High Vacuum Technique – Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials

High Vacuum Technique – Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials
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J . YAR WOOD
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7 ديسمبر 2021
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High Vacuum Technique – Theory, Practice, Industrial Applications and Properties of Materials
BY
J . YAR WOOD
M.SC., F. INST.P.
Head of Department of Mathematics and Physics,
The Polytechnic, Regent Street, W.l
THIRD EDITION
REPRINTED
CONTENTS
Chapter Page

  1. The Production of High Vacua .
    The Mean Free Path – Vacuum Pumps – The Water-jet Pump –
    The Gaede Mechanical Rotary Pump – The Cenco-Hyvac Rotary
    Pump -The Kinney Pump – The Gas Ballast Pump – The Molecular Pump The Mercury Diffusion Pump – Freezing Traps –
    The Oil Diffusion Pump Pumping Systems Cut-offs- Leak
    Finding The Characteristics of Vacuum Pumps – The Construction of Vacuum Systems.
  2. The Measurement of High Vacua . . . .
    The Discharge Tube The McLeod Gauge – The Vacustat – The
    Optical Bellows Manometer- The Pirani Gauge Ionization
    Gauges – Extension of the Low-pressure Range of the Ionization
    Gauge – The Ionization Gauge as a Pump – The Philips Ionization Manometer – The Alphatron Gauge The Thermocouple
    Gauge The Knudsen Gauge – The Viscosity Gauge – Leakfinding Methods using Vacuum Gauges.
  3. The Measurement of Pumping Speed
    The Flow of Gas through a Tube – Definition of Pumping Speed
  • Constant Pressure Methods Constant Volume Method=
    Pressure-time Characteristics.
  1. De-gassing and “ Gettering ”
    Low-temperature Baking De-gassing of Glass – De-gassing of
    Metals-Eddy-current Heating – “ Gettering ” – Drying Agents
    -Discharge Cleaning.
  2. The Applications of High Vacua in Industry .
    Exhausting and Activating Radio Valves – Cathode-ray Tubes –
    Gas-filled Tubes The Photo-cell – The Deposition of Metal
    Films in vacuo The Evaporation Process The Sputtering
    Process.
  3. The Properties of Materials Important in High
    Vacuum Technique . . . . .
    The Gases The Elements – The Vapour Pressures of Metals
    and Carbon at Various Temperatures The Properties and Uses
    of Substances Employed in High Vacuum Technique – Miscellaneous Tables.
    Bibliography
    Index .
    viiINDEX
    Beeswax and resin, 171
    Bell, 42
    Bellows manometer, 79
    Beryllium, 172
    -copper, 172
    -nickel, 172
    Blodgett, 156
    Boiling points,
    of elements, 162
    of gases, 161
    of pump fluids, 27
    Bombardment, electron, 88, 140, 155
    ion, 124, 136, 154
    Booster pumps, 36, 52, 55, 57
    Borelius, 165, 166
    Bowie, 90
    Brass, 172
    British Thomson Houston Co., Ltd.,
    ABSORBED GAS, 123
    Absorptivity factor, 27
    Adsorbed gas, 123
    Aero Research Ltd., 176
    Air admittance valves, 68
    Alexander, 20, 23, 44
    Alpert, 70, 92, 95, 184
    Alphatron gauge, 99
    Aluminium,
    as a getter, 134
    properties and uses of, 156, 168, 170
    soldering of, 170
    Aluminizing, 150
    Annealing of glass, 181
    Anode dissipation, 137
    Apiezon greases, 41, 175
    oils, 26, 55, 57, 117, 120
    “ Q ” compound, 41, 59, 175
    waxes, 41, 45, 59, 175
    Aquadag, 174
    Araldite, 176
    Argon, properties of, 161
    rate of sputtering in, 160
    Asbestos, 124, 171
    Aston, 74
    Atomic weights, 162
    Avery, 19
    BACK-DIFFUSION, 24
    Backhurst, 17
    Backing pressure, 14, 17, 24, 39, 52,
    55, 57
    Backing pumps, 2 ; see Mechanical
    rotary pumps
    Back-streaming, 18, 20, 28, 67
