Handbook of Reference Data for Nondestructive Testing

Handbook of Reference Data for Nondestructive Testing
اسم المؤلف
Leonard Mordfin
التاريخ
11 أكتوبر 2023
المشاهدات
268
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Handbook of Reference Data for Nondestructive Testing
Leonard Mordfin,
Editor
Contents
Foreword v
1 General Data 1
2 Ultrasonic Testing 31
by John Slotwinski
3 Radiography 49
4 Electromagnetic Testing 75
by David Mackintosh
5 Penetrant Testing 99
by Sam Robinson
6 Magnetic Particle Testing 123
7 Leak Testing 149
by Patrick Abbott and Charles D. Ehrlich
Appendix List of Selected ASTM Standards for
Nondestructive Testing 167
Subject Index 173
General Data
Table 1.1 Physical constants 2
Table 1.2 Energy spectrum 3
Table 1.3 Atomic number, atomic mass, and density
of selected elements 4
Tables 1.4A–F: Densities of nonferrous metals and alloys
1.4A Cast aluminum alloys 6
1.4B Wrought aluminum alloys 7
1.4C Cast copper alloys 8
1.4D Wrought copper alloys 9
1.4E Magnesium alloys 11
1.4F Titanium alloys 12
Tables 1.5A–F: Densities of ferrous metals and alloys
1.5A Irons 13
1.5B Carbon steels 14
1.5C Alloy steels 15
1.5D Cast stainless steels 16
1.5E Wrought stainless steels 17
1.5F Tool steels 18
Tables 1.6A–C: Densities of superalloys
1.6A Nickel-base superalloys 19
1.6B Cobalt-base superalloys 21
1.6C Iron-base superalloys 21
Table 1.7 Densities of selected ceramic materials 22
Table 1.8 Densities of selected polymeric materials 23
Table 1.9 Densities of selected other solid materials 25
Table 1.10 Conversion factors for density 25
Subject Index
A
A-286, 21
A-A-59230, 139
Abbott, Patrick, iii, vi, 149
Absorption equivalence, 55
Acetate, 39
Acetone, 39, 158
Acetylene, 158
Acoustic impedance, 32, 35–39,
46
Acoustic velocity, 35–40, 46
Acrylic, 38
Adjacent conductor
magnetization, 135
Air, 39, 41, 155–158, 162, 164
Alcohol, 39, 158
Alloy steel, 14, 36, 43, 94, 128–
130
Alternating current, 142
Alumina, 22, 37, 114
Aluminum, 4, 35, 41–43, 52, 55,
83, 90, 115
Aluminum alloy, 6, 7, 35, 42, 55,
83, 90–92
Ammonia, 39, 158
Amplitude attenuation, 77, 81, 82,
86
AMS 2641, 138, 139
AMS 2644, 102–106
AMS 2647, 107, 110–113, 116
AMS 3040, 3042, 3044, 136, 138
AMS 3041, 3043, 136, 138, 141
AMS 3045, 3046, 136–138, 141
AMS 3161, 139
Anatase, 22
Antimony, 4, 52, 92
API gravity, 139, 140
Argon, 39, 155, 156, 158
Arsenic, 4
ASME Boiler Code, 84, 132–136,
142
Asphalt, 25
ASTM A 275, 133–136, 138, 139,
141, 142
ASTM A 966, 135, 136
ASTM D 1298, 139
ASTM D 1500, 139
ASTM D 2161, 141
ASTM E 1025, 63
ASTM E 1032, 59
ASTM E 11, 136, 137
ASTM E 1135, 102, 107
ASTM E 1316, 80
ASTM E 1416, 59
ASTM E 1417, 106–108, 114
ASTM E 1444, 131–138, 141, 142
ASTM E 1647, 69
ASTM E 165, 109, 115
ASTM E 1742, 59
ASTM E 709, 132
ASTM E 747, 66, 67
ASTM E 94, 55–58
ASTM reference radiographs, 70,
71
Astroloy, 19
Atomic mass, 4, 5
Atomic number, 4, 5
Attenuation, 41, 52–54
Audio frequencies, 3
Avogadro constant, 2
B
Babbit, 92
Barium, 4, 52
Barium titanate, 46
Beam spread, 33, 45
Beam width, 33
Benzene, 39, 158
Benzol, 39
Beryllium, 4, 35, 52, 92
Beryllium oxide, 22
Bismuth, 4
Boron, 4
Boron carbide, 22
Boron nitride, 22
Brass, 8–10, 35, 42, 55, 83, 92, 115
Brick, 25
Brightness, 102, 106, 116
Bronze,
Brookite, 22
