Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control

Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control
اسم المؤلف
William C. Dunn
التاريخ
9 يناير 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control
William C. Dunn
Second Edition
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgment
1 Introduction
Chapter Objectives
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 History
1.2 Process Control
1.3 Definition of the Elements in a Control Loop
1.4 Process Facility Considerations
1.5 Units and Standards
1.6 Instrument Accuracy
Summary
Problems
2 Pressure
Chapter Objectives
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Basic Terms
2.2.1 Density
2.2.2 Impact Pressure
2.3 Pressure Measurements
2.4 Pressure Formulas
2.5 Measuring Instruments
2.5.1 Manometers
2.5.2 Diaphragms, Capsules, and Bellows
2.5.3 Bourdon Tubes
2.5.4 Other Pressure Sensors
2.5.5 Vacuum Instruments
62.6 Application Considerations
2.6.1 Selection
2.6.2 Installation
2.6.3 Calibration
Summary
Problems
3 Level
Chapter Objectives
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Level Formulas
3.3 Level Sensing Devices
3.3.1 Direct Level Sensing
3.3.2 Indirect Level Sensing
3.4 Application Considerations
Summary
Problems
4 Flow
Chapter Objectives
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Basic Terms
4.3 Flow Formulas
4.3.1 Continuity Equation
4.3.2 Bernoulli Equation
4.3.3 Flow Losses
4.4 Flow Measurement Instruments
4.4.1 Flow Rate
4.4.2 Total Flow
4.4.3 Mass Flow
4.4.4 Dry Particulate Flow Rate
4.4.5 Open Channel Flow
4.5 Application Considerations
4.5.1 Selection
4.5.2 Installation
4.5.3 Calibration
Summary
7Problems
5 Temperature and Heat
Chapter Objectives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Basic Terms
5.2.1 Temperature Definitions
5.2.2 Heat Definitions
5.2.3 Thermal Expansion Definitions
5.3 Temperature and Heat Formulas
5.3.1 Temperature
5.3.2 Heat Transfer
5.3.3 Thermal Expansion
5.4 Temperature Measuring Devices
5.4.1 Thermometers
5.4.2 Pressure-Spring Thermometers
5.4.3 Resistance Temperature Devices
5.4.4 Thermistors
5.4.5 Thermocouples
5.4.6 Semiconductors
5.5 Application Considerations
5.5.1 Selection
5.5.2 Range and Accuracy
5.5.3 Thermal Time Constant
5.5.4 Installation
5.5.5 Calibration
5.5.6 Protection
Summary
Problems
6 Humidity, Density, Viscosity, and pH
Chapter Objectives
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Humidity
6.2.1 Humidity Definitions
6.2.2 Humidity Measuring Devices
6.3 Density and Specific Gravity
86.3.1 Basic Terms
6.3.2 Density Measuring Devices
6.3.3 Density Application Considerations
6.4 Viscosity
6.4.1 Basic Terms
6.4.2 Viscosity Measuring Instruments
6.5 pH Measurements
6.5.1 Basic Terms
6.5.2 pH Measuring Devices
6.5.3 pH Application Considerations
Summary
Problems
7 Position, Motion, and Force
Chapter Objectives
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Position and Motion Sensing
7.2.1 Basic Position Definitions
7.2.2 ON/OFF Position Sensing
7.2.3 Motion and Distance Sensing
7.2.4 Rotation Sensing
7.2.5 Position Application Consideration
7.3 Force, Torque, and Load Cells
7.3.1 Basic Definitions of Force and Torque
7.3.2 Force and Torque Measuring Devices
7.3.3 Force and Torque Application Considerations
Summary
Problems
8 Safety and Alarm
Chapter Objectives
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Safety Hazards
8.2.1 Personnel Hazards
8.2.2 Environmental Hazards
8.2.3 Control Equipment Hazards
8.2.4 Process Equipment Hazards
98.3 Safety Sensors
8.3.1 Smoke and Fire Sensors
8.3.2 Heat Sensors
8.3.3 Gas Sensors
8.3.4 Artificial Senses Chemical Sensors
8.3.5 Radiation Detectors
8.4 Process Equipment Safety
8.4.1 Alarm and Trip Systems
8.4.2 Safety Instrumented Systems
8.4.3 Power Loss Fail Safe
8.4.4 Safety Instrumented System Example
8.5 Safety and Protection
8.5.1 Personnel Protection
8.5.2 Environmental Protection
8.5.3 Equipment Protection
Summary
Problems
9 Electrical Instruments and Conditioning
Chapter Objectives
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Instrument Parameters
9.2.1 Basic Terms
9.3 Transducers
9.3.1 Definitions
9.3.2 Visual Display Considerations
9.3.3 Mechanical Motion to Electrical Transducers
9.4 Operational Amplifiers
9.4.1 Voltage Amplifiers
9.4.2 Current Amplifiers
9.4.3 Differential Amplifiers
9.4.4 Converters
9.4.5 Buffer Amplifiers
9.4.6 Nonlinear Amplifiers
9.4.7 Instrument Amplifier
9.5 Signal Conditioning
9.5.1 Offset Zero