    Baffles for oil diffusion pumps, 26, 30
    56, 67
    Bakelite, 171
    Bake-out clamp, 71
    Ball and socket joints, 65
    Barium,
    as a getter, 132
    properties of, 156, 168, 169, 171
    Barium oxide-strontium oxide cathode
    coating, 138, 171
    Bayard, 92
    Bearden, 31
    107
    Bronze, 173
    Brown, 27
    Buna rubbers, 192
    Burch, 26
    Buritz, 184
    Byck, 32
    CADMIUM, 156, 168, 173
    Calcium, 173
    as a getter, 134
    chloride, 135
    fluoride, 157
    oxide, 135
    Calibration of gauges, 78, 81, 89
    Campbell, 83
    Carbon, 168, 174
    crucible for metal evaporation, 155
    Carbon dioxide, 161
    solid, 25, 120
    Catalytic action of metals on oils, 29
    Cathodes, activation of, 26
    photoelectric, 148
    thermionic, 139, 142
    Cathode dark space, 74, 158, 164
    Cathode potential drop, 164
    Cathode-ray tubes, pumping of, 140
    Cathode watts, 138
    Caustic potash, 135
    203INDEX
    Diffusion pumps – con
    Edwards, H. W., 29
    Edwards, W. and Co., Etd., 36, 55
    effect of fore-pressure on, 24, 47
    fractionating type, 34, 52
    Gaede, 16, 19
    Henderson, 31
    Hickman, 26, 34
    Ho, 22
    Kaye, 17
    mercury, 12, 15, 52, 56
    Metropolitan-Vickers, 35, 57
    multi-nozzle patterns, 22, 30
    National Research Corporation, 57
    oil, 12, 26, 52, 55, 56, 57
    performances of, 54, 55, 56, 57
    steel jet in glass, 18
    Thermal Syndicate Ltd., 24
    “ umbrella ” type, 15
    Vacuum Industrial Applications
    Ltd., 55
    Volmer, 16
    Witty, theory, 19
    Zabel, 30
    Discharge as pressure indicator, 73
    cleaning, 136, 154
    Displacement, free air, 48, 49, 50, 54
    Distillation Products Inc., 27, 37, 47,
    52, 55
    Donal, 63
    Douglas, 183, 184, 195
    Dow Corning Corpn., 27, 42
    Downing, 99, 117
    Drying agents, 135
    Dumond, 83, 85, 100
    Dunkel, 201
    Dunoyer, 189, 201
    Dushman, 16, 37, 88, 92, 107, 117,
    121, 168, 201
    Cements, 175
    Central Scientific Co., 26, 50
    Ceramics, 177
    Charcoal, absorption of gas by, 120,
    174
    Chrome-iron alloys, 182, 185
    Chromium, 154, 156, 168
    Cleaning of mercury, 187
    of glass, 152, 184
    Cloud, 192
    Cold traps, see Freezing traps
    Colombium, 178
    Compressed-air operated valves, 67
    Condensable vapours, 8
    Conductance, molecular, 109
    chart for cylindrical tubes, 113
    Conical joints, 41
    Constantan, 178
    Construction of vacuum systems, 57
    Copley, 31
    Copper, 29, 156, 162, 168, 178
    alloys, 178
    sulphate, 135
    Crawford, 22
    Creutz, 65
    Critical pressures for gases, 161
    temperatures for gases, 161
    Crittenden, 158
    Cut-offs, mercury, 42
    Cut-off test, 43
    DARK SPACE, 74, 158, 164
    Davy, 201
    Dayton, 121
    De-gassing of glasses, 41, 123, 126
    of metals, 123, 126
    Delsasso, 65
    Dennis, 28
    Densities of elements, 162
    of gases, 161
    Deposition of metals, 26, 150
    Diffusion of gases through metals, 165
    Diffusion pumps,
    action of, 15, 18
    Alexander, 20, 23, 24
    Bearden, 31
    characteristics of, 47, 48
    Copley, Simpson, Tenney and
    Phipps, nozzle design, 31
    Crawford, 22
    Distillation Products Ltd., 52, 55
    divergent nozzle pattern, 31
    EAST, 79
    Ebonite, 179
    Eddy-current heating, 123, 128, 130, 139
    Edwards, H. W„ 29
    Edwards, W. and Co., Ltd., 3, 6, 9, 36,
    42, 44, 48, 49, 50, 55, 61, 65, 67,
    68, 69, 78, 81, 85, 105, 153, 176,
    201
    Ejector pumps, 36, 52, 54, 56
    Electron tubes, manufacture of, 137
    Elements, properties of, 162
    Emission spectra of gases, 164
    204I N D E X
    Gauges, vacuum – cont.
