Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety – Second Edition

Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety – Second Edition
اسم المؤلف
Benjamin O. ALLI
التاريخ
7 مارس 2024
المشاهدات
165
التقييم
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Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety – Second Edition
Benjamin O. ALLI
CONTENTS
National policy on occupational safety and health 27
General aims and principles 27
Policy formulation and review 27
Policy instruments 31
National laws, labour codes and regulations . 32
Role and obligations of the competent authority . 33
Policy coordination . 34
Education and training . 35
5 National system for occupational safety and health . 37
6 National programmes for occupational safety and health 41
A national profile on occupational safety and health 42
7 Occupational safety and health policy within the enterprise 45
General framework . 45
Employers’ responsibilities . 46
Workers’ duties and rights . 47
Safety and health committees . 49
8 Management of occupational safety and health . 51
Management commitment and resources . 51
Workers’ participation . 52
Training . 53
Organizational aspects 54
Setting priorities 54
Planning and development activities 54
The place of OSH management in the enterprise . 54
Performance measures . 55
The OSH management cycle . 56
PART III OPERATIONAL MEASURES
9 Legislation, enforcement and collective agreements 59
Labour inspection 59
Collective bargaining 62
10 Occupational health surveillance . 65
Surveillance of the working environment . 66
Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
xiiGeneral framework 66
Monitoring of exposure 68
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) 70
Record-keeping . 71
Surveillance of workers’ health 72
General framework 72
Medical examinations, health assessments and biological tests . 73
Sickness absence monitoring 76
Reporting of occupational accidents, injuries and diseases 76
Ethical and legal issues . 78
11 Occupational health services 81
General considerations 81
Organization 83
Functions . 84
Primary health care approach . 86
First aid . 86
Curative health services and rehabilitation 87
Special occupational health needs 87
Cooperation and coordination 88
Research 88
12 HIV/AIDS and the world of work 91
Principles . 91
Health services and HIV/AIDS . 94
Capacity building . 95
Training for managers, supervisors and personnel officers 95
Training for peer educators . 96
Training for workers’ representatives . 96
Training for safety and health officers . 97
Training for factory/labour inspectors 98
Treatment, care and support 98
Voluntary counselling and testing 99
Disclosure and confidentiality . 99
Treatment 100
Job security and promotion 100
Contents
xiiiTerms and conditions of work 100
Reasonable accommodation . 101
Worker assistance programmes . 101
Social protection . 102
ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS 102
13 Preventive and protective measures 105
General considerations . 105
Engineering control and housekeeping 106
Substitution 107
Work practices and organizational methods 108
Personal protective equipment . 108
Technological change . 109
Protection of the general environment 109
14 Health promotion, education and training . 111
Promotion of occupational safety and health . 111
Training and information at the national level . 113
Training and information at the enterprise level . 114
Training methods and materials 116
International chemical hazard communication tools . 117
The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs) . 117
The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification
and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) 118
The International Chemical Control Toolkit 118
ANNEXES
I Glossary . 123
II Relevant ILO OSH instruments – Ratifications and status 129
III Excerpts from major OSH international labour standards 134
IV Model outline for the preparation of a national profile on OSH . 164
V A checklist for employers writing a safety policy statement . 171
VI A checklist for planning and implementing a workplace policy on
HIV/AIDS . 174
