سلسلة كيف تصنع الأشياء الجزء 2
How Things Are Made Volume 2
Oldrich Ruzicka , Alexandra Hetmerová
List of Items in this Volume
Acrylic plastic refers to a family of synthetic, or man-made, plastic materials containing one or
more derivatives of acrylic acid. The most common acrylic plastic is polymethyl methacrylate
(PMMA), which is sold under the brand names of Plexiglas, Lucite, Perspex, and Crystallite.
Aluminum Beverage Can
Ninety-five percent of all beer and soft drink cans in the United States are made of aluminum.
American can makers produce about 100 billion aluminum beverage cans a year, equivalent to
one can per American per day.
Small arms ammunition, or cartridges, are used in a variety of firearms ranging from pistols to
rifles and shotguns to heavier automatic weapons sometimes called machine guns. The term
“bullet” is commonly used to describe the cartridge, when in fact, it actually only refers to the
Antilock Brake System
Stopping safely is one of the most important functions a motor vehicle can perform. Failure of
the brake system will almost invariably result in property damage, personal injury, or even death.
Asphalt is a heavy, dark brown to black mineral substance, one of several mixtures of
hydrocarbons called bitumens. Asphalt is a strong, versatile weather and chemical-resistant
binding material which adapts itself to a variety of uses.
A pager, or beeper, is a small, battery-powered device that alerts the person carrying it when
someone is trying to reach them by telephone. The beeper utilizes electronic components
sensitive to an FM radio signal and will beep or otherwise sound, flash, or vibrate to alert its
BeerThe family of beverages generally referred to as “beer” has been brewed for centuries. Beers are
obtained by the yeast fermentation of malted cereal grains, to which hops and water have been
Since prehistoric times bells have been used to herald significant events. Bells call the faithful to
worship and toll the time.
Bicycles are one of the world’s most popular modes of transportation, with some 800 million
bicycles outnumbering cars by two to one. Bicycles are also the most energy-efficient vehicle—a
cyclist burns about 35 calories per mile (22 calories per km), while an automobile burns 1,860
calories per mile (1,156 calories per km).
Bleach is a chemical compound derived from natural sources used to whiten fabrics. Bleach
works by the process of oxidation, or the alteration of a compound by the introduction of oxygen
Business jet aircraft (also known as “biz-jets”) typically carry 5-15 passengers and are primarily
used as transportation by business executives and government officials.
Butter and Margarine
Butter is a soft, yellow-hued, edible emulsion of butterfat, water, air, and sometimes salt. It is
made from the churning of cream and is used as a spread as well as an important ingredient in
cooking and baking.
The camera lens is an invention that attempts to duplicate the operation of the human eye. Just
like the eye, the lens sees an image, focuses it, and transmits its colors, sharpness, and brightness
through the camera to the photographic film, which, like our memory, records the image for
processing and future use.
CarpetCarpet is a textile floor covering that is distinguished from the more general term “rug” by being
fixed to the floor surface and extending wall to wall. The earliest peoples covered the floors of
their dwellings with animal skins, grass, or, later, woven reed mats.
A cathode-ray tube, often called a CRT, is an electronic display device in which a beam of
electrons can be focused on a phosphorescent viewing screen and rapidly varied in position and
intensity to produce an image. Probably the best-known application of a cathode-ray tube is as
the picture tube in a television.
Tobacco smoking is a practice which has changed little since American natives first stuffed the
tobacco they cultivated in the hills of what is today modern Mexico into hollow reeds. As the
practice spread through the Americas, different cultures wrapped their tobacco in vegetable
leaves or corn husks, or put it in pipes for smoking.
CNC Machine Tool
CNC or “computer numerical controlled” machines are sophisticated metalworking tools that can
create complicated parts required by modern technology. Growing rapidly with the advances in
computers, CNCs can be found performing work as lathes, milling machines, laser cutters,
abrasive jet cutters, punch presses, press brakes, and other industrial tools.
Condoms are thin sheaths worn by men during sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy and
venereal infections. According to the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, conducted by the
National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville, Maryland, male condoms or prophylactics
are the third most popular form of birth control—preceded only by female sterilization (29.5%)
and birth control pills (28.5%)—with usage at 17.7%.