109.5.2 Span Adjustment
9.5.3 Linearization in Analog Circuits
9.5.4 Linearization in Digital Circuits
9.5.5 Temperature Correction
9.6 Bridge Circuits
9.6.1 DC Bridges
9.6.2 Current-Balanced Bridge
9.6.3 Strain Gauge Sensors
9.6.4 AC Bridges
9.6.5 Capacitive Sensors
9.6.6 Resistance Sensors
9.6.7 Magnetic Sensors
Summary
Problems
10 Regulators, Valves, and Actuators
Chapter Objectives
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Pressure Controllers
10.2.1 Regulators
10.2.2 Safety Valves
10.2.3 Level Regulators
10.3 Flow Control Actuators
10.3.1 Globe Valve
10.3.2 Flow Control
10.3.3 Butterfly Valve
10.3.4 Other Valve Types
10.3.5 Valve Characteristics
10.3.6 Valve Fail Safe
10.4 Actuators
10.4.1 Operation
10.4.2 Control Valves
10.5 Electronic Devices
10.6 Application Considerations
10.6.1 Valves
Summary
Problems
1111 Process Control
Chapter Objectives
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Basic Terms
11.3 Control Modes
11.3.1 ON/OFF Action
11.3.2 Differential Action
11.3.3 Proportional Action
11.3.4 Derivative Action
11.3.5 Integral Action
11.3.6 PID Action
11.4 Implementation of Control Loops
11.4.1 ON/OFF Action Pneumatic Controller
11.4.2 ON/OFF Action Electrical Controller
11.4.3 PID Action Pneumatic Controller
11.4.4 PID Action Control Circuits
11.4.5 PID Electronic Controller
11.5 Digital Controllers
Summary
Problems
12 Documentation and Symbol Standards
Chapter Objectives
12.1 Introduction
12.2 System Documentation
12.2.1 Manuals
12.2.2 Alarm and Trip System Documentation
12.2.3 Safety Documentation
12.2.4 PLC Documentation
12.2.5 Circuit Diagrams
12.2.6 Bussing Information
12.3 Pipe and Identification Diagrams
12.3.1 Standardization
12.3.2 Interconnections
12.3.3 Instrument Symbols
12.3.4 Instrument Identification
12.4 Functional Symbols
1212.4.1 Actuators
12.4.2 Primary Elements
12.4.3 Regulators
12.4.4 Math Functions
12.5 P and ID Drawings
Summary
Problems
13 Signal Transmission
Chapter Objectives
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Pneumatic Transmission
13.3 Analog Transmission
13.3.1 Noise Considerations
13.3.2 Voltage Signals
13.3.3 Current Signals
13.3.4 Signal Conversion
13.3.5 Thermocouples
13.3.6 Resistance Temperature Devices
13.4 Digital Transmission
13.4.1 Transmission Standards
13.4.2 Smart Sensors
13.4.3 Foundation Fieldbus and Profibus
13.5 Digital Signal Converters
13.5.1 Analog-to-Digital Conversion
13.5.2 Digital-to-Analog Conversion
13.6 Telemetry
13.6.1 Width Modulation
13.6.2 Frequency Shift Modulation
Summary
Problems
14 Logic Gates
Chapter Objectives
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Digital Numbers
14.2.1 Converting Binary Numbers to Decimal Numbers
1314.2.2 Converting from Decimal to Binary
14.3 Digital Logic Gates
14.3.1 Buffer Gate
14.3.2 AND Gate
14.3.3 OR Gate
14.3.4 NOT Gate
14.3.5 Signal Inversion
14.3.6 XOR Gates
14.3.7 Logic Symbols
14.4 Boolean Algebra
14.5 Functional Building Blocks
Summary
Problems
15 Programmable Logic Controllers
Chapter Objectives
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Programmable Controller
15.3 Controller Operation
15.4 Input and Output Modules
15.4.1 Discrete Input Modules
15.4.2 Analog Input Modules
15.4.3 Special Function Input Modules
15.4.4 Discrete Output Modules
15.4.5 Analog Output Modules
15.4.6 Smart Input and Output Modules
15.5 Ladder Diagrams
15.5.1 Input and Output Symbols
15.5.2 Ladder Layout
15.5.3 Ladder Gate Equivalent
15.5.4 Ladder Applications
Summary
Problems
16 Motor Control
Chapter Objectives
16.1 Introduction
1416.2 Motor Classification
16.3 Motor Operation
16.3.1 DC Motors
16.3.2 AC Motors
16.3.3 Single-Phase Motor
16.3.4 Three-Phase Motors
16.3.5 Universal Motors
16.3.6 Stepping Motors
16.3.7 Servomotors and Synchro Motors
16.4 Motor Ratings
16.4.1 Electrical Ratings
16.4.2 Control Equipment Ratings
16.4.3 Enclosure Standards
16.5 Motor Control Applications
16.5.1 Two- and Three-Wire Starting
16.5.2 Startup Control
16.5.3 Wound Rotor Motor
16.5.4 Speed Control
16.5.5 DC Motor
16.5.6 Actuator Control
16.5.7 Stepper Motor
16.6 Motor Protection
Summary
Problems
A Units
B Thermocouple Tables
C References and Information Resources
D Abbreviations
Glossary
Answers to Odd-Numbered Questions
Index
Index
Please note that index links point to page beginnings from the print
edition. Locations are approximate in e-readers, and you may need to
page down one or more times after clicking a link to get to the indexed
material.
