International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2007

International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2007
اسم المؤلف
Frank T. Lauinger
التاريخ
23 فبراير 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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International Petroleum Encyclopedia 2007
International Petroleum Encyclopedia is published annually by:
PennWell Corporation
Chairman
Frank T. Lauinger
President and CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
Senior Vice-President, Finance and Administration, CFO
Mark Wilmoth
Editor
Joseph Hilyard
Managing Editor
Marla Patterson
Director
Mary McGee
Art Director
Sheila Brock
Lead Illustrator
Kay Wayne
Production Manager
Traci Huntsman
Guest Essay iv
Chronology 2006 x
Encyclopedia & Atlas
North America
United States . 1
Gulf of Mexico . 37
Alaska . 51
Canada 58
Latin America
Argentina 81
Belize .89
Bolivia .90
Brazil . 91
Chile .100
Columbia 101
Cuba .105
Equador 107
Guatemala .110
Jamaica 111
Mexico .112
Nicaragua .120
Peru . 121
Trinidad & Tobago .124
Venezuela .125
Europe
Albania .133
Austria .135
Belgium 136
Bulgaria 137
Croatia .138
Czech Republic .138
Denmark 140
Finland . 141
France . 141
Germany 145
Greece .146
Hungary 146
Ireland . 147
Italy .148
Malta 150
Netherlands 151
Norway .152
Poland . 157
Portugal 158
Romania 158
Slovakia 159
Spain 160
Sweden . 161
Turkey 161
United Kingdom .163
Middle East
Bahrain .169
Iran 171
Iraq 175
Israel 178
Kuwait .180
Oman 182
Qatar 185
Saudi Arabia . 187
Syria . 191
United Arab Emirates .192
Yemen 193
Africa
Algeria . 197
Angola .205
Cameroon .209
Chad .210
Congo (Brazzaville) .212
Congo (Former Zaire) .213
Egypt 214IPE 2007 iii
Equatorial Guinea .218
Gabon 220
Ivory Coast 221
Libya . 221
Madagascar .225
Mali .225
Mauritania .226
Morocco 228
Mozambique .229
Nigeria .230
South Africa .235
Sudan 236
Tanzania 239
Tunisia .240
Uganda . 241
Former Soviet Union
Armenia 245
Azerbaijan .248
Georgia .250
Kazakhstan 253
Kyrgyzstan 260
Lithuania 260
Russia 261
Tajikstan 272
Turmenistan 273
Ukraine .274
Uzbekistan 276
China .279
Asia-Pacific
Afghanistan 291
Australia 293
Bangladesh 301
Brunei 303
East Timor .303
India .304
Indonesia .316
Japan 321
Malaysia 323
Mongolia 327
Myanmar .328
New Zealand .329
Pakistan 330
Papua New Guinea 331
Philippines 332
Singapore .333
South Korea .334
Taiwan .336
Thailand 336
Vietnam 338
Key Stats & Tables
Key Stats
Future energy supply .340
Reserves and production 344
Drilling and exploration . 351
Investment and markets 367
Trade and tankers .368
LNG—Industry outlook . 371
LNG—Liquefaction and receiving .375
LNG—Carrier fl eet 379
LNG—Risks and opportunities 382
Refi ning and products 384
Gas processing and products .390
Petrochemicals outlook .398
Statistical Tables
World reserves and production 406
Oil consumption, production, reserves,
and trade
World Oil Consumption .408
World Petroleum Product
Consumption 410
World Oil Production .412
Historical Oil Reserves 416
World Oil Imports and Exports 417
World Oil Trade Movements 418
World Oil Balance .419
Oil refi ning
Summary of Operating Refi neries
Worldwide 421
World Refi ning Capacity 423
World Refi nery Throughput 427
World Refi ning Margins . 427
Natural gas consumption, production,
and trade
World Natural Gas Consumption 428
World Natural Gas Production 430
World Natural Gas Trade Movements:
Pipelines 431
World Natural Gas Trade Movements:
LNG .434
Petroleum Prices
Crude Oil Prices 434
Petroleum Product Prices .435
Comparative Energy Prices . 435
Price History of Oil, Gas,
and Gasoline 436
International Rig Count . 437
Information Sources
National Oil Companies and Energy
Ministries 440
Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms .455
Advertiser’s Index .462
Index of Contents .462
Fold-out Map Legend
A
Aasgard-Kristin-Mikkel crude
oil blend, 155
Abalone field, 96
abbreviations/acronyms,
455–461
Abkatun-Pol-Chuc field, 113
Abu Dhabi, 192
Abu Jifan field, 188
Abu Rabah field, 191
access to resources (U.S.),
12–16: BLM study, 12–13;
MMS proposed 2007
OCS lease sales, 13; OCS
leasing reform enacted, 13;
extended reach drilling, 13–
14; T-Ridge prospect, 14–
15; inaccessible resources,
14–15; undiscovered
technically recoverable
resource, 15; total
hydrocarbon endowment,
15–16
Adas field, 128
Adriatic Sea, 133
Afghanistan, 291–293: resource
base reassessment, 291–
292; Afghan-Tajik basin,
291–292; Amu Darya
basin, 291–292; Angot oil
field, 292
Afghan-Tajik basin, 291–292
Africa, 196–243: Algeria, 197,
202–204; maps, 198–201,
204–207, 211, 213, 221–
222, 224–227, 229, 231,
233, 240, 242; Angola,
205–208, 238; Cameroon,
209–211; Chad, 210–211;
Congo (Brazzaville), 212–
213; Congo (Former Zaire),
213–214; Egypt, 214–218;
Equatorial Guinea, 218–
220; Gabon, 220–221;
Ivory Coast, 221; Libya,
221–224; Madagascar, 225;
Mali, 225–226; Mauritania,
226–228; Morocco, 228;
Mozambique, 229–230;
Nigeria, 230–235; South
Africa, 235–236; Sudan,
236–239; Tanzania, 239–
240; Tunisia, 240–241;
Uganda, 241–243; Benin,
243; Gambia, 243; Ghana,
243; Ethiopia, 243;
Kenya, 243
Agbami field, viii
Aguaytia field, 121
Aikagalskaya field, 262
air quality issues (U.S.), 31
Ajapa field, 232
Akcakoca subbasin project,
161–162
Akkulka block, 255
Al Ain-Fujairah pipeline, 193
Al Khaleej gas project, 185
Al Rasem field, 191
Al Shaheen field, 185
Al Wafa field, 222
Alabama, 17
Al-Ahdab field, 176, 178
Alaminos Canyon, 43
Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline
project, 51–52
Alaska Peninsula, 57
Alaska, 50–58: maps, 50–51,
54–55, 57; North Slope,
50–58; transportation,
51–53; Alaska Natural Gas
Pipeline project, 51–52;
Point Thompson Unit
settlement, 52; BP pipeline
leak, 52–53; gas reserves
tax plan, 52; exploration
and development, 53, 56;
North Slope plays, 53–55;
Cook Inlet basin, 53, 57;
North Slope joint venture,
53; Oooguruk development
project, 53, 56; Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge,
53, 55; National Petroleum
Reserve-Alaska, 54;
Beaufort basin, 56; Chukchi
basin, 56; Beaufort Sea
leases, 56–57; gas hydrates,
Advertisers
Halliburton ix
Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes xvii
Tulsa University . 277
ContentsIPE 2007 463
Index
56; lease sales, 56–57; MMS 2007–
2012 OCS lease plans, 56–57; Alaska
Peninsula lease sale, 57; drilling and
production, 58; Alpine satellite fields,
58; company news, 58
Albacora Leste field, 91, 98
Albania, 133, 135, 137–138, 159, 440:
crude oil, 133; exploration and
development, 135; Patos Marinza
EOR plan, 135; Durresi block, 135;
pipelines, 135; AMBO pipeline, 135,
137–138, 159
Albania-Macedonia-Bulgaria (AMBO)
pipeline, 135, 137–138, 159
Albert graben basin, 213–214, 242
Alberta Energy and Utilities Board
(EUB), 66–67
Alberta Energy Research Institute
(AERI), 58
Alberta, 58, 64–70, 72, 75: oil sands
development, 65–70; coalbed
methane, 75
Algeria, 148, 197, 202–204, 289, 440:
exploration and development, 197;
natural gas, 197, 202; Block 405b,
197; crude oil, 202, 204; Zotti block,
202; Timimoun basin, 202; Reggane
basin, 202; Illizi basin discovery,
202–203; LNG, 202, 204; drilling
and production, 203; In Amenas
gas project, 203; development
investment, 203; pipelines, 203–204;
Galsi project, 203; NK-1 pipeline,
203; Medgaz pipeline, 203–204;
policy, 204; oil windfall profits
tax, 204
Algeria-Spain pipeline, 203
Almada basin, 96
Almeria-Albacete pipeline, 204
Alpine satellite fields, 58
Alternative motor fuels, 161
Alyat-Deniz field, 248–249
Al-Zour refinery, 182
Amadeus basin, 300
Amatique basin, 110
Amazon headwaters development, 107
American Gas Association (AGA), 11–12:
U.S. gas reserves, 11–12
American Petroleum Institute (API), 12
ammonia plants, 301
Amu Daria basin, 273
Amu Darya basin, 291–292
Amu Darya River, 288
Anadarko basin, 16
Anadarko Canada Corp., 79
Andaman Sea, 328
Andrean Community, 121
Angel field, 295
Angola, 202, 205–208, 219, 238, 440:
exploration and development, 205–
206; Block 17, 205; Block 31 strikes,
205; Block 32 discoveries, 206;
deepwater fields, 206; Cabinda area,
206; drilling and production, 206–
208; Dalia field, 206; Block 14, 206;
Tombau-Landana area, 206; Greater
Plutonio fields, 207; Kissanje blend
crude assay, 207–208; Kizomba
B project, 207; Kizomba C subsea
systems, 207; Belize oil field, 208;
OPEC membership, 238
Angot oil field, 292
Annular coiled tubing fracturing, 17
Antanavas prospect, 260
Antrim Energy Inc., 88–89
Antwerp facility closure, 137
Apache Corp., 49, 89, 216: GOM, 49
Aqaba-Rehab pipeline, 217
Aquitaine basin, 142
Arabian Sea, 305, 330
Arctic Islands, 67
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
(ANWR), 53, 55
Arctic service (LNG tanker), 381
Argentina basin, 87
Argentina, 81, 85–89, 91, 130–131, 440:
Argentina-Bolivia agreement, 81, 91;
exploration and development, 81, 85–
87; Salta Province, 81, 85–86; seismic
exploration, 85–87; deepwater shelf
exploration, 85; Tierra del Fuego,
86; North Falkland basin, 86;
offshore basins, 87–88; drilling and
production, 87–88; wildcat drilling,
87; polymer flood EOR projects, 88–
89; other activity, 88–89; Petrolifera
Petroleum Ltd., 88; Antrim Energy
Inc., 88–89; Apache Corp., 89;
Argentina-Venezuela pipeline
130–131
Argentina-Bolivia agreement, 81, 91
Argentina-Venezuela pipeline, 130–131
Argonauta field, 96
Arica-Sica pipeline, 101
Arkoma basin, 17
Armenia, 245, 248, 440: exploration
and development, 245; Block 2,
245; pipelines, 248; Iran-Armenia
pipeline, 248
Armenia-Iran pipeline, 248
Arthit field, 337
Asab field, 192
Ash Shaer field, 191
Asia-Pacific, 268, 290–339, 387–389:
Afghanistan, 291–292; maps,
292–294, 297, 299, 302, 306–307,
310, 314–315, 316, 322, 324–328;
Australia, 292–301; Bangladesh,
301–302; Brunei, 303; East Timor,
303–304; India, 304–305, 308–315;
Southern Asia, 306–307; Indonesia,
316–320, 324–325; major discoveries,
316–317; Japan, 321–323; Malaysia,
323–327; Mongolia, 327–328;
Myanmar, 328; New Zealand, 329;
Pakistan, 330–331; Papua New
Guinea, 331–332; Philippines,
332–333; Singapore, 333–334;
South Korea, 334–335; Taiwan,
336; Thailand, 336–338; Vietnam,
338–339; refined products demand,
387–389
Assam petrochemical complex, 311–312
Assam Shelf discovery, 310
Atasu-Alaskhankou pipeline, 257
Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), 66
Athabasca oil sands, 65–66: Athabasca
Oil Sands Project, 66
Atlantic Canada basins, 72
Atyrau refinery, 255
Atyrau-Samara pipeline, 255, 257
Austral basin, 100
Australia, 292–301, 321, 441: crude
oil, 292–293; natural gas, 293; LNG,
293, 296–300; coalbed methane, 293,
300; exploration and development,
293–296; Carnarvon basin, 292–295,
297; Otway basin, 295–297, 301;
Georgina basin, 295; Gippsland
basin, 295–296; drilling and
production, 296–299; Perth basin,
296; Bass basin, 297; Greater Gorgon
Project, 298–299; Cooper basin, 299;464 IPE 2007
Index
Eromanga basin, 299; Browse basin,
299; Clarence-Moreton basin, 300;
Styx River basin, 300; Nagoorin
Graben basin, 300; Gloucester basin,
300; Surat basin, 300; refining and
processing, 300; Amadeus basin,
300; pipelines, 300–301; DampierBunbury pipeline, 300; Papua New
Guinea-Australia pipeline, 300–301;
petrochemicals, 301; environmental
issues, 301
Australia-Papua New Guinea pipeline,
300–301, 331
Austral-Malvinas complex, 87
Austria, 135–136, 441: pipelines, 135–
136; TAG pipeline, 135; gas storage,
136; refining and processing, 136;
biofuels plant, 136
Avouma field, 220
Ayashsky block, 264
Azadegan field, 171, 321
Azerbaijan International Operating Co.