The contact lens is a device worn in the eye to correct vision, although some people wear colored
contact lens to enhance or change their eye color. The thin plastic lens floats on a film of tears
directly over the cornea.
Decorative Plastic Laminate
Decorative plastic laminate is a durable flat sheeting material used in home and industrial
furnishings. It is most familiar under the Formica brand name.Dental Floss
Dental floss is a thin filament used to remove debris caught between teeth and between teeth and
gums. In 1994, Americans used more than 2.5 million miles of dental floss, the equivalent of
circling the earth more than 100 times.
The diamond is the hardest natural substance known. It is found in a type of igneous rock known
Dynamite is a commercial explosive used mainly for demolition and mining. Invented in 1866
by Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896), it is more accurately described as the packaging of
nitroglycerin, a highly poisonous explosive liquid, or other volatile compounds such as sensitized
An elevator is a platform, either open or enclosed, used for lifting people or freight to upper
floors within a building. Elevators are a standard part of any tall commercial or residential
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a
variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry:
continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous (short) fibers used as batts,
blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration.
The term “fire truck” is commonly used as a generic expression to describe a fire-fighting
vehicle. Technically, a “fire truck” is a vehicle equipped with ladders and is used mainly to gain
access to elevated portions of a structure or to provide a means of applying an elevated stream of
A firework is a device that uses combustion or explosion to produce a visual or auditory effect.
Modern pyrotechnics also includes devices similar to fireworks, such as flares, matches, and
even solid-fuel rocket boosters used in spaceflight.Freeze-Dried Food
Freeze drying is a relatively recent method of preserving food. It involves freezing the food, then
removing almost all the moisture in a vacuum chamber, and finally sealing the food in an airtight
Frozen yogurt is a refreshing, tangy dessert that combines the flavors and textures of ice cream
and sherbet. Frozen yogurt is a relative new-comer in the dessert market.
Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid obtained from the refinement of petroleum, or crude oil.
It was originally discarded as a byproduct of kerosene production, but its ability to vaporize at
low temperatures made it a useful fuel for many machines.
The hearing aid is an instrument that amplifies sounds, particularly speech, for people with
hearing impairments. It may be worn comfortably behind the ear, in the outer ear, within the ear
canal, in the frames of eyeglasses, or against the body or in the clothing.
Ice skating, in one form or another, has existed for thousands of years. Evidence suggests that as
long ago as 1000 B.C.
In-line skates were developed in the mid-1980s, but the basic concept of rolling wheels attached
to a boot is much older. Earlier roller skates had wheels of wood, plastic, or steel, arranged in
Industrial robots are mechanical devices which, to a certain degree, replicate human motions.
They are used whenever there is a need to reduce the danger to a human, provide more strength
or accuracy than a human, or when continuous operation is required.
Integrated CircuitAn integrated circuit, commonly referred to as an IC, is a microscopic array of electronic circuits
and components that has been diffused or implanted onto the surface of a single crystal, or chip,
of semiconducting material such as silicon. It is called an integrated circuit because the
components, circuits, and base material are all made together, or integrated, out of a single piece
of silicon, as opposed to a discrete circuit in which the components are made separately from
different materials and assembled later.
Iron is one of the most common elements on earth. Nearly every construction of man contains at
least a little iron.
Ketchup, a tangy, seasoned tomato sauce, is one of America’s favorite condiments. Although
ketchup, also spelled catsup, is used primarily as a relish for hamburgers, hot dogs, and french
fries, it is also a common ingredient for sauces, meatloaf, beans, and stews.
Lead is a dense, soft, low-melting metal. It is an important component of batteries, and about
75% of the world’s lead production is consumed by the battery industry.
Leather, a material made from tanned animal hides, has been used as clothing since the earliest
days of human existence. Prehistoric people wrapped animal skins around their bodies for
warmth and to absorb the magical powers that they believed the skins imparted to them.