A
Abbreviations, 275–276
Absolute accuracy, 126
Absolute humidity, 82
Absolute position, 98
Absolute pressure, 15
Absolute zero, 62
Acceleration, 98, 103
Accelerometer, 103
Accuracy, 9, 126
absolute, 10, 126
percentage full-scale, 10
Acidity, 93
Actuator, 5, 157
Actuator symbols, 187–189
ADC (See Analog-to-digital converter)
Air Supply, 7, 33, 160, 174
Alarm and trip documentation, 182
Alarm and trip systems, 117
Alkalinity, 93
Alternating current bridges, 143
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 7, 117, 181, 182, 184
American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 25
442Amplification, 131
Amplifier, 131–137
buffer, 134
converters, 133
current, 132
differential, 132
instrument, 136
inverting, 131
nonlinear, 135
operational, 131
voltage, 131
Amplitude modulation, 208
Analog circuits, 131–140
Analog signal noise, 196
Analog signal transmission, 196
Analog-to-digital converter (ADC), 179, 202, 205, 206
Analytical balance, 107
Anemometers, 55
Aneroid barometer, 24
Angular measuring devices, 104–105
Angular motion, and position, 98
ANSI (See American National Standards Institute)
Anticipatory action (See Derivative
action)
Arc-minute, 98
ASME (See American Society for Mechanical Engineers)
Atmospheric pressure (atm), 15
B
Backup systems, 117
Balanced cage guided valve, 154
Ball valve, 155
Barometer, 24
Base units, 8
Bellows, 22
443Bernoulli equation, 45, 47
Beta ratio, 52
Bimetallic strip, 70
Binary numbers, 213
Bits, 215
Boolean Algebra, 221–222
Bourdon tube, 23
Bridge circuits, 140
ac, 143
current balanced, 141
dc, 140
lead compensation, 141
Wheatstone, 141
British Thermal Unit (Btu), 62
Bubbler systems, 33, 90
Buffer amplifiers, 134
Buoyancy, 18, 30
Butterfly valve, 155
C
Calibration:
flow sensors, 58
pH-measuring devices, 95
pressure-sensing devices, 26
temperature measuring, 78
Calorie, 63
Capacitive hygrometer, 87
pressure devices, 25
Capacitive probes, 31, 36
Capacitive sensors, 25, 35
Capsule, 22
Celsius scale, 61
Centigrade scale, 61
Centimeter-gram-second (CGS) (See Metric units)
Chemical sensors, 116
444Closed-loop feedback, 3, 4, 159, 172–178
Coefficient of heat transfer, 66
Coefficient of thermal expansion, 65, 68
Concentric plate, 50
Condensation, 83
Conduction, 64
Conductive probes, 35
Continuity equation, 45
Continuous process control, 166
derivative action, 169
integral action, 170
PID action, 171
proportional action, 168
Control loop implementation, 172
control mode, 166
derivative mode, 175
integral mode, 176
PID mode, 171
pneumatic, 174
proportional derivative mode, 176
proportional integral mode, 176
proportional mode, 175
Control parameter range, 166
Controlled variable, 34, 166 (See also Manipulated Variable)
Controller, 5
ON/OFF action, 167
PID action, 175, 177
pneumatic, 174
programmable logic controller (PLC), 5, 178, 227–242
Convection, 64
forced, 64
natural (free), 64
Conversion between measurement units, 8, 9, 263–265
Converters, 5, 128, 133
Converting numbers, 215–217
binary to decimal, 215
binary to hexadecimal, 216
445decimal to binary, 217
Correction signal, 5
Coulomb (C), 9
Couple, 106
Current amplifier, 132
Current signal, 198
D
DAC (See Digital-to-analog converter)
Dall tube, 50
DCS (See Distributed control systems)
Dead band, 166
Dead time, 166
Dead-weight tester, 26
Decibel, 102
Decimal numbers, 215–217
Demultiplexers, 179, 229
Density (ρ), 14, 88 (See also Specificgravity)
Density measuring devices, 89
differential bubblers, 90
gas density, 15
hydrometers, 89
induction hydrometer, 90
pressure, 90
radiation density sensors, 91
vibration sensors, 90
Derivative action, 169
Dew point, 82
Diaphragm, 21
Dielectric constant, 31, 87
Differential action, 167
Differential amplifiers, 132
Differential bubblers, 90
Differential pressure, 16
Digital building blocks, 224
446Digital controllers (See Programmable logic controller)
Digital signal transmission, 201
Digital-to-analog converter (DAC), 179, 202, 206–208
Direct reading level sensors, 31–32
Displacers, 34
Distance measuring devices, 101
Distributed control systems (DCS), 202
Documentation, 181–192
Doppler effect, 103
Drag coefficents, 50
Drag viscometer, 93
Drift, 127
Dry bulb, 87
Dry particulate flow rate, 55
Dynamic pressure, 14
Dynamometers, 110
E
Eccentric plate, 51, 279
Elbow, 52
Electrical supply, 6
Electrical units, 9
Electrochemical Society, 116
Electromagnetic flow meter, 53
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 196
Electromagnetic radiation, 196
EMI (See Electromagnetic interference)
Energy, 45
kinetic, 47
potential, 47
Engine control, 3
English system of units, 79