(AIOC), 248
Azerbaijan, 248–250, 441–442:
exploration and development,
248–250; Azerbaijan International
Operating Co., 248; Alyat-Deniz
field, 248–249; drilling and
production, 249; Shah Deniz field,
249; Azeri crude assay, 249; West
Azeri field, 249; Azeri-ChiragGunashli complex, 249; pipelines,
248–250; Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan
pipeline, 249–250
Azeri crude assay, 249
Azeri field, 249–250
Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli (ACG) complex,
249–250
Azov Sea, 275
B
Babbage field, 163
Bahrain, 169, 442: Sitra refinery
upgrade, 169
Bakassi Peninsula, 209
Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline,
162, 178, 249–250, 252, 256–257
Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum pipeline, 252
Baleia Azul field, 93
Baleia Franca field, 93
Balgzand-Bacton Line, 151, 166
Balkan region, 133
Baltic Sea pipeline, 161
Baltic Sea, 161, 260
Banda field, 227–228
Bangladesh, 301–302, 442: Block 10,
301; Begumganj field, 301; Block
9, 301; Narsingdi field, 301; Bay
of Bengal, 302; Sangu field, 302;
Meghama Island, 302; Hatia Island,
302; Bangladesh-India pipeline, 302;
Myanmar, 302
Barents Sea, 152, 265, 268
Barmer refinery, 311
Barnett shale, 19, 21
Barossa field, 303, 318
Barrancabermeja refinery, 103
Barrow Island, 298
Basin Edge Play, 251
Basker field, 295
Bass basin, 297
Bay of Bengal, 302
Bay of Cardenas, 106
Bayu field, 296
Bazma permit, 241
BC-10 project, 91, 96: block
development, 96
Beaufort basin, 56
Beaufort Sea leases, 56–57: MMS
2007–2012 OCS plans, 56–57; 2006
awards, 57; 2007 sale, 57
Beaufort Sea, 56–57, 65–66: leases, 56–
57; McKenzie Delta area, 65
Begumganj field, 301
Beibu Gulf, 284–285
Belait field, 303
Belgium, 136–137: pipelines, 136;
Interconnector pipeline, 136; LNG,
137; refining and processing, 137;
refining capacity, 137; Lukoil outlets
purchase, 137; refinery sale, 137;
petrochemicals, 137; Antwerp facility
closure, 137
Belize oil field, 208
Belize, 89, 442: discovery wells, 89
Bellota-Jujo field, 113
bend shale, 25
Benguela field, 208
Benin, 243
Berkine basin, 197
Beshkent-Togap field, 260
Bezzecca field, 148
BHP Billiton (GOM), 49
Bibi Hakimeh field, 173
Bidboland II gas processing plant, 173
Bigfoot discovery, 42
Bijar-Miandoab pipeline, 173
Bijupira-Salema field, 91
Bilca field, 158
Bintulu complex, 327
biodiesel fuel, 99, 136, 138, 141, 144,
159, 333: fuel supply/planning, 144
biodiesel plant, 99, 136, 138, 141, 144,
159, 333, 387: Brazil, 99; Austria,
136; Czech Republic, 138; Finland,
141; France, 144; Slovakia, 159;
Philippines, 333
biofuels research, 387
biofuels, 30–31, 99–100, 136, 138,
141, 144, 159, 319, 333, 387–388:
bioethanol, 30–31, 100, 138;
research/plant construction, 387
Bioko Island, 209, 218–219: LNG plant,
218–219
Bismil exploration license, 162
bitumen basics, 69
bitumen deposits (Canada), 65
Bjarni field, 73
Black Sea, 256–257, 275
Blacktip field, 296
Block W05–16, 295
Bo Zhong 25-1/25-1S field, 285
Bohai Bay, 283, 285, 317
Bohai Gulf, 283
Bohai Sea, 282
Bolivia, 90–91, 99–100, 442: crude oil,
90; natural gas, 90; nationalization,
90; contract renegotiation, 90;
production sharing contracts, 90;
Venezuela support, 90–91; drilling
activity, 91; gas accord withIPE 2007 465
Index
Argentina, 91; gas exports to Brazil,
91, 99–100; Bolivia-Brazil pipeline,
99–100
Bolivia-Argentina agreement, 81, 91
Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, 99–100
Bolobo field, 210
Bombay High area, 310
Bonaparte Gulf, 296
Bongkot field, 337
Bonny LNG plant, 233
Bovanenkovskoye field, 261
BP pipeline leak, 52–53
Brass LNG project, 233
Brazil, 90–100, 103–104, 109, 442:
crude oil, 91–93, 97–98; Campos
basin, 91–94, 96–98; natural gas,
91–93; BC-10 block development,
91, 96; Golfinho field, 91, 98–99;
natural gas liquids, 92; Santos
basin, 92, 94–96; exploration and
development, 92–96; Polvo field, 92,
96; Frade field, 92, 97; production
growth, 92–93; oil/gas investment,
93; LNG, 93; Petrobras-Ecopetrol
joint projects, 94, 103–104; licensing
round 8 cancellation, 96; Royal
Dutch Shell PLC, 96; Maersk Oil
& Gas AS, 96; Manati field, 96;
drilling and production, 96–99;
DSS-38 semisubmersible, 96–97;
drilling activity, 97; FPSO, 96–99;
oil production record, 97–98; oil
self-sufficiency, 98; refining and
processing, 99; Petrobras-PdVSA
refinery, 99; H-Bio biodiesel fuel,
99; Pasqualini refinery, 99; pipelines,
99–100; pipeline construction, 99–
100; Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, 99–100;
Southern pipeline, 100; ethanol
pipeline, 100; Brazil-Ecuador energy
alliance, 109
Brazil-Ecuador energy alliance, 109
Brecknock field, 299
British Gas (BG), 178
Browse basin, 299
Brugdan discovery, 140
Brunei, 303, 317, 442: Champion West
field, 303; Seria field, 303; Block L,
303; Block M, 303; Belait field, 303
Bukom refinery, 333
Bulgaria, 137–138, 442: pipelines, 137–
138; AMBO pipeline, 137–138; EU
membership, 138
Bunga Raya B-Ca Mau pipeline, 338
Burgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline, 159
Burlington Resources, 79
Buttress field, 301
Buzi field, 229
C
Ca Ngu Vang field, 338
Caan field, 113
Cabinda area, 206
Cachalote field, 93
Caesar prospect, 43
Cairn Energy PLC, 315
Calauit field, 332–333
Caldita discovery, 293
California, 20, 34–35: LNG terminals,
34–35
Callawonga field, 297
Calliance field, 299
CALNEV pipeline, 25
Camamu basin, 96
Cambodia-Thailand Joint Development
Area, 336–337
Cameron Highway Oil Pipeline, 44
Cameroon, 209–211, 219, 442: ChadCameroon Petroleum Development
and Pipeline Project, 209–211; ChadCameroon pipeline, 209–211; Dissoni
block strike, 209; PH-77 license
operator, 209; Kombe-N’sepe block
change, 209; license round plans,
209; natural gas development, 209
Cameroon-Chad pipeline, 209–211
Camisea field, 121–122
Camisea-Chile pipeline, 101
Cammarata-Possillo field, 150
Campeche Gulf, 112–113
Campos basin, 91–94, 96–98
Canada, 37, 58–79, 289, 346, 349–350,
367, 443–444, 461: LNG terminals,
37, 79; overview, 58–61; maps,
59–61, 64, 66–68, 70, 72–73, 75–76,
78; oil/gas supply forecast, 58–61;
White Rose field, 59–60, 62–63;
coalbed methane, 59–60, 74–76, 346,
349–350; Eastern Canada offshore,
59, 62–64; Western Canada, 61–63;
LNG, 61, 79; drilling and production,
61–65; drilling activity, 61–65; taxfree energy trusts, 63; Deep Panuke
development project, 64; Alberta,
64, 66–68, 72, 75; Newfoundland,
64–65, 72–74; C-NLOPB resource
estimates, 65; Saskatchewan, 65,
75; Northwest Territories, 65; oil
sands, 65–71, 289; Athabasca oil
sands, 65–66; Suncor Energy, 66, 70;
Syncrude Canada, 66, 71; Athabasca
Oil Sands Project, 66; Beaufort
Sea, 66; Arctic Islands, 67; North
American Oil Sands Corp., 67, 70;
Petro-Canada, 68, 70; Shell Canada
Ltd., 69; ConocoPhillips-EnCana
joint venture, 70–71; Deer Creek
Energy, 71; Husky Energy, 71;
Chevron Corp., 71; exploration and
development, 72–75, 77; Atlantic
Canada basins, 72; Labrador, 73;
Hopedale basin, 73; Jeanne d’Arc
basin, 73; East Orphan basin, 73;
Nova Scotia, 74, 76; Northwest
Territories, 74; pipelines, 76–78;
Keystone pipeline, 76–77; Mackenzie
Delta pipeline, 77; Trans Mountain
pipeline, 77–78; Husky Alberta
pipeline, 77; Talisman Lynx
pipeline, 78; refining and processing,
78–79; St. John refinery project,
78; Edmonton hydrogen plant, 78;
company news, 79; gas shale, 346,
349–350; investments, 367
Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador
Offshore Petroleum Board
(C-NLOPB), 65
Canadian Association of Petroleum
Producers (CAPP), 58–59
Canadian Energy Research Institute
(CERI), 65
Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., 79
Canadian Oil Sands Trust, 71
Canasi field, 105
Cannonball field, 124
Cantarell field, 112–114, 116
carbon dioxide capture/storage, 298, 301
carbon dioxide, 17, 31, 298, 301, 363–
364: EOR, 17, 363–364; air quality,
31; storage, 298, 301466 IPE 2007
Index
carbon monoxide plant, 189
Caribbean Sea, 102–104, 120:
exploration, 120
Caribbean-Pacific pipeline, 130
Caribe field, 111
Carnarvon basin, 292–295, 297–299
Carpathian region, 158–159
Cartagena refinery (Spain), 160
Cartegena refinery (Colombia), 103
Casino field, 297
Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC),
256–258
Caspian Sea, 248–259, 261–262, 273
Castellon refinery, 160
catalysts market forecast, 28–29
causeway development, 164
Cavalo Marinho field, 95
Cebu Island, 332
Cedro field, 95
Ceiba field, 219
cellulosic ethanol development (U.S.), 30
Cendor field, 326
Central Safaniya field, 189
Chad, 210–211: World Bank oil
revenues dispute, 210; tax dispute
with producers, 210; new field
investment, 210–211; ChadCameroon Petroleum Development
and Pipeline Project, 210–211;
Chad-Cameroon pipeline, 210–211;
Chinese Petroleum Corp.-Chad
agreement, 211; Lake Chad basin,
211; Doba basin, 211
Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development
and Pipeline Project, 209–211
Chad-Cameroon pipeline, 209–211
Chad-Chinese Petroleum Corp.
agreement, 211
Champion West field, 303
Changbei field, 327
Charmottes field, 142
Charter for Ethanol E85 (E-85), 144
Chaunoy field, 142
Cheal field, 329
Chengdu ethylene plant, 287
Chernushinsky district, 262
Cherrife field, 191
Chestnut field, 165
Chevron Corp., 71
Chicontepec field, 113
Chile, 100–101, 444: crude oil, 100;
pipelines, 101; refineries, 101;
natural gas, 101; gas pipelines, 101;
LNG, 101
China gas agreement, 263
China tanker fleet, 368–370
China, 126, 190, 211, 234–235, 263,
278–289, 317, 368–370, 444: crude
oil, 279, 282; maps, 280–281, 283–
284; Western China, 280; Eastern
China, 281; natural gas, 282; LNG,
282, 286; refining and processing,
282, 285; strategic petroleum
reserve, 282; energy market impacts,
282–283; pipelines, 282, 285–286,
288–289; China-Kazakhstan pipeline,
282, 285–286, 288–289; exploration
and development, 283–285; Block
29/26, 283; Sampaguita discovery,
283; Block 25/34, 283; Bohai
Bay, 283, 285; Sichuan basin, 283;
Bohai Gulf, 283; South China Sea,
283–285; Block 22/12, 284; Qian
112 field, 284; Beibu Gulf, 284–285;
Block 11/34, 284; Block 16/19, 285;
drilling and production, 285; Bo
Zhong 25–1/25–1S field, 285; Dong
Fang 1–1 field, 285; Huizhou 21–1
field, 285; Sakhalin-1 gas agreement,
285; Ningbo refinery, 285; Mekong
River oil shipments, 286, 289;
Zhong Ximentang Island, 286;
Rizhao City, 286; petrochemicals,
286–287; propylene plants, 286–287;
ethylene plants, 286–287; Daya
Bay petrochemical complex, 287;
coalbed methane, 287; coal-to-liquids,
287–288; Japan partnership, 288;
Sasol technology, 288; international
activities, 288–289; Saudi Arabia,
288; Central Asia projects, 288–289;
Africa investment, 289; merger/
acquisition activity, 289; tanker fleet,
368–370
Chinaja field, 111
China-Kazakhstan pipeline, 282, 285–
286, 288–289
China-Saudi Arabia agreement, 190
China-Turkmenistan pipeline, 288
Chinese Petroleum Corp.-Chad
agreement, 211
Chinguetti field, 226–228
Chinook field, 92
Chirag field, 249–250
Chorbane block, 241
Chronology 2006, xii–xviii
Chukchi basin, 56
Cienfuegos refinery, 106
Cirebon-Bekasi pipeline, 320
Citgo U.S. outlets, 130
Citronelle field, 17
civil war (Sudan), 237
Cizre exploration license, 162
Clair field, 164–165
Clarence-Moreton basin, 300
Claymore prospect, 43
Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM), 234
Cliff Head field, 296
Clio-1 discovery, 294
CMS Nomeco legal case, 212
coal gasification plant, 28
coalbed methane (CBM), 59–60, 74–76,
115, 142, 287, 293, 300, 312–313,
346, 349–350: Canada, 59–60,
74–76, 346, 349–350; Alberta, 75;
Saskatchewan, 75; Nova Scotia, 76;
Mexico, 115; France, 142; China,
287; Australia, 293, 300; India, 312–
313; U.S., 346, 349–350
coal-to-liquids (CTL), 145, 187–188:
Germany, 145; China, 287–288
coiled tubing, 17, 360: fracturing, 17;
drilling, 360
Cold Lake oil sands, 65
Colin prospect, 227
Colombia, 94, 101–104, 444: EcopetrolPetrobras joint projects, 94, 103–104;
crude oil, 102; pipelines, 103;
refineries, 103; natural gas, 103–104;
gas-to-liquids plant, 103; exploration
and development, 103–104; Lower
Magdalena basin, 104; Middle
Magdalena basin, 104; drilling
activity, 104; Putumayo basin,
104; Fuerte Norte block, 104; Sur
Caribbean block, 104; Llanos basin,
104; Serafin gas project, 104
Colorado basin, 87
compressed natural gas carriers, 368
Congo (Brazzaville), 212–213, 219,
445: Mer Tres Profonde Sud block
discovery, 212; Moho/BilondoIPE 2007 467
Index
discovery, 212–213; CMS Nomeco
legal case, 212
Congo (Former Zaire), 213–214, 445:
Albert graben basin, 213; CongoUganda blocks, 213–214; Nganzi
block, 214; national petroleum
assessment, 214
Congo-Uganda blocks, 213–214
Congressional elections (U.S.), 10
ConocoPhillips, 70–71, 224
ConocoPhillips-EnCana joint venture,
70–71
Constanta-Trieste pipeline, 150
consumption statistics, 408–411,
428–429: oil, 408–409; petroleum
products, 410–411; gas, 428–429
controlled-source electromagnetic
(CSEM) survey/imaging, 73–74, 86,
360–361
Cook Inlet basin, 53, 57
Cooper basin, 299
Corrib field project, 147
Corvina field, 122–123
Croatia, 133, 138, 445: LNG terminal
study, 138 crude oil. See oil.
