money
from, 180; liquefied natural gas in,
314; LNG carriers joint agreement
in, 378; map, 313; methane hydrate
deposits in, xiii; Middle East imports
reduced in, 312; nuclear plant
shutdown in, 312; United Arab
emirates loan from, 194
Japan Bank for International Cooperation
(JBIC), 314
Jasmine C platform, 329
Jatropha plant, 325
Jeanne d’Arc basin, 64
Jebel Ali refinery, 194
Jenein Nord Block, 241–242
Jeza-Qamar basin, 196
Jidong field, 281
Jilin City, 290
Jiuxi basin, 279–280; oil production/
exploration stages in, 280; oil reserves
of, 280
joint venture shipping, 284
Joslyn North mine project, 75
Juanambu-1 discovery well, 100
Jubail refinery, 191
Jubarte field, 93
Juha fields, 324
Julia field, vii
Jurong Island; aromatics complex
on, 326; LNG terminal on, 326;
petrochemical plant on, 326
K
Kab 121 well, 107
Kaduna refinery, 236
Kahraman B-22 wildcat well, 219
Kahraman B Bahariya oil field, 219
Kalimantan Island, 309
Kalimantan Java pipeline, 311
Ka-Maloob-Zaap field, 53
Kandym-Khauzak-Shady-Kungrad
project, 273
Karachaganak Petroleum Operating BV
(KPO), 258
Karachaganak project, 256
Karmir-1 exploratory well, 247
Karstø processing complex, 145
Kashagan oil field, 254–255
Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant, xvi, 312
Kazakhstan, 155, 254–258; Caspian
region oil pipelines in, 257;
China’s gas line with, 286; drilling/
production of, 256; environmental
law violations in, 258; exploration/
development in, 254–255; gas
processing in, 258; geopolitical
objectives of, 254; hydraulic
fracturing program used in, 256
Karachaganak project in, 256
Kashagan oil field progress in, 254–255
Konys-Kumkol pipeline in, 257; Kyzyloi
gas field production in, 256; largest
fields in, 256; pipelines in, 257;
Russian pipeline projects with, 257;
significant oil/gas resources of, 254;
Turkmenistan-China gas line in, 257
KazMunaiGas (KMG), 254–256
Kearl oil sands project, 75
Kerch Strait oil spill, 268
Keystone oil pipeline project, 32
Khalda concession, 218, 221
Khalifa Point refinery, 322–323
Khartoum refinery, 238–239
Kharwah-1 well, xii
Khauzak gas pipeline, 273
Khipro Block, 321
Khop well, 230
Khurbert East-1 discovery well, 191–192
Khursaniyah gas plant, 191
Kikeh field production, 315
King field oil production, 53
Kingfisher well, 243
Kirchner, Néstor, 86, 87
Kizomba A development, 212
Kohat basins, 322
Kom Ombo Concession, 220
Konys-Kumkol pipeline, 257
Kordofan field, 284
Kormor gas fields, 177
Kovykta gas field, 260, 266
Kozmino terminal, 269
Kribi-Campo basin, 214
Krishna-Godavari basin, 304–305, 306
Krishna-Godavari Block
KG-OSN-2001/3, 306
Kristin field, vi
Kudu gas field, 244
Kufra area, 227–228
Kulibsky area, 271
Ku Maloob Zaap field, 107
Kunnar mining lease area, 321
Kura basin, 252–253, 253
Kurdistan Regional Government
(KRG), 177
Kurgan area licenses, 261
Kuwait, 184; al-Dhabi region discovery
in, 184; oil minister resignation in,
184; oil production increase in, 184;
refinery planned in, 184
Kuwait National Petroleum Co , 184
Kuzbass basin:CBM, 264
Kvitebjørn field production, 146
Kyrgyz licenses, 270
Kyrgyzstan, 259; Fergana basin seismic
surveys in, 259; Mailisu III oil field
extended in, 259
Kyzyloi gas field, 256
Kzyl Orda, 256
L
labor market, 363
Lake Kivu, 217
Lampasas County, 15
Landana North reservoir, 207
Lanta field, 329
La Rabida refinery, 156
Las Mesas structure, 113
Latin America, 81–123; LNG market of,
380; maps, 82–85, 88, 90, 94, 97–98,
103, 105, 108–111, 114, 117–119;
oil/gas activity in, 123
lease sales; in Alaska, 60; in Brazil, 92; in
Chile, 96–97; in Colombia, 99–100;
in Equatorial Guinea, 222; in Gulf
of Mexico, 47–50; in Indonesia, 309;
in Jamaica, 106; of Libya, 228; in
Norway, 144–145; in Trinidad/
Tobago, 115; in Turkey, 157–158;
of United Kingdom, 161; in United
States, 14–15
Leismer project, 70IPE 2008 471
Index
Lesar, David, 195
Libya, 226–229; Block NC 200 of, 227;
drilling/production of, 228; drilling
rig shortages in, 228; as European oil
supplier, 226; exploration/production
in, 226–227; first gas licensing round
in, 228; Greece gas pipeline to, 229;
Japan expanding operations in, 227
lease sales of, 228
map, 203; Murzuq basin of, 228; oil
reserves of, 226; pipelines of, 229
seismic survey in, 227–228; Sirte basin
exploration in, 228; Sirte basin joint
investment of, 226–227; Taiwan’s oil
deal with, 328
licensing blocks, Algeria, 204
Lindsey refinery, 165
Linera, Alvaro Garcia, 86–87
Lin Yuan petrochemical complex, 328
liquefaction plant: capacity development
of, 368, 370–371; in Indonesia, 371;
of Qeshm Island, 174
liquefied natural gas (LNG), 76, 369; in
Algeria, 206; of Angola, 212–213; of
Asia, 283
in Australia, 296–298
in Brazil, 94; in Canada, 63, 76
in Chile, 97; in China, 283–284; China
and, 369; dramatic market growth
expected for, 369; of east Asia, 283;
of Equatorial Guinea, 222–223; in
France, 134; global export statistics
of, 433; global production of, 397;
in India, 307; in Indonesia, 311;
Indonesia supplies of, 30; industry
outlook of, 366–369; in Iran,
173–174; in Italy, 139; in Japan,
314; Latin America market for, 380;
new construction in, 367; New
England’s importation of, 27; in
Nigeria, 236; in Norway, 146–148;
Pacific Rim and, 367–368; in
Peru, 114; pricing trends/costs in,
369; in Qatar, 187; StatoilHydro’s
opportunities in, x; in Taiwan, 328;
trade of, 397; from Trinidad/Tobago,
117; in United States, 27–32; United
States importing, 29; world demand
of, 397; world supply of, 397
liquid: hydrocarbons, 244; technologies,
289; top 20 reserves of, 345
liquid fuels: unconventional, 19; United
States sources of, 346
liquids production: reserves/production
statistics on, 345–346; top 20 in, 345
Lithuania, 259–260; CO2 emission suit
in, 259–260; Ignalina nuclear power
plant in, 260; Mestilla’s biodiesel
factory in, 259; oil pipeline extension
in, 259
Llanos basin, 98, 100
LNG capital expenditures, 368
LNG carrier fleet (statistics), 374–379;
Pacific Rim shipyards and, 374;
propulsion systems of, 379; world
production of, 375–377
LNG carriers: British Emerald, 378;
China’s orderbook for, 374;
containment systems in, 377;
escalating costs of, 365; Japan’s
joint ownership agreement on, 378;
propulsion systems on, 379; Q-Flex,
378
LNG construction, 372
LNG demand, 366
LNG exports: of Norway, 371; proposed
Australian plants for, 370; United
States, 373
LNG facilities: Calhoun, 29; historic/
projected capital expenditures on,
369; on Pacific Rim, 368; in Senoro,
311; in Taiwan, 328
LNG growth, 367
LNG imports: of Americas, 367; of
Asia, 366; Canada/U S terminals
for, 372; capacity of, 370; country of
origin of, 373; Energy Information
Administration predicting growth
in, 32; of Europe, 366; of India, 307;
natural gas consumption and, 367;
U S volumes of, 373
LNG liquefaction and receiving
(statistics), 370–373; import
activity of, 370; of import terminals,
372–373; import terminals for,
372–373; liquefaction plants/capacity
of, 370–371
LNG netback data, 380
LNG production: in Nigeria, 234; of
Qatar, 187; Qatar leader in, 367, 369;
regasification capacity gap with, 371
LNG risks and opportunities (statistics),
379–381; global market trend
highlights in, 379; of netback data,
380; spill impacts and, 379
LNG supply, 366; global, 366; price
netbacks for, 380; by region, 366
LNG tankers, 375–377
LNG terminals; Baja, 31; Brass, 234;
challenges facing, 134; in France,
134; Gulf Landing, 30; Italy’s
projections of, 139; in Jamaica,
106; on Jurong Island, 326; in
Mississippi, 31; Nigeria’s future,
235; permitting of, 27–28; receiving,
129; on Soko Island, 283; West
Coast, 30; Zeebrugge, 128; in Zhong
