سلسلة كيف تصنع الأشياء الجزء 1
How Things Are Made Volume 1
Oldrich Ruzicka , Alexandra Hetmerová
List of Items in this Volume
An air bag is an inflatable cushion designed to protect automobile occupants from serious injury
in the case of a collision. The air bag is part of an inflatable restraint system, also known as an air
cushion restraint system (ACRS) or an air bag supplemental restraint system (SRS), because the
air bag is designed to supplement the protection offered by seat belts.
Aluminum foil is made from an aluminum alloy which contains between 92 and 99 percent
aluminum. Usually between 0.00017 and 0.0059 inches thick, foil is produced in many widths
and strengths for literally hundreds of applications.
Artificial arms and legs, or prostheses, are intended to restore a degree of normal function to
amputees. Mechanical devices that allow amputees to walk again or continue to use two hands
have probably been in use since ancient times, the most notable one being the simple peg leg.
Aspirin is one of the safest and least expensive pain relievers on the marketplace. While other
pain relievers were discovered and manufactured before aspirin, they only gained acceptance as
over-the-counter drugs in Europe and the United States after aspirin’s success at the turn of the
In 1908 Henry Ford began production of the Model T automobile. Based on his original Model
A design first manufactured in 1903, the Model T took five years to develop.
Glass is a versatile material with hundreds of applications, including windshields. Glass has a
long history and was first made more than 7,000 years ago in Egypt, as early as 3,000 B.C.Baking Soda
Baking soda is a white crystalline powder (NaHCO3) better known to chemists as sodium
bicarbonate, bicarbonate of soda, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or sodium acid carbonate. It is
classified as an acid salt, formed by combining an acid (carbonic) and a base (sodium
hydroxide), and it reacts with other chemicals as a mild alkali.
Ever since man began to need to move things, he has used round rollers to make the job easier.
Probably the first rollers were sticks or logs, which were a big improvement over dragging things
across the ground, but still pretty hard work.
Bar Code Scanner
Many different types of bar code scanning machines exist, but they all work on the same
fundamental principles. They all use the intensity of light reflected from a series of black and
white stripes to tell a computer what code it is seeing.
The baseball traces its origin to the game of the same name. Modern baseball evolved from the
English game of “rounders” in the first half of the 19th century.
Wearing a glove to protect one’s catching hand was not considered a manly thing to do in the
years following the Civil War, when the game of baseball spread through the country with the
speed of a cavalry charge. It’s uncertain who was the first to wear a baseball glove; nominees
include Charles G.
Benjamin Franklin’s famous experiment to attract electricity by flying a kite in a lightning storm
was only one of many late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century experiments conducted to
learn about electricity. The first battery was constructed in 1800 by Italian Alessandro Volta.
Bicycle shorts are form-fitting shorts designed specifically for the cyclist. A close inspection
reveals that they differ significantly from typical jogging or beach shorts.Blood Pressure Monitor
Blood pressure is the pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes
through them. Pulse refers to the periodic ejection of blood from the heart’s left ventricle into the
Blue jeans are casual pants made from denim, noted for their strength and comfort. They have
been worn by sailors and California gold miners as sturdy work pants, by the young as a
statement of their generation, and by the fashionable, who are conscious of the prestige conveyed
by designer names.
A book can be broadly defined as a written document of at least 49 text pages that communicates
thoughts, ideas, or information. Throughout the ages, books have changed dramatically,
assuming a number of different forms.
The term brick refers to small units of building material, often made from fired clay and secured
with mortar, a bonding agent comprising of cement, sand, and water. Long a popular material,
brick retains heat, with-stands corrosion, and resists fire.
Bulletproof vests are modern light armor specifically designed to protect the wearer’s vital
organs from injury caused by firearm projectiles. To many protective armor manufacturers and
wearers, the term “bulletproof vest” is a misnomer.
One of the earliest forms of portable illumination, candles have served vital functions for
humankind throughout history, a fact chronicled through the discovery of candles or candle-like
objects in virtually every society. Historians believe the original candle may have been invented
by primitive men who dipped dried branches in animal fat, thus producing a slow-burning and
reliable source of light.