Environment, 7, 114
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7, 121
EPA (See Environmental Protection Agency)
447Equipment hazards, 114
Error signal, 5, 166
Execution mode, 229
Externally connected spring diaphragm regulators, 150
F
Facility requirements, 6
Fahrenheit scale, 61
Falling-cylinder viscometer, 93
Farad (F), 9
Feedback loop, 3, 4, 159, 172–178
Fiber optics, 201
Fitting losses, 48
Floats, 32
Flow, 43–58
Bernoulli equation, 45, 47
Beta ratio, 52
continuity equation, 45
dry particulate, 55
laminar, 44
losses, 48
mass, 55
open-channel, 56
Reynolds number, 44
total flow, 45, 54
turbulent, 44
velocity, 43
Flow control valves, 153 (See also Valves)
Flow patterns, 45
Flow rate, 45, 50
Flow sensors, 50–56
anemometer, 55
control, 159
Dall, 50
elbow, 52
448electromagnetic flow meter, 53
energy losses, 45
flow nozzle, 50, 52
force, 54
moving vane, 53
nutating disc, 54
open-channel, 56
orifice plate, 50
paddle wheel, 56
pilot static tube, 52
piston, 54
pressure meter, 54
rotameter, 53
turbine, 53
velocity meters, 54
Venturi tube, 50
vortex flow meter, 54
Fluid Newtonian, 92
Flumes, 56
FM (See Frequency modulation)
Force, 13, 105
Force sensors, 34, 38, 54, 107–109
Foundation fieldbus, 203
Frequency modulation (FM), 209
Frequency shift keying (FSK), 183, 204, 209
Frictional losses in liquid flow, 48
FSK (See Frequency shift keying)
G
Gas flow, 149
Gas pressure regulators, 150–151
Gas sensors, 115
catalytic combustion, 115
electrochemical, 116
infrared, 116
449ion sensitive, 116
optical, 116
photoionization, 115
piezoelectric, 116
semiconductor, 115
solid electrolyte, 116
Gas thermometers, 71
Gaseous phase, 63
Gates (See Logic gates)
Gauge pressure, 15, 21
Globe valve, 153
Gray code, 105, 213
Grounding, 6
H
Hair hygrometer, 86
Hall effect, 99
Hall effect sensors, 32, 99, 145, 152, 247
HART (See Highway addressable remote transducer)
Hazards, 114
control equipment, 114
environmental, 114
personnel, 114
process equipment, 114
Head, 17
Heat, 62–68, 115
British thermal unit, 62
calorie, 63
conduction, 64
convection, 64
Joule, 9, 63
phase change, 63
radiation, 65
sensors, 115
specific heat, 64
450thermal energy, 62–65
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), 165
Henry (H), 9
Hertz (Hz), 9
Hexadecimal, 215
Highway addressable remote transducer (HART), 183, 203
Hot-wire anemometry, 55
Humidity, 82
absolute, 82
dew point, 82
hygrometers, 86
moisture content, 88
psychrometric chart, 84
relative, 82
specific, 82
Humidity ratio, 82
Humidity sensors, 86–88
capacitive hygrometer, 87
dew point, 87
hair hygrometer, 86
hygrometer, 86
infrared absorption, 88
laminate hygrometer, 86
microwave absorption, 88
piezoelectric/sorption hygrometer, 87
psychrometers, 83
resistive hygrometer, 86
sling psychrometer, 86
HVAC (See Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning)
Hydrometer, 89
Hydrostatic paradox, 17
Hydrostatic pressure, 17
Hygrometer, 86–88
Hygroscopic substance, 87, 281
Hysteresis, 127
451I
IEC (See International Electrochemical Commission)
IEEE (See Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
Impact pressure, 14
Impedance (Z), 143
Inclined manometer, 20
Incremental position, 98
Indirect level-measuring devices, 33–38
Induction hydrometer, 90
Information resources, 271–273
Infrared devices, 102, 116
Input-output scan mode (I/O), 229
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), 220
Institutions, 271
Instrument, 4
Instrument amplifiers, 136
Instrument pilot operated pressure regulator, 151
Instrument Society of America (ISA), 7, 113, 181–184
Instrument symbols, 186
Integral action, 170, 176
Integrator, 177
Interconnection symbols, 185
International Electrochemical Commission (IEC), 117
International system of units, 7
Ionization chamber, 115
Ionization gauge, 25
ISA (See Instrument Society of America)
J
Joules (J), 63
K
Karnaugh map, 221
452Kelvin scale, 61
L
Ladder diagrams, 236–239
Ladder logic, 238–242
Lag time, 166
Laminar flow, 44, 92
Laminate hygrometer, 86
LAN (See Local area network)
Lasers, 102
Law of intermediate metals, 74
Lead compensation, 140, 200
Level, 29–40
direct measuring devices, 31–32
indirect measuring, 33–38
Level regulators, 152
Level sensors, 31–38
bubblers, 33
capacitive probes, 36
conductive probes, 35
displacer, 34
float, 32
load cells, 37
paddle wheel, 38
pressure devices, 37
radiation, 36
resistive tape, 37
sight glass, 31
ultrasonic devices, 36
Light emitting diodes, 99, 104
Light intensity, 102
Light interference lasers, 101
Light measuring devices, 102
Light sensors, 99, 101
Light to frequency converters, 102
453Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), 21, 101, 130
Linearity, 127
Linearization, 139
Liquid dielectric constant, 31
Liquid filled thermometers, 69–71
Liquid phase, 63
Litmus paper, 94
Load cells, 37, 108
Local area network (LAN), 202, 234
Logarithmic amplifiers, 139
Logic gates, 217–221
AND, 218
buffer, 217
NOT, 219
OR, 218
symbols, 220–221
XOR, 220
LVDT (See Linear variable differential transformer)
M
Magnetic field sensors, 32, 99, 145, 152, 247
Magneto-resistive element (MRE), 53, 99, 145, 152, 247
Manchester encoding, 201
Manipulated variables, 4
Manometer, 19, 20
inclined, 20
U-tube, 19–20
well, 20
Mass, 8, 106
Mass flow, 46, 55
Math function symbols, 189
McLeod gauge, 25
Measured variables, 4, 166
Mercury thermometers, 69
Metric units, 7
454Microwave absorption, 88
Millibar, 16
Moisture content measurement, 88
Motion, 101–105
acceleration, 98, 103
angular, 98, 104
linear, 97, 98
measuring devices, 101
rectilinear, 98
velocity, 98
vibration, 98, 104, 115
Motors, 245–261
ac, 248–251
classification, 245–246
dc, 246–248
position feedback, 160–161
protection, 260
ratings, 252–255
servo and synchro, 252
speed control, 258
starting, 256
stepper, 251, 260
universal, 251
Moving vane, 53, 57
MRE (See Magneto-restrictive element)
Multiplexers, 179, 229
N
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 15, 88, 126
Natural convection, 64
Needle valve, 154
Newton, 9, 14, 16, 17, 264
Newtonian fluids, 92
Nibble, 215
NIST (See National Institute of Standards and Technology)
455Noise, 196
Nonlinear amplifiers, 135
Nutating disc meter, 54
O
Occupational safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 113, 121
Offset, 166, 196
Offset zero, 127, 137
ON/OFF control action, 173
Open channel flow, 56
Operational amplifier (op-amp), 131
Optical devices, 103
Orifice plate, 50
OSHA (See Occupational safety and health administration)
Outlet losses, 48
Overshoot, 168
P
P&ID (See Pipe and instrumentation drawings)
Paddle wheel, 38
Parshall flume, 56
Pascal (Pa), 16
Pascal’s Law, 18
Peltier effect, 73
Percent reading, 9, 10
Percent span, 9, 10
Percentage full-scale accuracy, 9, 10
Personal hazards, 114
pH, 93
pH meters, 94
Phase change, 63
Photosensors, 102
PID (See Proportional with derivative and integral (PID) action)
Piezoelectric sensors, 103
456Pilot operated pressure regulators, 151
Pilot-static tube, 52
Pipe and instrumentation documentation, 184
Pipe and instrumentation drawings (P&ID), 184–192
Pipe and instrumentation symbols, 185–192
Pirani gauge, 25
Piston flow meter, 54
PLC (See Programmable logic controller)
Pneumatic actuators, 159
Pneumatic feedback, 159, 160
Pneumatic transducers, 129
Pneumatic transmission, 196
Poise, 92
Position, 97–105
absolute measurement, 98
angular, 104–105
incremental measurement, 98
measuring devices, 98, 104
Position limit switches, 99
positioners, 159
Positive displacement meters, 54
Potentiometers, 99
Pound mass, 8, 14
Pound weight, 8, 14
Pounds per square inch (PSI), 16
Power control devices, 161
Power loss fail safe, 118
Power switches (electrical), 161
PPM (See Pulse position modulation)
Precision, 126
Standard prefixes, 9
Pressure (P), 13–26
absolute, 15
atmospheric, 15
differential, 16
dynamic, 14
gauge, 19
457head, 17
hydrostatic, 17
impact, 14
static, 14
vacuum, 19
Pressure controlled diaphragm regulators, 150
Pressure regulators, 150–151
pilot operated, 151
pressure, 151
spring, 151
weight, 150
Pressure sensors, 19–25
barometers, 24
bellows, 22
Bourdon tube, 23
capacitive, 25
capsules, 22
diaphragm, 21
ionization gauge, 25
manometer, 19
McLeod, 25
piezoelectric, 25
Pirani, 25
selection, 25
solid state, 21
Primary element symbols, 187
Probes:
capacitance, 35
conductive, 35
Process-control loop, 3, 4, 159, 172–178
Process control ON/OFF action, 173
Process facility:
air supply, 7
electrical supply, 6
grounding, 6
installation and maintenance, 7
water supply, 7
458Profibus, 203
Programmable logic controller (PLC), 5, 178, 227–242
documentation, 183
input modules, 230–232
ladder diagrams, 236–239
operation, 229
output modules, 233–234
smart modules, 234
Proportional action, 168
Proportional and derivative (PD) action, 169
Proportional and integral (PI) action, 170
Proportional with derivative and integral (PID) action, 171
Proximity detectors, 99
PSI (See Pounds per square inch)
Psychrometer, 87
Psychrometric chart, 84
Pulse position modulation (PPM), 208
Pulse width modulation (PWM), 208
PWM (See Pulse width modulation)
Pyrometer, 74
R
Radiation:
alpha, 114
beta, 114
detectors, 116
gamma, 114
heat, 65
neutron, 144
x-rays, 114
Range, 126
Rankine scale, 61