Cuba Exclusive Economic Zone, 105
Cuba, 105–106, 445: crude oil, 105;
exploration and development, 105–
106; Cuba Exclusive Economic Zone,
105; Repsol YPF Cuba SA partners,
105; development activity near
Florida, 105; Block 7 oil discovery,
105–106; U.S.-Cuba private-sector
oil summit, 106; drilling and
production, 106; refining, 106;
refinery upgrade, 106
Cuba-U.S. private-sector oil summit, 106
Cuisiana/Cupiagua field, 103
Culebra field, 113
Cumarebo field, 128
Cuu Long basin, 338
Cygnus discovery, 163
Cyprus-Egypt agreements, 162
Cyrenaica basin, 223
Czech Republic, 138, 445: gas delivery,
138; natural gas market, 138; drilling
activity; biofuels rule, 138
D
Dahej NGL plant, 311
Dalia field, 206
Damage assessment (GOM hurricanes),
46–49: recovery pace, 47–48
Damietta LNG plant, 217
Dampier-Bunbury pipeline, 300
Dana Gas PJSC (Sharjah), 193
Daqing field, 279
Darfur (Sudan) violence, 236
Davis Strait, 140
Daya Bay petrochemical complex, 287
decision policy factors, ix
Deep Panuke development project, 64
Deepwater development/activity (GOM),
37–39, 42–43: discoveries, 37–39;
potential plays, 38–39; Jack-2 well,
39; Lease Sale 181, 30; Mission Deep
discovery, 39
Deepwater shelf (Argentina), 85
Deer Creek Energy Ltd., 71
deindustrialization trend (U.S.), 404–405
Delhi Declaration, 190
Dengizkul field, 276
Denmark, 140, 445: Brugdan drilling,
140; Gazprom-DONG Energy
agreement, 140; Greenland
prospects, 140
desulfurization capacity, 390
diesel fuel, 29–30, 99, 136, 138, 141,
144, 147, 157–159, 333, 386–388:
sulfur content, 29–30, 386–388;
biodiesel, 99, 136, 138, 141, 144,
159, 333; ULSD, 386–388
Dissoni block strike, 209
Dniepr Donets basin, 275
Doba basin, 211
Dolphin Gas Project, 185
DONG Energy-Gazprom agreement, 140
Dong Fang 1–1 field, 285
Donghae discovery, 334
Dorra field, 180
Douala basin, 209
Dougga discovery, 241
Douglas discovery, 331–332
Drilling activity (U.S.), 17–21, 23–24,
351, 353–354, 363: Rocky Mountain
area, 18; O&GJ U.S. forecast, 18–19;
2005–2006 activity, 18–19, 24; 2006
well completions, 18–19; growth
forecast, 19–21; rig activity, 24, 351,
353–354
drilling and exploration statistics,
351–366: U.S. drilling activity,
351, 353–354; dynamic drilling
market, 351–355; newbuilds/offshore
structures, 354–358, 364–366; South
America, 359; advanced technology,
359–362; Troll field starfish well,
359–360; microhole coiled-tubing
drilling, 360; CSEM imaging,
360–361; wired-pipe telemetry, 361;
rocket rig, 362; marginal U.S. wells,
363; extended reach drilling, 363;
carbon dioxide injection, 363–364;
drillships, 364–366
drilling and production (U.S.), 17–21,
23–24, 351, 353–354, 363: drilling
activity, 17–21, 23–24, 351,
353–354, 363; Rocky Mountain
area, 18; O&GJ U.S. forecast, 18–19;
2005–2006 drilling activity, 18–19,
24; 2006 well completions, 18–19;
growth forecast, 19–21; Granite
Wash play, 20; oil production tax,
20; Permian basin, 21; Barnett shale,
21; GOM, 21, 23; oil shale projects,
23–24; Palo Duro basin, 23; oil
sands, 23, 25; rig activity, 24, 351,
353–354
drilling contractors, 355
drilling market, 351–355: rig activity,
351–354; rig count, 351–354;
U.S. drilling, 351, 353–354;
rig economics, 353; drilling
contractors, 355
drilling/exploration technology, 359–
362: Troll field starfish well, 359–
360; microhole coiled-tubing drilling,
360; CSEM imaging, 360–361; wiredpipe telemetry, 361; rocket rig, 362
drillship newbuilds, 364–366
Druzhba pipeline, 266–267
DSS-38 semisubmersible, 96–97
Dubai, 192
Dung Quat refinery, 339
Duri-Medan pipeline, 319
Durresi block, 135
Dushanzi refinery, 282
Dyarbekir field, 274468 IPE 2007
Index
E
E8 field, 327
East Africa, 199
East Area oil-gas project, 232
East Causeway discovery, 164
East China Sea, 283
East Coast LNG terminals, 35–37: New
England-south, 35–36; Mid-Atlantic
area, 36–37
East Doseo basin, 211
East Kalimantan-Central Java
pipeline, 320
East Orphan basin, 73
East Shabwa Development Area, 194
East Siberia Pacific Oil Pipeline
(ESPO), 266
East Siberian basin, 262
East Timor, 296, 303–304: offshore
permits, 303; Barossa field, 303;
Timor Sea, 303–304; Swallow
discovery, 303–304; Joint Petroleum
Development Area, 303–304; Puffin
field, 304; Greater Sunrise fields,
304; Timor Gap, 304
East Visayas basin, 332
Eastern Canada (offshore), 59, 62–64
Eastern Desert (Egypt), 214
Eastern Europe, 149
East-Schmidt block, 265
Ecopetrol-Petrobras joint projects, 94,
103–104
Ecuador, 107–109, 445: exploration
and development, 107; Amazon
headwaters, 107; drilling and
production, 107; nationalization,
107–108; Occidental Petroleum
Corp. disputes, 108; government
actions, 108–109; President Correa,
108; Energy Minister Acosta, 108;
extraordinary profits oil tax, 108–
109; Ecuador-Oriente, 109; BrazilEcuador energy alliance, 109
Ecuador-Brazil energy alliance, 109
Ecuador-Oriente, 109
Edmonton hydrogen plant, 78
Edo refinery proposal, 234
Egypt, 214–218, 445–446: crude oil,
214; natural gas, 214; exploration
and development, 215–216; Egas
license round, 215; Ganope license
round, 215; deepwater oil and gas,
215; Apache Corp. activity, 216; Giza
North-1 discovery, 216; discussions
with Greece, 216; drilling and
production, 216; Saqqara field, 216;
pipelines, 217; gas exports to Israel,
217; Aqaba-Rehab pipeline, 217;
LNG, 217; Damietta LNG plant,
217; Idku LNG plant, 217; Nile
Delta gas for LNG, 217; refining
and processing, 217–218; refining
capacity, 217–218; Khalda gas plant
expansion, 218; petrochemicals, 218
Egypt-Cyprus agreements, 162
El Arish-Ashkelon pipeline, 180
El Louza block, 240–241
El Tordillo field, 88
Electric power generation (U.S.), 4
Electricite de France (EDF), 137
Electricity prices, 435
Elefsina refinery, 146
EM Block 9 field development, 235
emerging energy sources, ix
Empty Quarter (Saudi Arabia), 188–189
Enbridge pipeline, 25
EnCana Corp., 79
energy demand/consumption (U.S.), 4–5,
341–343
energy efficiency, ix
Energy Information Administration
(EIA), vi, 9–11: U.S. natural gas
supply/demand, 9; global energy
outlook, 10–11; U.S. oil/gas
reserves, 11
energy ministries, 440–454
energy outlook (DOE), 10–11, 367
energy prices comparison (statistics), 435:
gas, 435; electricity, 435
energy supply statistics, 4–5, 10–11,
167, 340–343, 367: fossil fuels, 340–
343; crude oil, 340–343; offshore
Europe, 340–341; natural gas, 341–
343; U.S. production plateau, 341–
343; giant oil discoveries, 342–343;
unconventional resources, 343
energy supply/outlook, 4–5, 10–11, 167,
340–343, 367: U.S., 4–5; global,
10–11; DOE-EIA projections, 10–11;
UK, 167; fossil fuels, 340–343
energy value chain, vi
Enfield field, 297
England, 163
enhanced oil recovery (EOR), 17, 88–89,
152–153, 183–184, 310, 363–364:
U.S., 17, 363–364; Argentina,
88–89; Norway, 152–153; Oman,
183–184; India, 310
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
13, 26
Equatorial Guinea, 218–220, 446:
crude oil, 218–220; oil royalty
increase, 218; licensing round, 218;
Bioko Island LNG plant, 218–219;
Petrobras stake in Block L, 219
Erha field, 231–233
Erika oil spill, 145
Eromanga basin, 299
Espadarte field, 91
Espirito Santo basin, 93, 98
ethanol (U.S.), 30–31, 386, 388:
cellulosic ethanol development, 30;
imports, 30–31; air quality issues, 31;
bioethanol plant, 31
ethanol fuel, 30–31, 100, 144, 333, 386,
388: U.S., 30–31, 386, 388; Brazil,
100; France, 144; Philippines, 333
etherification plant, 145
Ethiopia, 243
Ethy tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), 159
Ethylene market/capacity, 398–402,
404–405
ethylene plant, 145–146, 192, 286–287,
312, 333
Europe, 132–167, 340–341: Albania,
133, 135; maps, 134, 139–140,
147, 149, 151, 153–154, 156, 163,
166; Austria, 135–136; Belgium,
136–137; gas trade outlook, 136;
Bulgaria, 137–138; Croatia, 138;
Czech Republic, 138; Denmark, 140;
Finland, 141; France, 141–145;
Germany, 145–146; Greece, 146;
Hungary, 146–147; Ireland, 147;
Italy, 148; Malta, 150–151;
Netherlands, 150–151; Norway,
152–157; Poland, 157–158; Portugal,
158; Romania, 158–159; Slovakia,
159–160; Spain, 160; Sweden, 161;
Turkey, 161–162; United Kingdom,
163–167
European Energy Charter, 267
European Union (EU), 138, 158:IPE 2007 469
Index
Bulgaria, 138; Romania, 158
Euskadour pipeline, 142
exploration and development (U.S.),
16–17: Anadarko basin, 16; Uinta
basin, 16; Piceance basin, 16;
Arkoma basin, 17
extended reach drilling (ERD),
13–14, 363
F
F structure field, 336
Falcon basin, 127–128
Falcon Oil & Gas Ltd., 146–147
Fang block, 337
Faroe Islands, 140, 446
Faucon discovery, 228
Fauresti field, 158
Fayoum discovery, 216
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC), 25, 27: gas storage rates, 27
Fergana basin, 260
Filanovsky field, 261
Finland, 141, 446: biodiesel plant, 141
fire hazard/training (LNG), 382
fixed offshore terminal (LNG), 377–378
Flamant prospect, 227
floating production, storage, and
offloading system (FPSO), 44, 62,
96–99, 207: approved for GOM, 44
Florida, 13, 105
Focus Energy Trust, 79
Forest Alaska Operating LLC, 58
Forest Oil Corp., 58
Former Soviet Union (FSU), 244–276:
Armenia, 245, 248; maps, 246–248,
250–251, 255, 258, 263, 268;
Eastern FSU, 246; Western FSU,
247; Azerbaijan, 248–250; Caspian
Sea, 248–259; Georgia, 250–252;
Kazakhstan, 253–259; Kyrgyzstan,
260; Lithuania, 260–261; Russia,
261–272, 275; Sakhalin Island
developments, 263–265; Tajikistan,
272–273; Turkmenistan, 273–274;
Ukraine, 274–276; Uzbekistan, 276
Forvie North field, 165
fossil fuels, 161, 340–343: Sweden
policy, 161
Frade field, 92, 97
France, 141–145, 446: exploration and
development, 141–142; exploration/
production investment, 141;
exploration activity, 141; production
activity, 141–142; gas delivery, 142–
143; natural gas market, 142–143;
GdF-Suez merger proposal, 142;
Gazprom marketing, 142; LNG, 143–
144; LNG terminal development,
143–144; GdF carrier trials, 143;
refining and processing, 143–144;
Gonfreville refinery upgrade, 143–
144; E-85 role in biofuels plan, 144;
diesel fuel supply, 144; biodiesel
plant contracts, 144; environment,
145; Erika oil spill, 145
frontier pipeline expansion, 26
fuel transition (U.S.), 386–388: ultralowsulfur diesel fuel, 386–388; ethanol
fuel, 386, 388; biofuels, 387–388
Fuerte block, 102, 104
Fujairah refinery, 192
Fujian Refining and Ethylene
Project, 288
G
Gabon, 219–221, 446: Avouma oil
field, 220
Gabon-Congo basin, 220
Gabyshevskoye field, 262
Gachsaran field, 173
Galsi trans-Med gas pipeline, 148, 203
Gambela basin, 243
Gambia, 243
Ganope license round, 215
Garyville refinery expansion, 28
gas condensate capacity (Middle East/
Asia), 394–396
gas consumption statistics, 428–429
gas hydrates, 56, 321
gas prices, 12, 435–436: statistics,
435–436; history, 436
gas processing and products statistics,
390–397: major shift in 2005,
390–393; trends, 390–393; LPG
production, 393–394; gas condensate
capacity in Middle East/Asia, 394–
396; propane production, 396–397
gas processing, 28, 172–173, 256, 276,
390–397: U.S., 28; Iran, 172–173;
Kazakhstan, 256; Uzbekistan, 276;
statistics, 390–397
gas production statistics, 344–349, 430
gas reserves, 11–12, 15, 52, 344–349,
406–407: statistics, 344–349,
406–407
gas shale resource, 346, 349–350:
U.S., 346, 349–350; Canada, 346,
349–350
gas storage, 27, 136, 167, 173–174, 193,
252, 298, 301, 382: U.S, 27; Austria,
136; UK, 167; Iran, 173–174;
UAE, 193; Georgia, 252; Australia,
298, 301
gas supply/demand (U.S.), 8–10: O&GJ
forecast, 8–10; NGSA forecast, 9;
EIA forecast, 9–10
gas supply, 8–10: 341–343: U.S., 8–10;
statistics, 341–343
gas trade growth, 370
gas trade movements (statistics), 368,
431–434: pipelines, 431–433;
LNG, 434
gas trade outlook (Europe), 136
gas trends, 390–393: processing and
production, 390–393
gas/LNG interchangeability, 384
gas-oil separation plant (GOSP), 189:
Saudi Arabia, 189
gasoline prices, 12, 435–436: statistics,
435–436; history, 436
Gassi Touil field, 204
