Fluoroplastics – Volume 2

Fluoroplastics – Volume 2
اسم المؤلف
Sina Ebnesajjad
التاريخ
18 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
306
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Fluoroplastics – Volume 2
Melt Processible Fluoropolymers – The Definitive User’s Guide and Data Book
Second Edition
Sina Ebnesajjad
Table of contents
Dedication
Preface to Second Edition
Acknowledgments to Second Edition

  1. Introduction to Fluoropolymers
    1.1. Coming of Age of Polymer Science
    1.2. Roy Plunkett’s Story
    1.3. Commercialization of PTFE
    1.4. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
    1.5. Trends in Application Development
    1.6. Globalization: Present and Future
  2. Production and Market Statistics
    2.1. Growth of Fluoropolymers
    2.2. Regional Consumption of Fluoropolymers
    2.3. Consumption of Fluoropolymers
  3. From Fundamentals to Applications
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Uniqueness of Fluorine
    3.3. Fluorine Characteristics
    3.4. What are Fluoropolymers?
    3.5. Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers
    3.6. Developmental History of Fluoropolymers
    3.7. Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers
  4. Fluoropolymers: Properties and Structure
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Impact of F and C–F Bond on the Properties of PTFE
    4.3. Copolymers of TFE
    4.4. Reaction Mechanism
    4.5. Effect of Solvents on Fluoropolymers
    4.6. Molecular Interaction of Fluoropolymers: Low Friction and Low Surface Energy
    4.7. Conformations and Transitions of PTFE
    4.8. Conformations and Transitions of PCTFE
    4.9. Conformations and Transitions of FEP Copolymers
    4.10. Conformations and Transitions of Perfluoroalkoxy Polymer
    4.11. Conformations and Transitions of Polyvinylidene Fluoride
    4.12. Conformations and Transitions of Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer
    4.13. Conformations and Transitions of Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer
  5. Operational Classification of Fluoropolymers
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. TFE Homopolymers
    5.3. TFE Copolymers
    5.4. CTFE Polymers
    5.5. VDF Polymers
    5.6. VF Polymers
    5.7. Process Classification
  6. Preparation and Properties of Fluorinated Monomers
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. TFE Preparation
    6.3. Purification of TFE
    6.4. Properties of TFE
    6.5. Synthesis of HFP
    6.6. Properties of HFP
    6.7. Synthesis of PAVEs
    6.8. Properties of PAVEs
    6.9. Synthesis of CTFE
    6.10. Properties of CTFE
    6.11. Synthesis of VDF
    6.12. Properties of VDF
    6.13. Synthesis of Vinyl Fluoride
    6.14. Properties of VF
  7. Polymerization Surfactants
    7.1. Introduction
    7.2. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
    7.3. Issues with PFOS
    7.4. Problem with PFOA
    7.5. EPA Action
    7.6. Alternative Surfactants for Fluoropolymer Polymerization
    7.7. Summary
  8. Polymerization and Finishing Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Polymerization Mechanism for TFE
    8.3. Preparation of PFA Polymers
    8.4. Preparation of Perfluorinated Ethylene–Propylene Copolymers
    8.5. End Group Stabilization
    8.6. Preparation of VDF Polymers
    8.7. Preparation of ETFE Polymers
    8.8. Preparation of ECTFE Polymers
    8.9. Preparation of VF Polymers
    8.10. Polymerization in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
    8.11. Characterization of Fluoropolymers
  9. Commercial Grades of Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers
    9.1. Introduction
    9.2. Perfluoroalkoxy Polymer
    9.3. Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Polymer
    9.4. Polyvinylidene Fluoride
    9.5. Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Polymer
    9.6. Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene Polymer
    9.7. Terpolymer Fluoroplastics
    9.8. Polyvinyl Fluoride
    9.9. Fluoroplastic Films
  10. Injection Molding
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. General Considerations
    10.3. Basic Technology
    10.4. The Process
    10.5. Injection Molding Machinery
    10.6. Troubleshooting
    10.7. Injection Molds
    10.8. Materials of Construction
    10.9. Rheology of Fluoropolymer Melts
    10.10. Processing of Fluoropolymers
  11. Extrusion