    Pirani, 81
    thermocouple, 99
    Vacustat, 78
    viscosity, 102
    Geiger counters, gas-filling of, 144
    General Electric Co., Ltd., 102
    General Engineering Co. (RadclifTe),
    Ltd., 7, 51
    Geratebau-Anstalt-Balzers, 9
    Getters, 123, 132, 139
    Glass, 57, 179
    Glass to metal seals, 58, 73, 182
    Glyptal, 176
    Gold, 156, 160, 168, 184
    Graded glass seals, 58
    Greases, vacuum, 175
    Greenland, 157
    Ground glass joints, 41
    Giintherschulze, 160
    HALOGEN LEAK DETECTOR, 105
    Hass, 156, 198
    Henderson, 31
    Heraeus Co., 155
    Hickey, 106
    Hickman, 26, 34
    Hill, 201
    Ho, 22
    Ho coefficient, 33, 121
    Holweck, 14
    Housekeeper joint, 62, 182
    Howard, 116
    Hughes, 191
    Hunten, 191
    Hydrogen,
    as a probe gas in leak-finding, 102
    cleaning of metals, 128
    diffusion through metals, 166
    properties of, 161
    rate of sputtering in, 160
    Hydrogen-sensitive ionization gauge,
    Engel, von, 94
    Espe, 128, 164, 20
    Essig, 145
    Estermann, 32
    Excitation potentials, 61
    Expansion coefficients of elements, 162
    of other materials, 185, 189, 193,
    196, 199
    FAST, 135
    Fernico, 179
    Fick’s diffusion law, 165
    Flosdorf, 78
    Fluorescence of glass, 74, 184
    Fluorite, evaporation of, 157
    Fore pressure, see Backing pressure
    Fore pumps, 12, 15 ; see also Backing
    pumps
    Found, 88
    Fowler, 145
    Fractionating pumps, see Diffusion
    pumps
    Freezing traps, 25, 120
    GAEDE, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 18, 27, 112
    Gas-ballast pumps, 2, 8, 49
    Gases,
    boiling points, 161
    critical pressures, 161
    critical temperatures, 161
    densities, 161
    diffusion of, 165
    emission spectra, 164
    excitation potentials, 161
    ionization potentials, 161
    mean free paths for, 1, 161, 164
    viscosities, 161
    Gas-filling methods, 142
    Gaskets, 59, 62
    Gauges, vacuum,
    Alphatron, 99
    Bayard-AIpert, 92
    bellows manometer, 79
    discharge tube, 73
    Dumond and Pickels, 83, 100
    East and Kuhn, 79
    ionization, 86
    Knudsen, 100
    leak-finding methods using, 102
    McLeod, 77
    Penning, 96
    Philips, 96
    103
    INSERTING A SPECIMEN INTO VACUUM,
    65
    Interference filters, 156, 198
    Ionic bombardment cleaning, 124, 136
    Ionization gauge, 86
    as a pump, 93
    Bayard-AIpert, 92
    calibration curve, 89
    circuits for, 87
    205INDEX
    Ionization gauge, control unit, 91
    extension of low-pressure range of,
    92
    hydrogen-sensitive, 103
    in leak-finding, 43, 102
    in measuring limiting pressures, 120,
    121
    in measuring pumping speed, 115,
    121
    Morse and Bowie, 90
    Philips, 96
    Ridenour circuit, 90
    triode type, 87
    Ionization potentials, 161
    Iron, 127, 156, 162, 168, 185
    Martin, S. T„ 62
    McLeod gauge, 12, 39, 45, 48, 77
    combination with Pirani gauge, 86
    in measuring limiting pressures, 46.