gas-to-liquids (GTL), 103, 185–186,
236, 300, 323, 332: Colombia, 103;
Qatar, 185–186; South Africa, 236;
Australia, 300; Japan, 323; Papua
New Guinea, 332
Gaz de France (GdF), 142–143: Suez
merger proposal, 142; LNG
carrier trials, 143; refining and
processing, 143
Gazprom, 140, 142, 261, 267, 272:
DONG energy agreement, 140;
marketing, 142; investments, 261,
267; LNG plans, 272
Gela field, 150
Gelsenkirchen-Scholven ethylene
plant, 146470 IPE 2007
Index
Gen. Lazaro Cardenas refinery, 115
Geographe field, 296
geopolitics, 1
Georgia (Europe), 250–252: exploration
and development, 250–252; Block 12,
250–252; Taribani field, 250; Basin
Edge play, 251; Kumisi prospect,
251–252; Manavi prospect, 251;
Ninotsminda field, 252; licensing,
252; pipelines, 252; Baku-TbilisiCeyhan pipeline, 252; HaciqabulQazax-Tbilisi pipeline, 252; BakuTbilisi-Erzurum pipeline, 252; gas
storage, 252; North Caucasus-South
Caucasus pipeline, 252; MozdokTbilisi pipeline, 252
Georgina basin, 295
Germany, 145–146: refining and
processing, 145; Syntroleum Corp.-
Sustec Industries AG joint venture,
145; Syntroleum Fischer-Tropsch/
refining unit, 145; coal-to-liquids
plant, 145; naphtha etherification
plant, 145; petrochemicals, 145–146;
OMV AG expansion in Bavaria, 145;
Koln olefins/ethylene plant expansion,
145–146; Gelsenkirchen-Scholven
ethylene plant, 146
Ghadames basin, 223
Ghana, 243
Ghawar field, 187–188
Ghudun Salt basin, 182
giant oil discoveries, 342–343
Gippsland basin, 295–296
Giza North-1 discovery, 216
Glenelg field, 165
Global Gas Flaring Reduction
(GGFR), 234
glossary, 455–461
Gloucester basin, 300
Golfinho field, 91, 98–99
Goliat discovery, 152
GOM reservoir properties (reserve size),
346–349: depth interval, 346; pay
thickness, 347; areal extent, 347;
porosity, 348; formation pressure,
348; water saturation, 349
Gomez field, 45
Gonfreville refinery upgrade, 143–144
Goosander field, 164
Gorgon field, 294–295, 298–299:
Greater Gorgon Project, 298–299
Granite Wash play, 20
Greater Gorgon Project, 298–299: LNG
export, 298; environmental approval,
298; carbon dioxide capture/storage,
298; Barrow Island, 298; exploration
activity, 298
Greater Ivoirian basin, 243
Greater Natural Buttes area, 16
Greater Plutonio fields, 207
Greater Sunrise field complex, 296, 304
Greece, 146, 216, 446: Elefsina refinery
upgrade, 146
greenhouse gas (U.S.), 17, 31
Greenland prospects, 140
Gresik-Rawa Maju pipeline, 319
Guajira basin, 103
Guatemala, 110–111, 446: crude oil,
110; natural gas, 110; pipeline plan,
110; LNG, 110; exploration and
development, 110–111; Peten basin,
110–111
Gudrun prospect, 153
Guepaje gas field, 104
Guillemot field, 163
Gujarat State Petroleum Corp., 310–311
Gujurat petrochemical complex, 312
Gulf Coast LNG terminals, 32–34:
Mississippi, 32; Louisiana, 33;
Texas, 34
Gulf of Aden, 194
Gulf of Campeche, 112–113
Gulf of Guinea, 233
Gulf of Mexico (GOM), 13, 21, 23,
32–34, 37–49, 51, 105, 346–349:
lease sales, 13, 39, 45–47; Gulf Coast
LNG terminals, 32–34; deepwater
developments, 37–39, 42–43; lower
Tertiary trend/discoveries, 37–39;
Texas Gulf Coast, 38; Mission Deep
discovery, 39; Independence Hub,
39, 42; Louisiana Gulf Coast, 40–41;
Kaleidoscope Project, 42; Bigfoot
discovery, 42; Perdido spar project,
42–43; Caesar prospect, 43; Claymore
prospect, 43; Alaminos Canyon, 43;
Mississippi Canyon discovery, 43;
other exploration/development, 44;
FPSO approved, 44; Mobile Bay, 44;
Main Pass Block, 44; High Island
Block, 44; West Cameron field,
44; Knotty Head discovery, 44;
transportation, 44–45; drilling and
production, 45; Gomez field, 45;
Rigel field, 45; Seventeen Hands
field, 45; hurricanes, 46–49; damage
assessment/recovery, 46–49; company
news, 49, 51; Gulf of Mexico Energy
Security Act of 2006, 105; reservoir
properties, 346–349
Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of
2006, 105
Gulf of Papua, 332
Gulf of Suez, 214
Gulf of Thailand, 317, 336–337
Gunashli field, 249–250
H
Haciqabul-Qazax-Tbilisi pipeline, 252
Haifa exploration, 179
Halten field EOR, 152–153
Haoud El Hamra fields, 203
Haradh field, 188–189: gas-oil separation
plant, 189
Haradh gas-oil separation plant, 189
Harqus field, 187
Hasdrubal field, 241
Hassi R’mel gas field, 148
Hassi R’Mel-Beni Saf pipeline, 204
Hatia Island, 302
Hazira field, 311
H-Bio biodiesel fuel, 99
Heavy crude reclassification, 129
Heavy oil, 23, 25, 129, 131: bottoms, 23,
25; reclassification, 129
Hebe discovery, 205
Hebron field, 62, 65
Heletz field, 179
Hibernia field, 59–60, 62, 65
High Island Block, 44
Homs subbasin, 191
Hopedale basin, 73
Houston LPG terminal, 30
Huizhou 21–1 field, 285
Huizhou refinery, 282
Hungary, 146–147, 447: natural gas,
146–147; Falcon deep gas project,
146–147
hurricane aftermath (GOM), 46–49:IPE 2007 471
Index
damage assessment, 46–49; recovery
pace, 47–48; precautionary measures,
48; regulatory response, 48–49
hurricane discovery, 293
Hurricane Katrina (GOM), 46–49
Hurricane Rita (GOM), 46–49
Husky Alberta pipeline, 77
Husky Energy, 71
hydrodesulfurization plant, 157–158
hydrogen plant (Edmonton), 78
I
Ibhubesi field, 235
Idku LNG plant, 217
Idoho field, 232
Illizi basin, 202–203
In Amenas gas project, 203
Independence Hub (GOM), 39, 42
Independence Trail Pipeline, 39
India, 186, 190, 261, 274, 289, 300,
304–305, 308–315, 447: Qatar
shipping contract, 186; India-Saudi
Arabia energy partnership, 190,
313; crude oil, 304; natural gas,
304–305, 308; Oil & Natural Gas
Corp., 305, 308–310; Oil India
Ltd., 305, 310; LNG, 305, 308–309,
312–315; Krishna-Godavari basin,
305, 308–309; Arabian Sea, 305;
equity investment, 305, 308–311;
pipelines, 308; energy demand,
308; exploration and development,
308–309; Block D6, 309; Rajasthan
discovery, 309–310; Mangala project,
309–310; drilling and production,
309–311; Gujarat State Petroleum
Corp., 310–311; Niko Resources Ltd.,
311; refining and processing, 311;
petrochemicals, 311–312; licensing,
312; coalbed methane, 312–313;
foreign investment policy, 313; LNG
terminals, 313–315; Cairn Energy
PLC, 315
India-Saudi Arabia energy partnership,
190, 313
Indonesia, 316–321, 324–325, 447:
crude oil, 316; natural gas, 316;
Cepu Block, 316, 318; exploration
and development, 318; Timor Sea,
318; South China Sea, 318; drilling
and production, 318–319; Southeast
Sumatra Gas Project, 319; refining
and processing, 319; Situbondo
refinery, 319; LNG, 319; biofuels,
319; pipelines and transportation,
319–320; licensing, 320
Indus basin, 330
information sources, 440–461: national
oil companies and energy ministries,
440–454; glossary, 455–461;
abbreviations/acronyms, 455–461;
North American geographical
abbreviations, 461
Ingre block, 90
Interconnection Centro Occidente
pipeline, 130
interconnector pipeline, 136, 166
international rig count, 439–440
investment and markets statistics, 367:
DOE’s energy outlook, 367; U.S.
projects, 367; Canada projects, 367;
oil prices, 367
investment challenge, vi–x: cycle, vi–vii;
constraints, vii–viii; performance,
viii–ix; policy factors in decisions, ix;
people equation, ix–x; oil price, x
Iolotan discovery, 273
Iran, 131, 171–174, 248, 274, 321, 447:
exploration and development, 171;
Azadegan field, 171; South Pars
gas field, 171; development and
production, 171; Yadavaran oil field,
171; natural gas infrastructure, 171–
174; gas market expansion, 171–172;
gas processing, 172–173; pipeline
projects, 172–173; IGAT pipeline
system, 172–173; NIGC pipeline
plans, 173; gas storage projects, 173–
174; gas imports, 174; Turkmenistan,
174; LNG, 174; Qeshm Island LNG
project, 174; nuclear program issues,
174; Iran-Armenia pipeline, 248
Iran-Armenia pipeline, 248
Iranian Gas Transmission (IGAT)
system, 172
Iraq, 175–176, 178, 447: crude oil,
175; oil exports, 175–176; northern
pipeline system, 175; southern export
terminals, 175; exploration and
development, 175–176; Kurdistan
prospect, 175; seismic equipment
donation, 176; Kurdistan field
study, 176; Tawke project discovery,
176; Al-Ahdab field, 176, 178; oil
revenues lost, 176
Ireland, 147, 447: Corrib field project
and protest, 147; refining, 147;
renewable diesel, 147
Irenda block, 90
Irminio field, 150–151
Isarene project, 203
Israel, 178–180, 217, 447: crude oil,
178; natural gas, 178–179; Mari
field, 178; Noa (Border) field, 178;
exploration and development, 179;
Heletz lease, 179; Haifa exploration,
179; Ma’anit well, 179; oil shale
deposits, 179; Israeli-Hezbollah
conflict, 179; refining, 179–180;
pipelines, 180; Russian gas import,
180; El Arish-Ashkelon pipeline, 180;
national gas transmission system, 180
Israeli-Hezbollah conflict, 179
Isramco, 179
Italy, 148, 447–448: exploration
and development, 148; Southern
Apennines exploration, 148; Po
Valley reserves analysis, 148; Ragusa
plateau, 148; pipelines, 148; Galsi
trans-Med gas pipeline project, 148
Itteville field, 142
Ivanhoe Energy, Inc., 23, 25
Ivory Coast, 219, 221, 448: West
Espoir field, 221; rigless conductor
installation, 221; Block CI-27 well
tests, 221
Iyak field, 232472 IPE 2007
Index
J
jack field, vii, 39
jackup units, 357–358
Jaizan basin, 194
Jamaica, 111–112: exploration and
development, 111–112; 2005
licensing round, 111–112; 2007
exploration interest, 112; Malaysia
initiatives, 112; refining, 112;
LNG, 112
Jamnagar refinery, 311
Jansz field, 298
Japan, 185, 266, 288, 321–323, 448:
Japan-Qatar energy agreement, 185;
energy mix, 321; Iran project, 321;
Russia project, 321; Indonesia project,
321; Australia project, 321; methane
hydrates exploration, 321; LNG,
323; gas-to-liquids plant, 323; LPG
operations alliance, 323
Japan-Qatar energy agreement, 185
Java, 317
Jeanne d’Arc basin, 73, 140
Jewell Ridge pipeline, 26
Jeza-Qamar basin, 193
John Brookes field, 299
Joint Petroleum Development Area
(East Timor-Australia), 303–304:
Timor Gap, 304
Jose Segundo field, 88
Jubail petrochemical complex, 190
Jubail refinery, 189
Jubarte field, 91, 96, 98
Junggar basin, 279
Jurayd field, 187
Jurong Island, 333
just-in-time perforating, 17
K
Kai Kos Dehseh project, 67
Kaleidoscope Project, 42
Kamankooh field, 173
Kandym-Khauzak-Shady-Kungrad
project, 276
Kara Sea, 265
Karachaganak field, 259
Karachok field, 191
Karakilise field, 162
Karmir prospect, 245
Kashagan field, 254–255, 259
Kassab discovery, 187
Kazakhstan, 253–259, 282, 285–286,
288–289, 448: crude oil, 253–254;
natural gas, 253–255; economy,
253; ownership structures, 253;
outlook, 254; drilling and production,
254–255; Kashagan field, 254–255;
Kyzyloi field, 255; Akkulka block,
255; E block, 255; Morskoe block,
255; refining and processing, 255–
256; Atyrau refinery, 255; Shymkent
refinery, 255; Pavlodar refinery, 255;
pipelines, 255–258, 282, 285–286,
288–289; Atyrau-Samara pipeline,
255, 257; Omsk-Pavlodar-ShymkentChardzhou pipeline, 255; gas
processing, 256; Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan
pipeline, 256–257; Caspian Pipeline
Consortium pipeline, 256; TengizNovorossiisk pipeline, 256–257;
Black Sea, 256–257; Persian Gulf,
257; Kumkol-China pipeline, 257;
Atasu-Alaskhankou pipeline, 257;
Kenkiyak-Kumkol pipeline, 257;
Kenkiyak-Kumkol-Atasu pipeline,
257; Kenkiyak-Orsk pipeline, 257;
Tengiz field, 259; Karachaganak field,
259; Kashagan field, 259; KazakhstanChina pipeline, 282, 285–286,
288–289
Kazakhstan-China pipeline, 282, 285–
286, 288–289
Kenkiyak-Kumkol pipeline, 257
Kenkiyak-Kumkol-Atasu pipeline, 257
Kenkiyak-Orsk pipeline, 257
Kenya, 243
Kenz field, 216
Kerkouane block, 241
Kerr-McGee Corp., 49, 51
key statistics, 340–405: future energy
supply, 340–343; reserves and
production, 344–350; drilling and
exploration, 351–366; investment
and markets, 367; trade and tankers,
368–371; LNG industry outlook,
371–374; LNG liquefaction and
receiving, 375–378; LNG carrier
fleet, 379–382; LNG risks and
opportunities, 382–384; refining
and products, 384–390; gas
processing and products, 390–397;
petrochemicals outlook, 398–405. See
also statistical tables.