Recreational and professional activities bring people in contact with water everyday. Safety on
and near the water is an issue for the weekend sail boater as well as for military and rescue
A magnet is a material that can exert a noticeable force on other materials without actually
contacting them. This force is known as a magnetic force and may either attract or repel.
Milking MachineThe milking machine is a nearly automatic machine installation for milking cows. It is not a
single unit, but rather an assembly of components designed to handle as many as 200 cows an
Formed from wood pulp or plant fiber, paper is chiefly used for written communication. The
earliest paper was papyrus, made from reeds by the ancient Egyptians.
Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own
odor by using perfume, which emulates nature’s pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made
materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners
and cosmetics, or to scent the air.
Photographic film is a chemically reactive material that records a fixed or still image when the
film is exposed to light. Typically, film is placed in a camera, and light from the image being
photographed is allowed to enter and is focused and sometimes made larger or smaller by the
Plastic wrap is a form of food packaging consisting of a thin film of flexible, transparent polymer
that clings to itself and to food containers to form a tight seal. The plastic keeps the food fresh by
protecting it from air and by preventing dry foods from absorbing moisture and wet foods from
The player piano begins as a standard, or non-player, acoustic piano. It contains a keyboard, and,
when the keys are struck, felt hammers strike tuned metal strings to create musical tones.
Polyester is a synthetic fiber derived from coal, air, water, and petroleum. Developed in a 20thcentury laboratory, polyester fibers are formed from a chemical reaction between an acid and
alcohol.Printed Circuit Board
A printed circuit board, or PCB, is a self-contained module of interconnected electronic
components found in devices ranging from common beepers, or pagers, and radios to
sophisticated radar and computer systems. The circuits are formed by a thin layer of conducting
material deposited, or “printed,” on the surface of an insulating board known as the substrate.
A rope is a bundle of flexible fibers twisted or braided together to increase its overall length and
tensile strength. The use of ropes for hunting, carrying, lifting, and climbing dates back to
Silk has set the standard in luxury fabrics for several millennia. The origins of silk date back to
Although skiing is a popular sport today, the first skis were used as a quick and efficient means
of transportation rather than for recreation. It is believed that skis originated in the Scandinavian
nations about 5,000 years ago.
A smoke detector is a device that senses the presence of smoke in a building and warns the
occupants, enabling them to escape a fire before succumbing to smoke inhalation or burns.
Equipping a home with at least one smoke detector cuts in half the chances that the residents will
die in a fire.
Soap is a combination of animal fat or plant oil and caustic soda. When dissolved in water, it
breaks dirt away from surfaces.
The technology for making glass dates back at least 5,000 years, and some form of stained glass
was used in European Christian churches by the third or fourth century A.D. The art of stained
glass flowered in the 12th century with the rise of the Gothic cathedral.Sunscreen
The image of a healthy person today does not necessarily include a deep, dark tan. Research has
linked exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to skin cancer, premature wrinkles, and other skin
A telescope is a device used to form images of distant objects. The most familiar kind of
telescope is an optical telescope, which uses a series of lenses or a curved mirror to focus visible
Tofu is a highly versatile and nutritious food that is made from soybean curds. Although the
word “tofu” is Japanese, the food seems to have originated in ancient China, where the Mandarin
term is “doufu.” The creation of tofu is generally attributed to the ruler Liu An of Huai-nan
during the second century B.C.
A toothbrush is a dental instrument used for cleaning teeth, ideally in conjunction with
toothpaste or mouthwash. The toothbrush consists of a plastic handle and nylon bristles attached
to the head of the brush.
The development of vaccines to protect against viral disease is one of the hallmarks of modern
medicine. The first vaccine was produced by Edward Jenner in 1796 in an attempt to provide
protection against smallpox.
Whiskey (usually spelled whisky in Canada and Scotland) is a spirit produced from fermented
grain and aged in wood. A spirit is any alcoholic beverage in which the alcohol content has been
increased by distillation.
Zinc is an elemental metal. It is listed on the Periodic Table as “Zn,” with an atomic number of
30 and an atomic weight of 65.37, and it melts at 788°F (420°C).
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سلسلة كيف تصنع الأشياء الجزء 2