Ximentang Island, 284
LNG trains, 324
Long Lake oil sands development, 70
Long Son refinery, 334
Los Angeles basin, 31
Louisiana Artificial Reef Program
(LARP), 54
Louisiana State University, 254
low-carbon power, 159
low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 191
Lower Congo Basin, 207, 208
Lower Magdalena basin, 99
Lower Tertiary tests, 12–13
LPG facilities, 104
Lucapa-1, 207
Lund, Helge, iv
Lusitanian basin, 153
M
Macina graben exploration, 229
MacKenzie Delta, 63
MacKenzie natural gas transportation
project, 76
MacKenzie Valley gas pipeline, 65
Madagascar, 229
Mozambique Channel of, 229; Tsimiroro
heavy oil field of, 229
Magallanes basin blocks, 97
Magdalena basin, upper/lower, 99
Magellan region, 96
Mahakam block, 309
Mahogany-1 well, 224472 IPE 2008
Index
Mailisu III oil field, 259
Main Pass energy hub, 32
major oil companies, 133
Mako Trough development, 137
Malaysia, 315–318; deepwater blocks
N/Q in, 315; Kikeh field production
starts in, 315; map, 316; Sabah
deepwater gas discovery in, 315;
Tabu field production starts in, 315;
west-east oil pipeline in, 318
Malaysia Thailand Joint Development
Area, 331
Mali, 229; Block 18 of, 229
Macina graben exploration of, 229;
Taodeni basin of, 229
al-Maliki, Nouri, 177
Malta, 141; oil/gas exploration in, 141;
seismic work in, 141
Manas petroleum blocks, 258
Mandar Block, 309
Manifa oil fields, 190
Manjericão-1 well, 209
maps: Africa, 200–204, 208–209,
215–216, 218, 223, 225, 230, 233,
235, 239, 241–242; Alaska, 56–61;
Algeria, 200, 202, 204; Anadarko
basin, 12; Angola, 208–209;
Argentina, 85; Asia Pacific, 295,
297, 303, 308, 313, 316–317, 320,
332–333; Australia, 295; Brazil, 88,
90, 94, 97; Brunei, 317; California,
30; Canada, 62, 65, 71, 73–74, 77;
Centralized Wilmington field units,
16; China, 276–277, 280–282,
284–286, 288; Colombia, 98;
Columbia river basin, 14; Cuba, 110;
Deep Bossier gas areas, 16; eastern
United States, 3; Ecuador, 103;
Europe, 126, 130, 140; Former Soviet
Union, 248–253, 255, 257–258,
260, 262–263, 266; Greece, 137;
Guatemala, 105; Gulf of Mexico,
47–49, 51, 54–55; India, 302;
Indonesia, 316, 332; Iran, 173, 176;
Iraq, 178–179; Japan, 313; Latin
America, 82–85, 88, 90, 94, 97–98,
103, 105, 108–111, 114, 117–119;
Libya, 203; Los Angeles basin, 31;
Malaysia, 316; of Marad permitting
activity, 27; of Maverick basin
leasehold, 12; Mexico, 108–110,
111; Middle East, 181; midwest, 6;
Newark basin wellsite, 18; Nicaragua,
110; Nigeria, 233, 235; northeast
US, 7; North Sea, 143; Norway,
144–145, 149; Oman, 184; Permian
basin, 17; Peru, 114; Pinedale, 24;
Poland, 151; southeast United States,
9; Tanzania, 241; Texas/Oklahoma, 8;
Texas structural features, 14; United
Kingdom, 160; United States, 2–3,
6–9, 12–14, 16–18, 22–24, 27,
30–31, 35–36, 47–49, 51, 54–56;
Venezuela, 117–119; western United
States, 22; Yemen, 195
Marad permitting activity, 27
Maranon basin, 114
Marathon Oil Corp , 45, 46
Marib basin, 195
Mari-B field, 183
Mariisky refinery, 265
Marimba North project, 212
Marine 1 Block, 216
Marine Accidents Inquiry Agency, 327
Marine XII oil reserves, 216
market constraints, 42
market growth s, 369
Marlim field, 88
Marmul polymer flood, 186
Masela block, 300
Masilah basin, 195
Mauritania, 230–231; Block 6 of, 230;
Chinguetti oil field production of,
230; discoveries/blocks off of, 230;
Taoudenni area onshore blocks of,
230; Tiof deepwater field of, 231
Maverick basin, 13
Maybulak field, 254
M’Boundi field, 166, 216
McMoRan Exploration Co , 46, 54
Medgaz pipeline, 206
Medianera block, 85
Medvedev, Dmitri, 264
Meleiha concession agreement, 219
Melkøya facility, ix, 146, 148
Melut basin, 239
Menzel Ledjmet East project (MLE), 204
mergers/acquisitions, 363
Merluza field, 88
Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basin, 280
Messaieed refinery, 187–188
Mestilla, 259
meteorological and oceanographic
measurement system, 116
methane hydrates, xiii, 314, 328
methanol-to-propylene facility, 290
Mexico, 106–113; bomb attacks in,
112; Cantarell field of, 106, 107;
domestic energy use in, 360;
drilling/production of, 107–111; gas
processing in, 113; gas production/
consumption of, 107; maps, 108–110,
111; natural gas production of, 107;
oil outlook of, 107; oil production
of, 106; pipelines in, 112; refining in,
112; Tabasco in, 111
Mexilhao development, 94
Mezo-American Energy Integration
Program (PIEM), 112
Mi-A field, 141
Michigan basin, 402
Mid-America pipeline (MAP), 32
Middle East, 169–196; Japan’s imports
reduced from, 312; map, 181; oil
field size distribution in, 172; reserve
growth/selected oil fields of, 172;
supergiant oil fields of, 172
Midwest refinery, 37
Milford Haven-Tirley pipeline, 164–165
military rule, 319
Mina Al-Fahl oil terminal, 187
Mina El Carmen block, 85
Minbulak field, 258
Mineral Resource & Petroleum Authority
of Mongolia, 318
mining, upgrading, 346
Minke Field, xv
Minke gas field, 162
Minnesota oil pipeline, 34
Miocene Biafra sandstone, 213
Miocene Endrod formation, 137
Miranda well, 208
Mississippi LNG terminals, 31
Mnazi Bay concession, 240
Moho Nord Marine 1 discovery well, 215
Mokrousovsky license, 261
monetizing methods, 362–363
Mongolia, 318–319; Changbei gas
field production in, 318–319; Gobi
desert block in, 318; Nyalga-XVI
exploration in, 318
Mongstad carbon test center, 149–150
Mongstad refinery, 149IPE 2008 473
Index
monoethanolamine (MEA), 404
Monte Cristo Reef prospect, 325
Montoir-de-Bretagne terminal, 134
Morales, Evo, 86, 87
Moran field, 324
Morocco, 231; European Union
cooperation with, 231; Guercif Beni
Znassen license and, 231; Tselfat
onshore exploration permit of, 231
Morondava basin, 229
Motiva Enterprises LLC, xvii
Movement of the Emancipation of the
Niger Delta (MEND), 232
Mozambique, 232
Mozambique Channel, 229
Mputa-3 well, 242
Mputa-4 appraisal well, 242
Mubarek oil field, 194
Muglad basin, 239
multiple-output plant, 290
Murzuq basin, 227, 228
Musharraf, Pervez, 322
Myanmar, xvi, 319; China oil pipeline
with, 287, 319; Gulf gas deposits of,
xv; Gulf of Martaban exploration in,
319; military rule in, 319
N
Nam Con Son basin, 332
Namibia, 244
Nam Phong, 331
Nanjing synthesis gas plant, 290
Nankai Trough, 314
Nanpu Block, 281
Nansha refining facility, 289
National Agency of Natural Resources
(AKBN), 125
National Energy Board (NEB), 63
National Environmental Protection
Act, 61
National Iranian Petroleum Company
(NIPC), 175
nationalization actions, 120
national oil companies (NOCs), 360–361
resource/technology mapping, 361
upstream v downstream, 362
National Petroleum Agency (ANP), 92
National Petroleum Directorate
(NPD), 236
National Petroleum Reserve – Alaska
(NPRA), 58–59, 61
natural gas: Arthit field of, 329; Brazil’s
reserves of, 88; Brunei discovery of,
299; Canada’s declining deliverability
of, 63; Canada’s resources of, 62;
Caspian pipeline carrying, 268;
Caspian Sea pipeline for, 272; in
China’s energy production, 283;
China’s increasing requirements of,
278–279; in Colombia, 98; deepwater
drilling discovering, 143; delivery
costs of, 225; East China Sea with,
312; Economic Development and
Trade Ministry projections of, 266; as
Egypt’s growth engine, 217; electric
power generation plant, 76; global
consumption statistics of, 428–429;
global pipeline exports statistics
of, 431–433; global production
statistics of, 430; global reserves of,
381; Gulf of Mexico production of,
52; Independence Hub production
of, 52; India’s, 304; India’s demand
of, 304; India’s production of, 301;
Iran’s liquefaction capacity of, 173;
Israel’s production of, 182; of Lake
Kivu, 217; liquefaction process of,