    48, 119
    in measuring pumping speed, 121
    Mean free path, 1, 2, 19, 74, 123, 161,
    164
    Mechanical rotary pumps, 2
    action of, 3
    Cenco-Hyvac pattern, 2, 5
    characteristics of, 45, 46, 49
    commercial models, 49, 50, 54
    Gaede pattern, 2, 3
    gas-ballast type, 2, 8, 49
    Kinney type, 2, 7
    precautions in using, 4
    Mellen, 99
    Melting points of elements, 162
    Mercury, 186
    amalgams, 42
    cleaning of, 187
    switches, 186
    vapour pressures of, 25, 186
    Mercury diffusion pump, 15 ; see also
    Diffusion pumps
    JAECKEL, 8, 201
    Jossem, 144
    KAYE, 17, 201
    Khotinsky cement, 42, 177
    Knoll, 128, 164, 201
    Knudsen, 100, 108
    Knudsen gauge, 100
    Dumond and Pickels, 100
    in measuring pumping speed, 122
    Kovar, 185
    Kuhn, 79
    Kuper, 103
    Metals,
    atomic weights, 162
    boiling points, 162
    densities, 162
    deposition in vacuo, 150
    evaporation temperatures, 156
    expansion coefficients, 162
    melting points, 162
    outgassing temperatures for, 127
    resistivities, 162
    specific heats, 162
    thermal conductivities, 162
    vapour pressures, 168
    Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co.,
    Ltd., 35, 45, 50, 57, 65, 91
    Mica, 187
    sealing to glass, 63
    Mills, 119
    Molecular diameters, I, 161
    Molecular flow, 108
    pressures, 108
    Molecular pumps, 12, 14, 120
    Molecular volumes of oils, 26
    weights of oils, 26
    Molybdenum, 127, 151, 156, 162, 168,
    LANGMUIR, 16, 19, 102
    Latham, 28
    Lead, 62, 156, 162, 168, 185
    gaskets, 62, 185
    Leak detection,
    methods using vacuum gauges, 43,
    102
    preliminary methods, 43
    Leemans, 115
    Leybold’s Nachfolger, 8, 11, 12, 49
    Lindblom, 165
    Liquid air, 25
    Lobb, 42
    Lombard, 167
    Longhurst, 191
    Lusec, the, 105
    MAGNESIUM, 134, 156, 163, 168, 186
    chlorate, 135
    Magnetic valves, 68
    Manometer, mercury, 143
    oil, 143 188
    206INDEX
    Pulsometer Engineering Co., Ltd., 54
    Pumping speed,
    calculation of required, 39
    definition of, 2, 112
    determination of, 108, 115
    formulae, 113
    precautions in measuring, 121
    theoretical, 33
    values for pumps, 3, 13, 17, 22, 32,
    36, 45, 47, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 57
    Pumping systems, 39
    Pumps which require a fore-vacuum,
    Morse, 90
    Movement of mechanism in vacuo, 64
    Multi-head pumps, 137
    NATIONAL RESEARCH CORPORATION,
    9, 49, 57
    Needle valves, 44, 118
    Nelson, 103
    Neoprene, 60, 192
    Nichrome, 188
    Nickel, 127, 156, 162, 168, 188
    Nottingham, 92
    O BRYAN, 155
    Oil for diffusion pumps, 26, 27, 29
    disadvantages of, 28
    Oil-sealed union, 63
    Oil stripper units, 9
    Olsen, 158
    O-ring gaskets, 41, 60, 63, 65
    Outgassing temperatures for metals,
    127
    Oven for baking vacuum tubes, 124
    Oxygen,
    diffusion through metals, 167
    properties of, 161
    PALLADIUM, 163, 167, 168, 189
    Penning, 96
    Pfund, 86
    Philips gauge, 96
    Philp, 192
    Phipps, 31
    Phosphorus, 189
    , pentoxide, 8, 135, 190
    • Photo-cells, 146
    Picein wax, 42, 59, 63
    Pickels, 83, 85, 100
    Pirani gauge, 81
    in measuring limiting pressure, 46,
    48
    in measuring pumping speed, 115
    leak-finding with, 102
    Plaster of Paris, 177
    Platinum, 127, 156, 160, 163, 168, 182,
    12
    QUARTZ, see Silica