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Fundamentals of Extrusion Processes
    11.3. Fluoropolymer Wire Coating
    11.4. Fluoropolymer Tube Extrusion
    11.5. Fluoropolymer Film Extrusion
    11.6. Fluoropolymer Fibers
    11.7. Thermal Stability of Fluoropolymers
  12. Rotational Molding and Linings
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Background
    12.3. Basic Process Technology
    12.4. Rotational Molding Equipment
    12.5. Equipment and Process Design
    12.6. Operation of Rotomolding Processes
    12.7. Rotolining Process
    12.8. Rotomolding and Rotolining of Fluoropolymers
    12.9. Melting of Polymer and Part Formation
    12.10. Troubleshooting
    12.11. Conclusion
  13. Other Molding Techniques
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Compression Molding
    13.3. Transfer Molding
    13.4. Blow Molding
  14. Fluoropolymer Foams
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Background
    14.3. Foaming Technology
    14.4. Foam Manufacturing Processes
    14.5. Benefits of Fluoroplastic Foams
    14.6. Foaming Technology
    14.7. Extrusion Foaming of Melt-Processible Perfluoropolymers
    14.8. Summary
  15. Chemical Properties of Fluoropolymers
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. Chemical Compatibility of Perfluoropolymers
    15.3. Chemical Compatibility of Partially Fluorinated Fluoropolymers
    15.4. Permeation Fundamentals
    15.5. Permeation Measurement and Data
    15.6. Environmental Stress Cracking
  16. Properties of Fluoropolymers
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. Influence of Processing on Fluoroplastics
    16.3. Mechanical and Dynamic Properties
    16.4. Thermal Properties
    16.5. Weatherability
    16.6. Electrical Properties
    16.7. Optical and Spectral Properties
    16.8. Radiation Effect
    16.9. Flammability
    16.10. Biofilm Formation
  17. Surface Treatment of Fluoropolymers for Adhesion
    17.1. Introduction
    17.2. Sodium Etching of Fluoroplastics
    17.3. Plasma Treatment of Fluoropolymers and PTFE
    17.4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
    17.5. Corona Treatment
    17.6. Flame Treatment
  18. Fabrication of Fluoropolymers
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. Machining
    18.3. Adhesive Bonding Methods
    18.4. Welding and Joining
    18.5. Heat-Sealing Films
    18.6. Heat Bonding
    18.7. Metallization
    18.8. Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Films
    18.9. Cross-Linking
    18.10. Thermoforming
    18.11. Other Processes
  19. Applications in Microelectronics Industry
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Review of Microelectronics Manufacturing
    19.3. Geometry Trends
    19.4. Use of Fluoropolymers
    19.5. Purity Measurement Methods and Standards
    19.6. Trends for the Use of Fluoropolymers in the Semiconductor Industry
  20. Applications of Fluoropolymers
    20.1. Chemical Processing
    20.2. Piping
    20.3. Vessels
    20.4. CPI Components
    20.5. Self-Supporting Components
    20.6. Trends in Using Fluoropolymers in Chemical Service
    20.7. Semiconductor Processing
    20.8. Electrical Applications
    20.9. Mechanical Applications
    20.10. Automotive and Aerospace
    20.11. Medical Devices
    20.12. Summary
  21. Safety, Health, Environmental, Disposal, and Recycling
    21.1. Introduction
    21.2. Toxicology of Fluoropolymers
    21.3. Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers
    21.4. Emission during Processing
    21.5. Safety Measures
    21.6. Food Contact
    21.7. Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling
    21.8. Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods
    Glossary
    General
    Semiconductor Glossary
    Index
    .
    GLOSSARY 731Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables respectively.
    A
    Abrasion, 492e514
    resistance, 507e510
    of fluoroplastics, 515t
    of thermoplastics, 515t
    ABS. See Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
    (ABS)
    Absence of catalyst, 76
    Absorption
    constant, 614
    index, 605
    AC. See Alternating current (AC)
    Accelerators, 160, 165
    Accordion, 107
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
    311
    Activators, 159e160, 165
    Acyl fluoride groups, 142
    Adherends, 611e612
    Adhesive bond, 564
    Adhesive bonding methods, 590e591.