147; LNG imports/consumption
of, 367; marketed production of,
5; Mexico’s production of, 107;
monetizing methods of, 362–363;
Pacific Rim consumption/production
of, 367; in Peru, 114; Philippines
using more, 324; pipeline, 122; Saudi
Arabia increasing reserves of, 190;
separation plants for, 332; stranded,
362–363; transportation projects
for, 95; Trinidad/Tobago’s reserves
of, 115; Ukraine’s debt agreement
regarding, 273; unconventional, 21;
United Kingdom capacity of, 159;
United Kingdom delivery of, 164;
United States/Canada resources of,
62; United States production of, 11,
398; United States supply/demand of,
10; United States well production of,
398; world production of, 366
natural gas liquids (NGL): Brazil’s,
89; Peru’s, 114; pipeline for, 34;
production of, 391; recovery plant
for, 221
Navobod fields, 270
Nazarbayev, Nursultan, 155, 257
Nazvrevi/Block XIII area, 253
Negro, Cerro, 121
Nember pipeline, 233
Neptune field tension leg platform, 54
Neptune LNG LLC, 27
Nequen basin, 81, 85
netback data, 380
Netherlands, 141–142; exploration/
development in, 141–142;
petrochemical in, 142; pipelines in,
142; refining/products in, 142
Newark basin, 12, 18
New Brunswick, 68
New England LNG importation, 27
New Exploration License Policy
(NELP), 301
Newfield Exploration Co , 54
Newfoundland, 68
New Zealand, 319–321; Cheal oil
field in, 321; drilling/exploration
in, 320–321; East Coast basin
exploration in, 319–320; exploration/
development in, 319–320; Great
South basin exploration in, 320; PEP
38521 in, 320; PEP 38527 in, 320;
sediment thickness in, 320; Tui Area
development in, 320–321
Ngosso Block offshore, 213–214
Nicaragua, 113; exploration/development
in, 113; maps, 110; refining/
products in, 113; tax dispute in, 113;
Venezuela exporting oil to, 113
Nickle’s Rig Locator, 67
Niger, 244
Niger Delta, violence in, 232
Nigeria, 232–236; Bonny Island trains
of, 236; Cameroon’s boundary
demarcation with, 214; drilling/
production in, 234; Egina oil field
of, 234; electric power generation
in, 232; energy policy of, 235–236;
exploration/development of, 234;
FPSO development in, 234; future
FPSO/LNG terminals of, 235; gas
production/exporting of, 232–233;474 IPE 2008
Index
liquefied natural gas in, 236; LNG
development in, 234; maps, 233,
235; material projects in, 210; oil
exporting of, 232; oil production
outlook of, 211; Port Harcourt/
Kaduna refinery deals of, 236;
refinery applications in, 236; refining/
products of, 236; violence cutting oil
production in, 233–234
Ningbo POSM manufacturing plant, 290
Ningbo refinery, 289
NIOC LNG project, 173
Njord field
production, 145
StatoilHydro’s gas from, xix
nomad-class desert rig, 204–205
Nordic gas line, 132
Nord Stream pipeline, 142, 156, 265
Norne field production, 146
Norsk Hydro hydrocarbon production, 150
North America: coiled tubing production
in, 359; Irving Oil Co refinery in,
xiii; marginal oil production in, 347;
onshore LNG construction in, 372
North American Oil Sand’s Corporation
(NAOSC), vii
North Baja natural gas pipeline, 32
North Caspian oil and gas
infrastructure, 255
North Celtic Sea basin, 138
North Chertalinskoye 403 exploration
well, 261
Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge, 27, 28
Northern Arafura basin, 294
North Kerchenskaya concession, 273
North Korea, 326–327
North Louisiana gas line, 34
North Matanda oil project, 214
North Ramadan Block, 220
North Sea, 163; infrastructure
decommissioning of, 164; map, 143;
United Kingdom assets in, 163
North Sea block 22/14b, 160
North Sea Petroleum Revenue Tax
(PRT), 161
North Slope: Alpine field on, 60; gas
hydrates in, xiii, 57
North Western Europe Continental Shelf
(NWECS), 340–341
Northwest Palawan basin, 325
Northwest Territories, 65
Norway, 142–151; Alve field production
in, 145; Blane field production of,
145; deepwater natural gas discovery
in, 143; Det Norske Oljeselskap
of, 151; Dreki area licenses of, 144;
drilling/production in, 145–146;
energy company news of, 150–151;
environmental issues of, 149–150;
exploration/development in, 143;
Faroe-Shetland channel discoveries
of, 144; Gjøa field development
of, 144; Goliat oil license extended
in, 144; Hammerfest LNG plant
in, 148; hydrocarbons developed
by, 146; Kvitebjørn field production
resumed in, 146; lease sales in,
144–145; light oil discovery of, 143;
liquefied natural gas in, 146–148;
LNG export project in, 371; major
plant design data of, 147; maps,
144–145, 149; Mongstad carbon
test center in, 149–150; Njord field
production of, 145; Norne field
production continues for, 146; North
Sea map and, 143; oil production
in, 142–143; Ormen Lange field
production of, 145; pipelines in,
148–149; production license 321 of,
143; Skanled gas pipeline planned
in, 149; Skinfaks field production
of, 145–146; Sleipner field prospects
of, 143; Snøhvit LNG plant and,
146–148; wildcat well of, 143; Yme
field redevelopment of, 143
Norway’s continental shelf (NCS), iv
Norwegian-United States relations
beginning on, viii–ix
oil exploration/production on, v–vii
Norwegian continental shelf oil fields, 144
Norwegian Sea, 145, 146
Norwegian-United States relations, viii–ix
Nova Scotia, 68
Nozari, Gholamhossein, 171
nuclear plant shutdown, 312
nuclear power, 136
nuclear submarine, 91
Nyalga-XVI exploration, 318
Nynäshamns LNG terminal, 156–157
Nyulginskoye-2 exploration well, 261
O
Obasanjo, Olusegun, 236
Obcha-i Qalacha fields, 270
Odessa-Brody pipeline, 251
offshore blocks licensing round, 192
offshore drilling, 245
offshore exploration permits, 294
offshore oil production (fields), 337
offshore supplies, crude oil, 336–338
Ogaden Nationals Liberation Front, 284
OGJ100/OGJ200, 345
Oglan field, 103
Ohio refinery, 37
oil activity
of Oman, 185
of Sudan, 239
Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC),
300, 305
oil balance, 419–420
oil consumption: in China, 278; global
statistics of, 408–409, 410–411
oil production v , 301; United States’
potential, 382
oil demand, 342
oil discoveries; backdated, 341; in
Dhahran field, 189; energy supply
statistics of, 338–341; in Iran, 171;
of Norway, 143
offshore field size of, 337
oil exports: Argentina’s tax increase of,
85; domestic energy consumption v ,
360; of Egypt, 221; global statistics
on, 417; of Guatemala, 104; of
Nigeria, 232
oil fields: Azurite, 217; Baobab, 226;
Caspian Kashagan, xvi; Changpang,
306; Cheal, 321; Chinguetti,
230–231; Egina, 234; Galoc, 325;
Ghawar reserves, 189–190; giant
offshore, 338–339; Ishpingo-TiputiniTamboccocha, xiv; Kahraman B
Bahariya, 219; Kashagan, 254–255;
Mailisu III, 259; Manifa/Shaybah,
190; Middle East size distribution
of, 172; Middle East supergiant, 172;
Mubarek, 194; Norwegian continental
shelf, 144; oil reserves and, 338;
Orinoco heavy, xv, 118–119, 120;
Oyong, 310; Peng Lai 19-3, 281;IPE 2008 475
Index
States potential, 382; in Venezuela,
117, 120; West Africa’s deepwater,
210; West Africa’s outlook on,
210–211; in Western Canada
Sedimentary Basin, 62
oil reserves: in China, 275; by company
type, 361; countries with, 267;
depth/distribution of, 347; giant oil
fields and, 338; global, 361; global
statistics on, 416; growth/selected oil
fields and, 172; in Gulf of Mexico,
46; in India, 301; in Jiuxi basin, 280;
of Libya, 226; marginal growth in,
344–345; Marine XII, 216
offshore, 337; regional distribution of,
347; of United States, 12; of West
Africa, 211
oil sands; Alberta’s development in, 71;
Athabasca’s project of, 70–71; in
Canada, 69–76, 347–350; capital cost
increases in, 76; Fort Hills/Long Lake,
70; Kearl, 75; major projects in, 71;
product processing from, 72; public