Keystone pipeline, 76–77
Khairir field, 194
Khalda gas plant expansion, 218
Kharasaveyskoye field, 261
Khartoum refinery upgrade, 239
Kharwah field, 193
Khauzak field, 276
Khurais field, 188
Khurais Increment Program, 188
Khursaniyah field, 188
Khursaniyah gas processing plant, 186
Khvalynskoye field, 261
Kibaro prospect, 227
Kikeh field, 323–324
Kilmar field, 165
Kinder Morgan-Terasen System, 77–78
Kipper field, 296
Kirinsky block, 264
Kirkuk field, 175
Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline, 175
Kissanje blend crude assay, 207–208
Kizomba B project, 207
Kizomba C subsea systems, 207
Knotty Head discovery, 44
Kogan North field, 300
Kohat discovery, 330
Koln olefins/ethylene plant, 145–146
Kombe-N’sepe block, 209
Kome field, 210
Kovykta field, 262, 327
Krasnoyarsk Krai field, 261
Kribi-Campo basin, 209
Krishna-Godavari basin, 305, 308–310
Ku-Maloob-Zaap (KMZ) field, 113
Kumisi prospect, 251–252
Kumkol-China pipeline, 257
Kurais field, 188
Kurdistan prospect, 175–176: field
study, 176
Kuwait, 180–182, 448: natural gas, 180;
crude oil, 181; oil reserves, 181;
Project Kuwait, 181–182; OPEC,
181; Al-Zour refinery, 182
Kvitebjorn field, 154
Kwale flare gas project, 234IPE 2007 473
Index
Kyrgyzstan, 260: exploration blocks,
260; seismic exploration, 260;
Gazprom investment, 260
Kyzyloi field, 255
L
La Paz field, 128
La Rabida refinery, 160
La Vela field, 128
Labeidna discovery, 228
Labrador Sea, 73
Labrador, 73: Hopedale basin, 73
Lacq field, 141
Lagansky block, 261–262
Lake Albert, 213–214, 242
Lake Chad basin, 211
Lake Toktogul, 260
Lam field, 273
Lamu basin, 243
Landana North prospect, 206
Langeled pipeline, 155–156, 166
Laos, 289
Las Violatas discovery, 86
Latin America, 80–131: Argentina, 81,
85–89; maps, 82–86, 88, 94–95, 102,
109–111, 115–119, 122, 126–127,
131; Tierra del Fuego, 86; Belize,
89; Bolivia, 90–91; Brazil, 91–100;
Campos basin, 94; Santos basin, 95;
Chile, 100–101; Colombia, 101–104;
Cuba, 105–106; Ecuador, 107–109;
Guatemala, 110–111; Jamaica,
111–112; Mexico, 112–120; Central
America, 118; Nicaragua, 120–121;
Peru, 121–124; Trinidad & Tobago,
124–125; Venezuela, 125–131
lease sales (Alaska), 56–57: MMS
2007–2012 OCS lease plans, 56–57;
Beaufort Sea 2006 lease awards, 57;
Beaufort Sea 2007 lease sale, 57
lease sales (GOM), 13, 39, 45–47: Lease
Sale 181, 13, 39; 1998–1999 lease
royalties, 45; royalty-in-kind sales
record, 45; MMS environmental
studies, 45; Lease Sale 200, 45–46;
Lease Sale 205, 46; Lease Sale 198,
46–47
Lebanon, 179
Liaohe field, 279
Libertad field, 332
Libra discovery, 216
Libya, 221–224, 448–449: crude oil,
221–222; leasing, 222; third lease
round, 222–223; exploration and
development, 222–224; Murzuq
basin, 222; Sirte basin, 222–223;
Block NC-115, 223; Cyrenaica
basin, 223; U.S. operators return,
223–224; Occidental Petroleum
Corp., 223–224; Oasis Group,
223–224; ConocoPhillips, 224;
PT Pertamina, 224
licensing rounds. See individual countries.
Lido field, 128
Limon field, 128
liquefaction capacity (LNG), 375–376
liquefaction/receiving (LNG), 375–378,
382: liquefaction plants/capacity,
375–376; receiving terminals, 376–
377; fixed offshore terminal, 377–
378; regasification capacity, 378, 382
liquefied natural gas (LNG), 32–37,
44–45, 61, 79, 93, 101, 110, 112,
119–120, 123–124, 137–138, 142–
144, 155, 161, 167, 174, 186, 193,
202, 204, 217–219, 226, 233, 264,
267, 282, 286, 293, 296–300, 305,
308–309, 312–315, 319, 323, 327,
331, 334–335, 373–374, 378, 382,
434: U.S., 32–37, 44–45; Canada, 37,
61, 79; Mexico, 37, 119–120; LNG
transfer (GOM), 44–45; Brazil, 93;
Chile, 101; Guatemala, 110; Jamaica,
112; Peru, 123–124; Trinidad &
Tobago, 124; Belgium, 137; Croatia,
138; France, 142–144; LNG carriers,
143, 186; Norway, 155; Sweden, 161;
UK, 167; Iran, 174; Qatar, 186;
United Arab Emirates, 193; Algeria,
202, 204; Egypt, 217; Equatorial
Guinea, 218–219; Mauritania, 226;
Nigeria, 233, 373–374; Russia, 264,
267; China, 282, 286; Australia,
293, 296–300; India, 305, 308–309,
312–315; Indonesia, 319; Japan,
323; Malaysia, 327; Pakistan, 331;
South Korea, 334–335; regasification
capacity, 378, 382
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), 30, 323,
393–394: terminal expansion, 30;
operations alliance, 323; production,
393–394
Lishui discovery, 283
Lithuania, 260–261: Baltic Sea
exploration, 260; Antanavas prospect,
260; Plunge field, 260; Mazeikai
refinery upgrades, 260–261
Liulin block, 287
Liwan discovery, 283, 317
Llanos basin, 103–104
LNG (Mexico), 37, 119–120: terminals,
37, 119–120; plant proposals, 120
LNG (U.S.), 32–37, 44–45, 79: import
capacity, 32; FERC rules, 32; EIA
outlook, 32; Gulf Coast terminals,
32–34; transshipment technology
(GOM), 33, 44–45; West Coast
terminals, 34–35; East Coast
terminals, 35–37; Mexico terminals,
37, 119–120; Canada terminals,
37, 79
LNG carrier fleet (statistics), 379–382:
carrier status, 379–381; tanker
designs, 381; Arctic service,
381; storage/regasification, 382;
transshipment, 382; South Korea
shipbuilding, 382
LNG carriers, 143, 186, 379–382: trials,
143; statistics, 379–382; tanker
designs, 381; Arctic service, 381;
South Korea shipbuilding, 382
LNG construction-cost challenge,
373–374
LNG industry outlook (statistics), 371–
374: growth trend, 371; terminals,
371–372; Gazprom plans, 372; North
American receiving capacity, 372–
373; Nigeria, 373–374; constructioncost challenge, 373–374
LNG liquefaction and receiving statistics,
375–378: liquefaction plants/capacity,
375–376; receiving terminals, 376–
377; fixed offshore terminal, 377–
378; regasification capacity, 378
LNG regasification, 378, 382474 IPE 2007
Index
LNG risks and opportunities (statistics),
382–384: shipping safety, 382;
fire training, 382; risk-based
terminal siting, 383–384; gas/LNG
interchangeability, 384
LNG statistics, 371–384: industry
outlook, 371–374; liquefaction and
receiving, 375–378; carrier fleet,
379–382; risks and opportunities,
382–384
LNG terminals, 32–37, 79, 119–120,
371–372, 376–378, 382–384: Gulf
Coast, 32–34; West Coast, 34–35;
East Coast, 35–37; Canada, 37, 79;
Mexico, 37, 119–120; receiving
terminals, 371–372, 376–377; fixed
offshore terminal, 377–378; storage,
382; siting, 383–384
LNG transshipment technology,
33, 44–45
LNG/gas interchangeability, 384
Lobito field, 208
Lobo field, 107
Los Angeles basin, 36
Los Angeles field, 104
Los Moroches field, 128
Los Patos field, 86
Louisiana Gulf Coast, 40–41
Louisiana LNG terminals, 33
Louisiana pipeline project, 27
Lower Magdalena basin, 104
Lower Tertiary trend/discoveries
(GOM), 37–39
Lukoil outlets purchase, 137
Lukoil Severny record, 261
Lundin Petroleum AB, 238
Lunskoye Piltun-Astokhskoye field, 264
Lynx pipeline, 78
M
M’Boundi field, 214
Ma’anit well, 179
Maari field, 329
Mackay River SAGD project, 71
Mackenzie Delta pipeline, 77
Mackenzie Delta, 61, 77
Madagascar, 225: Block 1101 production
sharing contract, 225; Majunga
Offshore Profound block, 225; Block
3109, 225
Madu oil field, 232
Mae Soon field, 337
Maersk Oil & Gas AS, 96
Magallanes basin, 100–101
Magdalena basin, 104
Main Pass Block, 44
Majaguillar-Corajol oil field, 106
Majunga Offshore Profound block, 225
Makhaizna field steamflood, 184
Makhtumkuli discovery, 274
Malampaya field, 283, 332
Malay basin, 317
Malaysia, 112, 317, 323–327, 449:
exploration and development, 323,
326; deepwater program, 323; Sabah
licenses, 323; Kikeh field, 323–324;
Block G discovery, 328; drilling and
production, 326–327; Cendor field,
326; E8 field, 327; refining, 327;
LNG, 327; Bintulu complex, 327
Maleo field, 318
Mali, 225–226: Taoudeni basin, 225–
226; sedimentary basins, 226
Malta, 150–151: Mediterranean
intrabasin ridge trend, 150–151
Manali refinery, 311
Manati field, 96
Manavi prospect, 251
Mandawa basin, 239
Mangala project, 309–310
Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemicals
Ltd., 309, 311
Manifa field project, 186–187
Manta field, 221
Maranon basin, 122–123
Margalla blocks, 330
Marginal wells (U.S.), 363
Mari field, 178
Marlim field, 92, 98
Marlim Sul Module 4, 93
Marlim Sul P-56 field, 93
Marmul field EOR, 183–184
Masila basin, 195
Maui field, 329
Mauritania, 219, 226–228: Chinguetti
oil field, 226; gas discoveries,
226–227; LNG, 226; northern area,
227–228; southern area, 228
Mauritania-Senegal-Bissau basin, 220
Mazeikai refinery, 260–261
Mazlij field, 188
McCully field, 63–64
Medgaz pipeline, 203–204
Mediterranean intrabasin ridge trend,
150–151
Mediterranean Sea, 150–151, 214–216,
224, 240: intrabasin ridge trend,
150–151
Meghama Island, 302
Meillon field, 141
Mekong River oil shipments, 286, 289
Melaka refinery, 327
Melamine plant, 192
Melut-Port Sudan pipeline, 239
Mer Tres Profonde Sud block
discovery, 212
Merluza field, 92, 95
Mexico, 37, 112–120, 449: LNG,
37, 119–120; LNG terminals, 37,
119–120; crude oil, 112–113; natural
gas, 113; exploration/production
tax structure, 113–114; President
Calderon, 113; exploration and
development, 114–115; Pemex
Exploration & Production projects,
114–115; deepwater discovery, 115;
drilling and production, 115; drilling
activity, 115; platform contracts, 115;
refining, 115; refinery upgrade, 115;
maps, 115–119; Central America,
118; Tabasco, 119; pipelines, 119;
LNG plant proposals, 120
Mexilhao field, 95
Mfem field, 232
Miami-Jajarm pipeline, 173
Miandoum field, 210
microhole coiled-tubing drilling, 360
Mid-Atlantic LNG terminals, 37
Midcontinent Crossing (MCX)
pipeline, 26IPE 2007 475
Index
Middle East, 168–195: Bahrain, 169;
maps, 170, 172, 177, 182–183, 194;
Iran, 171–174; Iraq, 175–176, 178;
Israel, 178–180; Kuwait, 180–182;
Oman, 182–184; Qatar, 185–186;
Saudi Arabia, 186–190; Syria, 191;
United Arab Emirates, 192–193;
Yemen, 193–195
Middle Magdalena basin, 104
Mila field, 150
Millennium pipeline project, 26
Miskar field, 241
Mission Deep discovery, 39
Mississippi Canyon, 43
Mississippi LNG terminals, 32
MKJ Exploraciones, 120
MLE gas condensate field, 197
Mnazi Bay field, 229
Mobile Bay, 44
Mobile offshore drilling units
(MODU), 354
Moho/Bilondo discovery, 212–213
Molino field, 100
Molla field, 162
Mongolia, 327–328, 449: Changbei field,
327; Kovykta field, 327; Ordos basin,
327; pipelines, 328
Mongstad refinery upgrade, 156
monoethylene glycol plant, 333
Monte Alpi field, 148
Montenegro, 133
Morocco, 228: Moulay Bousselham
permit, 228; Sebou concession, 228
Morondava basin, 225
Morskoe block, 255
Morvin discovery, 153–154
Mossel Bay, 235
motor fuel markets (U.S.), 385–386
Moulay Bousselham permit, 228
Mozambique Channel, 141
Mozambique, 229–230: natural gas,
229; Rovuma basin, 229–230; Sasol
license, 230
Mozdok-Tbilisi pipeline, 252
Mputa field, 242
Muglad basin, 238
Mukhaizna field, 183
multilateral organizations, ix
Murzuq basin, 222–223
Muspac field, 113
Mya field, 317, 328
Myanmar, 289, 302, 317, 328, 449:
Sein field, 328; Andaman Sea, 328;
Rakhine basin, 328; Shwe field, 328;
Shwe Phyu field, 328; Mya field, 328;
Yetagun field, 328; Yadana field, 328
N
Nagoorin Graven basin, 300
Nanjing ethylene plant, 286
Naphtha etherification plant, 145
Narsingdi field, 301
National Iranian Gas Co. (NIGC),
171–174
national oil companies, 440–454
National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska
(NPRA), 54
nationalization (Bolivia), 90
Natuna block, 318
natural gas liquids (NGL), 26, 92:
pipeline, 26; Brazil, 92
Natural Gas Supply Association (NGSA),
9: U.S. natural gas supply/demand, 9
natural gas. See gas.