    See also Machining; Welding
    Adhesive-less joining. See Welding
    Adjustable ducting hood, 683f
    ADONA surfactant, 95, 95f
    Advanced hot runner gates, 258, 258f
    Aerospace, 677
    braided hose, 676f
    data cables, 673f
    AFM. See Atomic force microscopy
    (AFM)
    Alternating current (AC), 642
    American Kuhne cutaway extruder,
    283f
    American Society for Testing Materials
    (ASTM), 117
    Ammonia (NH3), 568
    plasma, 574e575
    Ammonium perfluoro 3, 6-
    dioxaoctanoate (APFDO), 116
    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO),
    83, 102, 684
    special characteristics of, 91
    Ammonium persulfate (APS), 103, 105,
    128, 145
    Amorphous plastics, 619
    Angioplasty catheter application,
    677f
    Anion contamination, 650
    Annealing. See Dimensional stabilization
    APFDO. See Ammonium perfluoro
    3,6-dioxaoctanoate (APFDO)
    APFO. See Ammonium
    perfluorooctanoate (APFO)
    Applications in microelectronics
    industry, 640
    comparison of metal extraction,
    657t
    fluoropolymers use, 653e656
    trends for, 658e659
    geometry trends, 645e651
    microelectronics manufacturing,
    640e645
    performance values using rinse test and
    cycle test, 657t
    purity measurement methods and
    standards, 656e658
    TOC contamination requirements, 659t
    Applications of fluoropolymers, 661,
    675f
    automotive and aerospace, 677
    CPI, 661
    components, 664e665
    electrical applications, 672e674
    mechanical applications, 674e675
    medical devices, 677e678
    piping, 661e662
    self-supporting components,
    666e667
    semiconductor processing, 668e672
    trends in using fluoropolymers in
    chemical service, 667e668
    vessels, 662e664
    APS. See Ammonium persulfate (APS)
    APT. See Atmospheric pressure plasma
    treatment (APT)
    Arc tracking, 533
    ASTM. See American Society for Testing
    Materials (ASTM)
    ASTM Method D3123, 267
    Atmospheric glow discharge treatment
    effect, 574t
    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment
    (APT), 577e583
    comparison with low-pressure plasma
    treatment, 579t
    functional principles, 581f
    Atomic force microscopy (AFM),
    31e32
    Attrition factor (Af), 135
    Automotive, 677
    sensor, 675f
    Automotive PTFE-lined
    fluid transfer hose, 676f
    fuel hose, 676f
    Auxiliary-ram molds, 383
    Auxiliary-ram transfer process. See
    Plunger molding
    Azeotropic copolymerization,
    109
    B
    Bagley correction, 266
    Balanced runner, 254, 255f
    Bare-roll, 583e584
    Barrier screws, 284, 284f
    Basic melt indexer, 269f
    Batch system, 352
    BCDS. See Bulk chemical dispense
    systems (BCDS)
    BCF. See Bioconcentration factor (BCF)
    Bearing pads, 674
    Bed, 606
    Bent strip test, 192
    Beta-hydroxypropyl tertiary butyl
    peroxides, 165
    Biaxial orientation, 285, 311
    Biaxially oriented film, 288e290
    Bioconcentration factor (BCF), 92,
    92te93t
    Biofilm formation, 559e561
    Birefringence, 334e335
    2,2-bis-trifluoromethyl-4,5-difluoro-1,3-
    dioxole, 42, 46f
    Blade ejectors, 261
    733Blow molding, 392e393, 393f. See also
    Compression molding; Transfer
    molding
    blow molds, 402
    blowing and calibrating devices,
    403e404
    cooling, 404
    features, 402
    pinch-off zone, 403, 403f
    venting and surface finish, 404
    coextrusion
    blow-molding techniques, 400e401,
    401f
    operating conditions, 406t
    dip blow-molding process, 400, 400f
    extrusion blow molding, 395e397
    fluoropolymer parts, 404e410
    injection blow molding, 398, 398f