offering of, 69–70; Sunrise/Surmont,
xix, 69; Tucker, 37
oil shale: Attarat Umm Ghudran
deposit of, 182; Bureau of Land
Management guiding development
of, 25; Colorado development of, 2;
Oil Shale Exploration Co and, 25; in
United States, 25
Oil Shale Exploration Co , 25
oil spills, 43, 135, 268, 327
oil supplies: outside OPEC, 342; from
Russia, 135; Vietnam’s refining
of, 334; world outlook of, 342;
worldwide, 10
oil tank farms, 284–285
oil trade movements, 364; global
statistics on, 418
oil wells: in Masela block, 300; spending
on, 357; states with marginal, 347
Okono offshore field, 233
Okoro Setu FPSO, 234
Olmert, Ehud, 183
Oman, 185–187; Gonu cyclone in, 187;
Iran’s agreement with, 173; map,
184; Marmul polymer flood and, 186;
oil activity of, 185; Qarn Alam steam
project in, 186; Sohar refinery in, 187
Peregrino, 92; Polvo, xvi, 93; Prudhoe
Bay, xiv; Ramok, 310; Roncador, 91;
Roumelan, 191; services expenditures,
264; Souedieh, 191; Tawke, 177, 180;
Tengiz, 257; Tsimiroro heavy, 229;
Woollybutt, xii; Zafiro, 223; Zakum,
193; Zakum production capacity of,
193; Zumano, 117
oil/gas: activities projections about,
93; Afghanistan’s discovery of,
270; Amazon state search for, 92;
Bahrain’s potential of, 169; Barbados
licensing of, 123; block offerings of,
309; California spills of, 43; capital
spending for, 64; catalyst demand
in, 386; China’s reserves of, 275;
consumption, 5, 62, 107; economic
expansion in, 89–90; Europe largest
offshore producer of, 340; exploration,
xix; exploration/production, 355;
exploratory drilling for, 144; Fergana
basin production of, 258; Gazprom’s
evaluation for, 270; global historic
price statistics of, 435; global reserves/
production of, 406–407; Gulf of
Mexico exploration of, xix, 102; Gulf
of Mexico reserves of, 46; in Indonesia,
308; Injra block for, 322; Ireland’s
fiscal regime revamped for, 138;
Kazakhstan’s resources of, 254; Latin
America activity in, 123; Magellan
region and, 96; Malta’s exploration for,
141; Miocene Endrod formation with,
137; offshore acreage of, 332; outlook
of, 336–343; Portugal’s supplies of,
153; renewables research and, 344;
Sudan activity in, 239; Tajikistan’s
potential of, 270; trade movement
in, 364; Turkey discovering, 157; UK
Continental Shelf output reduction
of, 163; United States imports
of, 5; United States reserves of, 12;
Western Canada wells for, 67–68;
worldwide reserves/production
statistics of, 344–345; worldwide
supply/demand of, 10
Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ), 1, 4, 160;
Canada’s depressed drilling activity
noted by, 66–67; gas processing
survey of, 390; OGJ100/OGJ200
from, 345; oil/gas activities projected
by, 93; Peru’s natural gas reserves
stated by, 114; renewable energy
sources noted by, 344; U S economy
forecast by, 8–9; well forecast of,
20, 66
oil imports: China’s sources of, 278–279;
crude production v , 278; global
statistics on, 417; of Israel, 182, 221;
of United States, 5, 104
oil industry: Arctic exploration by,
x; comparative costs in, 225;
exploration/production, v–vii; giants
of, 338; pipeline investments of, 33
oil minister: Iran’s removal of, 171;
Kuwait’s resigning, 184; Saudi
Arabia investment plans announced
by, 189
Oil & Natural Gas Corp. (ONGC), 92
oil prices, 359
oil production: in Chetopa field, 24;
in China, 278; China’s capacity in,
278; in Columbia, 98; from Corvina
field, 114; costs rising of, 363; crude/
growth in, 337; in Cuba, 102; of
Dalia field, 209–212; from Darfur,
239–240; decline begins in, 341; in
Ecuador, 103; energy supply statistics
on, 336–338, 340; from Genghis
Khan, xvii, 51–52; global statistics
on, 412–415; in Guatemala, 104;
Gulf of Mexico, viii, 53; of Gulf of
Suez, 217; in Gulf of Thailand, 329;
of Iran, 171; Iraq’s capacity of, 179;
Iraq’s increasing, 180; in Jiuxi basin,
280; in King field, 53; Kuwait’s
increase in, 184; largest offshore
regions of, 336; marginal, 347; of
Mexico, 106; Nigerian violence
cutting, 233–234; Nigeria’s outlook
on, 211; North American marginal,
347; in Norway, 142–143; NWECS,
340–341; offshore outlook in, 337;
offshore/spending increases on, 360;
oil consumption v , 301; onshore/
offshore, 336; in Peru, 114; reserve
leaders and, 345; of Saudi Arabia,
360; Saudi Arabia facilities for, 190;
Sudan increasing, 238–239; Syria
boosting, 192; top10 offshore in, 338;
in Trinidad/Tobago, 116; United476 IPE 2008
Index
OMV AG, 137
Onsan petchem refinery, 327
onshore fields, 342
Ordos basin, 281, 319
Orenburg plant, 256
Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC), xiii, 208,
342–343
oil supplies outside of, 342
output quota increased by, 362
Orinoco heavy oil fields, xv, 118–120
Orlov region, 129
Ormen Lange field, xvii, 142, 143;
pipeline of, 145; production, 145;
StatoilHydro locating, vi
Ortega, Daniel, 122
Oshi field, 233
Otway basin, 296
overseas exploration, 327
oxy-combustion, 404
Oyong oil field, 310
P
P-34 floating vessel, 93
Pacific Rim: liquefaction capacity
development on, 368; LNG capital
expenditures on, 368; LNG facilities
on, 368; LNG growth in, 367;
natural gas consumption/production
by, 367; shipyards, 374
Pakistan, 321–323; Block 2366-6 in,
321; Block 3068-2 JV exploration
license in, 321; drilling/production
in, 322; exploration/development
in, 321; Injra oil/gas block in, 322;
Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline and, 323;
Khipro Block in, 321; Kunnar mining
lease area in, 321; pipelines in, 323;
political turmoil in, 322; refining in,
322–323; Sawan gas field in, 322;
Sindh Province activity in, 322
Paktoa C-60 wildcat, 63
Palestine, 183
Palin, Sarah, 61
Palm oil imports, 96
Palo Duro basin, 17
Palogue field, 239
Pan Andean Resources PLC, 46
Pan-European Oil Pipeline (PEOP), 154
Papua New Guinea, 323–324; LNG
trains considered in, 324; new LNG
plant in, 324; offshore licensing
rounds in, 323–324
Port Moresby LNG project in, 324
PRL 4 appraisal in, 323–324
Paradox basin, 15–16
Paraquay, 123
paraxylene production facility, 142, 327
Patos Marinza field, 127
peak oil: energy supply statistics of,
340–342; resource depletion/new
technology and, 340–342
Pearl gas-to-liquids facility (GTL), 188
Pearl River Mouth basin, 279
Pemex, 107, 111–113
Peng Lai 19-3 oil field, 281
Perdido development, 52
Peregrino oil field, 92
Perenco fields, 216
Permian basin, 17, 151
Permian oil and gas fields, 183
Permian Rotliegendes formation, 152
Persee Nord Est Marine-1 discovery, 215
Persian Gulf, 170, 190
Persian LNG project, 173–174
Peru, 114–115; drilling/production in,
114; exploration/development in,
114; liquefied natural gas in, 114;
map, 114; natural gas reserves of,
114; oil production in, 114; Talara
refinery in, 115
Petit Couronne refinery, 135
Petrobras: natural gas transportation
projects of, 95; production targets
set for, 93–94; refineries, 87, 90–92;
Sonatrach accord with, 94
Petrocaribe Initiative, 106
petrochemicals: in Algeria, 207; in
China, 290; Iranian projects in,
175–177; Iran’s production capacity
of, 175; Jurong Island facility for,
326; Lin Yuan complex for, 328; in
Netherlands, 142; Phu Yen complex
for, 334; in Qatar, 188; Saudi Arabia
facility for, 191; in Taiwan, 328; in
Thailand, 332; in United States, 40;
in Vietnam, 334
petrochemicals outlook (statistics):
ethylene and, 393–396; LPG market
and, 397
Petrodar pipeline, 239
Petro Kazakhstan Kumbol Resources
(PKKR), 256
Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras), 182
Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA), 117
petroleum: industry labor market trends
in, 363; Iraq’s systems for, 179;
United States engineering enrollment