VII Hierarchy of controls applied to risk of blood-borne pathogen
exposure . 176
Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
xivVIII Hazard categories defined in the Globally Harmonized System
for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) . 178
IX The ILO’s Programme on Safety, Health and the Environment
(SafeWork) . 182
X Selected sources of reliable OSH information 186
Bibliography . 189
Index . 193
Boxes
1 The ILO’s mandate on occupational safety and health . ix
2 The burden and cost of occupational accidents and diseases in
the United Kingdom . 5
3 Scope and purpose of OSH standards 11
4 Major ILO instruments concerning occupational safety and health
in general . 12
5 Examples of ILO instruments concerning specific risks and substances 13
6 Examples of ILO instruments concerning safety and health in
specific branches of economic activity 13
7 Examples of recent ILO codes of practice on occupational safety
and health . 14
8 Safety and health at work – A human right 20
9 Joint ILO/WHO Committee’s definition of occupational health . 22
10 Key features of a national policy on occupational safety and health 28
11 Tripartite formulation of a national OSH policy in Italy . 29
12 Indonesian national OSH policy and strategy 30
13 Hierarchy of preventive and protective measures . 47
14 Management responsibilities in OSH training . 53
15 Cooperation between inspectors and workers . 61
16 Some problems of labour inspection . 62
17 Surveillance, work and health . 65
18 Risk assessment 67
19 Aims of a monitoring strategy for air pollutants 69
20 Responsibilities of staff involved in the surveillance of the
working environment . 71
21 Some benefits of good record-keeping . 78
Contents
xv22 Conditions governing workers’ health surveillance . 79
23 Concepts in occupational health 82
24 Functions of an occupational health service . 85
25 ILO standards particularly relevant to HIV/AIDS . 92
26 Summary of key principles in the ILO code of practice on
HIV/AIDS and the world of work 93
27 Duties of employers when workers are exposed to occupational
hazards 106
28 Examples of GHS chemical hazard pictograms 119
Figures
1 How the core OSH standards relate to ILO standards on other
issues . 14
2 National OSH system modelled from provisions in ILO OSH
instruments . 39
3 The OSH management cycle . 55
INDEX
Note: Italic page numbers refer to text boxes. Bold numbers refer to Annexes
accidents 3–4, 5, 8, 11, 86, 105–6
emergency treatment 21, 86–7
inquiries into 34, 77
notification of 34, 76–8,126
action programmes 93, 185
advisory services 38, 61, 96, 98, 159–60
advocacy 182
Africa 4, 91, 94
age 8, 87
agriculture 6, 31
air pollutants 36, 69, 70, 107, 107
anticipatory action 68
asbestos 11, 70, 72, 73, 77, 107–8, 109
Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162) and
Recommendation (No. 172) 13, 79, 110,
120, 130, 131
audiovisual materials 114, 116
audits, safety 55, 127
awards 111
awareness raising 25, 28, 53, 86, 93, 98,
111–12
behaviour change 93, 94, 100
benzene 11
biological samples (medical) 75
bio-monitoring 76
blood-borne pathogen exposure 176–7
cancer, 11
canteens 66, 85
capacity building 95
carcogenic substances 72
Caribbean 4
catastrophes 21
chemical hazards 71, 117-20
chemical safety data sheets 118, 119
Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170) 117, 118
Recommendation, 1990 (No. 177) 13, 79,
103
1, 1101, 117, 1201, 131
children 7-8, 13, 60, 182
China 4
cleaning 107, 172
coal 72
codes of practice see ILO
coherence, in national policy 28, 35
cold 70
collaboration, tripartite 37
collective agreements 21, 37, 62–3, 93
collective bargaining 59, 62–3
communication, 17, 18, 173
community
health services 55, 81–4, 86
outreach programmes 93
compensation 18, 21, 38, 75, 77–8
competent authorities 37, 42, 115, 123
exposure guidelines 68–9
notification of accidents, injuries and
disease 76–8
and occupational health services 83
role and obligations of 19, 21, 33–4, 61, 79,
88
training and information 113Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
confidentiality 78, 79, 92, 94, 97, 99–100
consent 99
consequence (of hazard and risk) 67