Carbon PaperCarbon paper is an inexpensive reprographic device used to make a single copy concurrently
with the original, as in credit card transaction receipts, legal documents, manuscripts, letters, and
other simple forms.
Cellophane tape consists of a backing to which an adhesive substance is affixed for the purpose
of joining materials with a surface bond. Usually, a film of cellulose (a man-made textile fiber
produced from plant matter) provides the backing for adherends made from chemically treated
petroleum byproducts that create the tape’s stickiness.
Wall and floor tile used for interior and exterior decoration belongs to a class of ceramics known
as whitewares. The production of tile dates back to ancient times and peoples, including the
Egyptians, the Babylonians, and the Assyrians.
Chalk used in school classrooms comes in slender sticks approximately .35 of an inch (nine
millimeters) in diameter and 3.15 inches (80 millimeters) long. Lessons are often presented to
entire classes on chalk-boards (or blackboards, as they were originally called) using sticks of
chalk because this method has proven cheap and easy.
Cheese is a fermented food derived from the milk of various mammals. Since humans began to
domesticate milk-producing animals around 10,000 B.C., they have known about the propensity
of milk to separate into curds and whey.
Chewing gum is a sweetened, flavored confection composed primarily of latex, both natural and
artificial. Organic latex, a milky white fluid produced by a variety of seed plants, is best known
as the principle component of rubber.
Chocolate, in all of its varied forms (candy bars, cocoa, cakes, cookies, coating for other candies
and fruits) is probably America’s favorite confection. With an annual per capita consumption of
around 14 pounds (6 kilograms) per person, chocolate is as ubiquitous as a non-essential food
Coffee is a beverage made by grinding roasted coffee beans and allowing hot water to flow
through them. Dark, flavorful, and aromatic, the resulting liquid is usually served hot, when its
full flavor can best be appreciated.
The combination lock is one opened not by a key but by the alignment of its interior parts in a
definite position. The most common types have an internal mechanism consisting of a series of
three or four interconnected rings or discs that are attached to and turned by a central shaft.
A combine is a large, self-propelled agricultural machine used to harvest grain crops such as
wheat, corn, soybeans, milo, rape-seed, and rice. As its name suggests, the combine performs
two, and sometimes more, basic functions of harvesting: first it reaps (cuts) the crop, and then it
threshes it, separating the kernels of grain from the seed coverings and other debris(chaff).
Ever since the invention of the phonograph in 1876, music has been a popular source of home
entertainment. In recent years, the compact disc has become the playback medium of choice for
Compact Disc Player
A compact disc, also popularly known simply as a CD, is an optical storage medium with digital
data recorded on its surface. A compact disc player is a device that reads the recorded data by
means of an optical beam and accurately reproduces the original information (music, pictures, or
Concrete is a hardened building material created by combining a chemically inert mineral
aggregate (usually sand, gravel, or crushed stone), a binder (natural or synthetic cement),
chemical additives, and water. Although people commonly use the word “cement” as a synonym
for concrete, the terms in fact denote different substances: cement, which encompasses a wide
variety of fine-ground powders that harden when mixed with water, represents only one of
several components in modern concrete.
Cooking OilCooking oil consists of edible vegetable oils derived from olives, peanuts, and safflowers, to
name just a few of the many plants that are used. Liquid at room temperature, cooking oils are
sometimes added during the preparation of processed foods.
Most items at your favorite supermarket, discount store, or shopping mall were safely delivered
in boxes made of corrugated cardboard, and many are displayed in the same boxes, which were
manufactured so they could be opened and used for this purpose. Other items may arrive in their
own corrugated or uncorrugated paperboard boxes.
Eating or serving with utensils made of silver, silver-plated metals or stainless steel is relatively
recent. Silver needed to be discovered in sufficient quantities, the smelting processes necessary
to hand-craft silver needed to be refined, and in Northern Europe it took several centuries before
the more civilized Latin table manners replaced the cruder Anglo-Saxon ones.
Expanded Polystyrene Foam (EPF)
Expanded polystyrene foam (EPF) is a plastic material that has special properties due to its
structure. Composed of individual cells of low density polystyrene, EPF is extraordinarily light
and can support many times its own weight in water.