for, 25
Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT),
331
Petroleum Corp of Jamaica (PCJ), 106
Petroleum Inspectorate Commission
(PIC), 236
petroleum products global price statistics
on, 434; United Kingdom imports
of, 159
Petroleum Services Association of Canada
(PSAC), 67
Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada
(PTAC), 62–63
Philippines, 324–325; biofuel projects
in, 325; Block SC 43 in, 325; Block
SC 54 focus in, 325; Galoc oil field
production in, 325; natural gas use
increase proposed in, 324
Phu Horm, xiii, 331
Phu Horm field, 331
Phu Yen petrochemical complex, 334
Piceance basin, 402
Piedras Blancas refinery, 122
Pinedale formation, 24
pipelines, vi, 33, 34, 122, 132, 155, 156,
266, 331, 431–433; in Alaska, 61;
in Albania, 127; Albania-MacedoniaBulgaria, 127, 129; in Amazon
state, 95; Atasu-Alashankou, 257; in
Australia, 298; in Austria, 127–128;
Azerbaijan corridor of, 250; BakuTbilisi-Ceyhan, 251; Belgium, 128,
131, 135–136; biofuels, 90; in
Brazil, 95; Burgas-Alexandroupolis,
257, 265; in Canada, 76; CaribbeanPacific, 122; Casino-Ipswitch, 298;
Caspian, xix, 257, 258, 268, 272; in
China, 285–287; China’s project of,
286; Chinese, 194; Chuanhu, 287;
in Colombia, 101; Constanta-Trieste,
154; construction costs of, 34; Czech
Republic, 131; in Denmark, 132;
East Siberia Pacific Ocean, 268–269,
285; of Egypt, 221; Erawan field,IPE 2008 477
Index
331; Gazprom -Beltransgaz, 269;
in Germany, 135–136; of Ghana,
224–225; Greece, 136, 138–139,
229; Guardian, 32; Haradh-
íUthmaniyah, 190; India’s gas, 304;
in Indonesia, 311; Iran, 176, 247;
Iran-Pakistan-India, 323; Italian
interconnected, 138–139; in Italy,
139–141; Kalimantan Java, 311;
in Kazakhstan, 257; Keystone, 32;
Khauzak, 273; completing Khauzak,
273; Konys-Kumkol, 257; of Libya,
229; Lithuanian extension of, 259;
MacKenzie Valley, 65; Medgaz, 206;
in Mexico, 112; Mid-America, 32;
Milford Haven-Tirley, 164–165;
Minnesota, 34; Myanmar, 287, 319;
for natural gas liquids, 34; Nember,
233; in Netherlands, 142; Nord
Stream, 142, 156, 265; North Baja,
32; in Norway, 148–149; OdessaBrody, 251; oil/investments in, 33; of
Ormen Lange field, 145; in Pakistan,
323; Pan-European, 154; Petrodar,
239; refinery v, 306; Rockies
Express, 34–36; in Romania, 154; in
Russia, 265–269; Russia’s main gas
export, 266; Saudi Arabia explosion
of, 190; Skanled, 149; South
Caucasus, 250–251; South Stream,
139, 268; StatoilHydro laying, vi;
Sudan, 238; Sudan’s capacity from,
238; Taishet-Skovorodino, 269;
in Tajikistan, 271; Tampen Link,
xviii; in Thailand, 331; TransAlaska, 61; Trans Austria Gasleitung,
127–128; TransCanada-ANR, 35;
Turkey, 136, 158; in Turkey, 158;
in Turkmenistan, 272; in United
Kingdom, 164–165; in United States,
32–36; in Venezuela, 122; West
African, 224–225; West Africa’s
gas, 225; West-East, 285, 318; Yuri
Korchagin field, 264
piracy, 310
Plain Exploration & Production Co., 45
plant design data, 147
Plataforma Deltana, 117
Pliocene Fasila zone, 250
Plock refinery, 153
Pluto LNG gas development, 296, 371
Pogo Producing Co , 45
Poland, 151–153; Bieszczady in, 152;
drilling/production in, 151–152;
formation description in, 152;
Gdansk refinery in, 152; hydrogen
facility in, 152–153; map, 151;
Permian basin resources in, 151;
Poznan East in, 152; refining/
processing in, 152–153
political turmoil, 322
Polvo oil field, xvi, 93
polypropylene (PP), 191
Porcupine basin, 138
Port Elizabeth refinery, 237
Port Harcourt refinery, 236
Port Moresby LNG project, 324
Port Sudan refinery, 239
Portugal, 153–154; drilling/production
in, 153; international activities of,
153–514; Lusitanian basin in, 153;
refining/products in, 153; Venezuela
oil/gas supplier to, 153
Porvoo refinery, 132
potential reserves, vii
Potwar basins, 322
Po Valley, 139
Powder River basin, 15, 24; CBM
production in, 26; CBM water
production in, 26; CBM well drilling
in, 26; water-handling issues in, 26
Poznan East, 152
price pressure, 42
price trends: of ethylene, 396; in
liquefied natural gas, 369
Prince Edward Island, 63
private sector, 304
Privolny license, 261
PRL 4 appraisal, 323–324
production capacity: crude oil increase
in, 342; for ethanol, 42; net change
in, 342
production license 321, 143
production-sharing contracts (PSC), 115,
177, 222, 321; with Indonesia, 309;
Vietnamese government in, 333
production targets, 93–94
Products Distribution Authority
(PDA), 236
Program for Accelerated Growth
(PAC), 89
Project Mthombo, 237
propane: ethylene feedstock demand
for, 389; United States inventory of,
390; United States markets for, 389;
United States production of, 389
Prophet River, 64
propulsion systems, 379
propulsion systems, thermal efficiency, 379
propylene plant, 290
Prudhoe Bay oil fields, xiv
Ptotoka-1 exploration well, 264
public offering, 69–70
Puerto la Cruz refinery, 122
Puesto Morales Sur field, 81
Punta Ballenas gas fields, 101
Puntland state, 244
Putin, Vladimir, 264
Putumayo basin, 99–100
Q
Qaddafi, Muammar, 238
Al Qaeda network, 189, 196
Qarn Alam steam project, 186
Qasr field, 218, 219
Qatar, 187–188, 371; Barzan gas
project in, 187; exploration/
development in, 187; gas processing
in, 188; liquefaction capacity in,
373; liquefied natural gas in, 187;
LNG netbacks and, 380; as LNG
production leader, 367, 369; LNG
production of, 187; Messaieed
refinery in, 187–188; petrochemicals
in, 188; RasGas train 5 completed in,
187; reef restoration of, 188; refining/
products in, 187–188; Umm Said
refinery in, 188
Q-Flex LNG carrier, 378
Quebec: Cacouna Energy proposal of, xvi;
carbon emissions tax in, 78, 402
Quintero Bay terminal, 97, 371
R
radar system, 112
Rahmonov, Emomali, 269
Ramok oil field, 310
Range Resources Corp , 16478 IPE 2008
Index
RasGas train 5, 187, 367
Ras Laffan Industrial City, 188
Raton basin, 25
R&D investments, 401
Reed Hycalog rig census, 354
refineries: Abreu e Lima, xvii, 90, 95;
Banten, 311; China’s capacity
expansion of, 289; Coryton, 165;
Cubatao, 95; Dung Quat, 334;
Europe’s outlook on, 388; foreignowned, 334; Gdansk, 152; global
statistics summary on, 421–422;
global throughput statistics of, 427;
Gujarat, 306; increases in, 383;
Indonesia’s Banten, 311; Irving
Oil Co , xiii; Ivory Coast, 226; in
Ivory Coast, 226; Jebel Ali upgrades
of, 194; Jubail, 191; Kaduna,
236; Khalifa Point, 322–323;
Khartoum, 238–239; in Khartoum,
239; Kuwait planning, 184; La
Rabida, 156; largest/rankings of,
385; Lindsey, 165; Long Son, 334;
Mariisky upgrades of, 265; Messaieed,
187–188; Midwest, 37; Mongstad,
149; Nigeria’s applications for, 236;
Ningbo proposal of, 289; Ohio, 37;
Onsan petchem, 327; Orlov region
plans for, 129; Petit Couronne, 135;
petrobras, 87, 90–92; Piedras Blancas,
122; pipelines v , 306; Plock, 153;
Port Elizabeth, 237; Port Harcourt,
236; Port Sudan, 239; Porvoo, 132;
Puerto la Cruz, 122; Regina, 78;
Reichstett Vendenheim, 135;
Richards Bay, 237; Richards Bay
oil, 237; in Romania, 155; SandinoBolivar, 113; Saudi Arabia building,
192; Sohar, 187; Talara, 115; Texas
City explosion at, 37; Umm Said,
188; United States utilization of, 38;
utilization rates of, 383; Venezuela’s
agreement for, 121; Wales, 165
refining: adding capacity to, 388;
Albania’s processing, 128; area
margins of, 383; in Brazil, 95–96;
in Canada, 77; catalyst, 386; China’s
increasing capacity of, 279; in
Germany, 136; India’s capacity
of, 301; in Indonesia, 311; joint
venture in, 289; in Mexico, 112;
in Pakistan, 322–323; in Poland,
152–153; processing and, 190–191;
realignment in, 40; regional look at,
386; largest United States companies
in, 40; Vietnam’s oil supply for, 334;
worldwide, 383