control banding 119, 123
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
(COSHH) 119
controls, hierarchy of 176–7
construction industry 6, 13, 183
construction of undertakings 34
consultation 18, 32, 35, 41, 49–50, 171
contract workers 8
cooperation 33, 38, 47–8, 49, 88, 141, 171
coordination, institutional 28, 35, 41
counselling 92, 96, 99
curative services 18, 87
danger, imminent 4, 20, 48, 66, 145
data
access to 79
collection 34, 25, 38, 70, 76, 89, 98
interpretation of 71, 98
protection of personal 98
decent work 25
and workers’ rights 19–20, 20
Decent Work Agenda (ILO) viii
Declaration of Philadelphia ix
Denmark 5
design of undertakings 34
developing countries
and HIV/AIDS 91, 94–6
incidence of fatalities 4, 5
labour inspection in 61–2, 62
occupational health services 81
training 116
disabilities, workers with 88, 96
discrimination 7, 87, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97,
100
Discrimination (Employment and
Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)
92, 98
diseases, infectious 91
diseases, occupational 6, 8, 73
medical screening 73–6
reporting 73, 76–8
dock workers, ILO specific
Recommendations 13, 14
drivers 8
dust 107, 119
economic costs of accidents and diseases 4, 5,
78, 105, 185
economic sectors 6, 13, 30
education 18, 92, 94, 97, 100, 101, 112,
159–60
government policies 35–6
emergencies 21, 47, 83, 172–3
action plans 88
treatment 85, 86–7
employers 10
assistance to 37
responsibilities of 19, 20–1, 46–7, 47, 71–2,
77, 86, 98–9, 101, 106, 146, 150–2
role in training 20–1, 36, 114–15
safety policy statement (checklist) 171–3
employers’ organizations, representatives 9,
10–11, 21, 35, 36, 38, 42, 59, 81, 101
employment, conditions of 13, 94
Employment Injury Benefits Convention,
1964 (No. 121) 75
enforcement 19, 34, 37
of legislation 32, 59–61
engineering controls 106–7, 124, 176
enterprises 6, 78
health services 83
policy formulation 45–6, 93, 171–3
micro-, small and medium-sized 38
training and information 114–16
environmental protection, general 7, 9, 109–10
see also working environment
epidemiological studies 67, 71, 98
equipment, safety of 34, 47, 85, 107–8
ergonomics 34, 84, 85, 109, 124
ethical issues 19, 78, 79, 99
European Union 3–4, 30, 118, 119–20
evaluation 55–6, 70, 116
health 73
exposure 124
and duties of employers 106, 106–8
factors affecting 71
limits (OELs) 69, 70–1, 107, 126
medical testing of 75–6
minimization of 34, 107–8
monitoring of 68–9, 69
family assistance programmes 101–2
fatalities, incidence of 6, 31, 112
fatigue 47
fire precautions 171, 172
first aid 86–7, 97, 160
facilities 21, 47, 83, 85, 87, 106, 172, 173
fishing industry 14
forestry 6
France 5
freedom of association 7, 14
194Index
195
gender 14, 92, 93, 96
Globally Harmonized System for the
Classification and Labelling of Chemicals
(GHS) 117, 118, 120, 178–81
globalization 8
governments
education and training 35–6 and ILO
instruments 9, 10, 184
legislation 21, 32, 59–61
occupational health services 81–4
policy aims 27–8, 29
policy coordination 34
policy formulation and review 21, 27–8,
29, 30
training and information 113–14
see also competent authorities; national
Guarding of Machinery Convention, 1963
(No. 119) and Recommendation (No. 118)
130, 132
Guatemala 5
hazard 124, 183–4
bands 120
chemical 117–20
control of 20, 21, 27, 34, 48, 106–8, 106,
172, 176
definition 67, 178–81
elimination of 176
group 119
guidelines on 184–5
identification of 21, 33, 36, 85, 89, 115–16,
117
and medical examinations 73–6
health assessments 73–5
return-to-work 74
health promotion 18, 20, 22, 101, 111–113,
184
health and safety, key principles 17–19
health and safety committees 49–50, 63
Health and Safety Executive (UK) 5, 119,
171–3
health systems 94–5
health workers 94, 100
heat 70, 71
hepatitis 91, 102
HIV/AIDS 74, 91–103
and health services 94–5
ILO code of practice 91–2, 93–4, 95, 98, 99,
102
ILO/WHO guidelines 102–3
policy and principles 91–3, 174–5
rights-based approach 102
screening and testing 94, 99
“3 Cs” 99
treatment, care and support 92, 94,
98–102, 176–7
workplace issue 91, 93
workplace training 95–8
see also discrimination