Eyeglass lenses are glass or plastic optical items that fit inside eyewear frames to enhance and/or
correct the wearer’s vision. The magnifying glass, invented in the early 1200s, was the first
optical lens used for enhancing vision.
A file cabinet is a piece of office furniture characterized by drawers that hold papers in vertically
placed folders. While such cabinets are mainly used to store documents, they also facilitate
organizing, removing, and using such documents.
The hand-held fire extinguisher is simply a pressure vessel from which is expelled a material (or
agent) to put out a fire. The agent acts upon the chemistry of the fire by removing one or more of
the three elements necessary to maintain fire—commonly referred to as the fire triangle.
GoldGold, recognizable by its yellowish cast, is one of the oldest metals used by humans. As far back
as the Neolithic period, humans have collected gold from stream beds, and the actual mining of
gold can be traced as far back as 3500 B.C., when early Egyptians (the Sumerian culture of
Mesopotamia) used mined gold to craft elaborate jewelry, religious artifacts, and utensils such as
Grinding wheels are made of natural or synthetic abrasive minerals bonded together in a matrix
to form a wheel. While such tools may be familiar to those with home workshops, the general
public may not be aware of them because most have been developed and used by the
A member of the family of musical instruments called chordophones, the guitar is a stringed
instrument with which sound is produced by “plucking” a series of strings running along the
instrument’s body. While the strings are plucked with one hand, they are simultaneously fingered
with the other hand against frets, which are metal strips located on the instrument’s neck.
Helicopters are classified as rotary wing aircraft, and their rotary wing is commonly referred to
as the main rotor or simply the rotor. Unlike the more common fixed wing aircraft such as a
sport biplane or an airliner, the helicopter is capable of direct vertical take-off and landing; it can
also hover in a fixed position.
The jet engine is the power plant of today’s jet aircraft, producing not only the thrust that propels
the aircraft but also the power that fuels many of the aircraft’s other systems.
An incubator comprises a transparent chamber and the equipment that regulates its temperature,
humidity, and ventilation. For years, the principle uses for the controlled environment provided
by incubators included hatching poultry eggs and caring for premature or sick infants, but a new
and important application has recently emerged, namely, the cultivation and manipulation of
microorganisms for medical treatment and research.
Laser Guided MissileMissiles differ from rockets by virtue of a guidance system that steers them towards a preselected target. Unguided, or free-flight, rockets proved to be useful yet frequently inaccurate
weapons when fired from aircraft during the World War II.
The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a variety of methods, most
commonly by boiling fats and ashes. Archeologists excavating sites in ancient Babylon have
found evidence indicating that such soaps were used as far back as 2800 B.C.
From the earliest periods of history until the beginning of the 19th century, fire was man’s
primary source of light. This light was produced through different means—torches, candles, oil
and gas lamps.
Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)—small colored lights available in any electronics store—are
ubiquitous in modern society. They are the indicator lights on our stereos, automobile
dashboards, and microwave ovens.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) consist of liquid crystals that are activated by electric current.
They are used most frequently to display one or more lines of alpha-numeric information in a
variety of devices: fax machines, laptop computer screens, answering machine call counters,
scientific instruments, portable compact disc players, clocks, and so forth.
Since the Roman era, many liquids, including water, have been used as lubricants to minimize
the friction, heat, and wear between mechanical parts in contact with each other. Today,
lubricating oil, or lube oil, is the most commonly used lubricant because of its wide range of
Microwaves are actually a segment of the electromagnetic wave spectrum, which comprises
forms of energy that move through space, generated by the interaction of electric and magnetic
fields. The spectrum is commonly broken into subgroups determined by the different
wavelengths (or frequencies) and emission, transmission, and absorption behaviors of various
types of waves.Optical Fiber
An optical fiber is a single, hair-fine filament drawn from molten silica glass. These fibers are
replacing metal wire as the transmission medium in high-speed, high-capacity communications
systems that convert information into light, which is then transmitted via fiber optic cable.
Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a
liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied
in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone.
The word “pesticide” is a broad term that refers to any device, method, or chemical that kills
plants or animals that compete for humanity’s food supply or are otherwise undesirable.