refining and products: of Bolivia, 87;
in China, 289; of Colombia, 101;
of Egypt, 221; in France, 135; of
Guatemala, 105; in India, 306;
in Iran, 174; in Italy, 141; in
Netherlands, 142; in Nicaragua, 113;
of Nigeria, 236; in Portugal, 153;
in Qatar, 187–188; in Russia, 265;
of South Africa, 237; of Trinidad/
Tobago, 117; of United Kingdom,
165; of United States, 37–39; of
Venezuela, 122; in Vietnam, 334
refining and products (statistics),
381–388; capacity, 384–386;
gasoline/diesel and, 381; gasoline/
diesel demand and, 387;
unconventional fuels and, 382;
refining capacity; in Asia, 385; in
Asia/Europe/U S , 385; Canadian, 78;
expansion of, 38–39; global statistics
on, 423–426; of Iran, 174; of Russia,
265; statistics, 384–386; United
States, 37, 39
refining margins, 427
Reganosa regas terminal, 371
regasification capacity, 371, 373
regasification terminals, 307
Reggane North concession, 204
Regina refinery, 78
Regional Carbon Sequestration
Partnership Program (RCSPs),
404, 405
regional distribution, 347
Reichstett Vendenheim refinery, 135
renewable energy sources, 344
renewable fuels standard (RFS), 41
renewables research, 344
research, development and demonstration
leases, 25
reserve leaders, 345
reserves/production statistics, 344–350;
on liquids production, 345–346; on
marginal oil production, 347; oil/
gas worldwide, 344–345; on in situ
projects, 349–350; resource depletion,
340–342
Restinga Ali block, 85
Richards Bay oil refinery, 237
Rimfaks field, 145–146
Rio del Rey basin, 213
Roan Plateau, CO , xv, 12
Rockies Express pipeline, 34–36
Romania, 154–155; Cuejdiu block of,
154; drilling/exploration of, 154;
energy company news in, 155;
exploration/development in, 154;
pipelines in, 154; refineries in, 155
Roncador oil field, 91
Rosa fields, deepwater, 212
Rotary rig, 21
Roumelan oil field, 191
Rovuma basin, 232
Royal Dutch Shell PLC, 174
Royalty policy, 78–79
Rubiales field, 100
Russia, 260–269; Algeria’s energy
accord with, 207, 261; Azov-Kuban
basin exploration in, 264; BurgasAlexandroupolis oil pipeline in, 265;
Caspian natural gas pipeline in, 268;
coalbed methane pilot project in,
264; countries importing gas from,
267; drilling/production in, 261–265;
Eastern Gas Program approved
in, 261; East Siberia Pacific Ocean
pipeline in, 268–269; exploration/
development in, 260–261; GazpromBeltransgaz pipeline deal in, 269;
Kazakhstan pipeline project with,
257; Kovykta gas field export
routes in, 266; Kovykta gas field in,
260; Kurgan area licenses in, 261;
leadership in, 264; main gas export
pipelines in, 266; Mariisky refinery
upgrades in, 265; Nord Stream
pipeline in, 265; oil field services
expenditures in, 264; oil supplies
from, 135; pipelines in, 265–269;
production of, 344; refining capacity
of, 265; refining/products in, 265;
Salym fields production in, 265;
Shtokman field of, 260; Slovakia
importing energy supply from, 155;
Sokolovskaya prospect in, 261; South
Stream pipeline agreement in, 268;
Timan-Pechora basin joint venture in,
264; Tomsk, Siberia, discoveries in,IPE 2008 479
Index
261; Urozhainoye-2 license awarded
in, 261; Yaroslavl refinery upgrades
in, 265; Yuri Korchagin field
pipeline project in, 264; Zapadno
Chumpasskoye field production in,
265
Ruwais facility, 194–195
Rwanda, 244
RWE Dea AG, 227
S
Saakashvili, Mikheil, 253–254
Sabah deepwater gas discovery, 315
Sable Offshore Energy Project, 63
Sahara Desert, 205
Sakhalin-2 oil/gas venture, 262–263
Sakhalin Island, 261–263
Salam gas plant, 221
Salsa-1 well, 209
Salym fields production, 265
San Bartolo Rodriquez Cano-1 wildcat
well, 113
Sandino basin, 113
Sandino-Bolivar refinery, 113
Sangu offshore gas field, 299
San Juan basin, 25, 402
Santos basin, 90, 91, 92, 94
Sao Tome oil, 327
Sargazon field, 270
Sarikamysh Block, 270
Saskatchewan, 69–70
Saudi Arabia, 189–191; capacity
upgrades of, 189; Dhahran field
oil discovery in, 189; drilling/
development in, 190; exploration/
development in, 189; Ghawar
oil field reserves in, 189–190;
investment plans announced in, 189;
Jubail refinery delayed coker in, 191;
Karan gas field, 190; Khursaniyah
gas plant in, 191; Manifa oil
fields of, 190; natural gas reserves
increases in, 190; oil production
facilities in, 190; oil production of,
360; petrochemicals plant in, 191;
pipeline explosion in, 190; refinery
building in, 192; refining/processing
in, 190–191; Shaybah oil field in,
190; spending plans of, 189; terrorist
threats against, 189
Saudi Aramco, 189–191
Sawan gas field, 322
Sbaa basin, 206
Scotford upgrader, 70–71
Scotland: Athena oil project of, 166;
Duart field production in, 166; gascondensate test of, 166; Tormore
discovery well of, 166
SDX-04 appraisal/exploration well, 250
Sebuku, 309
sediment thickness, 320
seismic surveys, 102, 256; of Bou Draa
field, 231; East Timor evaluation
with, 300; in Fergana basin, 259;
In Great South basin, 320; in Libya,
227–228; in Malta, 141; in Namibia,
244; in Uzbekistan, 273
semisubmersibles, 356
Senabing oil fields, 310
Senoro LNG plant, 311
Serafin gas project, 99
SevenPlus project, 236
Shaambary Block, 270
Shahd-1discovery well, 220
Shah Deniz field, xvi, 136, 250–251
Shah sour gas field, 193
shale oil: in Michigan basin, 402
petroleo Brasileiro SA studying, 182
Shanxi province, 283
Shaybah oil field, 190
Shell Offshore Inc , 46
Shipbuilding production, 374
Shtokman field, 260
Sichuan province/basin, 279
Significant Discovery License (SDL), 63
Sindh Province, 322
Singapore, 325–326; biodiesel plant in,
326; Jurong Island aromatics complex
in, 326; Jurong Island LNG terminal
in, 326; Jurong Island petrochemical
plant in, 326; Universal Terminal oil
storage in, 325
Sirte basin, 226–227, 228
Six-Party Framework Agreement, 327
Skanled gas pipeline, 149
Skikda liquefaction plant, 371
Skinfaks field, xiii, 145–146
Sleipner field: carbon dioxide from, xi;
project, 405; prospects, 143
Slovakia, 155; Russia exporting energy
supply to, 155; Transpetrol oil
pipeline control and, 155
Snøhvit field, ix, xvi, xvii
Snøhvit LNG plant, 146–148
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE),
347
Society of Petroleum Evaluation
Engineers (SPEE), 347
Sohar refinery, 187
Soko Island LNG terminal, 283
Sokolovskaya prospect, 261
solid fuel sources, 346
Somalia, 244
Sonangol, 209
Sonatrach, 206–207; Gassi Touil gas
production controlled by, 206;
Petrobras accord with, 94
Songo Songo Island, 241
Sorell basin, 294
Souedieh oil field, 191
South Africa; Block A in, 237; drilling/
production of, 237; exploration/
development of, 237; Port Elizabeth
refinery of, 237; refining/products of,
237; Richards Bay oil refinery of, 237
South Coast Gas project of, 237
South America, 82–84
South Caspian basin, 252
South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP), 250–251
South Coast Gas project (SCG), 237
Southeast Luzon basin, 325
South Erin project, 116
Southern Asia, 302
Southern Michigan TBR oil discovery, 14
South Flores area, 310
South Korea, 326–327; crude oil spill
near, 327; gas hydrate deposits in,
xiv; gas hydrates in, 327; North
Korea fuel oil pact with, 326–327;
Onsan petchem refinery in, 327
South Pars field, 173
South Stream pipeline, 139, 268
South Temryuk-1 exploration well, 264
South Zaburuniye, 256
Soyo region, 212
Spain, 156; Ebro basin in, 156; La
Rabida refinery in, 156; subsea
pipeline planned for, 156
Special Artificial Reef Site (SARS), 54, 55
Stanley gas-condensate discovery, 323480 IPE 2008
Index
state energy profiles, 8
StatoilHydro, iv, 250; CCS projects
of, 150; enhanced oil recovery by,
346; exploration wells of, v–vi;
growth goals of, iv–v; hydrocarbon