Home Work Convention, 1996 (No. 177) 6
home-based workers 6
hours of work 14, 59, 71
housekeeping 106–7, 124
housing 66, 85
humidity 71
hygiene 36, 71, 82, 85, 107, 119, 172
Hygiene (Commerce and Offices)
Convention, 1964 (No. 120) and
Recommendation (No. 120) 13
ILO (International Labour Organization)
codes of practice 9, 10, 14, 21, 32, 33, 46,
77, 106, 123, 132–3
on HIV/AIDS 91–2, 93–4, 95, 98, 99, 102
Conventions 9–14, 74, 129–32, 134–7,
142–7, 153–6
Governing Body 91, 102
international labour standards 9–10, 11,
60, 129–64
mandate (Constitution) vii, ix
Recommendations 9–14, 92, 129–32,
138–42, 147–52, 156–64
scope and purpose of occupational health
and safety standards 11
see also Joint ILO/WHO Committee
ILO Programme on HIV/AIDS 91
ILO Programme on Safety, Health and
Environment (SafeWork) 2, 9, 182–5
immunization 86
implementation
of national policy 18, 28, 29, 34
of prevention programmes 20, 29
Implementing the ILO code of practice on
HIV/AIDS and the world of work 94
incentives 52
India 4
Indonesia 30
infection 95, 96
informal economy 7, 38, 82, 91, 185
information 18, 19, 38, 84, 111, 113–16, 141,
159–60
dissemination of 8, 33, 34, 38, 114, 172
for employees 20, 173
on HIV/AIDS 95–8
on new technology 109, 114
for prevention 92, 94Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
196
for rapid response 99, 185
sources of 35, 115–16, 186–8
inquiries into accidents 34, 48, 171
inspection 19, 32, 37, 38, 115, 171, 173
requests for 48
instruments, policy 31-6, 91–4, 129–33
insurance 34, 38, 77, 99
integration
with community 55
of health and safety in management 49, 52,
53
International Chemical Control Toolkit
(ICCT) 118–19, 120
International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSCs)
117–18
International Labour Conference 17, 91, 92
international labour standards 9–10, 11
international technical standards 118
International Occupational Safety and Health
Information Centre (CIS) 70, 79, 114
International Programme for the
Improvement of Working Conditions and
Environment (PIACT) 561, 631, 891, 1101,
120
1
International Programme on Chemical Safety
117
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound
Management of Chemicals (IOMC) 118
investigations 34, 48, 68, 77
investment decisions 8
Italy, national policy formulation 29
job safety analysis 54
Joint ILO/WHO Committee, definition of
occupational health (1950) 22
Joint United Nations Programme on
HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 99, 102
Kenya 5
Knowledge 20, 25, 48, 53
labour inspection 37, 59–62, 61, 112, 125
Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention,
1969 (No. 129) 631, 92
Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No.
81) and Protocol (1995) 60, 61, 62, 631, 92
labour inspectors 50
notification of accidents and disease 78
training of 36, 60–62, 98, 113
labour legislation 31–2, 37, 60
language
of policy documents 46
for training materials 116
Latin America 4
legislation 21, 32, 33, 37, 55, 77
application of 59–60
enforcement 32, 59–61
List of Occupational Diseases
Recommendation, 2002 (No. 194) 12
local conditions, consideration of 28, 31, 33
maintenance and repair 46, 96, 172
managerial systems 20, 22, 26, 41, 52, 54–5,
117
occupational safety and health 85
managers 22, 45, 46, 98, 172
commitment and resources 51
cooperation with workers 50, 52
and training 53–4, 53, 95–6
management strategies 25
meat packaging 6
mechanization, of hazardous procedures 107
medical education 35
medical examinations 11, 73–6, 83, 125
confidentiality 78, 79
post-assignment 75
pre-assignment 73–4
migrants 7, 182
mining 6, 10, 11, 13
minorities 95
monitoring 55, 65, 125
of exposure 68–9, 69
health 85
sickness absence 76
nanomaterials 31
national
action 149–50
laws and regulations 98, 144
OSH profile 26, 41-3, 140, 164–70
policies 11, 18, 26, 27–37, 88, 125, 135, 136,
138, 143, 153
programmes 41–3, 93, 125, 135, 137, 139
system 18, 25–6, 126, 135, 136, 138
tripartite body 38
networking 182
noise 11, 36, 70, 107, 172
notification of accidents and diseases 34, 55,
76–8, 116, 126, 172
observation 66, 69
Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 (No.