    multiblock blow molding, 400,
    400f
    processes, 393e395
    sequential extrusion, 401e402,
    401f
    stretch blow-molding process,
    398e399
    Blow pin, 403
    Blowing agent, 425
    Blowing devices, 403e404
    Blown film, 287e288
    Blown process, 288e289, 289f
    Blowup ratio, 311
    BN. See Boron nitride (BN)
    Boeing Specification Support Standard
    (BSS), 632e633
    Bond strength, 598
    Bonding adhesives, 591
    Boranes (B2H6), 432
    Boron (B) atoms, 641
    Boron nitride (BN), 270, 318e319,
    414e417, 420
    on foaming efficiency FEP, 420t
    nucleating and blowing agents,
    426e427
    triple nucleating package of extrusion
    process, 429
    Branched perfluorinated vinyl ethers,
    185
    Break stress, 333
    BSS. See Boeing Specification Support
    Standard (BSS)
    Bubble process. See Blown process
    Buildup time, 356
    Bulk chemical dispense systems (BCDS),
    645e650
    Burnout hood, 683f
    Butt weld, 617f
    C
    Cables
    aerospace data cables, 673f
    coaxial, 673f
    plenum, 672e673
    for signal transmissions, 673f
    Calcium tetraborate (CTB),
    318e319
    Calibrating devices, 403e404
    Capacitance, 642
    Capacitors, 640, 642, 643f
    Capillary viscometers, 266
    Capture velocity, 682e683
    Carbon, 475
    Carbon dioxide (CO2), 140, 421, 613
    foaming
    extruder design and processing
    conditions, 422t
    Carbonefluorine bond (CeF bond), 11
    Carbonyl fluoride (COF2), 69, 140, 682t
    Cardoid type, 394
    Carlson’s method, 147
    Carousel machines, 352
    Carriers, 668
    Cashew gate. See Winkle gate
    Cast film, 285e287, 285f
    Catalysts. See Initiators
    CClF2-CHF2. See 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-
    tetrafluoroethane (CClF2-CHF2)
    Cell growth, 414
    Cellular polymers. See Foamed plastics
    Centrifugal casting, 350
    CeF bond. See Carbonefluorine bond
    (CeF bond)
    CF3COF. See Trifluoroacetyl fluoride
    (CF3COF)
    Chain transfer agent (CTA), 104
    CHClF2. See Chlorodifluoromethane
    (CHClF2)
    Chemical foaming, 414
    Chemical process industry (CPI),
    661
    components, 664e665
    Chemical processing, 661
    Chemical properties of fluoropolymers,
    432
    chemical compatibility
    partially fluorinated fluoropolymers,
    436e438
    perfluoropolymers, 432e436
    chemical resistance, 432f
    environmental stress cracking,
    471e473
    permeation
    fundamentals, 438e470
    measurement and data, 470
    Chemical resistance, 216, 227
    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 643
    Chill roll, 285, 286f, 287t
    Chip geometry, 643e644
    Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), 432
    Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2),
    48e49
    Chlorodifluoromethane, 59
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 39, 48,
    102, 421
    polymers, 42e45
    properties, 74e75, 75t
    synthesis, 72e74
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene vinylidene
    fluoride copolymer (CTFE-VDF
    copolymer), 9e10
    Choker bar. See Restrictor bar
    Circuit density, 669
    Clamp force conversion table, 240t
    Clamp unit, 237e239, 238f
    Clamshell machines, 353
    ClF3. See Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3)
    Closed-loop principle, 247
    CMC. See Critical micelle concentration
    (CMC)
    Coagulum, 92
    Coat hanger design, 308, 309f
    Coat hanger die, 290
    Coaxial cables, 673f
    Coextrusion, 292e294
    COF2. See Carbonyl fluoride (COF2)
    Cold flow. See Creep
    Cold runner, 253e254, 254f
    Comonomer, 42
    Compression molding, 371, 371fe372f.