Pesticides include insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematocides (used to kill nematodes,
elongated cylindrical worms), and rodenticides.
Many of the processes in the modern world involve the measurement and control of pressurized
liquid and gas systems. This monitoring reflects certain performance criteria that must be
controlled to produce the desirable results of the process and insure its safe operation.
For centuries humankind has relied upon various plants and animals to provide the raw materials
for fabrics and clothing. Silkworms, sheep, beaver, buffalo deer, and even palm leaves are just
some of the natural resources that have been used to meet these needs.
Prior to the development of artificial refrigeration techniques during the 1800s, people utilized a
variety of means to chill and preserve foodstuffs. For centuries, ice served as the principal
The term “handgun” refers to any small firearm intended for use with one hand only. Currently,
the two most important types of handguns are revolvers and automatic pistols.Salsa
Salsa is the Spanish word for sauce, and in Mexico it refers to sauces that are used as an
ingredient for a variety of dishes and as a condiment. Most salsas are especially spicy, due to the
prominence of hot chili peppers in their ingredients.
A satellite dish is a parabolic television antenna that receives signals from communication
satellites in orbit around the earth. Its sole function is to provide the television viewer with a
wider variety of channels.
Seismographs are instruments designed to detect and measure vibrations within the earth, and the
records they produce are known as seismograms. Like the many other terms beginning with this
prefix, these words derive from the Greek seismos, meaning “shock” or “earthquake.” Although
certain types of seismographs are used for underground surveying, the devices are best known
for studying earthquakes.
Photovoltaic solar cells are thin silicon disks that convert sunlight into electricity. These disks act
as energy sources for a wide variety of uses, including: calculators and other small devices;
telecommunications; rooftop panels on individual houses; and for lighting, pumping, and
medical refrigeration for villages in developing countries.
The purpose of a spark plug is to provide a place for an electric spark that is hot enough to ignite
the air/fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. This is
done by a high voltage current arcing across a gap on the spark plug.
Stainless steel is an iron-containing alloy—a substance made up of two or more chemical
elements—used in a wide range of applications. It has excellent resistance to stain or rust due to
its chromium content, usually from 12 to 20 percent of the alloy.
Glue is a gelatinous adhesive substance used to form a surface attachment between discrete
materials. Currently, there are five basic types of glue.Thermometer
A thermometer is a device used to measure temperature. The thermoscope, developed by Galileo
around 1592, was the first instrument used to measure temperature qualitatively.
A tire is a strong, flexible rubber casing attached to the rim of a wheel. Tires provide a gripping
surface for traction and serve as a cushion for the wheels of a moving vehicle.
The Spaniards first brought the word tortilla(from torta, “cake”) to Mexico; the Mexicans, in
turn, used it to describe their flat corn and flour cakes. The bread staple of the Mexican diet, all
tortillas were originally made from the pulp of ground corn, the native grain of the New World.
Mechanical washing machines appeared in the early 1800s, although they were all handpowered. Early models cleaned clothes by rubbing them, while later models cleaned clothes by
moving them through water.
The oldest means of determining time is by observing the location of the sun in the sky. When
the sun is directly overhead, the time is roughly 12:00 noon.
A wind turbine is a machine that converts the wind’s kinetic energy into rotary mechanical
energy, which is then used to do work. In more advanced models, the rotational energy is
converted into electricity, the most versatile form of energy, by using a generator.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the partial or total fermentation of grapes. Other
fruits and plants, such as berries, apples, cherries, dandelions, elder-berries, palm, and rice can
also be fermented.
ZipperFasteners have come a long way since the early bone or horn pins and bone splinters. Many
devices were designed later that were more efficient; such fasteners included buckles, laces,
safety pins, and buttons.
Zirconium, symbol Zr on the Periodic Table, is a metal most often found in and extracted from
the silicate mineral zirconium silicate and the oxide mineral baddeleyite. In its various compound
forms, the grayish-white zirconium is the nineteenth most plentiful element in the earth’s crust,
where it is far more abundant than copper and lead.
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سلسلة كيف تصنع الأشياء الجزء 1