production of, 150; international
growth of, vii; liquefied natural gas
from, x; merger plans of, v, xviii;
Njord field gas of, xix; ONGC
collaboration with, 305; Ormen
Lange gas field located by, vi;
pipelines layed by, vi; Snøhvit field
and, xvii; United States deliveries
from, ix
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
(SAGD), vii
steam cracker complex, 326
Stoney Creek field, 68
storms: Cyclone Sidr and, 298; in Gulf of
Mexico, 111; hurricane Dean as, 52,
111; hurricane destruction and, 54
Strait of Malacca, 318
strategic petroleum reserve (SPR),
287–288
strike, 134
Stybarrow development, 296
Suban field, 310
subsea pipeline, 156
Sudan, 238–240; Block 13 exploration
in, 240; Darfur violence in, 238;
exploration/development of,
238–240; hydrocarbon production of,
238; Melut basin production in, 239;
Muglad basin production in, 239; oil/
gas activity of, 239; oil production
increase in, 238–239; pipeline
capacities in, 238
sulfur recovery unit, 191
Sunrise oil sands field, xix, 69
Surat basin, 298
Suriname, 123
Surmont oil sands, xix, 69
Surmont project, 75
Sweden, 156–157; Gotland prospect in,
156; Nord Stream pipeline concerns
of, 156; Nynäshamns LNG terminal
in, 156–157
sweet-spot detection, 401
Switzerland, 139
synthesis gas plant, 290
synthetic-bitumen blend (synbit), 72
synthetic crude oil (SCO), 72, 75
Syria, 191–192; Khurbert East-1
discovery well in, 191–192; offshore
blocks licensing round of, 192; oil
production boost in, 192
T
Tabaquite field, 116
Tabasco, Mexico, 111
Tabu field, 315
Tahiti development, vii
Taishet-Skovorodino pipeline, 269
Taiwan, 327–328; energy innovation
from, 328; exploration/development
in, 327–328; gas hydrates found
off, 328; Libya’s oil deal with, 328;
Lin Yuan petrochemical complex in,
328; liquefied natural gas in, 328;
LNG import facility in, 328; overseas
exploration investment of, 327;
petrochemicals in, 328; Sao Tome
oil interest of, 327; Venezuela’s oil
dispute with, 328
Tajikistan, 269–271; drilling/production
in, 271; energy crisis in, 269;
exploration/development in, 270;
Fergana basin exploration block
in, 270; Gazprom field evaluation
in, 270; oil/gas potential in, 270;
pipelines in, 271; Uzbekistan exports
to, 271
Tajik license, 270
Tajjal-1 well, 322
Takoradi thermal power plant, 225
Talara refinery, 115
Tamarugal basin, 96
Tampen Link pipeline, xviii, 148, 165
Tando Allah Yar Block, 322
Tangguh gas field, 311
tankers: crew training for, 379; earnings
of, 364; LNG, 375–377; market data
of, 364; oil, 94; tanker/trade statistics,
364–365; on fleet development,
364–365; oil/gas trade movement in,
364
Tano blocks, 224
Tanzania, 240–241; Block 7 exploration
off, 240; exploration/development of,
240–241; gas processing of, 241; map,
241; Mnazi Bay concession discovery
of, 240
Taoudeni area onshore blocks, 230
Taoudeni basin, 229
TAPI gas pipeline, 293
Taq Taq field, 177–178
Tarana basin, 320, 321
Tarim basin, 285
Tawke oil field, 177, 180
tax cuts, 309
tax dispute, 113
tax rules, 161
Tayrona block, 99
Tbilisi, 253
Tebida field, 233
technologies: for greenhouse emissions,
403; Pinedale formation using, 24
Teeside GasPort, 164
Tenere Block, 244
Tengizchevoil (TCO), 258
Tengiz oil field, 257
tension-leg platforms (TLPs), 54, 357
Terga power plant, 207
Terra Nova, 68
terrorist attacks, 196
terrorist threats, 189
Tertiary Asmari limestones, 193
Tertiary Clastics Play, 252
Tesoro Corp , 45
Texada Island, 76
Texas: carbon dioxide flood project
in, 24; dry gas reserves in, 12;
generalized structural features of, 14;
map, 8; Panhandle, 24
Texas City refinery explosion, 37
Thailand, 329–332; Arthit natural
gas field in, 329; Blocks awarded
in, 329; Cakerawala production
platform offshore of, 331; China’s
successful drilling in, 330; drilling/
production in, 329–331; Erawan
field commercial pipeline operation
in, 331; exploration/development
in, 329; gas processing in, 331–332;
Great Wall Drilling Co in, 330;
Gulf of Thailand oil production in,
329; Jasmine C platform production
in, 329; natural gas separation plants
in, 332; petrochemicals in, 332;
Phu Horm field production in, 331;IPE 2008 481
Index
Ukraine, 273; natural gas debt
agreement reached with, 273; North
Kerchenskaya concession in, 273
ultradeepwater drilling/production, 52
ultradeepwater exploration drilling, 358
Umiak field, 65
Umm Said refinery, 188
unconventional fuels, 19, 382
unconventional gas resources: pyramid
of, 399; R&D investments in, 401;
technological progress in, 401; in
United States (statistics), 398–403
unconventional natural gas, 21
underground coal gasification system
(UCG), 289
UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), 403
United Arab emirates, 192–195; Chinese
pipeline contract with, 194; CO2
capture venture of, 193; Dolphin
project of, 193–194; drilling/
production of, 192; Dubai fields
and, 193; Fateh field of, 193;
Halliburton opening headquarters in,
195; Japanese loan to, 194; Jebel Ali
refinery upgrades of, 194; Mubarek
oil field of, 194; Ruwais facility
expansion of, 194–195; Zakum oil
field production capacity of, 193
United Kingdom, 159–166; alternative
fuels in, 165; Burren Energy PLC
of, 166; Buzzard field production
of, 162; carbon dioxide storage
project in, 166; Cavendish field
production of, 162; Chiswick field of,
161; Cleveland basin of, 160; Cobra
discovery of, 159; drilling/production
of, 162; Energy White Paper
of, 162; environmental issues of,
165–166; exploration/development
in, 159–161; future investments
threatened of, 163; gasoline sales
in, 165; Harrison exploration well of,
159; IEA recommendations to, 161;
Isle of Grain terminal expansion in,
164; lease sales of, 161; map, 160;
Minke gas field of, 162; natural
gas capacity of, 159; natural gas
delivery of, 164; North Sea assets
of, 163; North Sea block 22/14b
of, 160; North Sea infrastructure
pipelines in, 331; privatization ruling
in, 331
Ton Chan area wells in, 329
Thar Jath field, 239
thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR),
127
thermally assisted gas-oil gravity
drainage (TAGOGD), 186
thermochemical conversion, 404
thermoelectric power plant, 87
Thora Deep-1 well, 322
Thrace basin, 157
thrust belts, 281
Thunder Hawk development, 53
Thylacine gas development, 296
Tierra del Fuego, 85, 96
Tiger Shoal field, 46
tight gas sand, 400; Columbia basin
with, 401; in Piceance basin, 402;
production outlook of, 402; well
performance of, 401
Timan-Pechora basin, 264
Tinerkouk well (TNK-1), 204
Tiof deepwater field, 231
Tobago, 115–117; international activities
of, 116–117; lease sales in, 115;
liquified natural gas from, 117;
natural gas reserves in, 115; oil
production reduced in, 116; refining/
products of, 117; Venezuela treaty
with, 122
Toga field, 15
Tombak Island, 173
Tombua Landana platform, 208
Tomsk, Siberia, 261
Ton Chan area wells, 329
Tormore discovery well, 166
Touat gas field, 206
trade and tanker statistics, 364–365; on
fleet development, 364–365; on oil/
gas trade movement, 364
training center, 268
Trans-Afghan natural gas pipeline, 323
Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, 61
Trans Austria Gasleitung pipeline (TAG),
127–128
TransCanada-ANR pipeline network, 35
TransMountain, 76
Transocean/GlobalSantaFe merger, 45
Transpetrol oil pipeline, 155
Trinidad, 115–117; Deep Atlantic
Area, 116; drilling/production in,
116; exploration/development in,
115–117; international activities of,
116–117; lease sales in, 115; liquified
natural gas from, 117; natural gas
reserves in, 115; oil production
reduced in, 116; refining/products of,
117; Venezuela treaty with, 122
Trinmar Platform 21 explosion, 116