139) and Recommendation, 1974 (No. 147)
13, 791
occupational health care 82
special needs 87–8Index
197
occupational health practice 82
occupational health professionals 76, 79, 84
occupational health and safety, promotion of
111–113
occupational health services 18, 21, 18, 45,
81–9, 153–63
concepts 82–3
coordination 88
curative services 87
first aid 86–7
functions 84, 85, 86, 154, 156
ILO mandate on ix
organization 83, 154, 161–2
primary health care 86
research 88–9
special needs 87–8
Occupational Health Services Convention,
1985 (No. 161) 791, 81, 891, 82, 92, 153–6
Recommendation (No. 171) 73, 791, 891,
120
1, 156–63
occupational health survey 69
occupational history 74
Occupational Safety and Health Convention,
1981 (No. 155) 11–12, 12, 33, 50, 561, 631,
79, 92, 1201, 142–7
Recommendation (No. 164) 11, 12, 26,
36
1, 33, 501, 561, 631, 1101, 1201, 147–52
Occupational Safety and Health (Dock
Work) Convention, 1979 (No. 152) and
Recommendation (No. 160) 13
occupational safety and health management
85, 117
Older Workers Recommendation, 1980 (No.
162) 8
organizational measures 47, 51–2, 54–5
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) 4, 118
OSH policies and programmes 17, 18, 21, 160
OSH standards 10, 11, 129–63
Pakistan 5
Part-Time Work Convention, 1994 (No.175)
6–7
part-time work 6–7, 101
participation
principles for 22, 172
tripartite 28, 28, 35, 89
workers’ 52
partnerships 185
peer educators 96
performance measures 55–6
personnel officers 95–6
personnel policy 22
physicians 74, 75, 77
Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle 41
PIACT see International Programme
policy implementation 34–5
pollution 11, 98, 110
see also air pollutants
precautionary principle 67, 68
pregnancy 87
prejudice 95
prevention 18, 29, 32, 33, 47, 78, 92, 94, 96,
99, 101, 115, 182
Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents
Convention, 1993 (No. 174) and
Recommendation (No. 181) 12
preventive
medicine 86, 87
programmes 21, 41–3, 77, 91, 92, 101
primary health care 52, 55, 86
priorities 31, 47, 54, 61, 76
privacy 19, 78, 79, 88
probability (of hazard and risk) 67
procedures, safety 19, 34, 48, 53
productivity 22, 27, 89, 111
Promotional Framework for Occupational
Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No.
187) 134–7
Recommendation (No. 197) 138–42
proof, burden of 68
protection 11, 19, 47, 98, 109, 115, 183
extended 184, 185
of workers’rights 92, 98, 99
Protection of Workers’ Health
Recommendation, 1953 (No. 97) 12
protective clothing and equipment 47, 48, 72,
106, 108–9, 126, 172, 177
public health programmes 86, 93
psycho-social factors 34
radiation 11, 70, 71
Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (No.
115) and Recommendation (No. 114) 13
reasonable accommodation 96, 97, 101
record-keeping 32, 55, 71–2, 76, 77, 78
recording 126
see also notification
Recording and notification of occupational
accidents and diseases (1996) 77
regulations 21, 32, 33, 37, 59, 98
rehabilitation 18, 21, 85, 87, 88
reporting systems 48, 61, 65, 66, 76–7,
115–16, 127
research 21, 38, 47, 65, 67
resource allocation 28, 43, 52, 60, 85, 177Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety
198
responsibility 19
allocation of 45, 171
delegated 51
Resolution concerning HIV/AIDS and the
world of work 91
reviews 21, 28, 29, 31, 33, 35, 46
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining
Convention, 1949 (No. 98) 63, 631
Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development, 1992 67
risk 20–1, 127
assessment of 27, 34, 47, 67, 78, 85, 87, 97
definition 67
elimination and minimization of 33, 97,
106
ILO recommendations on specific 11, 13
see also exposure; hazard; infection
safety and health
committees 49–50, 71
culture 22, 26, 27, 28, 41, 126, 135
officers 97–8
Safety and Health in Construction
Convention, 1988 (No. 167) and
Recommendation (No. 175) 13, 891, 1101
Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995
(No. 176) 13, 361, 501, 1201
Recommendation (No. 183) 13, 891, 1101,
120
1
safety policy statement checklist 171–3
safety standards, based on male workers 6, 70
sampling 70, 75–6, 84
sanitary facilities 66, 85
schools 35–6
screening 94, 99
seafarers, welfare of 11,14
self-employed workers 82
seminars, tripartite 35
sexual harassment 96
sexual orientation 95, 96
sickness absence
extending 100