    See also Blow molding; Transfer
    molding
    fluoropolymers, 375e379
    press, 374e375
    rectangular compression mold, 377f
    types, 372e374
    Compression ratio, 283e284
    Computing industry, 640
    Concentricity, 294
    Conduction, 605
    Conductors, insulation structures on, 633t
    Cone and plate viscometer, 266e267
    Conformational disorder. See Molecular
    relaxation
    Conquest technology, 619e620
    Contact adhesives, 591
    Control systems, 245e247
    Convection, 605
    Conventional crosshead design, 297f
    Conventional screw design, 296f
    Conversion, 49e50
    734 INDEXConvoluted PTFE-lined braided hoses,
    669f
    Cooling, 259e261, 259fe260f, 404
    cycle, 357e358
    Copolymer, 23, 39
    Copper-beryllium (CueBe), 273
    Corona treatment, 583e584. See also
    Flame treatment; Plasma
    treatment
    Corrosion-resistant metals and suppliers,
    262t
    Couette viscometer, 266e267
    CPI. See Chemical process industry (CPI)
    “Cradle-to-grave” rules, 688
    Creep, 482e487
    Critical micelle concentration
    (CMC), 89
    Critical shear rate, 262, 282
    Critical solvent content, 325
    Cross-linking, 631e633
    Cryolite. See Cryolith
    Cryolith, 12
    Crystallinity, 236, 470, 472, 475
    CTA. See Chain transfer agent (CTA)
    CTB. See Calcium tetraborate (CTB)
    CTFE. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene
    (CTFE)
    CTFE-VDF copolymer. See
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene
    vinylidene fluoride copolymer
    (CTFE-VDF copolymer)
    CueBe. See Copper-beryllium (CueBe)
    CVD. See Chemical vapor deposition
    (CVD)
    Cycle test, performance values using,
    657t
    D D
    -limonene, 77, 77f
    “d” coefficients, 535
    Daikin technology, 61
    Davis Standard grooved feed throat,
    284f
    DC. See Direct current (DC)
    DDR. See Drawdown ratio (DDR)
    Decompression foaming, 415
    Decompression screws. See Vented
    screws
    Deformation-under-load, 482e487
    of FEP, 496fe498f
    PFA, 493fe495f
    Degating, 252
    Denier, 291
    DF. See Dissipation factor (DF)
    DFE. See 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE)
    DH. See Hydraulic diameter (DH)
    DHP. See Di-(w-hydrodecafluoroheptanol)
    peroxide (DHP)
    1,1-DHPPTE. See 1,1-dihydropentafluoropropyl trifluorovinyl ether
    (1,1 DHPPTE)
    Di-(w-hydrodecafluoroheptanol)
    peroxide (DHP), 138
    Diaphragms, 274
    1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane
    (CClF2-CHF2), 1
    Dichlorodifluoromethane, 48
    Die. See Parison head
    Die coextrusion, 293e294
    Die head. See Parison head
    Die lips, 308
    DielseAlder adducts, 69e70
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
    112
    Diffusion, 644e645
    1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), 77
    Diglutaric acid peroxide, 160
    Diglyme, 570
    1,1-dihydropentafluoropropyl
    trifluorovinyl ether (1,1
    DHPPTE), 71
    Dimensional stabilization, 145e147
    Dimethylformamide (DMF), 51e54,
    166e168
    Dipole polarization, 606
    Direct current (DC), 642
    Direct hot runner gate, 258, 258f
    Direct positive mold. See Fully
    positive
    Direct sprue gating. See Sprue gating
    Dispersion grade fluoropolymers,
    684
    Dispersion polymerization. See Emulsion
    polymerization
    Dispersion processes, 39
    Displacement-controlled welding. See
    Welding by distance
    Disposal methods, 688e689
    Dissipation factor (DF), 524e525,
    606
    Disuccinic acid peroxide, 160
    DMF. See Dimethylformamide (DMF)
    Doping, 640e641, 644e645
    Draft ratio, 333
    Draw-ratio balance (DRB), 301
    Drawdown ratio (DDR), 300e301,
    300te301t
    DRB. See Draw-ratio balance (DRB)
    Drilling, 590
    DSC. See Differential scanning
    calorimetry (DSC)
    Dual laminate, 661
    E
    ECF. See Electrochemical fluorination
    (ECF)
    ECTFE. See Ethylene
    chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
    Eddy currents, 597
    EHMW. See Extra-high molecular weight
    (EHMW)
    Ejection, 261
    Ejection half. See Moving half
    Elastomer-supported PTFE gaskets, 665f
    Electrical applications, 672e674
    Electrochemical fluorination (ECF),
    67, 84
    Electrochemical method, 13, 14f
    Electromagnetic materials, 598f
    Electromechanical coupling coefficient,
    535
    Electronegativity, 11
    Electronic
    devices, 640
    packaging, 640
    polarization, 606
    Electrophiles, 27
    Elevated temperature etching,
    570e572
    etching, 571
    shelf life of etch surfaces, 572
    storage and preparation, 571
    washing, 571e572
    Emission during processing, 681
    Emulsifiers, 197
    Emulsion polymerization, 83, 102
    End group stabilization, 140, 148t,
    150t
    extractable fluorine ion content, 153t
    FEP stabilization, 140e145
    fluorination effect and ammoniation,
    152t
    infrared wave number, 140t
    PFA stabilization, 145e154
    thermal stability, 149t
    Enflurane, 14e15
    Environmental protection, 688e689