Rate action (See Derivative action)
Reading accuracy, 126
Rectilinear motion, 98
459Regulators, 150
Relative humidity, 82
Repeatability, 127
Reproducibility, 126
Reset action (See Integral action)
Resistance temperature devices (RTDs), 71, 145, 200
Resistive hygrometer, 86
Resolution, 127
Reynolds number (R), 44
Rotameters, 53
Rotary plug valve, 157
Rotating disc viscometers, 93
Rotation sensing, 103
RTDs (See Resistance temperature devices)
S
Safe failure of alarm and trip, 118
Safety, 7
Safety Instrumented systems (SIS), 117, 182
Safety valves, 152
Sample and hold, 205
Sandia Report, 116
Saybolt instrument, 93
Scan mode, 229
Scan time, 230
Seebeck effect, 73
Self-emptying reservoir, 152
Sensitivity, 126
Sensors, 4, 128
chemical, 166
density, 89
flow, 43–58
force, 30
humidity, 86–88
level, 31–38
460light, 99, 101
magnetic field, 99
pH, 94
position/motion, 98–101
pressure, 19–25
temperature, 69–75
vibration, 98, 103
Sequential motor control, 256
Serial bus, 203
Serial transmission, 204
Servo motors, 252
Set point, 4, 166
SG (See Specific gravity)
Shear stress (τ), 92
SI (See Systéme International D’Unités)
Sight glass, 31
Signal conditioning analog, 137
Signal conditioning digital, 139
Signal inversion, 131
Signal transmission, 199
current, 198
digital, 201
pneumatic, 196
telemetry, 208
voltage, 197
wireless, 208
Silicon diaphragms, 21
Silicon pressure sensors, 21
SIS (See Safety instrumented systems)
Sling psychrometer, 87
Slug, 8, 14
Smart sensors, 202
Smoke detectors, 115
Solid phase, 63
Sorption hygrometer, 87
Span, 126, 196
Span adjustment, 138
461Specific gravity (SG), 14, 88
Specific heat, 64
Specific humidity (See Humidity ratio)
Specific weight (γ), 14, 88
Speed, 98
Split body valves, 154
Spring controlled regulator, 150
Spring transducer, 107
Standard organizations, 271
Standards, 7–9
Static pressure, 14
Stepper motors, 251, 260
Still well, 56
Stoke, 44
Strain gauge, 30, 108, 143
Strain gauge sensors, 108, 143
Sublimation, 64
Symbols:
actuators, 189
control devices, 238
instrument identification, 187
instruments, 186
interconnections, 185
math function, 189
primary elements, 187
regulators, 189
supply lines, 185
switches, 237
Synchronous motors, 250, 258
Systéme International D’Unités (SI), 7, 9, 263–265
T
Taguchi sensors, 115
TDM (See Time division multiplexing)
Telemetry, 208
462Temperature, 61
absolute, 62
Celsius, 61
compensation, 140, 142
correction, 140
Fahrenheit, 61
Kelvin, 61
phase change, 63
protection, 78
Rankine, 61
Temperature sensors, 3, 69–75
bimetallic, 70
liquid expansion, 71
mercury in glass, 69
pressure spring, 70
pyrometer, 74
solid state, 75
thermistors, 72
thermocouples, 72
Thermal:
conductivity, 64
convection, 64
energy, 61, 63
expansion, 65, 68
radiation, 65
time constant, 76
Thermistors, 72
Thermocouple, 72, 199
Peltier effect, 73
Seebeck effect, 73
tables, 267–269
Thompson effect, 74
Thermohydrometer, 89
Thermometer, 69–71
Thermopile, 74
Time constant, thermal, 76
Time division multiplexing (TDM), 204
463Torque (moment), 105
Torr, 16
Total flow, 45
Total pressure, 14
Total vacuum, 15
Transducers, 5, 128
Transient, 166
Transmitters, 5
Turbine flow meter, 53
Turbulent flow, 44
Two-way globe valve, 153
U
Ultrasonic devices, 36, 102
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS), 6
Units and standards, 7, 9
UPS (See Uninterruptible power supply)
U-tube manometer, 19–20
V
Vacuum, 15, 19
Vacuum instruments, 25
Valves, 152–157
ball, 155
butterfly, 155
fail safe, 157–158
globe, 153
plugs, 154
rotary plug, 157
safety, 152
sizing, 157, 162
symbols, 189
weir diaphragm, 155
Vapor-pressure thermometer, 70
464Variable range, 166
Velocity, 43, 98
Vena contracta, 51
Venturi tube, 50
Vibration, 98, 103
Vibration sensors, 90
Viscosimeter (Viscometer), 93
Viscosity, 44, 91
Viscosity measuring instruments, 93
falling cylinder, 93
rotating disc or drag, 93
Saybolt viscometer, 93
viscometer, 93
Voltage amplifiers, 131
Voltage signals, 197
Voltage to current converters, 133
Volume flow rate, 54
Vortex flow meter, 54
W
WAN (See Wide area network)
Water pH, 93
Water supply, 7
Wavelengths, 101
Weight, 8, 106
Weight-controlled regulators, 150
Weir, 56
Weir valve, 155
Well manometers, 19–20
Wet-bulb temperature, 87
Wheatstone bridge, 141
Wide area network (WAN), 202, 234
Width modulation, 208
Wireless transmission, 208
465X
X-rays, 102
466Table of Contents
About the Author 2
Title Page 3
Copyright Page 4
Contents 6
Preface 16
Acknowledgment 18
1 Introduction 19
Chapter Objectives 19
1.1 Introduction 19
1.1.1 History 20
1.2 Process Control 21
1.3 Definition of the Elements in a Control Loop 23
