How to Implement Lean Manufacturing

How to Implement Lean Manufacturing
اسم المؤلف
Lonnie Wilson
التاريخ
2 نوفمبر 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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How to Implement Lean Manufacturing
Lonnie Wilson
Contents
Preface . ix
Acknowledgments . xv
1 What Is the Perspective of This Book? . 1
From a Practical Perspective . 1
From an Engineering Viewpoint without Much Cultural Advice . 1
This Book Has a “How to” Perspective 7
And to Those in Manufacturing Who Seek Huge Gains . 8
Chapter Summary . 8
2 Lean Manufacturing and the Toyota Production System . 9
The Popular Defi nition of Lean 9
What Is Lean? . 9
What Did Ohno Say about the Toyota Production System? 10
The TPS and Lean Manufacturing Defi ned 10
Who Developed the TPS? . 11
The Two Pillars of the TPS 11
What Is Really Different about the TPS? . 12
The Behavioral Defi nition . 21
The Business Defi nition . 22
Several Revolutionary Concepts in the TPS 22
The TPS Is Not a Complete Manufacturing System . 26
A Critical and Comparative Analysis of Various Philosophies 28
Where Lean Will Not Work… or Not Work Quite so Well 32
Chapter Summary . 39
3 Inventory and Variation 41
Background . 41
Just Why Do I Have and Why Do I Need the Inventory? 42
What Is So Bad about Inventory? . 42
About Variation . 47
Buffers . 48
Kanban . 48
Kanban Calculations 49
Finished Goods Inventory Calculations . 52
Kanban Calculations 56
Make-to-Stock versus Make-to-Order Production Systems . 56
Chapter Summary . 57
4 Lean Manufacturing Simplifi ed . 59
The Philosophy and Objectives 59
vvi C o n t e n t s
The Foundation of Quality Control . 59
Quantity Control . 64
Chapter Summary . 71
5 The Significance of Lead Time 73
Some History of Lead Time 73
Benefi ts of Lead-Time Reductions 74
Excalibur Machine Shop, Lead-Time Reductions . 75
Techniques to Reduce Lead Times 83
Chapter Summary . 85
6 How to Do Lean—Cultural Change Fundamentals 87
Three Fundamental Issues of Cultural Change . 87
Some Cultural Aspects of a Lean Implementation Worthy of
Further Thought . 100
Chapter Summary . 106
Appendix A—Problem Solving and Standardization: How Are
They Similar? . 107
7 How to Do Lean—The Four Strategies to Becoming Lean 111
Overview of the Lean Implementation Strategies . 111
Implementing Lean Strategies on the Production Line 112
Chapter Summary . 118
Appendix A—The Takt Calculation . 118
Appendix B—The Basic Time Study 121
Appendix C—The Balancing Study . 124
Appendix D—The Spaghetti Diagram 127
Appendix E—Value Stream Mapping . 128
8 How to Implement Lean—The Prescription for the Lean Project . 135
An Overview on How to Implement Lean . 135
A Key Question to the Implementation . 136
Step 1: Assess the Three Fundamental Issues to Cultural Change . 138
Step 2: Complete a Systemwide Evaluation of the Present State 139
Step 3: Perform an Educational Evaluation 144
Step 4: Document the Current Condition 146
Step 5: Redesign to Reduce Wastes . 146
Step 6: Evaluate and Determine the Goals for This Line . 146
Step 7: Implement the Kaizen Activities . 146
Step 8: Evaluate the Newly Formed Present State, Stress the System,
Then Return to Step 1 147
Lean Goals 147
What to Do with the Plan? 148
Chapter Summary . 148
Appendix A—The Second Commitment Evaluation of
Management Commitment . 149
9 Planning and Goals 153
Some Background 153C o n t e n t s vii
Hoshin–Kanri Planning 155
Why Are Goals and Goal Deployment So Important? . 155
Policy Deployment . 156
Leadership in Goal Development, Deployment, and Determining
What “Should Be” . 160
Chapter Summary . 162
10 Sustaining the Gains . 163
Why Is It So Important? . 163
How Do We Know There Is a Loss? . 165
What Is Process Gain? 173
Chapter Summary . 178
11 Cultures 179
Background Information on Cultures . 179
The Toyota Production System and Its Culture . 185
What Should We Do with Our Lean Culture? 187
Chapter Summary . 188
12 Constraint Management 189
Bottleneck Theory 189
Chapter Summary . 194
13 Cellular Manufacturing 195
Cellular Manufacturing . 195
The Gamma Line Redesign to Cellular Manufacturing 197
Chapter Summary . 209
14 The Story of the Alpha Line 211
How I Got Involved 211
Initial Efforts to Implement Cultural Change 211
Some of the Results 214
Continuous Improvement, as It Should Be . 215
The Cool Story of SPC: SPC Done Right! 215
How Did the Alpha Line Management Team Handle the
Fundamentals of Cultural Change? 218
Chapter Summary . 219
15 The Story of the Bravo Line: A Tale of Reduced Lead Times
and Lots of Early Gains 221
Background Information 221
Implementing the Prescription . 222
The Results . 227
Chapter Summary . 233
16 Using the Prescription—Three Case Studies 235
Why These Case Studies? . 235
Lean Preparation Done Well: The Story of Larana Manufacturing . 236viii C o n t e n t s
The Zeta Cell: A Great Example of Applying the Four Strategies
to Reduce Waste and Achieve Huge Early Gains . 244
The Case of the QED Motors Company: Another Great Example
of Huge Early Gains on an Entire Value Stream 254
Applying the Second Prescription at QED Motors—How to
Implement Lean . 259
17 The Precursors to Lean Not Handled Well 273
Background to the ABC Widgets Story 273
We Analyze the Data . 274
Summary of Results 280
How Did the Management Team from ABC Widgets Handle
the Fundamentals of Cultural Change? . 281
The Real Message 282
Chapter Summary . 282
18 An Experiment in Variation, Dependent Events, and Inventory . 285
Background . 285
The Experiment 286
19 Assessment Tools 291
The Five Tests of Management Commitment to
Lean Manufacturing . 291
The Ten Most Common Reasons Lean Initiatives Fail
(in Part or Totally) . 292
The Five Precursors to Implementing a Lean Initiative 292
Process Maturity . 295
20 A House of Lean 299
Glossary 301
Bibliography 309
Index 311
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