Heat Transfer – A Basic Approach

Heat Transfer – A Basic Approach
اسم المؤلف
M. NECATI OZISIK
التاريخ
18 سبتمبر 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Heat Transfer – A Basic Approach
M. NECATI OZISIK
Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
North Carolina State University
CONTENTS
Preface xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction and Concepts i
1-1 Conduction 2
1-2 Convection 5
1-3 Radiation 8
1-4 Combined Heat Transfer Mechanism 13
1-5 Units, Dimensions, and Conversion Factors 14
1-6 Summary of Basic Relations 17
Problems 18
References 21
Short Bibliography of Textbooks in Heat Transfer 21
Chapter 2 Conduction— Basic Equations 23
2-1 One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation 23
2-2 Three-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation 29
2-3 Boundary Conditions 31
2-4 Summary of Basic Equations 36
Problems 38
References 41
Chapter 3 One-Dimensional, Steady-State
Heat Conduction 42
3-1 The Slab 42
3-2 The Cylinder 49
3-3 The Sphere 55
3-4 Composite Medium 59
3-5 Thermal Contact Resistance 65
3-6 Critical Thickness of Insulation 68
viiViil CONTENTS
3-7 Finned Surfaces 71
3-8 Temperature-Dependent k{T) 82
3-9 Summary of Basic Relations 85
Problems 87
References 100
Chapter 4 Transient Conduction and Use of
Temperature Charts 101
4-1 Lumped-System Analysis 101
4-2 Slab— Use of Transient-Temperature Charts 108
4-3 Long Cylinder and Sphere— Use of Transient-Temperature
Charts 114
4-4 Semi-infinite Solid— Use of Transient-Temperature Charts 120
4-5 Product Solution— Use of Transient-Temperature Charts 124
4-6 Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Heat Conduction— Use of
Conduction Shape Factors 130
4-7 Transient Heat Conduction in a Slab— Analytic Solution 134
4-8 Transient Heat Conduction in a Slab— Use of Tabulated
Solutions 141
Problems 146
References 154
Chapter 5 Finite-Difference Methods for Solving
Heat Conduction Problems 156
5-1 One-Dimensional, Steady-State Heat Conduction 157
5-2 Boundary Conditions 160
5-3 Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Heat Conduction 169
5-4 Methods of Solving Simultaneous Algebraic Equations 177
5-5 Cylindrical and Spherical Symmetry 181
5-6 Unsteady Heat Conduction— Explicit Method 188
5-7 Unsteady Heat Conduction— Implicit Method 202
Problems 206
References 224
Chapter 6 Convection— Concepts and Basic Relations 226
6-1 Flow over a Body 227
6-2 Flow inside a Duct 238
6-3 Concepts on Turbulence 245
6-4 Equations of Motion 253
6-5 Equation of Energy 261
6-6 Dimensionless Parameters 267
6-7 Boundary-Layer Equations 270
Problems 271
References 279CONTENTS IX
Chapter 7 Forced Convection for Flow inside Ducts 281
7-1 Hydrodynamically and Thermally Developed Laminar Flow 282
7-2 Thermally Developing, Hydrodynamically Developed
Laminar Flow 299
7-3 Simultaneously Developing Laminar Flow 305
7-4 Turbulent Flow inside Ducts 310
7-5 Heat Transfer to Liquid Metals 322
7-6 Analogies between Heat and Momentum Transfer in
Turbulent Flow 328
7-7 Heat Transfer Augmentation 332
7-8 Summary of Correlations 336
Problems 339
References 347
Chapter 8 Forced Convection for Flow over Bodies 352
8-1 Drag Coefficient for Flow over a Flat Plate 352
8-2 Heat Transfer Coefficient for Flow over a Flat Plate 361
8-3 Flow across a Single Circular Cylinder 373
8-4 Flow across a Single Noncircular Cylinder 381
8-5 Flow across a Single Sphere 382
8-6 Flow across Tube Bundles 385
8-7 Heat Transfer in High-Speed Flow over a Flat Plate 397
8-8 Summary of Correlations 404
Problems 404
References 410
Notes 413
Chapter 9 Free Convection 416
9-1 Dimensionless Parameters of Free Convection 418
9-2 An Approximate Analysis of Laminar Free Convection on a
Vertical Plate 422
9-3 Correlations of Free Convection on a Vertical Plate 430
9-4 Free Convection on a Horizontal Plate 436
9-5 Free Convection on an Inclined Plate 439
9-6 Free Convection on a Long Cylinder 443
9-7 Free Convection on a Sphere 447
9-8 Simplified Equations for Air 448
9-9 Mechanism of Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces 449
9-10 Correlations of Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces 452
9-11 Combined Free and Forced Convection 459
9-12 Summary of Correlations for Heat Transfer in Free Convection 462
Problems 467
References 472
Chapter 10 Boiling and Condensation 476
10-1 Film Condensation Theory 477
10-2 Comparison of Film Condensation Theory with Experiments 483X CONTENTS
10-3 Film Condensation inside Horizontal Tubes 487
10-4 Dropwise Condensation 489
10-5 Condensation in the Presence of Noncondensable Gas 490
10-6 Pool Boiling Regimes 491
10-7 Pool Boiling Correlations 493
10-8 Forced-Convection Boiling inside Tubes 505
10-9 Summary of Equations 514
Problems 516
References 519
Chapter 11 Heat Exchangers 524
11-1 Classification of Heat Exchangers 525
11-2 Temperature Distribution in Heat Exchangers 536
11-3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 538
11-4 The LMTD Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis 545
11-5 Correction for LMTD for Use with Cross-Flow and
Multipass Exchangers 553
11-6 e-NTU Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis 559
11-7 Compact Heat Exchangers 571
11-8 Heat Exchanger Optimization 582
Problems 584
References 590
Chapter 12 Radiation among Surfaces in a
Nonparticipating Medium 593
12-1 Nature of Thermal Radiation 593
12-2 Blackbody Radiation 595
12-3 Radiation from Real Surfaces 604
12-4 Radiation Incident on a Surface 606
12-5 Radiation Properties of Surfaces 608
12-6 Solar Radiation 617
12-7 Concept of View Factor 624
12-8 Methods of Determining View Factors 631
12-9 Network Method for Radiation Exchange in an Enclosure 643
12-10 Radiosity Matrix Method for Radiation Exchange in an
Enclosure 657
12-11 Correction for Radiation Effects in Temperature
Measurements 667
12-12 Summary of Equations 668
Problems 670
References 683
Chapter 13 Radiation in Absorbing, Emitting Media 685
13-1 Equation of Radiative Transfer 685
13-2 Transmissivity, Absorptivity, and Emissivity 687
13-3 Radiation Exchange between a Gas Body and
Its Black Enclosure 690CONTENTS XI
13-4 Radiation Flux from an Absorbing, Emitting Slab at
Uniform Temperature— An Analytic Solution 698
Problems 700
References 701
Chapter 14 Mass Transfer 702
14-1 Definitions of Mass Flux 703
14-2 Steady-State Equimodal Counterdiffusion in Gases 706
14-3 Steady-State Unidirectional Diffusion in Gases 708
14-4 Steady-State Diffusion in Liquids 711
14-5 Unsteady Diffusion 713
14-6 Mass Diffusivity 716
14-7 Mass Transfer in Laminar and Turbulent Flow 722
Problems 729
References 730
Appendixes 733
A Conversion Factors 733
B Physical Properties 736
C Radiation Properties 756
D Error Function, Roots of Transcendental Equations, and
Exponential Integral Function 763
E Dimensional Data for Tubes and Steel Pipes 769
Indexes 771
Name Index
Subject Index
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