Tselfat onshore exploration permit, 231
Tsimiroro heavy oil field, 229
Tucker oil sands project, 37
Tui Area development, xvi, 320–321
Tulip-1 exploration well, 309
Tunisia, 241–242; Ghadames basin
discoveries in, 241–242; Gulf of
Gabes development in, 241
Tupi Field, xviii, 90–91
Turkey, 157–158; Azerbaijan exporting
gas to, 250; Azerbaijan field in,
158; drilling/production in, 158;
exploration/development in, 157;
gas discoveries in, 157; Greece gas
pipeline link with, 136; Greece’s
pipeline with, 158; lease sales in,
157–158; pipelines in, 158; Thrace
basin survey in, 157
Turkmenistan, 271–272; Caspian Sea
development of, 272; Caspian Sea
natural gas pipeline in, 272; China
gas line with, 257, 272–273; China’s
gas line with, 285; energy sector
policy changes in, 271; exploration/
development in, 272; foreign
investment sought by, 272; gas
production of, 271; pipelines in, 272
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-PakistanIndia pipeline (TAPI), 293
TXCO Resources Inc, 16
U
Ubungo electric power station, 241
Uganda, 242–243; Block 3A production
in, 242–243; Block 5 option in, 243;
Block EA5 exploration well in, 243;
first discoveries in, 242
Ujung Pangkah field, 310
UK Continental Shelf (UKCS), 160, 163482 IPE 2008
Index
decommissioning of, 164; oil
products imports of, 159; pipelines in,
164–165; refining/products of, 165;
tax rules in, 161; well investments
of, 160
United States (U S ), 1–45; alternative
fuels consumption in, 41; alternative
fuels in, 40–42; Brazil partnership
with, 95–96; Canadian drilling
compared to, 19; clean fuel
production in, 388; coalbed methane
in, 25–26, 400; drilling/production
in, 15–24, 18; drilling rigs owners
in, 354; energy company news of,
44–45; energy consumption/efficiency
in, 11; energy funding of, 11; energy
supply/demand of, 4; environmental
expenditures in, 44; environmental
issues in, 43; ethanol production/
demand in, 43; ethylene comparisons
in, 395; ethylene production in, 395;
exploration/development in, 12–14;
fuel demand of, 381; gas hydrates
resources of, 23; gasoline demand/
deficit in, 39; gas price trends, 392;
gas processing trends in, 392; gas
resource estimates in, 399; gas
shales plays in, 400; Guatemala oil
imported by, 104; interstate gas
pipeline companies in, 33; interstate
pipeline mileage in, 33; lease
sales in, 14–15; liquefied natural
gas importing of, 29; liquefied
natural gas in, 27–32; LNG import
terminals in, 372; LNG import
volumes to, 373; LNG market
re-entry of, 369; maps, 2–3, 6–9,
12–14, 16–18, 22–24, 27, 30–31,
35–36, 47–49, 51, 54–56; monthly
LNG sendout of, 373; natural gas
production of, 11, 398; natural gas
resources in, 62; natural gas supply/
demand in, 10; natural gas well
production in, 398; oil consumption/
production, 382; Oil & Gas Journal
economic forecast of, 8–9; oil/gas
reserves of, 12; oil imports of, 5;
oil shale in, 25; petrochemicals
in, 40; petroleum engineering
enrollment in, 25; pipelines in,
32–36; processing capabilities of,
122; Taiwan’s oil dispute with, 328;
Trinidad/Tobago treaty with, 122;
United States importing oil from, 121
Verkhnechonsk fields, 268
Vietnam, 332–334; Ca Ngu Vang
field oil deliveries in, 333; drilling/
production in, 333; Dung Quat
refinery in, 334; exploration/
production in, 332–333; foreignowned refinery licensed in, 334; Gulf
of Tonkin drilling of, 333; Hai Su
Tran discovery of, 333; Long Son
refinery plans in, 334; main basins in,
333; Nam Con Son basin discovery
in, 332; offshore Block 15-1/05 of,
333; petrochemicals in, 334; Phu
Yen petrochemical complex in, 334;
Premier oil’s offshore acreage and,
332; in production-sharing agreement,
333; refining industry oil supply deal
in, 334; refining/products in, 334
Virginia shale well, 16
VLCC market summary, 365
Volta River basin, 224
Voyager South, 69
W
W06-12 permit, 294–295
Wales refinery, 165
Walker Ridge area, vii
water-alternating-gas (WAG), 193
water production, 43
water treatment plant, 186
Wei Zhou (WZ), xiv, 282
Weizhou Island, 282
well forecast, 20, 66
well investments, 160
West Africa: basin reserves, 211;
deepwater oil discoveries of, 211;
deepwater oil production trend of,
210; gas pipeline of, 225; non-OPEC
supply growth of, 210; oil production
outlook of, 210–211; oil reserves of,
211; undiscovered oil volume of, 211;
upstream capital intensity and, 210
West African gas pipeline (WAGP),
224–225
West Bonne Bay, 64
384; propane inventory in, 390;
propane markets in, 389; propane
production in, 389; refinery
utilization in, 38; refining capacity
of, 37, 39, 385; largest refining
companies in, 40; refining/products
of, 37–39; refining’s global context
and, 38; solid/liquid fuels sources
on, 346; StatoilHydro deliveries
to, ix; ultradeepwater exploration
drilling by, 358; unconventional gas
resources (statistics) in, 398–403;
Venezuela supplying oil to, 121;
water production in, 43
Unity field, 239
Universal Terminal oil storage, 325
Upper Magdalena basin, 99
Upstream Capital Costs Index
(UCCI), 363
upstream capital intensity, 210
upstream transaction value, 363
Urozhainoye-2 license, 261
Urucu field, 92
U S Geological Survey (USGS), 57, 179
U S Maritime Administration
(Marad), 379
U S Mineral Management Service
(MMS), vii
Uzbekistan, 273; Aral Sea evaluation in,
273; Khauzak gas pipeline completed
in, 273; seismic survey in, 273;
Tajikistan imports from, 271
V
Van Gogh development, 294
vegetable oil, 384
Venezuela, 101, 153; back-tax bills
of, 121; Brazil’s agreement with,
121; China importing oil from,
121; drilling/production in, 120;
exploration/development in, 117;
India importing oil from, 121; Iran’s
refinery agreement with, 121; maps,
117–119; nationalization actions of,
120; Nicaragua importing oil from,
113; oil production in, 117, 120; oil
rigs in, 120; pipelines in, 122; policy
in, 119–120; refining/products of,IPE 2008 483
Index
West Cape Three Points Block, 224
West Coast LNG terminals, 30
west-east oil pipeline, 318
West-East pipeline, 279
West-East Pipeline Project (WEPP),
285–286
Western Canada: drilling activity in,
67–68; oil/gas wells in, 68
Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
(WCSB), 62
western desert prospects, 179
Western Desert wells, 218, 220
West Kom Ombo Block, 219
West Montalvo, 18
WestPac LNG Corp , xvi
west products pipeline, 285
West Rustavi-16 Cretaceous discovery, 253
West Tonga prospect, 46
Weyburn/Midale project, 405
White Elephant concession, 244
White Rose field, 64, 68
Whitesands pilot project, 75
wildcat well (Norway), 143
Wilmington oil and gas field, 16
Wompi Block, 296
Woodford shale, 18
Woodside Petroleum Ltd , xvi
Woollybutt oil field, xii
worker safety, 284
world outlook, oil, 342
World Petroleum Council (WPC), 347
worldwide oil supply/demand, 10
Wuhan ethylene project, 290
Y
Yacheng gas supply outlook, 282–283
Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales
Bolivianos (YPFB), 86
Yam Thetis group, 182
Yar’Adua, Umaru, 232, 234
Yemen, 195–196; Al Uqlah block in,
196; Blocks 69 in, 195; Blocks 71
in, 195; map, 195; terrorist attacks
in, 196
Yme field redevelopment, 143
Yombo field, 215–216
Yunnan province, 283
Yuri Korchagin field pipeline project, 264
Yuzhno Khylchuyu field, xiii, 264
Yuzhno-Kuzbasskaya Group coal
fields, 265
Z
Zafiro oil field, 223
Zaina-2 well, 219
Zakum oil field, 193
Zalata-1 well, 129
Zapadno Chumpasskoye field, xv, 265
Zeebrugge LNG terminal, 128
Zhambai South blocks, 256
Zhejiang province, 288
Zhong Ximentang Island LNG
terminal, 284
Zhoushan oil port, 286
Zumano oil field, 117
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