Bubble test, 164
Bulk modulus, 33, 42
Butane, 159
C
Cadmium, 4, 35, 52, 93
Calcium, 4, 52, 93
Capacitive reactance, 77, 87, 88
Capillary leaks, 151, 153
Carbide-tipped tools, 115
Carbon, 4, 52, 114
Carbon dioxide, 39, 158
Carbon monoxide, 39, 158
Carbon steel, 14, 36, 83, 94, 95,
127, 128
Cast aluminum alloy, 6, 90
Cast copper alloy, 8
Cast iron, 13, 35, 93, 126
Cast stainless steel, 16
Castor oil, 39
Cellulose, 23
Ceramics, 22, 37, 46, 115
Cerium, 4
Cesium 137, 51, 60
Chlorine, 39
Chromium, 4, 53, 93
Circular magnetization, 133–134
Cobalt, 4, 53, 130
Cobalt 60, 51, 60
Cobalt-base superalloy, 21
Coercive force, 125–130
Columbium, 93
Concrete, 25, 56
Conductance of orifices, 155
Conductance of tubes, 157
Conductivity, 77–80, 90–95
Contrast sensitivity gage, 69
Conversion equations for ET, 78–
79
Conversion factors, 25, 120, 125,
160, 161
Copper, 4, 8, 35, 42, 53, 55, 83, 93
Copper alloy, 8–10, 35, 42, 55, 83,
92–94, 115
Cosmic rays, 117
Crimped tube leaks, 151
Critical angle of refraction, 42, 43
Curie point, 126–130
D
Demagnetizing factors, 143
Density, 4–25, 35–39, 46, 158, 159
Depth of focus, 33
Depth of penetration, 77, 80–85,
95
Developers, 101, 102, 104, 105,
107, 114
Development times, 114
Dielectric constant, 46
Diesel oil, 39
Diffusivity activation energy, 152
Direct current, 142
Dwell times, 106, 115
Dysprosium, 4
E
Eddy current testing, 75–95
Effective diameter, 88
Ehrlich, Charles D., iii, vi, 149
Electromagnetic radiation
spectrum, 117
Electromagnetic testing (ET), 75–
97, 169
Emulsifiers, 102, 105–107
Energy spectrum, 3, 117
Equivalent penetrameter
sensitivity, 63–65
Erbium, 4
Ethane, 158
Ethyl alcohol, 158
Ethylene, 158
Europium, 4
Exposure, 60–62
F
Faraday constant, 2
Ferromagnetic materials, 126–130,
142
Fill factor, 77, 84, 86, 131–133
Flat plate testing, 85
Flint, 25
Flow rate, 151, 155, 156
Fluorescence, 102, 103, 106, 119
Fluorescent screens, 61
Fluorocarbon, 23, 150
Frequency constant, 46
G
Gadolinium, 4
Gallium, 4, 35
Gamma rays, 3, 50–51, 55, 60, 117
Gases, 39, 151, 154–159, 164
Gasoline, 39
General data, 1–28
Geometric unsharpness, 56–60
Germanium, 4
Glass, 25, 37, 41, 115, 150
Glycerin, 39
Gold, 4, 35, 93
Granite, 25
Graphite, 83, 93
H
Hafnium, 4, 55
Hafnium carbide, 22
Half-value layer thickness, 52, 56
Halocarbon, 158
Halogen test, 164
Hastelloy, 19, 93
Haynes alloy, 19, 21
Helium, 39, 151, 155, 159
Hexane, 159
Holmium, 4
Hydrogen, 39, 151, 155, 159
Hydrogen sulfide, 159
I
Ideal gas constant, 152
Illuminance, 125
Illumination, 135, 136
Image quality indicator, 63, 65–67
Incoloy, 19
Inconel, 19, 20, 35, 42, 43, 55, 83,
93
Incrament 800, 8
Indium, 4
Induced current flow, 135
Inductive reactance, 77, 87, 88
Industrial X-ray wavelengths, 3
Infrared wavelengths, 3, 117
Inverse square law, 61, 62
Iridium, 4, 93
Iridium 192, 51, 60
Iridium-platinum alloy, 93
Iron, 4, 13, 21, 35, 43, 53, 55, 93,
126
Iron carbide, 130
Iron oxide, 130, 137
Iron-base superalloy, 21
ISO 13664, 13665, 136
ISO 3059, 136
ISO 4986, 131
ISO 6933, 131, 136, 138
ISO 9934–1, 131, 133–136
K
Kerosene, 39
Kinematic viscosity, 125, 139, 141
Krypton, 159
L
L-605, 21
Lead, 4, 35, 53, 55, 56, 93
Lead metaniobate, 46
Lead screens, 69
Leak elements, 151
Leak equations, 152
Leak rate conversions, 160
Leak test methods, 164
Leak testing, 149–165, 170, 171
Leakage rate, 151, 152, 160, 164
Lift-off, 85
Light sources, 116
Limestone, 25
Linear absorption coefficient, 51–
52
Linear attenuation coefficient, 52–
54
Liquids, 39
Lithium, 4, 93
Longitudinal magnetization, 131–
133
Longitudinal wavespeed, 35–39,
46
Lucite, 38, 41
Luminous efficiency, 117
M
Mackintosh, David, iii, vi, 75
Magnesia, 22
Magnesium, 4, 35, 42, 43, 53, 55,
93, 115
Magnesium alloy, 11, 42, 93
Magnetic field strength, 77, 79,
88, 125
Magnetic flux, 77, 88, 89, 125
Magnetic flux density, 77, 79, 88,
125
Magnetic particle sensitivity, 137,
138
Magnetic particle suspensions,
141, 142
Magnetic particle testing, 123–
147, 170
Magnetic particle testing
parameters, 135–143
Magnetic particles, 135–137
Magnetic permeability, 77–79, 84,
88, 95
Magnetization, 125, 131–135
Manganese, 4, 35, 53
Marble, 25
MAR-M, 20, 21
Mass absorption coefficient, 52
Mass density, 4–25, 35–39, 46,
158, 159
Mass spectra, 162
Mass spectrometer, 164
Mass-to-charge ratio, 162
Maximum geometric
unsharpness, 59
Mean free path, 158, 159
Melamine, 23
Methane, 39, 159
Microwaves, 3
Minimum wavelength, 51
Modulus of elasticity, 33, 42
Molar gas constant, 2
Molecular diameter, 158, 159
Molecular flow, 154, 155, 157
Molecular weight of gases, 158,
159
Molybdenum, 4, 53, 93
Molybdenum disilicide, 22
Monel, 35, 55, 83, 94
Motor oil, 39
Mullite, 22
Muntz metal, 9, 92
N
N-155, 21
NDT Handbook, 134–138
NDZ, 8
Near field transition point, 33, 44
Neodymium, 4
Neon, 155, 156, 159
Nickel, 4, 35, 42, 53, 94, 130, 142
Nickel alloys, 19, 20, 35, 55, 83,
94, 130
Nickel silver, 8, 10, 35
Nickel-base superalloy, 19, 20
Nicrosilal, 13
Ni-hard, 13
Nimocast, 20
Nimonic, 20, 21
Niobium, 4, 53
Ni-Resist, 13
Nitric oxide, 159
Nitrogen, 39, 155, 156, 162
Nitrous oxide, 159
Nomogram for geometric
unsharpness, 57, 58
Nomograph for IQI, 64
Nondestructive testing standards,
167–171
Nylon, 23
O
Ohm’s Law, 87
Olive oil, 39
Orifice leaks, 151, 155
Osmium, 4, 94
Oxygen, 39, 159
P
Palladium, 4, 94
Parafin oil, 39
Penetrant material classification,
101
Penetrant material tests, 106
Penetrant process flow charts,
108–113
Penetrant system tests, 105, 107
Penetrant testing, 99–121, 169,
170
Penetrants, 101, 102, 104–107, 164
Pentane, 159
Permeability, 77–79, 84, 88, 95,
125–130
Permeability of vacuum, 88, 125
Permeation leaks, 151, 152
Petroleum, 39
Phase, 77, 81, 85, 88
Phenol, 23
Phenylene, 23
Photometry, 116, 117
Physical constants, 2
Physical leaks, 151
Piezoelectric materials, 46
Pipe sizes, 70
Planck constant, 2
Plastics, 23, 24, 38, 114, 115
Platinum, 4, 94
Plexiglass, 38
Poffenroth, Dennis, vi
Poisson’s ratio, 34, 42
Polyethylene, 38
Polymers, 23, 24, 38
Polystyrene, 38
Porcelain, 25
Potassium, 4
Presley, Connie, vi
Pressure change test, 164
Pressure units conversions, 161
Prods, 134, 135
Propane, 159
Pumpdown curves, 163
PVDF, 38, 46
Pyromet, 20
PZT, 46
Q
Quality/sensitivity, 63–69
Quartz, 41, 46
R
Radio frequencies, 3
Radio waves, 117
Radiographic absorption
equivalence, 55
Radiography, 49–72, 168, 169
Radiometry, 116, 117
Radium 226, 51
Rayleigh wavespeed, 35, 36
Reciprocity law, 60, 61
Reference leaks, 150
Reflection coefficient, 33
Refraction, 42
Remote field testing, 75, 84
Removers, 101, 102, 105