1.4 Process Facility Considerations 27
1.5 Units and Standards 29
1.6 Instrument Accuracy 32
Summary 33
Problems 34
2 Pressure 36
Chapter Objectives 36
2.1 Introduction 36
2.2 Basic Terms 37
2.2.1 Density 37
2.2.2 Impact Pressure 38
2.3 Pressure Measurements 39
2.4 Pressure Formulas 41
2.5 Measuring Instruments 45
2.5.1 Manometers 45
2.5.2 Diaphragms, Capsules, and Bellows 48
2.5.3 Bourdon Tubes 51
2.5.4 Other Pressure Sensors 53
4672.5.5 Vacuum Instruments 54
2.6 Application Considerations 55
2.6.1 Selection 55
2.6.2 Installation 55
2.6.3 Calibration 56
Summary 56
Problems 57
3 Level 60
Chapter Objectives 60
3.1 Introduction 60
3.2 Level Formulas 61
3.3 Level Sensing Devices 64
3.3.1 Direct Level Sensing 64
3.3.2 Indirect Level Sensing 66
3.4 Application Considerations 74
Summary 76
Problems 77
4 Flow 80
Chapter Objectives 80
4.1 Introduction 80
4.2 Basic Terms 81
4.3 Flow Formulas 84
4.3.1 Continuity Equation 84
4.3.2 Bernoulli Equation 86
4.3.3 Flow Losses 88
4.4 Flow Measurement Instruments 91
4.4.1 Flow Rate 91
4.4.2 Total Flow 97
4.4.3 Mass Flow 98
4.4.4 Dry Particulate Flow Rate 98
4.4.5 Open Channel Flow 99
4.5 Application Considerations 99
4.5.1 Selection 99
4.5.2 Installation 101
4684.5.3 Calibration 101
Summary 102
Problems 102
5 Temperature and Heat 105
Chapter Objectives 105
5.1 Introduction 105
5.2 Basic Terms 106
5.2.1 Temperature Definitions 106
5.2.2 Heat Definitions 107
5.2.3 Thermal Expansion Definitions 111
5.3 Temperature and Heat Formulas 112
5.3.1 Temperature 112
5.3.2 Heat Transfer 113
5.3.3 Thermal Expansion 115
5.4 Temperature Measuring Devices 117
5.4.1 Thermometers 117
5.4.2 Pressure-Spring Thermometers 118
5.4.3 Resistance Temperature Devices 120
5.4.4 Thermistors 121
5.4.5 Thermocouples 122
5.4.6 Semiconductors 125
5.5 Application Considerations 126
5.5.1 Selection 126
5.5.2 Range and Accuracy 126
5.5.3 Thermal Time Constant 128
5.5.4 Installation 130
5.5.5 Calibration 131
5.5.6 Protection 131
Summary 131
Problems 132
6 Humidity, Density, Viscosity, and pH 135
Chapter Objectives 135
6.1 Introduction 135
6.2 Humidity 136
4696.2.1 Humidity Definitions 136
6.2.2 Humidity Measuring Devices 142
6.3 Density and Specific Gravity 146
6.3.1 Basic Terms 146
6.3.2 Density Measuring Devices 147
6.3.3 Density Application Considerations 150
6.4 Viscosity 151
6.4.1 Basic Terms 151
6.4.2 Viscosity Measuring Instruments 152
6.5 pH Measurements 153
6.5.1 Basic Terms 153
6.5.2 pH Measuring Devices 154
6.5.3 pH Application Considerations 155
Summary 156
Problems 156
7 Position, Motion, and Force 159
Chapter Objectives 159
7.1 Introduction 159
7.2 Position and Motion Sensing 160
7.2.1 Basic Position Definitions 160
7.2.2 ON/OFF Position Sensing 161
7.2.3 Motion and Distance Sensing 165
7.2.4 Rotation Sensing 170
7.2.5 Position Application Consideration 171
7.3 Force, Torque, and Load Cells 172
7.3.1 Basic Definitions of Force and Torque 172
7.3.2 Force and Torque Measuring Devices 173
7.3.3 Force and Torque Application Considerations 178
Summary 179
Problems 179
8 Safety and Alarm 181
Chapter Objectives 181
8.1 Introduction 181
8.2 Safety Hazards 182
4708.2.1 Personnel Hazards 182
8.2.2 Environmental Hazards 183
8.2.3 Control Equipment Hazards 183
8.2.4 Process Equipment Hazards 183
8.3 Safety Sensors 184
8.3.1 Smoke and Fire Sensors 184
8.3.2 Heat Sensors 184
8.3.3 Gas Sensors 184
8.3.4 Artificial Senses Chemical Sensors 186
8.3.5 Radiation Detectors 186
8.4 Process Equipment Safety 186
8.4.1 Alarm and Trip Systems 187
8.4.2 Safety Instrumented Systems 187
8.4.3 Power Loss Fail Safe 189
8.4.4 Safety Instrumented System Example 190
8.5 Safety and Protection 193
8.5.1 Personnel Protection 193
8.5.2 Environmental Protection 193
8.5.3 Equipment Protection 194
Summary 194
Problems 195
9 Electrical Instruments and Conditioning 197
Chapter Objectives 197
9.1 Introduction 197
9.2 Instrument Parameters 198
9.2.1 Basic Terms 198
9.3 Transducers 201
9.3.1 Definitions 201
9.3.2 Visual Display Considerations 202
9.3.3 Mechanical Motion to Electrical Transducers 203
9.4 Operational Amplifiers 206
9.4.1 Voltage Amplifiers 206
9.4.2 Current Amplifiers 208
9.4.3 Differential Amplifiers 209
4719.4.4 Converters 209
9.4.5 Buffer Amplifiers 211
9.4.6 Nonlinear Amplifiers 213
9.4.7 Instrument Amplifier 214
9.5 Signal Conditioning 215
9.5.1 Offset Zero 215
9.5.2 Span Adjustment 216
9.5.3 Linearization in Analog Circuits 217
9.5.4 Linearization in Digital Circuits 218
9.5.5 Temperature Correction 219
9.6 Bridge Circuits 219
9.6.1 DC Bridges 219
9.6.2 Current-Balanced Bridge 221
9.6.3 Strain Gauge Sensors 222
9.6.4 AC Bridges 223