    EPA. See US Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA)
    ePTFE
    aortic repair graft, 676f
    vascular graft configured for pediatric
    shunt, 676f
    Equipment cleaning and maintenance,
    685
    Etching, 571, 644
    ETFE. See Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    (ETFE)
    Ethylene (Et), 110
    INDEX 735Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
    (ECTFE), 7, 36, 206, 227, 348,
    361, 391, 415e416, 432,
    437e438, 477, 565, 623, 653,
  22. See also Fluorinated
    ethylene propylene (FEP);
    Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA
    polymer); Polyvinylidene fluoride
    (PVDF)
    conformations and transitions, 36
    copolymer chemical compatibility, 469t
    dielectric constant, 546fe547f
    dissipation factor, 547fe548f
    electrical properties, 536, 546t
    films, 315e316
    flexural modulus, 489f
    g-radiation effect, 556t
    high-purity fluid water piping system,
    655f
    polymers preparation, 191e196
    polymerization conditions and
    characteristics of, 193t
    properties, 194te195t
    Solvay Solexis ECTFE polymers
    properties, 230t
    stress relaxation, 510f
    tensile creep, 508fe509f
    thermal properties, 524t
    transmission, 552
    transmittance, 555f
    weathering effect, 532f
    welding, 623
    yield and tensile strength, 484f
    yield and ultimate elongation, 485f
    Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE),
    7, 35, 39e42, 112e113, 113f,
    205e206, 227, 348, 361e365,
    378, 415e416, 432, 436, 477,
  23. See also Fluorinated
    ethylene propylene (FEP);
    Perfluoroalkoxy polymer
    (PFA polymer); Polyvinylidene
    fluoride (PVDF)
    adhesion improvement, 573
    AGC ETFE resins
    compositions, 229t
    properties, 229t
    apparent flexural modulus, 493f
    chemical compatibility, 440te447t
    conformations and transitions, 35e36
    convoluted tubing, 670f
    creep-apparent flex modulus vs. time and
    temperature, 508f
    Daikin ETFE resins properties, 229t
    dielectric constant, 543fe544f
    temperature effect comparison, 545f
    dielectric strength vs. thickness, 545f
    dissipation factor, 543fe544f
    DuPont ETFE resins properties, 228t
    Dyneon ETFE resins properties,
    230t
    electrical properties, 535e536, 542t
    films, 315e316
    flex fatigue behavior, 512f
    flexural creep behavior, 506fe507f
    flexural modulus, 489fe490f
    hydrolytic stability, 451t, 528t
    effect of immersion, 448t
    infrared scan, 554f
    polymers preparation, 178e191
    copolymerization results, 179t
    polymerization conditions and
    characteristics, 182t
    properties, 180t, 183te184t
    reaction ingredients and conditions,
    180t
    effect of termonomer, 186t
    thermal stability, 181t
    tensile modulus, 491f
    tensile properties, 531t
    tensile strength, 483f
    thermal properties, 523t
    transmittance vs. wavelength, 554t
    ultimate elongation, 484f
    welding, 622e623
    Euromap international size classification,
    242
    Exclusion model, 110
    Exhaust
    scheme for blow molding, 682f
    system, 683f
    typical setup for, 683f
    Expandable foaming, 415
    Expanded plastics. See Foamed plastics
    Extended mandrel technique,
    305, 306f
    Extra-high molecular weight (EHMW),
    377
    Extraction, 645e650
    Extrudate. See Extrusion
    Extruder, 282e285, 393
    Extrusion, 282e294
    blow molding, 395e397, 395f
    fluoropolymer
    fibers, 328e344
    film extrusion, 308e328
    thermal stability of, 344e345
    tube extrusion, 303e308
    wire coating, 294e303
    fundamentals, 282e294
    stretch blow molding, 399
    welding, 612e613, 613f, 621
    F
    F/C. See Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C)
    F22. See Dichlorodifluoromethane
    Fabrication of fluoropolymers, 683e685
    adhesive bonding methods, 590e591
    comparison of piezoelectric materials,
    631t
    cross-linking, 631e633
    encapsulation of metal parts, 633
    heat bonding, 625e626
    heat-sealing films, 623e624
    hot stamping, 634
    machining, 589e590
    metallization, 626e627
    piezoelectric films, 627e631
    pyroelectric films, 627e628, 631
    thermoforming, 633, 634f
    welding
    ECTFE, 623
    ETFE, 622e623
    FEP, 618
    and joining, 591e623
    PFA, 618e620, 619f
    PTFE, 615e617, 619f
    PVDF, 620e622
    Fabs, 653
    Family mold, 254
    Far-field welding, 603, 603f
    FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
    (FDA)
    Feed block coextrusion, 293e294, 294f
    Feedback, 247
    FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene propylene
    (FEP)
    Fiber extrusion, 291
    Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP), 661
    Fibrillation, 325
    Filled compounds, 679
    Film extrusion, 285e290
    biaxially oriented film, 288e290
    blown film, 287e288
    cast film, 285e287, 285f
    fluoropolymer, 308e328
    Film flame treater, 584f
    Filter cartridge, 658
    Fire hazard, 685
    Fixed half, 251e252
    Flame nozzle design, 584
    Flame treatment, 584e586, 585t.