Naylor field, 301
Neem field, 238
Negev desert, 179
Netherlands, 150–151, 449: drilling and
production, 150; North Sea, 150;
pipelines, 151; Balgzand-Bacton
Line, 151; LNG, 151: LNG terminal
plans, 151
Neuquen basin, 88–89
New England-south LNG terminals,
35–36
New Zealand, 329, 449: Cheal field,
329; Taranaki basin, 329; Maari field,
329; Westland basin, 329; inventory
obligations, 329; gas imports, 329;
Maui field, 329
newbuilds/offshore structures, 354–358,
364–366: mobile offshore drilling
units, 354; semisubmersibles,
355–357; jackup units, 357–358;
drillships, 364–366
Newfoundland, 64–65, 72–74
Nganzi block, 214
Nghi Son refingery, 339
Nhon Hoi refinery, 338–339
Nicaragua, 120–121, 449: MKJ
Exploraciones Caribbean contract,
120; Norwood Resources Ltd. Pacific
Oklanicsa concession, 120; President
Ortega, 121
Nieblas, 128
Niger Delta, viii, 220, 231–232
Niger, 289
Nigeria, viii, 202, 220, 230–235, 289,
373–374, 449–450: crude oil, 230;
violence/accidents, 230; exploration
and development, 231–232; OPL
286-DO license, 231; OPL 214
license strike, 231–232; Tubu oil
field, 232; Madu oil field, 232; Block
OML 122 discovery, 232; Block 332
transaction, 232; OML 90 transaction,
232; drilling and production, 232–
233; East Area oil-gas project, 232;
Erha field, 232–233; Gulf of Guinea,
233; Nigeria-Sao Tome JDZ, 233;
LNG, 233, 373–374; Brass LNG
project, 233; Bonny LNG plant, 233;
Olokola LNG project, 233; Kwale
flare gas project, 234; international
initiatives, 234; rail system upgrade,
234; oil field operation share, 234;
Edo refinery proposal, 234; China
interest in OML 130, 234–235
Nigeria-Sao Tome JDZ, 233
Nika field, 100
Niko Resources Ltd., 311
Nile Delta, 178, 214–215, 217
Nimr-Karim area, 183
Ningbo refinery, 285
Ninotsminda field, 252
Nizhnekamsk refinery, 269
Noa (Border) field, 178
Nord Stream pipeline, 266
Norsk Hydro-Gazprom agreement, 157
Norsk Hydro-Statoil merger, 156–157
North Africa, 200–201
North Aleutian basin, 56
North America, 1–79, 461: United
States, 1–58; Canada, 58–79;
geographical abbreviations, 461
North American LNG receiving capacity,
372–373
North American Oil Sands Corp., 67, 70
North Bjarni field, 73476 IPE 2007
Index
North Caucasus-South Caucasus
pipeline, 252
North Cuba heavy oil belt, 105
North Falkland basin, 86
North field, 185
North Irael block, 262
North Kerchenskaya field, 275
North Sea, 150, 154, 163–164
North Slope (Alaska), 50–58: maps,
50–51, 54–55, 57; Alaska Natural
Gas Pipeline project, 51–52; Point
Thompson Unit settlement, 52; BP
pipeline leak, 52–53; exploration and
development, 53, 56; joint venture,
53; North Slope plays, 53, 55; North
Slope joint venture, 53; Oooguruk
development project, 53, 56; NPRA,
54; ANWR, 54; Beaufort basin, 56;
Chukchi basin, 56; Beaufort Sea
leases, 56; lease sales, 56–57; drilling
and production, 58; Alpine satellite
fields, 58; company news, 58
North Texas pipeline, 26
North West Hutton platform
removal, 165
Northern Europe, 139
Northern Tyumen Oblast-Torzhok
pipeline, 261
Northwest Palawan-Mindoro basin, 332
Northwest Territories, 65, 74
Norway, 152–157, 450: exploration and
development, 152–154; Tyrihans
field development, 152; Goliat
discovery, 152; Snohvit field, 152,
155; Halten field EOR, 152–153;
19th round licenses, 152–153; Gudrun
prospect, 153; Victoria discovery,
153; Morvin discovery, 153–154;
Valemon discovery, 153; Tampen
area strikes, 153–154; continental
shelf farmouts, 154; Northern North
Sea, 154; drilling and production,
154–155; Kvitebjorn field, 154;
Aasgard-Kristin-Mikkel crude oil
blend, 155; deepwater compressor
test, 155; Tordis field IOR, 155;
LNG plant expansion, 155; pipelines,
155–156; Langeled pipeline, 155–
156; Ormen Lange field, 156; Ormen
Lange pipeline, 156; refining and
processing, 156; Mongstad refinery
upgrade, 156; company news, 156–
157; Norsk Hydro-Statoil merger,
156–157; Norsk Hydro-Gazprom
agreement, 157
Norwegian Sea, 152–153
Norwood Resources Ltd., 120
Nova Scotia, 74, 76–77
Noxal-1 discovery, 115
Nuayyim field, 188
nuclear program (Iran), 174:
standoff, 174
O
Oasis Group, 223–224
Obeiyed field, 214
Occidental Petroleum Corp.,
108, 223–224
Ocensa pipeline, 103: lawsuit, 103
Odoptinsky block, 264
Ogaden basin, 243
Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ), 8–10: U.S.
natural gas forecast, 8–10
Oil & Natural Gas Corp. (ONGC), 305,
308–310
oil balance statistics, 419–420
oil consumption statistics, 408–409
oil imports/exports statistics, 417
Oil India Ltd., 305, 310
oil prices, x, 1, 12, 367, 434, 436:
statistics, 434; history, 436
oil production statistics, 344–349, 406–
407, 412–415
oil reserves, 11–12, 15, 344–349,
406–407, 416: statistics, 344–349,
406–407, 416; historical, 416
oil revenues (Iraq), 176
oil sands (U.S.), 23, 25: heavy
oil bottoms, 23, 25; pipeline
transportation, 25
oil sands development (Canada), 65–71:
Alberta, 65–70; North American Oil
Sands Corp., 67, 70; Petro-Canada,
68, 70–71; Shell Canada Ltd., 69;
bitumen basics, 69; steam-based
production, 69; Suncor Energy, 70;
ConocoPhillips-EnCana Corp. joint
venture, 70–71; Deer Creek Energy
Ltd., 71; Husky Energy (Calgary), 71;
Syncrude Canada Ltd., 71; Canadian
Oil Sands Trust, 71; Chevron
Corp., 71
oil shale resources/projects, 23–25, 179:
U.S., 23–25; DOE leases, 23; Palo
Duro basin, 23; Bend shale, 25;
Israel, 179
oil shipping rates, 371
oil spill, 145
oil supply statistics, 340–343
oil supply/demand (U.S.), 5, 8
oil trade movements (statistics), 368, 418
Okhotsk Sea, 263–264
Oklanicsa concession, 120
Oktemberian prospect, 245
Oktyabrsky district, 262
Olokola LNG project, 233
Oman, 182–184, 450: exploration and
development, 182–183; Block 49,
182; Block 44 discovery, 183; Block
54 award, 183; Block 58 award, 183;
Nimr-Karim area, 183; drilling and
production, 183–184; Qarn Alam
field EOR, 183–184; Marmul field
EOR, 183–184; Block 8 well tests,
184; Mukhaizna steamflood, 184
Omsk-Pavlodar-Shymkent-Chardzhou
pipeline, 255
OMV AG expansion in Bavaria, 145
Oooguruk development project, 53, 56
operating refineries (statistics), 421–422
Orange basin, 235
Ordos basin, 282, 287, 327
Oregon LNG terminals, 34–35
Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC), 10, 181, 192, 219,
238, 390: Angola, 238; Sudan, 238
Oribi field, 235
Orinoco blocks, 131: Iran aid, 131
Orinoco Delta, 127
Orinoco Oil Belt, 128, 131
Orinoco River basin, 125
Ormen Lange field, 156, 166
Ormen Lange pipeline, 156
Orphan basin, 140
Orquidea discovery, 205
Oryx field, 235
Oryx GTL plant, 185
Oso field, 107, 232
Ostra field, 96
Otway basin, 295–297, 301IPE 2007 477
Index
Oudna oil field, 241
Outer continental shelf (OCS), 13–16,
154, 164: U.S., 13–16; 2007 lease
sales, 13; leasing reform, 13; resource
access, 13–16; Norway, 154;
UK, 164
Ovejero field, 100
Overland Pass Pipeline Co. LLC, 26
Ovez discovery, 274
P
Pacific basin, 110
Pagardewa-Cilegon pipeline, 319
Pagoreni field, 123
Pakistan, 274, 330–331, 450:
exploration and development,
330: Margalla blocks, 330; Sindh
province, 330; Indus basin, 330;
Kohat discovery, 330; licensing, 330;
Arabian Sea, 330; LNG, 331; refining,
331; pipelines, 331
Palawan Island, 283, 332–333
Palmyra field, 191
Palo Duro basin, 23
Panacocha oil field, 107
Pande field, 229
Pandora field, 332
Pannonian basin, 146
Papa-Terra Modules 1–2, 93
Papua New Guinea, 300–301, 331–332,
450: Papua New Guinea-Australia
pipeline, 300–301, 331; South East
Mananda field, 331; Papuan basin,
331; Douglas discovery, 331–332;
gas-to-liquids plant, 332; licensing,
332; Gulf of Papua, 332; Pasca field,
332; Pandora field, 332
Papua New Guinea-Australia pipeline,
300–301, 331
Papuan basin, 331
Parchin-Sangbast pipeline, 172
Parentis field, 142
Paris basin, 141
Parque das Conchas, 96
Parsian gas processing plant, 173
Pasca field, 332
Pascagoula refinery upgrades, 28
Pasqualini refinery, 99
Patos Marinza field, 135
Pavlodar refinery, 255
Pazanan field, 173
PdVSA-Petrobras projects, 128–129
PdVSA-Petrobras refinery, 99
PdVSA-Vietnam projects, 338
Peace River area, 69
Peace River oil sands, 65
Pearl GTL project, 186
Pearl River Mouth basin, 285
Pearl River Mouth, 282
Pechora basin, 262
Pelican discovery, 226–228
people equation (investment), ix–x
Perdido spar project, 42–43
perforating technology, 17
performance (investment), viii–ix
Perm region, 262
Permian basin, 21
Perseus-over-Goodwyn project, 296
Persian Gulf, 170, 175, 257
personnel skills, viii–x
Perth basin, 296
Peru, 121–124, 450: crude oil, 121;
natural gas, 121; exploration and
development, 122–123; Block
XX, 122; Block Z-34, 122; Block
Z-2B, 122; Block 64, 122; Block
29, 122; Camisea project, 122; Block
Z-1, 122–123; Block 121, 122–123;
drilling and production, 123;
Pagoreni field, 123; Block XXIII,
123; Block 100, 123; Block 122,
123; Block 128, 123; pipelines, 123;
refining, 123; LNG, 123–124
Peten basin, 110–111
Petrobras-Ecopetrol joint projects, 94,
103–104
Petrobras-PdVSA projects, 128–129
Petrobras-PdVSA refinery, 99
Petro-Canada, 68, 70–71, 191
petrochemicals outlook/statistics, 398–
405: ethylene market/capacity, 398–
402, 404–405; Saudi Arabia plans,
402–403; U.S. deindustrialization
trend, 404–405
petrochemicals, 125, 137, 145–146, 158,
186, 189–190, 192, 218, 286–287,
301, 311–312, 333, 336, 338,
398–405: Trinidad & Tobago, 125;
Belgium, 137; Germany, 145–146;
Portugal, 158; Qatar, 186; Saudi
Arabia, 189–190, 402–403; United
Arab Emirates, 192; Egypt, 218;
China, 286–287; Australia, 301;
India, 311–312; Singapore, 333;
Taiwan, 336; Thailand, 338;
outlook/statistics, 398–405; U.S.
deindustrialization trend, 404–405
PetroKremlin, 269–272
Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras), 94,
99, 103–104, 128–129, 219: joint
ventures, 94, 99, 103–104, 128–129
Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PdVSA),
90–91, 99, 128–129, 338
Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) projects,
114–115
petroleum product consumption
(statistics), 410–411
petroleum product prices (statistics), 435–
436: history, 436. See also gasoline.
Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada
(PTAC), 60
Petrolifera Petroleum Ltd., 88
PH-77 license operator, 209
Philippines, 317, 332–333, 450: Cebu
Island, 332; Libertad field, 332;
Visayan basin, 332; Malampaya
field, 332; Calauit field, 332–333;
Northwest Palawan-Mindoro basin,
332; Palawan Island, 332–333;
East Visayas basin, 332; Southwest
Palawan basin, 332; seismic
exploration, 333; Sulu Sea, 333;
biodiesel fuel, 333; ethanol, 333
Phu Horm field, 337
Phu Khanh basin, 338
Piceance basin, 16–17, 23
Piltun-Astokhskoye field, 264
Pioneer Natural Resources Co.