9.6.5 Capacitive Sensors 225
9.6.6 Resistance Sensors 226
9.6.7 Magnetic Sensors 227
Summary 228
Problems 228
10 Regulators, Valves, and Actuators 231
Chapter Objectives 231
10.1 Introduction 232
10.2 Pressure Controllers 232
10.2.1 Regulators 232
10.2.2 Safety Valves 235
10.2.3 Level Regulators 235
10.3 Flow Control Actuators 236
10.3.1 Globe Valve 236
10.3.2 Flow Control 238
10.3.3 Butterfly Valve 240
10.3.4 Other Valve Types 241
10.3.5 Valve Characteristics 243
10.3.6 Valve Fail Safe 244
47210.4 Actuators 245
10.4.1 Operation 245
10.4.2 Control Valves 249
10.5 Electronic Devices 249
10.6 Application Considerations 250
10.6.1 Valves 250
Summary 251
Problems 252
11 Process Control 254
Chapter Objectives 254
11.1 Introduction 254
11.2 Basic Terms 255
11.3 Control Modes 256
11.3.1 ON/OFF Action 256
11.3.2 Differential Action 257
11.3.3 Proportional Action 258
11.3.4 Derivative Action 260
11.3.5 Integral Action 261
11.3.6 PID Action 263
11.4 Implementation of Control Loops 265
11.4.1 ON/OFF Action Pneumatic Controller 265
11.4.2 ON/OFF Action Electrical Controller 266
11.4.3 PID Action Pneumatic Controller 268
11.4.4 PID Action Control Circuits 269
11.4.5 PID Electronic Controller 271
11.5 Digital Controllers 274
Summary 275
Problems 276
12 Documentation and Symbol Standards 278
Chapter Objectives 278
12.1 Introduction 278
12.2 System Documentation 279
12.2.1 Manuals 279
12.2.2 Alarm and Trip System Documentation 279
47312.2.3 Safety Documentation 280
12.2.4 PLC Documentation 280
12.2.5 Circuit Diagrams 281
12.2.6 Bussing Information 281
12.3 Pipe and Identification Diagrams 282
12.3.1 Standardization 282
12.3.2 Interconnections 283
12.3.3 Instrument Symbols 285
12.3.4 Instrument Identification 286
12.4 Functional Symbols 288
12.4.1 Actuators 289
12.4.2 Primary Elements 290
12.4.3 Regulators 292
12.4.4 Math Functions 292
12.5 P and ID Drawings 292
Summary 295
Problems 295
13 Signal Transmission 298
Chapter Objectives 298
13.1 Introduction 299
13.2 Pneumatic Transmission 299
13.3 Analog Transmission 300
13.3.1 Noise Considerations 300
13.3.2 Voltage Signals 302
13.3.3 Current Signals 303
13.3.4 Signal Conversion 304
13.3.5 Thermocouples 305
13.3.6 Resistance Temperature Devices 306
13.4 Digital Transmission 307
13.4.1 Transmission Standards 307
13.4.2 Smart Sensors 310
13.4.3 Foundation Fieldbus and Profibus 311
13.5 Digital Signal Converters 313
13.5.1 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 313
47413.5.2 Digital-to-Analog Conversion 315
13.6 Telemetry 317
13.6.1 Width Modulation 318
13.6.2 Frequency Shift Modulation 320
Summary 321
Problems 321
14 Logic Gates 324
Chapter Objectives 324
14.1 Introduction 324
14.2 Digital Numbers 325
14.2.1 Converting Binary Numbers to Decimal Numbers 327
14.2.2 Converting from Decimal to Binary 329
14.3 Digital Logic Gates 330
14.3.1 Buffer Gate 330
14.3.2 AND Gate 331
14.3.3 OR Gate 331
14.3.4 NOT Gate 332
14.3.5 Signal Inversion 333
14.3.6 XOR Gates 334
14.3.7 Logic Symbols 334
14.4 Boolean Algebra 335
14.5 Functional Building Blocks 339
Summary 341
Problems 342
15 Programmable Logic Controllers 344
Chapter Objectives 344
15.1 Introduction 344
15.2 Programmable Controller 345
15.3 Controller Operation 347
15.4 Input and Output Modules 348
15.4.1 Discrete Input Modules 349
15.4.2 Analog Input Modules 350
15.4.3 Special Function Input Modules 351
15.4.4 Discrete Output Modules 352
47515.4.5 Analog Output Modules 353
15.4.6 Smart Input and Output Modules 354
15.5 Ladder Diagrams 358
15.5.1 Input and Output Symbols 358
15.5.2 Ladder Layout 360
15.5.3 Ladder Gate Equivalent 361
15.5.4 Ladder Applications 361
Summary 366
Problems 366
16 Motor Control 368
Chapter Objectives 368
16.1 Introduction 368
16.2 Motor Classification 369
16.3 Motor Operation 370
16.3.1 DC Motors 370
16.3.2 AC Motors 373
16.3.3 Single-Phase Motor 374
16.3.4 Three-Phase Motors 375
16.3.5 Universal Motors 377
16.3.6 Stepping Motors 377
16.3.7 Servomotors and Synchro Motors 378
16.4 Motor Ratings 379
16.4.1 Electrical Ratings 380
16.4.2 Control Equipment Ratings 383
16.4.3 Enclosure Standards 383
16.5 Motor Control Applications 384
16.5.1 Two- and Three-Wire Starting 384
16.5.2 Startup Control 385
16.5.3 Wound Rotor Motor 387
16.5.4 Speed Control 387
16.5.5 DC Motor 388
16.5.6 Actuator Control 389
16.5.7 Stepper Motor 390
16.6 Motor Protection 390
476Summary 391
Problems 392
A Units 394
B Thermocouple Tables 399
C References and Information Resources 402
D Abbreviations 406
Glossary 409
Answers to Odd-Numbered Questions 423
Index 442
كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً