Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design

Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design
اسم المؤلف
Ramesh K. Shah
التاريخ
19 يناير 2022
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79
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Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design
Ramesh K. Shah
Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York
Formerly at Delphi Harrison Thermal Systems, Lockport, New York
Dusˇ an P. Sekulic´
University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky
Contents
Preface xv
Nomenclature xix
1 Classification of Heat Exchangers 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Classification According to Transfer Processes 3
1.2.1 Indirect-Contact Heat Exchangers 3
1.2.2 Direct-Contact Heat Exchangers 7
1.3 Classification According to Number of Fluids 8
1.4 Classification According to Surface Compactness 8
1.4.1 Gas-to-Fluid Exchangers 11
1.4.2 Liquid-to-Liquid and Phase-Change Exchangers 12
1.5 Classification According to Construction Features 12
1.5.1 Tubular Heat Exchangers 13
1.5.2 Plate-Type Heat Exchangers 22
1.5.3 Extended Surface Heat Exchangers 36
1.5.4 Regenerators 47
1.6 Classification According to Flow Arrangements 56
1.6.1 Single-Pass Exchangers 57
1.6.2 Multipass Exchangers 64
1.7 Classification According to Heat Transfer Mechanisms 73
Summary 73
References 73
Review Questions 74
2 Overview of Heat Exchanger Design Methodology 78
2.1 Heat Exchanger Design Methodology 78
2.1.1 Process and Design Specifications 79
2.1.2 Thermal and Hydraulic Design 83
2.1.3 Mechanical Design 87
2.1.4 Manufacturing Considerations and Cost Estimates 90
2.1.5 Trade-off Factors 92
2.1.6 Optimum Design 93
2.1.7 Other Considerations 932.2 Interactions Among Design Considerations 93
Summary 94
References 94
Review Questions 95
Problems 95
3 Basic Thermal Design Theory for Recuperators 97
3.1 Formal Analogy between Thermal and Electrical Entities 98
3.2 Heat Exchanger Variables and Thermal Circuit 100
3.2.1 Assumptions for Heat Transfer Analysis 100
3.2.2 Problem Formulation 102
3.2.3 Basic Definitions 104
3.2.4 Thermal Circuit and UA 107
3.3 The “-NTU Method 114
3.3.1 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness ” 114
3.3.2 Heat Capacity Rate Ratio C* 118
3.3.3 Number of Transfer Units NTU 119
3.4 Effectiveness – Number of Transfer Unit Relationships 121
3.4.1 Single-Pass Exchangers 122
3.5 The P-NTU Method 139
3.5.1 Temperature Effectiveness P 140
3.5.2 Number of Transfer Units, NTU 140
3.5.3 Heat Capacity Rate Ratio R 141
3.5.4 General P–NTU Functional Relationship 141
3.6 P–NTU Relationships 142
3.6.1 Parallel Counterflow Exchanger, Shell Fluid Mixed, 1–2
TEMA E Shell 142
3.6.2 Multipass Exchangers 164
3.7 The Mean Temperature Difference Method 186
3.7.1 Log-Mean Temperature Difference, LMTD 186
3.7.2 Log-Mean Temperature Difference Correction Factor F 187
3.8 F Factors for Various Flow Arrangements 190
3.8.1 Counterflow Exchanger 190
3.8.2 Parallelflow Exchanger 191
3.8.3 Other Basic Flow Arrangements 192
3.8.4 Heat Exchanger Arrays and Multipassing 201
3.9 Comparison of the “-NTU, P–NTU, and MTD Methods 207
3.9.1 Solutions to the Sizing and Rating Problems 207
3.9.2 The “-NTU Method 208
3.9.3 The P-NTU Method 209
3.9.4 The MTD Method 209
3.10 The -P and P1P2 Methods 210
3.10.1 The -P Method 210
3.10.2 The P1P2 Method 211
vi CONTENTS3.11 Solution Methods for Determining Exchanger Effectiveness 212
3.11.1 Exact Analytical Methods 213
3.11.2 Approximate Methods 213
3.11.3 Numerical Methods 213
3.11.4 Matrix Formalism 214
3.11.5 Chain Rule Methodology 214
3.11.6 Flow-Reversal Symmetry 215
3.11.7 Rules for the Determination of Exchanger Effectiveness
with One Fluid Mixed 216
3.12 Heat Exchanger Design Problems 216
Summary 219
References 219
Review Questions 220
Problems 227
4 Additional Considerations for Thermal Design of Recuperators 232
4.1 Longitudinal Wall Heat Conduction Effects 232
4.1.1 Exchangers with C* ¼ 0 236
4.1.2 Single-Pass Counterflow Exchanger 236
4.1.3 Single-Pass Parallelflow Exchanger 239
4.1.4 Single-Pass Unmixed–Unmixed Crossflow Exchanger 239
4.1.5 Other Single-Pass Exchangers 239
4.1.6 Multipass Exchangers 239
4.2 Nonuniform Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 244
4.2.1 Temperature Effect 248
4.2.2 Length Effect 249
4.2.3 Combined Effect 251
4.3 Additional Considerations for Extended Surface Exchangers 258
4.3.1 Thin Fin Analysis 259
4.3.2 Fin Efficiency 272
4.3.3 Fin Effectiveness 288
4.3.4 Extended Surface Efficiency 289
4.4 Additional Considerations for Shell-and-Tube Exchangers 291
4.4.1 Shell Fluid Bypassing and Leakage 291
4.4.2 Unequal Heat Transfer Area in Individual Exchanger Passes 296
4.4.3 Finite Number of Baffles 297
Summary 298
References 298
Review Questions 299
Problems 302
5 Thermal Design Theory for Regenerators 308
5.1 Heat Transfer Analysis 308
5.1.1 Assumptions for Regenerator Heat Transfer Analysis 308
5.1.2 Definitions and Description of Important Parameters 310
5.1.3 Governing Equations 312
CONTENTS vii5.2 The “-NTU
o Method 316
5.2.1 Dimensionless Groups 316
5.2.2 Influence of Core Rotation and Valve Switching Frequency 320
5.2.3 Convection Conductance Ratio (hA)* 320
5.2.4 “-NTU
o Results for a Counterflow Regenerator 321
5.2.5 “-NTU
o Results for a Parallelflow Regenerator 326
5.3 The – Method 337
5.3.1 Comparison of the “-NTUo and – Methods 341
5.3.2 Solutions for a Counterflow Regenerator 344
5.3.3 Solution for a Parallelflow Regenerator 345
5.4 Influence of Longitudinal Wall Heat Conduction 348
5.5 Influence of Transverse Wall Heat Conduction 355
5.5.1 Simplified Theory 355
5.6 Influence of Pressure and Carryover Leakages 360
5.6.1 Modeling of Pressure and Carryover Leakages for a Rotary
Regenerator 360
5.7 Influence of Matrix Material, Size, and Arrangement 366
Summary 371
References 372
Review Questions 373
Problems 376
6 Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop Analysis 378
6.1 Introduction 378
6.1.1 Importance of Pressure Drop 378
6.1.2 Fluid Pumping Devices 380
6.1.3 Major Contributions to the Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop 380
6.1.4 Assumptions for Pressure Drop Analysis 381
6.2 Extended Surface Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop 381
6.2.1 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers 382
6.2.2 Tube-Fin Heat Exchangers 391
6.3 Regenerator Pressure Drop 392
6.4 Tubular Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop 393
6.4.1 Tube Banks 393
6.4.2 Shell-and-Tube Exchangers 393
6.5 Plate Heat Exchanger Pressure Drop 397
6.6 Pressure Drop Associated with Fluid Distribution Elements 399
6.6.1 Pipe Losses 399
6.6.2 Sudden Expansion and Contraction Losses 399
6.6.3 Bend Losses 403
6.7 Pressure Drop Presentation 412
6.7.1 Nondimensional Presentation of Pressure Drop Data 413
6.7.2 Dimensional Presentation of Pressure Drop Data 414
viii CONTENTS6.8 Pressure Drop Dependence on Geometry and Fluid Properties 418
Summary 419
References 420
Review Questions 420
Problems 422
7 Surface Basic Heat Transfer and Flow Friction Characteristics 425
7.1 Basic Concepts 426
7.1.1 Boundary Layers 426
7.1.2 Types of Flows 429
7.1.3 Free and Forced Convection 438
7.1.4 Basic Definitions 439
7.2 Dimensionless Groups 441
7.2.1 Fluid Flow 443
7.2.2 Heat Transfer 446
7.2.3 Dimensionless Surface Characteristics as a Function of the
Reynolds Number 449
7.3 Experimental Techniques for Determining Surface Characteristics 450
7.3.1 Steady-State Kays and London Technique 451
7.3.2 Wilson Plot Technique 460
7.3.3 Transient Test Techniques 467
7.3.4 Friction Factor Determination 471
7.4 Analytical and Semiempirical Heat Transfer and Friction Factor
Correlations for Simple Geometries 473
7.4.1 Fully Developed Flows 475
7.4.2 Hydrodynamically Developing Flows 499
7.4.3 Thermally Developing Flows 502
7.4.4 Simultaneously Developing Flows 507
7.4.5 Extended Reynolds Analogy 508
7.4.6 Limitations of j vs. Re Plot 510
7.5 Experimental Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Correlations for
Complex Geometries 511
7.5.1 Tube Bundles 512
7.5.2 Plate Heat Exchanger Surfaces 514
7.5.3 Plate-Fin Extended Surfaces 515
7.5.4 Tube-Fin Extended Surfaces 519
7.5.5 Regenerator Surfaces 523
7.6 Influence of Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties 529
7.6.1 Correction Schemes for Temperature-Dependent Fluid
Properties 530
7.7 Influence of Superimposed Free Convection 532
7.7.1 Horizontal Circular Tubes 533
7.7.2 Vertical Circular Tubes 535
7.8 Influence of Superimposed Radiation 537
7.8.1 Liquids as Participating Media 538
CONTENTS ix7.8.2 Gases as Participating Media 538
Summary 542
References 544
Review Questions 548
Problems 553
8 Heat Exchanger Surface Geometrical Characteristics 563
8.1 Tubular Heat Exchangers 563
8.1.1 Inline Arrangement 563
8.1.2 Staggered Arrangement 566
8.2 Tube-Fin Heat Exchangers 569
8.2.1 Circular Fins on Circular Tubes 569
8.2.2 Plain Flat Fins on Circular Tubes 572
8.2.3 General Geometric Relationships for Tube-Fin Exchangers 574
8.3 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers 574
8.3.1 Offset Strip Fin Exchanger 574
8.3.2 Corrugated Louver Fin Exchanger 580
8.3.3 General Geometric Relationships for Plate-Fin Surfaces 584
8.4 Regenerators with Continuous Cylindrical Passages 585
8.4.1 Triangular Passage Regenerator 585
8.5 Shell-and-Tube Exchangers with Segmental Baffles 587
8.5.1 Tube Count 587
8.5.2 Window and Crossflow Section Geometry 589
8.5.3 Bypass and Leakage Flow Areas 592
8.6 Gasketed Plate Heat Exchangers 597
Summary 598
References 598
Review Questions 599
9 Heat Exchanger Design Procedures 601
9.1 Fluid Mean Temperatures 601
9.1.1 Heat Exchangers with C* 0 603
9.1.2 Counterflow and Crossflow Heat Exchangers 604
9.1.3 Multipass Heat Exchangers 604
9.2 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers 605
9.2.1 Rating Problem 605
9.2.2 Sizing Problem 617
9.3 Tube-Fin Heat Exchangers 631
9.3.1 Surface Geometries 631
9.3.2 Heat Transfer Calculations 631
9.3.3 Pressure Drop Calculations 632
9.3.4 Core Mass Velocity Equation 632
9.4 Plate Heat Exchangers 632
9.4.1 Limiting Cases for the Design 633
9.4.2 Uniqueness of a PHE for Rating and Sizing 635
x CONTENTS9.4.3 Rating a PHE 637
9.4.4 Sizing a PHE 645
9.5 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 646
9.5.1 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Calculations 646
9.5.2 Rating Procedure 650
9.5.3 Approximate Design Method 658
9.5.4 More Rigorous Thermal Design Method 663
9.6 Heat Exchanger Optimization 664
Summary 667
References 667
Review Questions 668
Problems 669
10 Selection of Heat Exchangers and Their Components 673
10.1 Selection Criteria Based on Operating Parameters 674
10.1.1 Operating Pressures and Temperatures 674
10.1.2 Cost 675
10.1.3 Fouling and Cleanability 675
10.1.4 Fluid Leakage and Contamination 678
10.1.5 Fluids and Material Compatibility 678
10.1.6 Fluid Type 678
10.2 General Selection Guidelines for Major Exchanger Types 680
10.2.1 Shell-and-Tube Exchangers 680
10.2.2 Plate Heat Exchangers 693
10.2.3 Extended-Surface Exchangers 694
10.2.4 Regenerator Surfaces 699
10.3 Some Quantitative Considerations 699
10.3.1 Screening Methods 700
10.3.2 Performance Evaluation Criteria 713
10.3.3 Evaluation Criteria Based on the Second Law of
Thermodynamics 723
10.3.4 Selection Criterion Based on Cost Evaluation 724
Summary 726
References 726
Review Questions 727
Problems 732
11 Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis 735
11.1 Introduction 735
11.1.1 Heat Exchanger as a Part of a System 737
11.1.2 Heat Exchanger as a Component 738
11.2 Modeling a Heat Exchanger Based on the First Law of
Thermodynamics 738
11.2.1 Temperature Distributions in Counterflow and Parallelflow
Exchangers 739
11.2.2 True Meaning of the Heat Exchanger Effectiveness 745
CONTENTS xi11.2.3 Temperature Difference Distributions for Parallelflow and
Counterflow Exchangers 748
11.2.4 Temperature Distributions in Crossflow Exchangers 749
11.3 Irreversibilities in Heat Exchangers 755
11.3.1 Entropy Generation Caused by Finite Temperature Differences 756
11.3.2 Entropy Generation Associated with Fluid Mixing 759
11.3.3 Entropy Generation Caused by Fluid Friction 762
11.4 Thermodynamic Irreversibility and Temperature Cross Phenomena 763
11.4.1 Maximum Entropy Generation 763
11.4.2 External Temperature Cross and Fluid Mixing Analogy 765
11.4.3 Thermodynamic Analysis for 1–2 TEMA J Shell-and-Tube
Heat Exchanger 766
11.5 A Heuristic Approach to an Assessment of Heat Exchanger
Effectiveness 771
11.6 Energy, Exergy, and Cost Balances in the Analysis and Optimization
of Heat Exchangers 775
11.6.1 Temperature–Enthalpy Rate Change Diagram 776
11.6.2 Analysis Based on an Energy Rate Balance 779
11.6.3 Analysis Based on Energy/Enthalpy and Cost Rate Balancing 783
11.6.4 Analysis Based on an Exergy Rate Balance 786
11.6.5 Thermodynamic Figure of Merit for Assessing Heat
Exchanger Performance 787
11.6.6 Accounting for the Costs of Exergy Losses in a Heat
Exchanger 791
11.7 Performance Evaluation Criteria Based on the Second Law of
Thermodynamics 796
Summary 800
References 801
Review Questions 802
Problems 804
12 Flow Maldistribution and Header Design 809
12.1 Geometry-Induced Flow Maldistribution 809
12.1.1 Gross Flow Maldistribution 810
12.1.2 Passage-to-Passage Flow Maldistribution 821
12.1.3 Manifold-Induced Flow Maldistribution 834
12.2 Operating Condition–Induced Flow Maldistribution 837
12.2.1 Viscosity-Induced Flow Maldistribution 837
12.3 Mitigation of Flow Maldistribution 844
12.4 Header and Manifold Design 845
12.4.1 Oblique-Flow Headers 848
12.4.2 Normal-Flow Headers 852
12.4.3 Manifolds 852
Summary 853
References 853
xii CONTENTSReview Questions 855
Problems 859
13 Fouling and Corrosion 863
13.1 Fouling and its Effect on Exchanger Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop 863
13.2 Phenomenological Considerations of Fouling 866
13.2.1 Fouling Mechanisms 867
13.2.2 Single-Phase Liquid-Side Fouling 870
13.2.3 Single-Phase Gas-Side Fouling 871
13.2.4 Fouling in Compact Exchangers 871
13.2.5 Sequential Events in Fouling 872
13.2.6 Modeling of a Fouling Process 875
13.3 Fouling Resistance Design Approach 881
13.3.1 Fouling Resistance and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Calculation 881
13.3.2 Impact of Fouling on Exchanger Heat Transfer Performance 882
13.3.3 Empirical Data for Fouling Resistances 886
13.4 Prevention and Mitigation of Fouling 890
13.4.1 Prevention and Control of Liquid-Side Fouling 890
13.4.2 Prevention and Reduction of Gas-Side Fouling 891
13.4.3 Cleaning Strategies 892
13.5 Corrosion in Heat Exchangers 893
13.5.1 Corrosion Types 895
13.5.2 Corrosion Locations in Heat Exchangers 895
13.5.3 Corrosion Control 897
Summary 898
References 898
Review Questions 899
Problems 903
Appendix A: Thermophysical Properties 906
Appendix B: “-NTU Relationships for Liquid-Coupled Exchangers 911
Appendix C: Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Correlations 913
C.1 Two-Phase Pressure Drop Correlations 913
C.2 Heat Transfer Correlations for Condensation 916
C.3 Heat Transfer Correlations for Boiling 917
Appendix D: U and CUA Values for Various Heat Exchangers 920
General References on or Related to Heat Exchangers 926
Index 93
Index
Absorptivity, 539
gas, 542
Advection, 439
ASME code(s), 13
Analogy between fluid flow and electric
entities, 98–99
Analytical correlations, 473. See also
Correlations, and Heat transfer
coefficient
fully developed flows, 475
hydrodynamically developing flows, 499
laminar flow, 475
simultaneously developing flow, 507
thermally developing flows, 502
Annular flow, 916
Arithmetic mean, 187
Baffle(s):
disk-and-doughnut, 683
grid, 682
impingement, 684
plate, 682
rod, 684
segmental, 682, 683
strip, 683
Baffle geometry, 588
Balances, 776
cost, 783
energy, 779
exergy, 786
Balance equations, 102, 115, 260, 269, 314,
739, 750
Bavex welded-plate, 30
Bell-Delaware method, 294, 647. See also Heat
exchanger design methodology
correction factors, 648, 650
Bend losses:
circular cross section, 405
miter bends, 409
rectangular cross section, 409
Bhatti-Shah correlation, 482
Biological fouling, 869
Borda-Carnot equation, 400
Boundary layers, 426, 432
inviscid region, 435
momentum, 426
temperature, 428
thermal, 428
thickness, 429
velocity region, 435
velocity, 426
Brazed plate heat exchanger, 30
Bulk temperature, 439
Capital investment cost, 791
Carryover leakages, 360
cross bypass, 360
pressure, 360
side bypass, 360
Chemical reaction fouling, 868, 892. See also
Fouling
Chen and Chiou correlation, 483
Chisholm correlation, 915
Chisholm parameter, 914
Classification of heat exchanges, 3. See also
Heat exchanger
construction features, 12
flow arrangements, 56
heat transfer mechanisms, 73
multifluid, 8
three-fluid, 8
transfer process, 3
two-fluid, 8
Cleanliness coefficient, 881
Cleanliness factor, 881
Cleaning strategies, 892. See also Fouling
Circular fins on circular tubes, 569
Colburn correlation, 483
Colburn factor, 447
uncertainty, 459
Cold-gas flow period, 311
Combined entrance region, 436
Compact heat exchanger surfaces, 711
general relationships, 711
Composite curves, 779
Controlling resistance, 110
Convection, 439
forced, 439
natural or free, 439
Convection conductance ratio, 320
Convection heat transfer, 426, 438, 474
Core mass velocity, 379
Core mass velocity equation, 618, 632
Core rotation, 320
Core volume goodness factor comparisons,
705
Correction factor, 736
Correlations, 511. See also Heat transfer
coefficient
corrugated flat fins, 521
crossed rod geometries, 524
individually finned tubes, 519
louver fins, 516
mixed convection, 536
offset strip fins, 516
plain flat fins on a tube array, 520
plate heat exchanger surfaces, 514
plate-fin extended surfaces, 515
regenerator surfaces, 523
tube bundles, 512
Corrosion, 893
factors, 894
Corrosion control, 897
Corrosion fouling, 868, 892
Corrosion locations, 895
crevice, 897
erosion, 897
galvanic, 895
pitting, 896
selective leaching, 897
stress, 896
uniform (general ), 895
Corrosion types, 895
crevice, 895
erosion, 895
galvanic, 895
pitting, 895
stress, 895
uniform, 895
Corrugated fin, 39
multilouver, 39
offset strip, 39
perforated, 39
plain rectangular, 39
plain triangular, 39
wavy, 39
Corrugated louver fin exchanger, 580
Cost balance, 791
Cost rate balance, 776, 783
Counterflow exchanger, 122, 125, 126, 136,
190, 748
temperature distribution, 739, 741, 748
Coupling, 773
identical order, 773
inverted order, 773
Cross flow exchanger, 61, 62, 129, 749
both fluids unmixed, 62, 63
cross-counterflow
cross-parallelflow, 66
energy balances, 750
face-U flow arrangement, 65
identical order, 63
mixing, 61, 62
models, 751
multipass, 65
one fluid unmixed, 62
overall counterflow, 65
over-and-under passes, 65
parallel coupling, 65
partically mixed, 63
side-by-side passes, 65
temperature difference fields, 753
temperature distributions, 749
Crystallization fouling, 892. See also Fouling
Darcy friction factor, 413
Dealuminumification, 897
Delay period, 872
Denickelification, 897
Dezincification, 897
DIM standards, 13
Dimensionless axial distance, 446, 448
Dimensionless groups, 441–443
table of, 442
Dittus-Boelter correlation, 482, 484
Divided-Flow exchanger, 64
Double-blow method, 468
Double-pipe heat exchangers, 21
Echelon tube arrangement, 566
Eckert number (Ec), 797
Effectiveness factor, 736
Effectiveness (“) NTU formulas, 114, 128
comparison, 341
table of, 144
Emissivity, 539
carbon dioxide, 543
correction factor, 541, 543
water vapor, 541
Energy balance, 102, 736
Energy rate balance, 779, 783
analysis, 779
932 INDEXEnthalpy rate change, 83, 735, 736, 783
Entrance and exit losses, 388
Entrance region, 435
Entropy generation, 756, 757, 759, 762, 763
finite temperature differences, 756
fluid friction, 762
fluid mixing, 759
maximum, 763
Entropy generation analysis, 776
Euler number, 394, 413
Exchanger arrays, 164
Exergy, 791. See also Irreversibility and
Entropy generation
analysis, 786
available energy, 756, 776
destruction, 788
losses, 791
rate balance, 776, 786
Exhaustion coefficient, 320
Extended surface efficiency, 289
Extended surface exchangers, 36, 37, 258, 694.
See also Fins
extended surfaces, 258
flat fins on a tube array, 698
individually finned tubes, 698
louver fins, 696
offset strip fins, 696
perforated fins, 697
plain fin surfaces, 695
primary surface, 258
surface area, 258
tube-fin surfaces, 697
wavy fin surfaces, 695
External flows, 432
F factors, 190
Fanning friction factor, 379, 338, 413
circular tubes, 400
Film coefficient, 429, 440
Film temperature, 530
Finned tube exchanger, 41
Fins:
assumptions for the analysis, 259, 285
boundary conditions, 262, 265
energy balance, 260
fin heat transfer, 278
heat transfer rates, 265
interrupted fins, 38
multilouver, 38
plain fins, 38, 277
plain triangular, 277
plate, 38
straight fin of uniform thickness, 261
temperature distributions, 265, 266, 274
thin fin thermal behavior, 259
total fin heat transfer, 263
wavy, 38
Fin density, 37
Fin efficiency, 258
circular fins, 276, 286
dimensionless groups, 279
plate-fin, 283
plate-fin surfaces, 280
rectangular straight fin, 273
straight fins, 276
tube-fin, 283, 286
Fin effectiveness, 258, 288
Fin frequency, 37
First law of thermodynamics, 735, 776
Fixed-matrix regenerator, 53
Flow arrangements, 56
1–2 TEMA E, 159
1–2 TEMA G, 160
1–2 TEMA H, 161
1–2 TEMA J, 161
bi-directional, 748
both fluids unmixed, 62
counterflow, 57
crossflow, 60
cross-parallelflow, 66
mixing, 62
multipass cross-counterflow, 168
multipass cross-parallelflow, 170
multipass exchangers, 164
one fluid unmixed, 62
paralleflow, 58
parallel coupling, 172
Plate heat exchanger, 72
P-NTU formulas, 144
P-NTU relationships, 141,
series coupling. overall parallelflow, 168
single-pass, 57
tube-side multipass
two-pass, 57
unidirectional, 748
Flow friction characteristics, 425
Flow instability with liquid coolers, 837
Flow lengths, 563
heat transfer and pressure drop
calculations, 563
Flow maldistribution, 809, 834, 843, 844
geometry-induced, 809
manifold-induced, 834
mitigation, 844
no flow instability present, 843
operating condition-induced, 809, 837
viscosity-induced, 837
Flow maldistribution-induced instability, 842
INDEX 933Flow nonuniformity, see Flow maldistribution
increase in pressure drop, 814
Flow regimes:
horizontal circular tubes, 533
vertical circular tubes, 535
Flow reversal symmetry, 215, 429
Flow types, 429
external, 432
fully, developed, 435
hydrodynamically developing, 435
imposed, 429
internal, 432
laminar, 430, 434
laminarization, 431
periodic, 432
reattachment, 437
recirculation zone, 438
recirculation, 437
reverse transition, 431
self-sustained, 429
separation, 437
simultaneously developing flow, 436
steady, 429
streamline, 430
thermally developing, 435
transition, 430, 431
turbulent, 430
unsteady, 429
viscous, 430
Fluid mean temperature(s), 601
approximate, 602
arithmetic mean, 604
counterflow and crossflow heat exchangers,
604
heat exchangers with C* ¼ 0, 603
multipass heat exchangers, 604
Fluid pumping devices, 380
blower, 380
compressor, 380
exhauster, 380
fan, 380
head, 380
Fluid pumping power, 379, 438
Form drag, 438
Fouling, 863
aging of, 874
cleaning strategies, 892, 893
combined maximums, 869
compact exchangers, 871
deposition and reentrainment models, 877
diffusion, 873
effect on heat transfer and pressure drip,
863
electrophoresis, 873
empirical data, 886
factor, 107, 866, 875
gas-side, 871, 888
impact performance, 882
inertial impaction, 873
initiation of, 872
Ken-Seaton correlation, 880
liquid-side, 870
mechanisms, 867
mitigation of gas-side, 892
mitigation of water side, 891
modeling of, 875
operating variables, 871, 872
phenomenological considerations, 866
prevention and control of liquid-side, 890
prevention and mitagation of, 890
prevention and reduction of gas-side, 891
removal of, 874
removal resistance, 876
resistance values, 660
resistance, 875, 881, 886
sequential events in, 872
thermophoresis, 873
time dependence, 878
transport of, 872
turbulent downsweeps, 873
unit thermal resistance, 866
Free convection, 532
superimposed, 532
Freezing or solidification fouling, 869
Friction factor, 444, 451
apparent Fanning, 444
Darcy, 445
Fanning, 444, 451
hot, 451
factor determination, 471
Friction velocity, 496
Friedel correlation, 915
Froude number (Fr), 915, 917
Fully developed laminar flow correlations, 480
influence of specific variables, 480
Fully developed region, 435
Galvanic series, 896
Gasketed plate heat exchangers, 23
basic construction, 23
Gas-to-gas heat exchangers, 38
Geometrical characteristics, 563–598
chevron plate geometry, 597
circular fins on circular tubes, 569
corrugated louver fin exchanger, 580
inline arrangement, 563
offset strip fin exchanger, 574
plain flat fins on circular tubes, 572
934 INDEXplate-fin surfaces, 584
staggered arrangement, 566
triangular passage regenerator, 585
tube-fin exchangers, 574
tubular heat exchangers, 563
Gnielinski correlation, 482, 484
Gouy-Stodola theorem, 787
Graetz number (Gz), 448
Grashof number (Gr), 532
Gross flow maldistribution, 810
counterflow and parallelflow exchangers, 811
crossflow exchangers, 817
mixed-unmixed crossflow exchanger, 817
tube-side madldistribution, 821
unmixed-unmixed crossflow exchangers, 819
Guy-Stodola theorem, 756
Hagen number (Hg), 442, 445, 512
Harper-Brown approximation, 286
Headers, 846, 848, 849
counterflow, 848
design, 809, 845–852
free discharge, 848
normal, 846, 852
oblique-flow, 848, 849
parallelflow, 848
turning, 846
Header and manifold design, 845
Heat capacitance, 310
Heat capacity rate ratio, 141
Heat capacity rate, 310
Heat exchanger, 1, 3, 216. See also
Classification of heat exchangers
1–2 TEMA E, 142
1–2 TEMA G, 160
1–2 TEMA H, 161
1–2 TEMA J, 161
as a black box, 736
as a component, 738, 801
as part of a system, 737
compact heat exchanger, 8, 9
comparison of the analysis methods, 207
control volumes, 739
counterflow, 57
cross counterflow, 65
crossflow, 60
design problems, 216
designer controlled parameters, 104
direct transfer type, 1,4
direct-contact, 7
energy balances, 739
extended-surface, 12
epsilon (“) -NTU method, 207, 208
face-U flow arrangement, 65
fluidized-bed, 6
gas-liquid, 8
gas-to-fluid, 11
heat transfer elements, 3
immiscible fluid, 8
indirect transfer type, 1
indirect-contact, 3
irreversibilities, 755
laminar flow, 9
liquid-coupled
liquid-to-liquid, 12
liquid-vapor, 8
meso heat exchanger, 9
micro heat exchanger, 9
modeling, 738
MTD method, 209
multipass cross-counterflow, 168
multipass crossflow exchangers, 65
multipass cross-parallel flow, 66, 170
multipass, 64
number of shells in series, 163
operating condition variables, 104
overall counterflow, 65
over-and-under passes, 65
P1-P2 method, 211
paralleflow, 58
parallel coupling, 65
performance, 787
phase-change, 12
P-NTU method, 209
psi ( )-P method, 210
principal features, 676
recuperators, 1, 4
sensible, 1
series coupling, 65
side-by-side passes, 65
single-pass, 57, 122
storage type, 5
surface compactness, 8
surface geometrical characteristics, 563
surface heat exchanger, 3
train, 164
tubular, 13
two-pass, 57
Heat Exchanger Arrays, 201
Heat exchanger design methodology, 78. See
also Heat exchanger
costing, 90
exchanger specification, 81
manufacturing considerations, 90
mechanical design, 87
optimum design, 93
overview, 78
problem specifications, 79
INDEX 935Heat exchanger design methodology
(continued)
process and design specification, 79
thermal and hydraulic design methods, 84
thermal and hydraulic design, 83
trade-off factors, 92
Heat exchanger design problems, 84
design solution, 85
performance problem, 84
simulation problem, 84
surface basic characteristics, 85
surface geometrical properties, 85
thermal design problems, 84
thermophysical properties, 85
Heat exchanger design procedures, 601
Heat exchanger effectiveness, 114, 212, 745,
772
approximate methods, 213
chain rule methodology, 214
condenser, 125
counterflow exchanger, 125
epsilon (“)-NTU formulas, 128
evaporator, 125
exact analytical methods, 213
flow-reversal symmetry, 215
heuristic approach, 772
matrix formalism, 214
nondimensional groups, 117
numerical methods, 213
paralleflow exchanger, 129
solution methods, 212
traditional meaning, 745
true meaning, 745
unmixed-unmixed crossflow exchanger, 129,
130
vs. efficiency, 114
Heat exchanger ineffectiveness, 238
Heat exchanger optimization, 664, 776
as a component, 776
as part of a system, 776
Heat exchanger selection, 673
Heat exchanger selection criteria, 674, 723
cost evaluation basis, 675, 724
fouling and cleanability, 675
operating pressures and temperatures, 674
Heat exchanger surface selection
quantitative considerations, 699
screening methods, 700
Heat pipe heat exchangers, 44
Heat transfer analysis, 100, 308
assumptions, 100
assumptions for regenerator, 308
Heat transfer characteristics, 425
basic concepts, 426
Heat transfer coefficient, 105, 429, 440, 647
adiabatic, 441
correction factor for baffle configuration, 647
correction factor for baffle leakage effects,
647
correction factor for bypass , 647
correction factor for larger baffle spacing, 647
correction factor in laminar flows, 647
correction factor streams, 647
mean, 105
shell-side, 647
Heat transfer correlations, 916, 917
condensation in horizontal tubes, 916
vaporization, 917
Heat transfer rate equation, 83, 103
Heat transfer surface, 3
extended, 3
indirect, 3
primary or direct, 3
secondary, 3
uniform distribution, 740
Heat transfer surface area density, 311
Heat wheel, 51
Hot-gas flow period, 311
Hydraulic diameter, 9, 312, 384, 441
window section, 394
Hydraulic radius, 384
Hydrodynamic entrance length, 435, 499
Hydrodynamic entrance region, 435
Incremental pressure drop number, 445
Inlet temperature difference,
105
Inline array, 568
Irreversibility, 755, 756, 763, 796
cost of, 786
design parameter, 758
energy measure of, 792, 794
entropy measure, 757
Kandlikar correlation, 917
Kays and London technique, 451
experimental procedure, 451
theoretical analysis, 452
Lambda ()–Pi (II) method, 339
Lamella heat exchangers, 33
Laminar flow, 427, 430
fully developed, 436
velocity profile, 427
Laplace transforms method, 742
Length effect, 244, 249
correction factor, 250
Leveque number (Lq), 443, 448, 514
936 INDEXLimitations of j vs. Re plot, 510
Liquid cooling, 841
Liquid-coupled exchangers, 911
Liquid metal heat exchangers, 233
Ljungstrom, 51, 361
Lockhart-Martinelli correlation, 915. See also
Two-phase pressure drop correlation
Log-mean average temperature, 453
Log-means average temperature, 186
Log-mean temperature, 758
Log-Mean temperature difference correction
factor F, 187
counterflow exchanger, 190
counterflow exchanger, 190
heat exchanger arrays, 201
parallelflow exchanger, 191
Longitudinal conduction parameter, 235
Longitudinal wall heat conduction , 232
crossflow exchanger, 239
exchangers with C* ¼ 0, 236
multipass exchangers, 239
single-pass counterflow exchanger, 236
single-pass parallelflow exchanger, 239
Louver pitch, 696
Louver with, 696
Low-Reynolds-number turbulent flows, 432
Macrobial fouling, 869
Manifold-induced flow maldistribution, 834
Manifolds, 852
combining-flow, 834, 847
design guidelines, 836
dividing-flow, 834, 847
parallel-and reverse-flow systems, 835
S-flow, 835
U-flow, 835
Z-flow, 835
Martinelli parameter, 914
Mass velocity equation, 619
Material coefficient, 881
Materials for noncorrosive and corrosive
service, 679
Matrix heat exchanger, 38
Mean beam length, 540
Mean overall heat transfer coefficient, 245, 247
area average, 245
temperature and length effects, 247
Mean specific volume, 384
Mean temperature difference, 11, 97, 105, 187
Mean temperature difference method, 186
Mean temperatures, 439
Mean velocity, 439
dependence of heat transfer coefficient, 509
dependence of pressure drop, 509
Microbial fouling, 869
Microchannels, 698
Microfin heat exchanger, 37
Miter bends, 409
Mitigation of flow maldistribution, 844
shell-and-tube heat exchangers, 845
Modeling of a heat exchange, 735
Molecular diffusion, 430
Moody diagram, 399
Multipass crossflow exchangers, 164
Multipass exchangers, 164
compound coupling, 181
parallel coupling, 172
plate exchangers, 185
series coupling: overall counterflow, 164, 168
Multipassing, 56
Munter wheel, 51
Newton’s law of cooling, 440
Newton’s second law of motion, 383
Noflow height, 61, 281
Nominal passage geometry, 824
Normal-flow headers, 852
Number of transfer units, 119, 319
NTU vs. ” and C* 131
Nusselt number (Nu), 442, 446
Oblique-flow header, 848
Offset strip fin(s), 574
Operating cost, 785, 786
Operating expenses, 791
Overall energy balance, 115
Overall heat transfer coefficient, 11, 244, 319
combined effect, 251
length effect, 249
modified, 319
nonuniform, 244
step-by-step procedure, 251
temperature effect, 248
Packing density, 311
Panelcoil Heat Exchanger, 35
Parallelflow exchanger, 136, 748. See also Heat
exchanger and Flow arrangements
temperature distribution, 739, 741, 748
Participating media, 538
gases, 538
liquids, 538
Particulate fouling, 868, 892
Particulate or precipitation fouling, 869
Passage-to-passage flow maldistribution, 821
assumptions, 823
counterflow heat exchanger, 825
N-passage model, 828
INDEX 937Passage-to-passage flow maldistribution
(continued)
Other effects, 833
two-passage model, 822
Peclet number (Pe), 443, 448
Performance (effectiveness) deterioration
factor, 813
Performance evaluation criteria, 699, 713,
714
algebraic formulas, 717
direct comparisons of j and f, 700
fixed flow area, 714
fixed geometry, 714
fluid pumping power, 700
reference surface, 700
variable geometry, 714
Induction period, 872
Periodic flow, 437
Periodic flow regenerator, 47
Petukhov-Popov correlation, 482, 484
Pinch analysis, 776, 779
Pipe losses, 399
Plate-fin heat exchanger, 37, 584, 605
Plate heat exchanger, 185, 597, 632. See also
Heat exchanger
heat transfer-limited design, 635
limiting cases for the design, 633
mixed channels, 635
multipass, 185
pressure drop-limited design, 635
rating a PHE, 637
rating and sizing, 635
sizing, 645
Plate pack, 23
rating problem, 605
sizing problem, 617
super elastically deformed diffusion bonded,
40
Plate-type heat exchangers, 22, 693
advantages and limitations, 28
channel, 25
flow arrangements, 27
gasket materials, 26
geometrical and operating condition
characteristics, 27
hard or soft plates, 25
looped patterns, 71
major applications, 29
multipass, 64, 71
pass, 25
series flow, 71
thermal plates, 27
U-arrangement, 72
Z-arrangement, 72
P-NTU method, 139
P-NTU relationship, 141, 142
Porosity, 312, 586
Prandtl number (Pr), 430, 436, 442, 448
Precipitation or crystallization fouling, 867
Pressure drop , 378, 380, 412, 825
analysis, 378
assumptions, 381
bend, 404
core exit pressure rise, 387
core, 382
dependence properties, 418
dimensional presentation, 414
fluid distribution elements, 399
gain, 825
geometry and fluid properties, 418
importance, 378
loss coefficient, 385, 386
major contributions, 380
nondimensional presentation, 413
plate heat exchanger, 397
plate-fin heat exchangers, 382
presentation, 412
reduction, 825
regenerator, 392
shell-and-tube exchangers, 393
shell-side, 648
sudden contraction, 382
sudden expansion and contraction, 399
total core, 388
tube banks, 393
tube-fin heat exchangers, 391
Pressure gradient, 432
adverse, 432
favorable, 432
Pressure loss coefficient, 413
Property ratio method, 244, 530, 531
Printed-circuit heat exchangers, 34
Radiation, 537
gases, 538
liquids, 538
superimposed, 537
Radiation heat transfer coefficient, 540
Rating problem, 84, 208. See also Heat
exchangers design methodology
Rayleigh number (Ra), 532
Rectangular Fin, 261
Recuperator, 450
Reduced length, 339
Reduced period, 339
Reference temperature method, 530
Regenerators, 47, 361, 585
advantages, 50
938 INDEXassumptions for regenerator, 308
balanced and symmetric, 321
boundary conditions, 315
carryover leakage, 360
counterflow, 321, 344
cross bypass leakage, 360
designation of various types, 340
dimensionless groups, 316
disadvantages, 51
effectiveness, 318
energy balance, 314
energy rate balance, 314
epsilon (“)-NTU0 method, 316
fixed matrix, 49, 338
gas flow network, 362
governing equations, 312
heat transfer analysis, 308
important parameters, 310
lambda ()- pi () method, 337
Ljungstrom, 47
longitudinal wall heat conduction, 348
matrix material, 366
matrix utilization coefficient, 340
modeling pressure and carrover leakages,
360
operating schedule, 53, 54
parallelflow, 326, 345
periodic-flow, 53
porosity, 312
pressure leakage, 360
rotary, 47
rotary regenerator, 313, 343
Rothemuhle, 49, 50
Schumann dimensionless independent
variables, 337
seals, 361
side bypass leakage, 360
stack conduction, 352
stationary, 53
transverse wall heat conduction
valve, 53
variables and parameters, 315
Regenerator surfaces, 699
Residence time, 120
Reversal period, 311
Reynolds analogy, 508
Reynolds number, 379, 442
Rollover phenomenon, 458
Rotary regenerators, 47, 51
Roughness Reynolds number, 496
Rough surface flow regimes, 497
fully rough, 497
hydraulically, 497
smooth, 497
transition, 497
Run-around coil system, 911
Sand-grain roughness, 497
Schmidt number (Sc), 509
Second law efficiency, 787
Second law of thermodynamics, 723, 735, 776,
796
evaluation, 723, 796
performance evaluation criteria, 796
Sedimentation fouling, 868
Selection guidelines for major exchanger
types, 680
extended-surface exchangers, 694
plate heat exchangers, 693
plate-fin exchanger surfaces, 694
regenerator surfaces, 699
shell-and-tube exchangers 680
Shell-and-tube exchangers, 13, 68, 183,
291, 646, 766. See also Flow
arrangements
additional considerations, 291
approximate design method, 658
baffles, 18, 682
bundle-to-shell bypass stream, 292
comparison of various types, 21
correction factor pressure drop, 649
crossflow section, 591
crossflow stream, 292
design features, 689
disk-and-doughnut baffle, 683
divided-flow exchanger, 71
external low-finned tubes, 648
finite number of baffles, 297
front and rear end heads, 18, 688
grid baffles, 18, 682
heat transfer calculation, 646
helical baffle, 18
impingement baffles, 684
increase heat transfer, 693
leakage and bypass streams, 292
low fins, 17
multipass, 183
no-tubes-in-window design, 648
nozzles, 17
parallel counterflow exchanger 68
plate baffles, 18, 682
preliminary design, 646
pressure drop calculation, 646
rating, 646
rear-end heads, 688
reduce pressure drop, 693
rigorous thermal design method, 663
rod baffles, 18, 684
INDEX 939Shell-and-tube exchangers (continued)
segmental baffle, 682, 683
shell fluid bypassing and leakage, 291
shells, 17, 686
shell-side flow patterns, 291–293, 295
shell-side pressure drop, 648
shell-to-baffle leakage stream, 292
split-flow exchanger, 70
strip baffle, 683
support plate, 683
tube count, 587
tube pitch and layout, 681
tubes return end, 162
tubes, 16, 680
tubesheets, 18
tube-to-tubesheet joints, 21
unequal heat transfer area, 296
window section, 589
windows and crossflow sections geometry,
589
Single-blow technique(s), 467
Sizing problem, 84, 207. See also Heat
exchangers design methodology
counterflow exchanger, 619
crossflow exchanger, 622
Spiral plate heat exchangers, 31
Spiral tube heat exchangers, 22
Split-flow exchanger, 63
Stack height, 61
Stacked plate heat exchanger, 30
Staggered array
rotated square, 568
rotated triangular, 568
square, 568
triangular, 568
Staggered finned-tube arrangement, 571
unit cell, 571
Staggered parallel arrangement, 55
Staggered tube arrangement, 566
unit cell, 567
Standard types of pitches, 680
Stanton number, 442, 447
Steady-state technique, 451. See also Kays and
London technique
Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 538
Stratified flow, 916
Stream analysis method, 294
Stream symmetry exchanger, 133
exchanger configuration correction factor,
188
log-mean temperature difference correction
factor, 188
Surface area density, 9
Surface characteristics, 449
Surface flow area goodness factor comparison,
704
Swing regenerator, 47
TEMA E Shell, 68
TEMA G shell, 70
TEMA Standards, 13
Temperature approach, 105
Temperature cross, 107, 143, 765
external, 107, 765
fluid mixing, 765
internal, 107, 765
Temperature-dependent fluid properties, 529
correction schemes, 530
Temperature
difference, 187, 294
distribution, 738, 741, 744
counterflow, 744
parallelflow, 744
effectiveness, 140, 244, 248
enthalpy rate change diagram, 776
head, 105
profiles of shell-side streams, 297
range, 105
ratio, 120
span, 105
swing, 366
weighting factor, 756
Test core design, 457
Test technique, 450
The ligament, 681
Thermal boundary conditions, 474
Thermal circuit, 100, 107
Thermal conductance, 111
Overall thermal conductance, 111
Thermal Design, 97, 232, 308
additional considerations, 232
basic thermal design, 97
numerical analysis, 256
regenerators, 308
Thermal entrance length, 435, 502
Thermal inertia, 98
Thermal length, 119
Thermal resistance, 450
controlling, 450
noncontrolling, 450
Thermodynamic analysis, 766
Thermodynamic efficiency, 786
Thermodynamic figure of merit, 787
Thermodynamic irreversibility, 755
finite temperature difference, 755
fluid friction, 755
fluid mixing, 755
Thermodynamic modeling and analysis, 735
940 INDEXThermodynamic quality, 796
Thermodynamic system, 786
Thermoeconomics, 779, 792
Thermophysical properties, 906
Transient test techniques, 467
experimental procedure, 468
theoretical model, 469
Transition-flow correlation, 481, 482
True mean temperature difference, 602
Tube-fin heat exchangers, 41, 631
Tube layout arrangements, 681
conventional, 41
flat fins, 42
heat transfer calculations, 631
individually finned tube exchanger, 41
plate finned tube, 42
plate-fin and tube, 42
pressure drop calculations, 632
rating and sizing problems, 631
surface geometries, 631
Turbulent boundary layer, 430
fully, 430
turbulent region, 430
viscous sublayer, 430
Turbulent flow, 430, 436
Turbulent flow correlations, 487
smooth circular tube, 484
Turbulent mixing, 430
Two-phase pressure drop correlations, 913
two-phase, 913
U-flow arrangement, 835. See also Manifolds
Unsteadiness, 429
Utilities, 776
cold, 777
hot, 777
Valve switching frequency, 320

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