Rene, 20
Resistivity, 77–80, 84, 87, 90–95
Rhenium, 4
Rhodium, 4, 94
Robinson, Sam, iii, vi, 99
Rubber, 25
Rubidium, 4
Ruthenium, 4, 94
Rutile, 22
S
S-816, 21
SAE AS4792, AS5282, AS5371,
138
Sandstone, 25
Sapphire, 37
Saturation flux density, 125–130
Scandium, 4
Screens, 61, 69
Search unit, 33, 44, 45
Selenium, 4, 53, 94
Selenium 75, 51
Sensitivity, 63–69, 164
Shear modulus, 34, 42
Shear wavespeed, 35–38
Sieve sizes, 136, 137
Silal, 13
Silica, 22, 37, 151
Silicon, 4, 53
Silicon carbide, 22, 37
Silicon iron, 126, 127
Silicon nitride, 22, 37
Sillimanite, 22
Silver, 4, 53, 83, 94
Sintered leaks, 151
Skin depth, 80–82, 84, 86
Slate, 25
Slotwinski, John, iii, vi, 31
Snell’s Law, 33
Sodium, 4
Soft X-ray wavelengths, 3
Solder, 94
Solvent removers, 101, 114
Specific gravity conversion, 140
Spectral radiance of bulb, 118
Speed of light, 2
Spinel, 22
Stainless steel, 16, 17, 36, 42, 43,
83, 94, 129, 130
Standard cracks, 116
Standard leaks, 150
Steel, 14–18, 36, 42, 43, 55, 56, 60,
68, 70, 83, 94, 115, 127–130
Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 2
Stellite, 21
Strontium, 4
Subsonic frequencies, 3
Sulfur dioxide, 159
Superalloys, 19–21
SUS viscosity, 139, 141
Suspension vehicles, 138, 139
T
Tantalum, 4, 53, 94
Teflon, 38
Tellurium, 5
Temperature coefficient of leaks,
151–153
Temperature conversions, 120,
125
Tenth-value layer thickness, 52,
56
Terbium, 4
Thallium, 5
Thermal conductivity, 164
Thermal speed, 158, 159
Thermal stability, 103
Thorium, 5
Thulium 170, 51, 60
Tin, 5, 36, 54, 94
Titanium, 5, 36, 42, 43, 54, 55, 94
Titanium alloy, 12, 36, 42, 83, 94
Titanium carbide, 22
Titanium diboride, 22
Tool steel, 18
Tool steel ring test, 137, 138
Transitional flow, 154
Transmission coefficient, 32
Tubular testing, 84, 86
Tungsten, 5, 36, 42, 54, 94
U
Udimet, 20
Ultra-high frequencies, 3
Ultrasonic attenuation, 41
Ultrasonic cleaning, 114
Ultrasonic equations, 32–34
Ultrasonic frequencies, 3
Ultrasonic testing, 31–47, 164,
167, 168
Ultraviolet densitometry, 119
Ultraviolet light intensity, 136
Ultraviolet stability, 103
Ultraviolet wavelengths, 3, 117
Unitemp, 20
Units for electromagnetic testing,
77
Units for magnetic particle
testing, 125
Uranium, 5, 36, 43, 54, 55, 94
Uranium carbide, 22
Uranium oxide, 22
Urea formaldehyde, 24
V
Vacuum, 88, 125, 162–164
Vanadium, 5, 54, 94
Very high frequencies, 3
Virtual leaks, 163
Viscosity, 125, 139, 141, 158, 159
Viscous flow, 154, 156
Visible light intensity, 136
char 12
Font Times-Bold
Color red
Visible light wavelengths, 3, 117
Vision and eye measurements,
117–119
W
Waspaloy, 20, 94
Water, 39–41, 151
Water vapor, 155, 156, 159
Wavelength of maximum
emission, 51
Wavespeed, 35–40, 46
Wien displacement law constant,
2
Wire rope, 96
Wire sizes, 65, 67, 68
Wood, 25
Wrought aluminum alloy, 7, 91,
92
Wrought copper alloy, 9, 10
Wrought iron, 13
Wrought stainless steel, 17
X
Xenon, 159
X-ray absorption/attenuation,
51–56
X-ray sources, 50–51
X-ray wavelengths, 50–51
X-rays, 3, 49–67, 69
Y
Yokes, 142, 143
Young’s modulus, 33, 42
Ytterbium, 5
Ytterbium 169, 51, 60
Yttrium, 5
Z
Zinc, 5, 36, 54, 55, 94
Zircaloy, 94
Zircon, 22
Zirconium, 5, 54, 55, 94
Zirconium diboride, 22
Zirconium oxide, 22, 37, 42

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