    ” Q ” compound, 41, 59, 175
    RADIO CORPORATION OE AMERICA, 103
    Radio valves, pumping and activation of, 137
    Ransley, 165
    Reche, 130
    Resistivities of elements, 162
    Rhodium, 155, 163, 191
    Ridenour, 90
    Roberts, 20
    Rotating pump systems, 137
    Rough vacuum, engineers’ scale, 54
    Rubber, 191
    gaskets, 59, 63
    synthetic, 192
    Rubidium, 156, 163, 168, 193
    SAUNDERS VALVE, 65
    Schwarz, 94
    Scott, 84
    Sealing wax, 177
    Self-purifying pump, 56
    Shellac, 177
    Shell Chemicals Ltd., 175
    Shepherd, 135
    Sherwood, 126
    Silica, 24, 63, 126, 157, 193
    Silica-gel, 3, 135, 194
    Silicone greases, 41, 176
    oils, 26, 27, 48, 55, 118
    Silicon monoxide, 156, 194
    Silver, 156, 162, 168, 194
    chloride, 177
    Simpson, 31
    Smith, 158
    Smithells, 165, 201
    190
    Poindexter, 191
    Porcelain-glass seals, 63, 177
    Potassium, 156, 163, 168, 191
    Power, 28
    Pressure-time characteristics of pumps,
    46
    207I N D E X
    Sodium, 150, 163, 168, 195
    Soldering fluxes, 195
    Soldering metal to glass, 62
    Solders, 195
    Solubilities of gases in water, 199
    Spark oscillator for eddy-current heating, 128
    Specific heats of elements, 162
    of glass, 183
    Speed, see Pumping speed
    Speed factor, 32
    Speedivac pumps, 46, 126
    Sprengel, 17
    Sputtering, 158
    Steam ejector pump, 37
    Stcckelmacher, 91
    Steel, 195
    jet in glass pump, 18
    “ Sticking ” vacuum, 78
    Stokes Machine Co., 51
    Stop-cocks, 41
    Strong, 150, 152, 201
    Strontium, 163, 168, 196
    Stull, 168
    Suck-back of oil, 4
    Sullivan, 51
    Sulphur, 197
    Sulphuric acid, 135
    Synthetic rubbers, 192
    TANTALUM, 127, 134, 157, 163, 168, 197
    carbide, 197
    Taps, see Stop-cocks
    Technical Products Ltd., 41
    Temperature coefficients of resistivities, 162
    Tenney, 31
    Tesla coil, 43, 58
    Thermal conductivities of elements,
    Tombac, 172
    Transmitting valves, pumping of, U
    Tungsten, 127, 134, 152, 163, 16
    198
    ULTIMATE VACUUM OR LIMITING PR.
    SURE, 4, 11, 14, 17, 49, 50, 52, 5<*,
    56, 57
    Ultra-high vacua, 69
    VACUSTAT GAUGE, 78
    Vacuum Industrial Applications Ltd.,
    27, 55, 65, 99
    Vacuum locks, 65
    Vacuum stoves, 126
    Vacuum valves, 65
    Vapour pressures,
    of barium oxide, 196
    of carbon, 168
    of common liquids, 200
    of greases, 175
    of mercury, 186
    of metals, 168
    of phosphorus, 190
    of phosphorus pentoxide, 190
    of strontium oxide, 196
    of water, 199
    Viscosities of gases, 161
    Viscosity gauge, 102
    Volmer diffusion pump, 16
    WATER, PROPERTIES OF, 199
    solubility of gases in, 199
    Watcr-jct pumps, 2, 3
    Watson, 74
    Welch Scientific Co., 51
    Westinghouse Research Laboratories,
    95
    White, 106
    Wilner, 173
    Wilson seal, 62
    Winkelmann, 183
    Witty, 19
    Wood’s metal, 195
    Woonton, 191
    162
    Thermal Syndicate Ltd., 24
    Thermionic cathodes, activation of,
    26, 139
    Thermocouple gauge, 12, 68, 99, 102
    Thoriated tungsten, 197
    Thorium, 163, 168, 197
    Throat width in diffusion pump design, 33
    Throughput, 109
    Tin, 163, 168, 197
    Titanium, 198
    dioxide, 198
    ZABEL, 30
    Zinc, 156, 163, 168, 200
    chloride, 135
    oxychloride, 200
    Zirconium, 134, 163, 168, 200
    208

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