Fundamentals of Machine Design Vol 3

Fundamentals of Machine Design Vol 3
اسم المؤلف
P. Orlov, A. Troitsky
التاريخ
14 يوليو 2023
المشاهدات
403
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Fundamentals of Machine Design Vol 3
P. Orlov
Translated From the Russian
By A. Troitsky
Contents
Chapter 1. Assembly . . 9
1.1. Axial and Radial A ssem bly 11
1.2. Independent Disassembly 21
1.3. Successive A sse m b ly . 22
1.4. Withdrawal Facilities 25
1.5. Dismantling of F langes 28
1.6. Assembly Locations . 29
1.7. Prevention of Wrong Assem bly 30
1.8. Access of Assembly T o o ls 34
1.9. Rigging Devices . . . 36
1.10. Spur Gear D riv es 37
1.11. Bevel Gear D riv es 41
1.12. Spur-and-Bevel Gear D riv es 46
Chapter 2. Convenience in Maintenance and Operation 48
2.1. Facilitating Assembly and Disassembly . 48
2.2. Protection Against D am age 54
2.3. Interlocking D e v ic e s . 56
2.4. External Appearance and Finish of M achines 57
Chapter 3, Designing Cast M embers . 60
3.1. Wall Thickness and Strength of C astings . 61
3.2. Moulding 63
3.3. Simplification of Casting S hapes 78
3.4. Separation of Castings into P a r ts 78
3.5. Moulding D r a f t s . 80
3.6. S h rin k a g e 82
3.7. Internal S tre s s e s . 83
3.8. Simultaneous S olidification . . 85
3.9. Directional S olidification 87
3.10. Design Rules 87
3.11. Casting and Ma’chining Locations 101
3.12. Variations in Casting Dimensions and Their Effect on the
Design of C a s tin g s . 102
3.13. Dimensioning 109
Chapter 4. Design of Parts to Be M achined 112
4.1. Cutting Down the Amount of M achining . 114
4.2. Press Forging and Form ing . 117
4.3. Composite S tru c tu re s . 119
4.4. Eliminat ion of Superfluously Accurate Machining . . . . 1216 Contents
4.5. Through-Pass Machining 123
4.6. Overtravel of Cutting T o o ls 127
4.7. Approach of Cutting T o o ls 132
4.8. Separation of Surfaces to Be Machined to Different Accuracies and F in is h e s . 136
4.9. Making the Shape of Parts Conformable to Machining Conditions . 140
4.10. Separation of Rough Surfaces from Surfaces to Be Machined . 141
4.11. Machining in a Single S e ttin g 144
4.12. Joint Machining of Assembled P a r ts . 146
4.13. Transferring Profile-Forming Elements to Male Parts 148
4.14. Contour Milling . 148
4.15. Chamfering of Form Surfaces 150
4.16. Machining of Sunk Surfaces 151
4.17. Machining of Bosses in H ousings . 152
4.18. Microgeometry of Frictional End Surfaces . 153
4.19. Elimination of Unilateral Pressure on Cutting Tools 153
4.20. Elimination of Deformations Caused by Cutting Tools 155
4.21. Joint Machining of Parts of Different H ardness 157
4.22. Shockless Operation of Cutting T o o ls . 158
4.23. Machining of H o le s . 159
4.24. Reduction of the Range of Cutting T o o ls . 161
4.25. Centre H o le s . 163
4.26. Measurement Datum Surfaces 165
4.27. Increasing the Efficiency of M achining . 167
4.28. Multiple Machining 171
Chapter 5. Welded J o i n t s 174
5.1. Types of Welded J o in ts 184
5.2. Welds as Shown on D raw ings 186
5.3. Drawings of Welded J o i n t s 196
5.4. Design Rules 199
5.5. Increasing the Strength of Welded J o i n t s . 199
5.6. J oints Formed by Resistance W elding . 213
5.7. Welding of P ip e s 215
5.8. Welding-on of F la n g e s . 216
5.9. Welding-on of B ushings . 217
5.10. Welding-on of B a r s 219
5.11. Welded Frames . 221
5.12. Welded Truss J o in ts 225
Chapter 6. Riveted J o i n t s 229
6.1. Hot Riveting . 229
6.2. Cold R iv e tin g . 231
6.3. Rivet Materials . 233
6.4. Types of Riveted J o in ts 234
6.5. Types of R i v e t s . 237
6.6. Design Relative Proportions 237
6.7. Heading Allowances 241
6.8. Design Rules . 243
6.9. Strengthening of Riveted J o i n t s 245
6.10. Solid R iv e ts . 246
6.11. Tubular Rivets . 247
6.12. Thin-Walled Tubular R iv e ts 249Contents 7
6.13. Blind Rivets . 249
6.14. Special R iv e ts . 253
6.15. Riveting of Thin S h eets . 253
Chapter 7. Fastening by Cold Plastic Deformation M ethods . 255
7.1. Fastening of Bushings . 256
7.2. Fastening of B a r s . 256
7.3. Fastening of Axles and P i n s 258
7.4. Connection of Cylindrical M embers . 259
7.5. Fastening of Parts on Surfaces 260
7.6. Swaging Down of Annular Parts on S h a fts . 261
7.7. Fastening of P lu g s . 261
7.8. Fastening of Flanges to Pipes 263
7.9. Fastening of T u b e s . 263
7.10. Fastening by Means of L u g s 264
7.11. Various C onnections . 265
7.12. Seaming 266
Index . 269
Index
A
Assembly, 9-54
axial, 11-21
facilitating, 48-54
locations of, 29-30
radial, 11-21
selective, 10
successive, 22-25
tools, access of, 34-36
wrong, prevention of, 30-33
food proof, 33
c
Castings, open, 67-69
separation into parts, 78, 80
shape, simplification of, 78
strength of, 61-63
variations in dimensions, 102-108
wall thickness of, 61-63
Casting methods, 60-61
cavityless (full-form), 61
centrifugal, 61
chill, 60
pressure die, 61
sand mould, 60
semi-permanent mould, 61
shell mould, 60
Centre holes, 163-165
Chamfering of form surfaces, 150-151
Chaplets, 75
Cluster gear assembly patterns, 18-21
Cod, 67
Composite structures, 119-121
Cutting tools, approach of, 132-136
overtravel of, 127-132
Conjugation of walls, 87-89
Connection of cylindrical members,
259
Contact between teeth, 38
Contour milling, 148-150
Controlled cooling, 86
Cores, 60, 69-78
band, 72
fastening of, 73-76
installation of, 71, 73
prints, 73-78
holes for, 76-78
unification of, 72-73
Core moulds, 60
Cutting tools, 153-163
elimination of, deformations
caused by, 155-157
unilateral pressure on, 153-
155
reduction of the range of, 161-163
shockless operation of, 158-159
D
Design rules, 87-101, 199-209, 243-245
Design tapers, 80
Dimensioning, 109-111
Disassembly, facilitating, 48-54
independent, 21-22
Dismantling of flanges, 28
E
Elimination of massive elements, 89-
91
Escape of gases, 71-72
F
Fastening, of axes and pins, 258-259270 Index
of bars, 256-258
of bushings, 256
of flanges to pipes, 263
by means of lugs, 264
of parts on surfaces, 260-261
of plugs, 261-262
of tubes, 263-264
Fillet welds, 184
concave
convex (reinforced)
dimensions of
straight (normal)
Finish of machines, 57-59
Flanges, 94
Gear drives, 37-47
bevel, 41-46
spur, 37-41
spur-and-bevel, 46-47
H
Holes, 95
I
Interlocking devices, 56-57
K
Kinematic accuracy, 38
L
Locations, axial, 101-102
casting (rough), 101
rough surface, 101
M
Machining, of bosses in housings, 152-
153
cutting down amount of, 114-117
elimination of superfluously accurate, 121-122
of frictional end surfaces, 153
of holes, 159-161
increasing the efficiency of, 167-
171
joint, of assembled parts, 146-147
of parts of different hardness,
157-158
multiple, 171-173
consecutive, 171
parallel, 171
parallel-consecutive, 171
in a single setting, 144-146
of sunk surfaces, 151
through-pass, 123-127
Measurement datum surfaces, 165-167
Moulding, 63-78
drafts, 80-81
mechanical, 60
Mould parting, 66-67
N
Non-recoverable punch, 250
P
Press forging and forming, 117-119
Prevention of blowholes, 93
Protection against damage, 54-56
R
Reduction of shrinkage stresses, 91-92
Ribs, 95
Rigging devices, 36-37
Rimming, 94
Riveted joints, 229-254
strengthening of, 245-246
types of, 234-236
Riveting, cold, 231-233
hot, 229-231
of thin sheets, 253-254
Rivets, blind, 249-253
calculation of, 230-231
heading allowances, 242
installation of, 244-245
materials, 233-234
set, 249, 251-253
shapes of, 245
solid, 246-247
special, 253
tubular, 247-248
thin-walled, 249
types of, 237-239
varieties of, 232
Rule of shadows, 64
s
Seaming, 266-268
Separation of surfaces, of different
accuracy and finish, 136-141
rough and machined, 141-143
Shrinkage, 82-83
free, 83
linear, 82
restricted, 83Index 271
rules of, 83
volume, 82
Socket wrenches, 34-35
Solidification, 85-87
directional, 87
simultaneous, 85-86
Smoothness of run, 38
Stresses, internal, 83-85
u
Undercuts, 184
elimination of, 63-66
V
Various connections, 265
w
Wall thickness, 100-101
Warping, 175, 183
Welded frames, 221-224
Welded joints, drawings of, 196-199
increasing the strength of, 199,
209-213
as shown on drawings, 186
truss, 225-228
types of, 184-193
butt, 184, 186, 189-190
corner, 184, 186, 192
lap, 184-185, 191
slotted (plug) welds, 185
transfusion, 185
tee, 184, 186, 193
Welding of pipes, 215-216
Welding-on, of bars, 219-220
of bushings, 217-219
of flanges, 216-217
Withdrawal facilities, 25-28
for flanges, 28
in standard machine elements,
26-27
for tightly fitted hubs, 25, 27

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