(GOM), 49
Pipeline Safety Law (U.S.), 26
pipelines (U.S.), 25–27, 39, 44, 51–53:
Spearhead pipeline, 25; Rocky
Mountain gas pipeline projects, 25;
CALNEV pipeline, 25; Jewell Ridge
pipeline, 26; spill prevention, control,
and countermeasures (SPCC) rule, 26;
Pipeline Safety Law, 26; Millennium
pipeline project, 26; Midcontinent
Crossing (MCX) pipeline, 26; NGL
pipeline, 26; Frontier pipeline478 IPE 2007
Index
expansion, 26; North Texas pipeline,
26; Rockies Express pipeline, 27;
Louisiana pipeline project, 27; FERC
gas storage rates, 27; GOM, 39, 44;
Alaska, 51–53
pipelines, 25–27, 39, 44, 51–53, 76–78,
99–101, 103, 110, 119, 123, 130,
135–136, 148, 151, 155–156,
159–162, 166, 172–173, 175, 180,
193, 203–204, 209–211, 217, 239,
248–252, 255–258, 266–267,
274, 282, 285–286, 288–289,
300–301, 308, 319–320, 328, 331,
338, 431–433: U.S., 25–27, 39,
44, 51–53; GOM, 39, 44; Alaska,
51–53; Canada, 76–78; Brazil,
99–100; Chile, 101; Colombia, 103;
Guatemala, 110; Mexico, 119; Peru,
123; Venezuela, 130; Albania, 135;
Austria, 135; Belgium, 136; Italy,
148, Netherlands, 151; Norway, 155–
156; Romania, 159; Slovakia, 160;
Sweden, 161; Turkey, 162; United
Kingdom, 166; Iran, 172–173;
Iraq, 175; Israel, 180; United Arab
Emirates, 193; Algeria, 203–204;
Cameroon, 209–211; Chad, 210–211;
Egypt, 217; Sudan, 239; Armenia,
248; Azerbaijan, 248–250; Georgia,
252; Kazakhstan, 255–258; Russia,
266–267; Turkmenistan, 273–274;
China, 282, 285–286, 288–289;
Australia, 300–301; India, 308;
Indonesia, 319–320; Mongolia, 328;
Pakistan, 331; Vietnam, 338
Piranema field, 98
Pisagan field, 317
Plunge field, 260
Pluto field, 293
Po Valley, 148
Point Thompson Unit settlement, 52
Pointe-a-Pierre refinery, 124
Poland, 157–158, 451: drilling and
production, 157; Wilga discovery,
157; refining and processing, 157–
158; Gdansk refinery upgrade, 157;
Plock refinery upgrade, 157
policy factors (decisions), ix
Polo Centro, 95
Polvo field, 92, 96
Polymer flood projects
(Argentina), 88–89
Ponte Drillo field, 150
Port Arthur refinery expansion, 28
Port Fuad field, 214
Port-de-Larrau pipeline, 142
portfolio management, viii–ix
Portugal, 158, 451: Sines petrochemical
plant expansion, 158; Block 13, 158;
Block 14, 158
Poseidon Oil Pipeline, 44
Poza Rica field, 113
precautionary measures
(GOM hurricanes), 48
predictability (investment), ix
price history (oil, gas, and gasoline), 436
prices, x, 12, 434–436: oil, x, 12, 434,
436; natural gas, 12, 435–436;
gasoline, 12, 435–436; history
(statistics), 436
Prirazlomnoye field, 261
Procap-3000 program, 98
production statistics, 344–349, 406–407,
412–415, 430: oil, 344–349, 406–
407, 412–415; gas, 344–349, 430
Project Black Gold, 108
Project Kuwait, 181–182
propane production, 396–397: U.S., 397
Proposition 87 defeat, 20
propylene plants, 286–287, 312
Prykerchenska block, 276
PT Pertamina, 224
PTT Exploration & Production, 336
Puffin field, 295, 304
Putumayo basin, 104
Q
Qarn Alam field EOR, 183–184
Qatar, 185–186, 451: drilling and
production, 185; Al Shaheen field,
185; Dolphin gas project, 185; Al
Khaleej gas project, 185; Qatar-Japan
energy agreement, 185; refining
and processing, 185–186; Oryx GT:
plant, 185; Ras Laffan petrochemical
complex, 186; Pearl GTL project,
186; LNG, 186; India shipping
contract, 186; Qatargas trains 6/7,
186; LNG carriers, 186
Qatargas trains 6/7, 186
Qatar-Japan energy agreement, 185
Qeshm Island LNG project, 174
Qian 112 field, 284
Qingdao refinery, 288
Quanzhou refinery, 282
R
Rabigh Refining & Petrochemical Co., 189
Ragusa basin, 150
Ragusa field, 150–151
Ragusa plateau, 148
rail system upgrade (Nigeria), 234
Rajasthan, 309–310, 315
Rakhine basin, 328
Rakushechnaya discovery, 261
Ras Laffan petrochemical complex, 186
raw materials, viii
recovery (GOM hurricanes), 47–48
refinery operations (statistics), 421–422
refinery throughput (statistics), 427
refining (U.S.), 28–30: Whiting refinery
upgrades, 28; Pascagoula refinery
upgrades, 28; Garyville refinery
expansion, 28; Texas City refinery
explosion, 28; Port Arthur refinery
expansion, 28; catalysts market
forecast, 28–29; refining capacity,
29; diesel fuel sulfur content, 29–30;
renewable fuels, 30; LPG terminal
expansion, 30
refining and products statistics, 384–
390: refining capacity, 384–387, 390;
U.S. motor fuel markets, 385–386;
U.S. capacity, 386–387; U.S. fuel
transition, 386–388; biofuels
research/plant construction, 387; AsiaPacific product demand, 387–389;
OPEC, 390; investments, 390;
desulfurization capacity, 390
refining capacity, 29, 384–390, 423–
426: U.S., 29, 386–387; statistics,
384–390, 423–426
refining margins (statistics), 427IPE 2007 479
Index
refining statistics, 384–390, 421–427:
refining capacity, 384–390, 423–426;
operating refineries, 421–422;
refinery throughput, 427; refining
margins, 427
refining, 28–30, 78–79, 99, 101, 103,
106, 112, 115, 123–124, 129, 136,
143–147, 156–158, 160, 169, 179–
180, 182, 185–186, 189, 192, 234,
236, 239, 241, 255–256, 261, 269,
282, 285, 300, 311, 327, 331, 334,
336, 338–339, 384–390, 421–427:
U.S., 28–30; Canada, 78–79; Brazil,
99; Chile, 101; Colombia, 103;
Cuba, 106; Jamaica, 112; Mexico,
115; Peru, 123; Trinidad & Tobago,
124; Venezuela, 129; Austria, 136;
France, 143–144; Germany, 145;
Greece, 146; Ireland, 147; Norway,
156; Poland, 157–158; Spain, 160;
Bahrain, 169; Israel, 179–180;
Kuwait, 182; Qatar, 185–186; Saudi
Arabia, 189; United Arab Emirates,
192; Nigeria, 234; South Africa,
236; Sudan, 239; Tunisia, 241;
Kazakhstan, 255–256; Lithuania,
261; Russia, 269; China, 282, 285;
Australia, 300; India, 311; Malaysia,
327; Pakistan, 331; South Korea,
334; Taiwan, 336; Vietnam, 338–
339; statistics, 384–390, 421–427
regasification capacity (LNG), 378, 382
Reggane basin, 202
regulatory response (GOM hurricanes),
48–49
Reindeer-Caribou field, 295
renewable fuels, 30, 147: U.S., 30;
Ireland, 147
Rengan field, 273
Repsol YPF Cuba SA, 105
reserves and production statistics, 11–12,
15, 52, 344–350, 406–407, 412–416,
430: oil, 11–12, 15, 344–349,
406–407, 412–416; gas, 11–12,
15, 52, 344–349, 406–407, 430;
GOM reservoir properties, 346–349;
gas shale, 346, 349–350; coalbed
methane, 346, 349–350
reserves statistics, 344–350, 406–407,
416: oil, 344–349, 406–407, 416;
gas, 344–349, 406–407; gas shale,
346, 349–350; coalbed methane,
346, 349–350
reservoir properties (GOM), 346–349
Rharb basin, 228
Rhino Camp graben, 243
Rhum field, 164
Richards Bay refinery, 236
rig activity, 351–354
rig count, 351–354, 437–438
rig economics, vii, 353
Rigel field, 45
rigless conductor installation, 221
Rio de Rey basin, 209
Rio Hondo block, 90
Rio Muni basin, 219
risk/risk analysis, vii, 383–384
risk-based terminal siting, 383–384
Rizhao City, 286
Rocandor P-52 field, 91
Rocandor P-54 field, 91
rocket rig, 362
Rockies Express Pipeline project, 27
Rockies West Phase Project, 25
Rocky Mountain drilling activity, 18
Rocky Mountain gas pipeline projects, 25
Rocky Mountain Pipeline System LLC, 26
Romania, 158–159, 451: drilling and
production, 158; Bilca field, 158;
Fauresti field, 158; EU membership,
158; pipelines, 159; Constanta-Trieste
pipeline, 150; AMBO pipeline, 159;
Burgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline, 159
Roncador Module 4, 93
Roncador P-55 field, 93
Rovuma basin, 229–230
Royal Dutch Shell PLC, 79, 96
royalty-in-kind sales (GOM), 45
Rub al-Khali basin, 182, 188–189
Rubelsanto field, 111
Rubiales field, 103–104
Russia, 180, 261–272, 275, 282,
288, 321, 451: exploration and
development, 261–265; Caspian Sea,
261–262; Sakhalin Island, 263–265;
drilling and production, 265; offshore
development trends, 265; Barents
Sea, 265; Kara Sea, 265; pipelines,
266–267; LNG, 267; policy issues,
267–272; Ukraine gas price dispute,
267; European Energy Charter, 267;
Gas sector reform, 267; Asia-Pacific
exports, 268; foreign investment,
268; Shtokman field, 268; refining,
269; oil exports, 269–270; gas
exports, 269; PetroKremlin, 269–
272; control plus capital, 271–272
Ruwais ethylene plant, 192
Ruwais melamine project, 192
S
Sable field, 235
Sable Offshore Energy Project, 62, 73
safety (LNG shipping), 382
Sahara Desert, 224
Sahil field, 192
Sakhalin Island developments, 263–265:
Sakhalin-1, 263–264; export
system, 263; China gas agreement,
263; Sakhalin-2 status, 264; LNG,
264; Sakhalin-3 status, 264–265;
Sakhalin-4 status, 265; Sakhalin-5
status, 265; license blocks, 265
Salado basin, 87
Salta Province, 81, 85–86
Samaria-Luna field, 113
Samdang discovery, 310
Sampaguita discovery, 283
San Jorge basin, 87–88
Sanaga Sud field, 209
Sangu field, 302
Santa Barbara-Ventura basin fields, 14
Santa Cruz field, 106
Santa Maddelana field, 148
Santa Maria basin oil and gas fields, 14
Santos basin, 92, 94–96: Cedro field, 95;
Mexilhao field, 95; Polo Centro, 95;
Merluza field, 95; Urugua field, 95;
Tambau field, 95; Southern Pole, 95;
Cavalo Marinho field, 95
Sao Tome-Nigeria JDZ, 233
Sapref refinery upgrade, 236
Saqqara field, 216
Sarajeh field, 173–174
Sarawak, 317
Sarehat development, 238
Sarikamysh block, 273
Sarmatskoye field, 261
Saskatchewan, 65, 75
Sasol, 230, 288: CBM technology, 288480 IPE 2007
Index
Saudi Arabia, 187–190, 402–403,
451: exploration and development,
187–189; gas processing, 186–187;
Manifa field project, 187; Kassab
discovery, 187; offshore deep gas,
187; drilling and production, 187;
production target, 187–188; field
development, 188; Haradh field,
188–189; Khursaniyah field, 188;
Nuayyim field, 188; Shaybah field,
188–189; Kurais field, 188; Khurais
field, 188; Abu Jifan field, 188;
Mazlij field, 188; Khurais Increment
Program contracts, 188; Empty
Quarter drilling, 188–189; Rub
al-Khali basin, 188; Zuluf field,
189; Central Safaniya field, 189;
refining and processing, 189; Yanbu’
refinery, 189; Jubail refinery, 189;
Rabigh Refining & Petrochemical
Co., 189; Haradh gas-oil separation
plant, 189; carbon monoxide plant,
189; petrochemicals, 190, 402–403;
Jubail petrochemical complex, 190;
international activities, 190; Saudi
Arabia-China agreement, 190; Saudi
Arabia-India energy partnership, 190
Saudi Arabia-China agreement, 190
Saudi Arabia-India energy partnership,
190, 313
Saveh-Bijar pipeline, 173
Saxon field, 163
Scarborough discovery, 299–300
Schwechat refinery, 136
Seboruco field, 105
Sebou concession, 228
Sebuku field, 318
Sein field, 328
Seismic equipment donation (Iraq), 176
Semisubmersibles, 96–97, 355–357
Serafin gas project, 104
Serbia, 133
Seria field, 303
Seventeen Hands field, 45
Shaambary block, 273
Shaanxi project, 287
Shah Deniz field, 249
Shah field, 192
shale oil projects, 23–25, 179: U.S., 23–
25; DOE leases, 23; Palo Duro basin,
23; Bend shale, 25; Israel, 179
Shams field, 183
Sharjah, 193
Sharonovskoe field, 262
Shaybah field, 188–189
Shell Canada Ltd., 69
Shenzi field pipeline, 44
Shetland Islands, 164
Shilou North block, 287
shipbuilding (South Korea), 335
shipping safety (LNG), 382
ship-to-ship transfer (LNG), 44–45, 382
Shirotnaya discovery, 261
Shoei prospect, 163
Shtokman (Shtokmanovskoye) field, 261,
268: no foreign partners, 268
Shwe field, 317, 328
Shwe Phyu field, 317, 328
Shymkent refinery, 255
Sichuan basin, 283
Sidi el Kilani field, 241
Sillaro field, 148
Sinai Peninsula, 214–215
Sindh province, 330
Sines petrochemical plant, 158
Singapore Parallel Train project, 333
Singapore, 333–334: petrochemicals,
333; Jurong Island, 333; Singapore
Parallel Train project, 333; oil
storage project, 334
Sirte basin, 222–223
Sitra refinery upgrade, 169
Situbondo refinery, 319
Skhira refinery, 241
Slovakia, 159–160: northeast region
licenses, 159; biodiesel market, 159;
Transpetrol pipeline, 160
Snezhnaya field, 262
Snohvit field, 152, 155
Solimoes basin, 131
Songo Songo gas field, 239–240
Souedieh field, 191
South Africa, 235–236, 451–452:
exploration and development,
235–236; South Coast Gas Project,
235; West coast drilling program,
235; EM Block 9 field development,
235; Sable field, 235; Ibhubesi
field, 235; 2007 license round plans,
236; refining and processing, 236;
Richards Bay refinery, 236; GTL
technology, 236; Sapref refinery
upgrade, 236
South Akcakoca subbasin, 161
South America drilling activity, 359
South America. See Latin America and
individual countries.
South China Sea, 283–285, 317–318
South Coast Gas Project, 235
South East Mananda field, 331
South Gesho field, 173
South Hook LNG terminal, 167
South Korea, 276, 334–335, 382, 452:
exploration and development, 334;
Donghae discovery, 334; Ulsan
discovery, 334; refining, 334; Ulsan
refinery, 334; LNG, 334–335;
shipbuilding, 335, 382
South Oman basin, 182
South Pars gas field, 171
South Sumatra-West Java pipeline, 320
South Temsah field, 214
Southeast Asia outlook, 316–317
Southeast Sumatra Gas Project, 319
Southern Apennines, 148
Southern pipeline (South America), 100
Southern Pole, 95
Southwest England, 163
Southwest Palawan basin, 332
Spain, 160, 204, 452: refining and
processing, 160; La Rabida refinery,
160; Cartagena refinery, 160;
Castellon refinery, 160
Spearhead pipeline, 25
spill prevention, control, and
countermeasures (SPCC) rule, 26
St. John refinery project, 78
statistical tables, 406–438: oil reserves,
406–407, 416; gas reserves, 406–407;
oil production, 406–407, 412–415;
oil consumption, 408–409;
petroleum product consumption,
410–411; oil imports/exports, 417;
oil trade movements, 418; oil balance,
419–420; operating refineries,
421–422; refining capacity, 423–426;
refinery throughput, 427; refining
margins, 427; gas consumption, 428–
429; gas production, 430; gas trade
movements (pipelines), 431–433; gas
trade movements (LNG), 434; oilIPE 2007 481
Index
prices, 434, 436; petroleum product
prices, 435–436; gasoline prices,
435–436; comparative energy prices,
435; electricity prices, 435; gas prices,
435–436; international rig count,
437–438. See also key statistics.
steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD)
process, 69–71
steam-based production (oil sands), 69
Straits of Magellan, 100
Stratford prospect, 300
Stybarrow field, 296
Styx River basin, 300
subsea compressor, 155
subsea salt cavern gas storage, 167
subsea water separation/reinjection, 98
Sudan, 236–239: Darfur violence, 236;
civil war, 237; White Nile-Total
SA dispute, 237; exploration and
development, 237–238; White Nile
Block Ba concession, 237; Block 4
discovery, 238; Lundin Petroleum AB
Sarehat development, 238; crude oil
outlook, 238; Block 5A production,
238; OPEC membership invitation,
238; pipelines, 239; Melut-Port
Sudan pipeline, 239; refining, 239;
Khartoum refinery upgrade, 239
Suez-GdF merger proposal, 142
Sulu Sea, 333
Sumatra, 317
Suncor Energy, 66, 70
supercomputer-based seismic, 42
Surat basin, 300
Surat field, 311
swallow discovery, 303–304
Sweden, 161, 452: fossil fuel policy, 161;
alternative motor fuels, 161; security
concerns about Russian pipeline,
161; Baltic Sea pipeline, 161; LNG
terminal plan, 161
Syncrude Canada Ltd., 66, 71
Syntroleum Corp.-Sustec Industries AG
joint venture, 145
Syntroleum Fischer-Tropsch/refining
unit, 145
Syrah field, 216
Syria, 191, 452: Block 26, 191; Block 39,
191; Block XVII, 191; Petro-Canada
joint venture sale, 191
T
Tabasco, 119
Tabnak field, 173
Tahiti project, 39
Taiwan Strait, 336
Taiwan, 336, 452: Taiwan Strait, 336;
F structure field, 336; refining, 336;
petrochemicals, 336
Tajikistan, 272–273: Gazprom
licenses, 272–273; gas import from
Uzbekistan, 273
Talara basin, 122
Talisman Lynx pipeline, 78
Talkeh Dome, 174
Tamazunchale pipeline, 119
Tambau field, 95
Tampen area strikes, 153–154
Tanali discovery, 310
Tange Bijar field, 173
Tanker construction, 125, 368–370,
381–382
tanker trade statistics, 368–371: oil
trade movements, 368; gas trade
movements, 368; compressed natural
gas carriers, 368; China tanker
fleet, 368–370; gas trade growth,
370; tanker rates, 371; oil shipping
rates, 371
tankers (LNG), 379–382: carrier status,
379–381; designs, 381; Arctic service,
381; storage/regasification, 382;
transshipment, 382; South Korea
shipbuilding, 382
Tanzania, 239–240, 452: production
sharing agreements/licenses, 239;
Songo Songo gas field, 239–240;
Central Mediterranean Sea, 240
Taoudeni basin, 225–226
Taranaki basin, 329
Taribani field, 250
Tarim basin, 279, 282
Tasmanian Bass basin, 297
Tasour field, 195
Tassie Shoals, 300
Tatarstan, 269
Taurus discovery, 216
Tawke project discovery, 176
tax rate structure/issues, 20, 52, 63,
73, 90, 108–109, 113–114, 125,
166–167, 204, 210, 218: U.S., 20,
52; energy trusts, 63; Bolivia, 90;
Ecuador, 108–109; Mexico, 113–114;
Venezuela, 125; UK, 166–167;
Algeria, 204; Chad, 210; Equatorial
Guinea, 218
Te Giac Trang discovery, 338
Teco Management SA, 79
Teesside regasification/power plant, 167
telemetry (drilling), 361
Temane field, 229
Tempa Rossa field, 148
Tengiz field, 259
Tengiz-Novorossiisk pipeline, 256–257
Tennessee Gas Pipeline, 39
terminal siting (LNG), 383–384
Terra Nova field, 62
Tevet field, 227–228
Texas City refinery explosion, 28
Texas Gulf Coast, 38
Texas LNG terminals, 34
Thailand, 289, 317, 336–338, 452–453:
exploration and development, 336–
337; PTT Exploration & Production
investment, 336; Joint Development
Area (Thailand-Cambodia), 336–337;
Gulf of Thailand, 336–337; Block
15, 337; Block 16, 337; Ton Chan-
1X discovery, 337; Ton Chan-2X
discovery, 337; Ton Rang-2X
discovery, 337; Bongkot field,
337; Fang block, 337; Mae Soon
field, 337; licensing, 337; drilling
and production, 337–338; Phu
Horm field, 337; Arthit field, 337;
petrochemicals, 338; aromatics/
reforming plant, 338
Thailand-Cambodia Joint Development
Area, 336–337
Thar Jath field, 238
Thylacine field, 296
Tiaka field, 318
Tianjin ethylene plant, 286
Tierra Blanca field, 111
Tierra del Fuego, 86, 88
Timimoun basin, 202
Timor Gap, 304
Timor Sea, 293, 296, 300, 303–304
Tiof field, 227–228
toe-to-heel air injection (THAI)
process, 69
Tombau-Landana area, 206482 IPE 2007
Index
Tomboco field, 208
Tomsk region, 265
Ton Chan-1X discovery, 337
Ton Chan-2X discovery, 337
Ton Rang-2X discovery, 337
Tordis field IOR, 155
Torosa field, 299
trade and tankers statistics, 368–371:
oil trade movements, 368; gas trade
movements, 368; compressed natural
gas carriers, 368; China tanker
fleet, 368–370; gas trade growth,
370; tanker rates, 371; oil shipping
rates, 371
Trans Austria Gasleitung (TAG)
pipeline, 135
Trans Mountain pipeline, 77–78
Trans-Israel Pipeline (Tipline), 180
Transpetrol pipeline, 160
transportation (GOM), 44–45: Shenzi
field pipeline, 44; LNG transfer,
44–45
transshipment technology (LNG), 33,
44–45, 382: GOM, 33, 44–45
Trasandino pipeline, 101
T-Ridge prospect, 14–15
Trinidad & Tobago, 124–125, 453:
exploration and drilling, 124; blocks
offered, 124; Ruby-1 appraisal well,
124; Block 22, 124; Block 1a-1b,
124; Cannonball platform, 124;
refining, 124; refinery upgrades, 124;
LNG, 124; LNG expansion rules,
124; petrochemicals, 125
Troll field starfish well, 359–360
Tubu oil field, 232
Tucano Sul basin, 94
Tulsa refinery coker project, 28
Tuni field, 318
Tunisia, 240–241, 453: exploration and
development, 240–241: El Louza
block, 240–241; Bazma permit, 241;
Kerkouane block, 241; Chorbane
block, 241; drilling and production,
241; Oudna oil field, 241; refining,
241; Skhira refinery, 241
Tupi discovery, 94
Turkey, 161–162, 180, 453: exploration
and development, 161–162:
Akcakoca subbasin project, 161–162;
Bismil exploration license, 162; Cizre
exploration license, 162; pipelines,
162; Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline,
162; Cyprus-Egypt agreements, 162
Turkmenistan, 174, 273–274, 288,
453: exploration and development,
273; drilling and production, 274;
pipelines, 274, 288; TurkmenistanAfghanistan-Pakistan pipeline, 274;
Turkmenistan-China pipeline, 288
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan
(TAP) pipeline, 274
Turkmenistan-China pipeline, 288
Turpan-Hami basin, 279
Tyrihans field, 152
U
U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM),
12–13: U.S. resources inventory,
12–13
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),
10–11: global energy outlook, 10–11;
U.S. oil/gas reserves, 11
U.S. fuel transition, 386–388: ultralowsulfur diesel fuel, 386–388; ethanol
fuel, 386, 388; biofuels, 387
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 13
U.S. maps, 2–3, 6–9, 13–14, 16–17,
20–23, 25, 27, 35–43, 47, 50–52,
54–55, 57: northeastern U.S., 6–7;
southeastern U.S., 8–9; Lease Sale
181, 13; MMS assessment areas, 14;
Santa Maria basin oil/gas fields, 14,
Santa Barbara-Ventura basin oil/gas
fields, 14; Anadarko basin, 16;
Arkoma basin, 17; Piceance basin, 17;
Texas panhandle, 20; Permian basin,
21; western U.S., 22–23; Bend shale,
25; Rockies Express pipeline, 27;
California, 35; Los Angeles basin, 36;
Gulf of Mexico, 37–43, 47; Alaska,
50–52, 54–55, 57
U.S. Minerals Management Service
(MMS), 13–16, 45, 56–57, 105:
proposed 2007 OCS lease sales,
13; assessment areas, 14–15;
inaccessible resources, 14–16;
GOM environmental studies, 45;
Alaska OCS lease plans, 56–57;
leasing plan, 105
U.S. statistics, 436–438: oil prices, 436;
petroleum product prices, 437;
comparative energy prices, 437; price
history of oil/gas/gasoline, 438
U.S.-Cuba private sector oil summit, 106
Ubit field, 232
Ucayali basin, 122–123
Uganda, 241–243: crude oil, 241–243;
Waraga-Mputa oil discoveries, 241;
Lake Albert discoveries, 242; Block
3A oil discovery, 242; Block 2
development, 242–243; Block 5
development, 243
Uge discovery, 231
Uinta basin, 16
UK Offshore Operators Association
(UKOOA), 167: energy policy
proposals, 167
Ukraine, 267, 274–276, 453: RussiaUkraine gas price dispute, 267,
275; exploration and development,
274–276
Ulsan discovery, 334
Ulsan refinery, 334
ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD),
386–388
unconventional resources, 343
Undan field, 296
undiscovered technically recoverable
resource (UTRR), 15
United Arab Emirates (UAE), 192–193,
453: drilling and production, 192;
Abu Dhabi fields, 192; Dubai offshore
fields, 192; refining and processing,
192; Ruwais ethylene plant, 192;
Fujairah refinery, 192; petrochemicals,
192; Ruwais melamine project,
192; LNG, 193; gas storage, 193;
pipelines, 193; Al Ain-Fujairah
pipeline, 193; company news, 193;
Dana Gas PJSC (Sharjah), 193
United Kingdom (UK), 163–167,
267, 454: North Sea, 163–164;
exploration and development,
163; Shoei prospect, 163; Saxon
field, 163; Guillemot field, 163;
Babbage field, 163; Vulcan East
discovery, 163; Cygnus discovery,
163; Southwest England, 163;
drilling and production, 164–165;IPE 2007 483
Index
Rhum field, 164; UK continental
shelf, 164; Causeway development,
164; Goosander field, 164; Clair
field, 164–165; Chestnut field, 165;
Kilmar field, 165; Glenelg field,
165; Forvie North field, 165; North
West Hutton platform removal, 165;
pipelines, 166; Langeled pipeline,
166; Balgzand-Bacton pipeline,
166; Interconnector pipeline, 166;
policy, 166–167; tax rate, 166–167;
UKOOA energy policy proposals,
167; subsea salt cavern storage, 167;
energy supply gap, 167; LNG, 167;
South Hook terminal, 167; Teesside
regasification/power plant, 167
United States (U.S.), 1–58, 106, 341–
343, 346, 349–351, 353–354, 363,
367, 385–388, 397, 404–405, 436–
438, 461: overview, 1; maps, 2–3,
6–9, 13–14, 16–17, 20–23, 25, 27,
35–43, 47, 50–52, 54–55, 57; energy
outlook, 4–5; economy outlook,
5; oil supply/demand, 5, 8; gas
supply/demand, 8–10; Congressional
elections, 10; global energy view, 10–
11; oil/gas reserves, 11–12; oil/gas/
gasoline prices, 12; access to resources,
12–16; GOM, 13, 21, 23, 32–34, 37–
49, 51; exploration and development,
16–17; Uinta basin, 16; Piceance
basin, 16–17, 23; Woodford shale
play, 17; Arkoma basin, 17; drilling
and production, 17–21, 23–24, 351,
353–354; DOE carbon dioxide EOR,
17; Citronelle field, 17; drilling
activity, 17–19, 23–24, 351, 353–
354; Rocky Mountain area, 18; well
completions, 18–19; Barnett shale,
19, 21; Granite Wash play, 20; oil
production tax, 20; drilling growth
forecast, 20–21; Permian basin, 21;
oil shale resources/projects, 23–25;
DOE leases, 23; Palo Duro basin, 23;
oil sands, 23, 25; heavy oil bottoms,
23, 25; Bend shale, 25; pipelines, 25–
27; gas storage rates, 27; refining, 28–
30; ethanol, 30–31; air quality, 31;
LNG, 32–37, 44–45; Gulf Coast, 32–
34; West Coast, 34–35; East Coast,
35–36; Mid-Atlantic, 36–37; Mexico,
37; Canada, 37; Alaska, 50–58; U.S.-
Cuba oil summit, 106; production
plateau, 341–343; gas shale, 346,
349–350; coalbed methane, 346,
349–350; marginal wells, 363;
investment, 367; motor fuel markets,
385–386; fuel transition, 386–388;
deindustrialization trend, 404–405;
statistics, 436–438
Urengoyskoye field, 261
Urucu field, 131
Urugua field, 95
Usari field, 232
Ust-Vakh field, 262
Uzbekistan, 261, 273, 276, 288, 454:
Khauzak field, 276; Dengizkul
field, 276; Kandym-Khauzak-ShadyKungrad project, 276; South Korea
agreement, 276; gas processing, 276
V
vacuum tower bottoms (VTB), 23, 25
Valemon discovery, 153
Varadero field, 105
Vashista discovery, 310
Vega field, 150–151
Venezuela, 90–91, 125–131, 261, 454:
energy sector control, 125; joint
ventures, 125, 129; President Chavez,
125; international collaboration,
125; oil export expansion, 125;
tanker construction, 125; oil sales
to China, 126; exploration and
development, 127–128; east coast
gas discovery, 127; Falcon basin,
127–128; Petrobras-PdVSA projects,
128; drilling and production,
128–129; oil production boost, 128;
drilling activity, 128–129; Petrobras
joint ventures, 129; refining and
processing, 129; IEA reclassification
of heavy crude, 129; U.S. Citgo
outlets closing, 130; pipelines, 130;
Caribbean-Pacific pipeline, 130;
Interconnection Centro Occidente
pipeline, 130; Venezuela-Argentina
pipeline, 130–131; heavy oil, 131;
Orinoco Oil Belt, 131; Iran aid in
Orinoco projects, 131
Venezuela-Argentina pipeline, 130–131
vertical annular separation and pumping
system (VASPS), 98
VIC/P46 prospect, 295
Victoria discovery, 153
Vietnam, 261, 317, 338–339, 454:
exploration and production, 338; Te
Giac Trang discovery, 338; PdVSAVietnam joint projects, 338; Ca
Ngu Vang field, 338; Cuu Long
basin, 338; Block 124, 338; Phu
Khanh basin, 338; pipelines, 338;
Bunga Raya B-Ca Mau pipeline,
338; refining, 338–339; Nhon Hoi
refinery, 338–339; Dung Quat
refinery, 339; Nghi Son refinery, 339
Vietnam-PdVSA projects, 338
violence/sabotage (Nigeria), 230
Visayan basin, 332
Vitalba field, 148
Vizag refinery, 311
Vulcan East discovery, 163
W
Wakah field, 214
Walton basin, 111–112
Wamaj discovery, 310
Waraga field, 242
Waraga-Mputa oil discoveries, 241
well completions (U.S.), 18–19
West Africa, 198, 218–220
West Azeri field, 249
West Cameron field, 44
West Coast LNG terminals, 34–35:
California, 34–35; Oregon, 35
West Espoir field, 221
West Zaloni discovery, 310
West-East pipeline, 282
Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
(WCSB), 58–63, 75, 79
Western Canada, 60–63
Western Desert (Egypt), 214, 216
Western Desert (Iraq), 176
Westland basin, 329
West-Schmidt block, 265
White Nile Block Ba concession, 237
White Nile-Total SA dispute, 237484 IPE 2007
Index
White Rose field, 59–60, 62–63
White Rose gas cap, 73
Whiting refinery upgrades, 28
wildcat drilling (Argentina), 87
Wilga discovery, 157
Williston basin, 65
wired-pipe telemetry, 361
Woodford shale play, 17
Woollybutt field, 294
World Bank dispute (Chad), 210
X
Xan oil field, 89
Y
Yadana field, 328
Yadavaran oil field, 171
Yam Thetis group, 178
Yamal Peninsula project, 267
Yamburgskoye field, 261
Yanbu’ refinery, 189
Yemen, 193–195, 454: crude oil, 193; Block 22, 194; Block 10,
194; Block 3, 194; Block 15, 194; Block 35, 194; Masila
basin, 195
Yen-Yakhinskoye field, 261
Yetagun field, 328
Yinggehai basin, 285
Yolla field, 297
Yortsha Dome, 174
Yu Korchagin field, 261
Yukos bankruptcy, 165
Yuralpa field, 107
Yuzhno-Russkoye field, 261
Z
Zapolyarnoye field, 261
Zeebrugge-Bacton Interconnector pipeline, 136, 166
Zhong Ximentang Island, 286
Zotti block, 202
Zuluf field, 189
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