monitoring 76
silica 72
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
118-19, 185
collective bargaining 63
regional health and safety committees 50
social costs of accidents and diseases 3, 5, 105
social dialogue 14, 93
social partners 18, 94
social protection and security 13, 14, 92, 94,
98, 100–1, 102
Social Security (Minimum Standards)
Convention, 1952 (No. 102) 92
socio-economic conditions 31
standards
application of 32
new and reviewed 184
see also international labour standards,
international technical standards
statistics 34, 61, 77, 88
stigmatization 99, 100
storage 172
stress and workplace problems 7, 31, 76, 182,
183
substances
controls on 46, 69, 70, 172
ILO recommendations on specific 13
substitution of safer materials 106, 107–8
supervision 47, 116, 173
supervisors 20–1, 51, 53, 66, 95–6, 173
surveillance 156–9
monitoring of exposure 68–70
survey types 69
workers’ health 22, 32, 45, 65–6, 72–9, 79
of working environment 45, 65–72, 66, 69,
71
Sweden 68
Switzerland 5
systems management approach 41
technical
advice 10, 51, 60, 114
fields of action 148–9
knowledge 47, 54, 70
in occupational health services 84
technological innovation 32, 68, 89, 109
new hazards 31, 59, 109
training and information on 36, 114
technology, advanced 31, 59
technology transfer 109
Termination of Employment Convention,
1982 (No. 158) 92
toxic materials 68, 107, 108
trade fairs, international 112
trade unions 49, 59
see also workers’ organizations
training 18, 20, 22, 38, 159–60, 173
employers’ role 20, 36, 114–15
government policies 35–6, 113–14
on HIV/AIDS 95–8
of labour inspectors 36, 60–1, 113
of managers 95–6
managerial responsibility for 53–4, 53
methods and materials 94, 95, 112, 116
on new technology 109Index
199
occupational health services 38, 84, 85,
86–7, 113
of trainers 116
treatment 160
see also HIV/AIDS
tripartism 37, 41
see also collaboration, tripartite;
participation, tripartite
United Kingdom Health and Safety
Executive 5, 119, 172–3
United Nations
Committee of Experts on the Transport of
Dangerous Goods (CETDG) 118
Declaration of Commitment on
HIV/AIDS (2001) 102
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
118
General Assembly Special Session on
HIV/AIDS (2001)
International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights, 1976 20
UNAIDS 99, 102
United States 118
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 20
ventilation, exhaust 107, 119
vibration 11, 36
Viet Nam 4
violence 7
Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
(Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983 (No.
159), 92
vocational training 35–6
voluntary
compliance 28
counselling 92
disclosure 99–100
standards 32
testing 99
vulnerable workers 97, 184
waste disposal 109
women workers 184
employment of 13
and male safety standards 6, 70
reproductive health 87
working mothers 87
work
culture 22
planning and processes 34, 36, 54, 85, 94–5
practices and organization 22, 42, 43, 44,
47, 50, 52, 85, 108, 172
terms and conditions 100–1
workers
assistance programmes 101–2
health education 112–13, 185
medical examinations 72–6
morale and motivation 27, 36, 78, 111
obligations and duties 19–20, 47–9, 109
personal data, protection of 98
occupational history 74
surveillance by 66
training 20–1, 53, 114–16
workers’ health surveillance 21, 45, 65–6,
72–9, 79, 158–9
workers’ organizations 9, 22, 35, 36, 42, 46,
49–50, 59, 63, 81, 111
workers’ representatives 47, 48–9, 52–3, 61,
71, 78, 95, 96–7, 101, 115, 128, 146–7
workers’ rights 17, 19–20, 20, 28, 48, 94, 98
medical 78, 79
privacy 19, 79, 88, 98
working environment 11, 17, 19, 45, 93, 97,
107, 109–10
monitoring of exposure 68–9
reduction of exposure to hazards 108, 184
surveillance of 65–72, 71, 83, 97, 156–8
see also workplace
Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise
and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148)
and Recommendation (No. 156) 13, 1101
workplace 91, 93, 98
health promotion services 101
policy on HIV/AIDS 174–5
stress and problems 182, 183
see also training
works committees 63
World Health Organization (WHO) 4, 91,
102
World report on life and death at work 184
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention,
1999 (No. 182) and Recommendation (No.
190) 8
young workers 11, 74

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