    See also Corona treatment;
    Plasma treatment
    Flame-ionization detector-analyzed
    gases, 55
    Flammability, 557e559
    Flash type, 372e373
    Flex fatigue properties, 491e492
    736 INDEXFlex life, 491
    Flexible foam, 413
    Flexural life. See Flex life
    Floating-plate, 383
    Flory model, 110
    Flow length, 267
    Fluff, 135
    Fluorinated emulsifier, 114e115
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP),
    15, 218e219, 476, 507, 555, 565,
    661, 673. See also Ethylene
    tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
    Perfluoroalkoxy polymer
    (PFA polymer); Polyvinylidene
    fluoride (PVDF)
    coefficient of friction, 514f
    compression stressestrain behavior,
    478f
    convoluted tubing, 670f
    creep behavior, 499f
    Daikin EFEP resins properties,
    225t
    Daikin FEP resins properties, 223t
    deformation-under-load, 496fe498f
    dielectric constant, 537fe538f
    dissipation factor, 537fe538f
    DuPont FEP resins properties, 222t
    Dyneon FEP resins properties, 224t
    electrical properties, 536t
    flex fatigue resistance, 511t
    flexural modulus, 486f
    infrared transmittance spectrum,
    551f
    radiation effect, 556t
    stressestrain behavior of various grades,
    479fe480f
    tensile properties, 529t
    retention, 530t
    tensile strength, 481f
    tensile stress relaxation, 509fe510f
    tensile stressestrain behavior,
    478f
    thermal properties, 522t
    transmission of visible light,
    551fe552f
    transmittance comparison, 549f
    ultimate elongation, 481f
    wear and PV data, 515t
    welding, 618
    Fluorinated monomers, 48
    CTFE
    properties, 74e75, 75t
    synthesis, 72e74
    HFP
    properties, 69e70, 70t
    synthesis, 64e69
    PAVEs
    properties, 72, 73t
    synthesis, 70e71, 72t
    TFE
    preparation, 48e59
    properties, 62e64, 63t
    purification, 59e61
    VDF
    properties, 76, 76t
    synthesis, 75e76
    VF
    estimated thermal conductivity and
    viscosity, 79t
    flammability properties, 79t
    properties, 77e78, 78t
    solubility, 78t
    synthesis, 76e77
    Fluorinated surfactants, 83e84, 84f
    Fluorination, 145
    Fluorine, 11, 12t, 475
    characteristics, 11e15
    organic chemistry, 13e15
    preparation, 13
    fluorine-containing compounds, 14e15
    fluoropolymers, 15e16
    uniqueness, 11
    Fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C), 586
    Fluoroaromatics, 14
    Fluoroelastomer applications, 675f
    Fluoroplastic(s), 348, 357e358,
    499e502, 516, 590, 633
    abrasion resistance, 515t
    degradation products, 520t
    degradation rate, 518f, 519t
    films, 227, 626e627
    g-radiation effect, 559f
    glass transition temperatures and
    melting points, 521t
    hardness, 513t
    impact strength, 513t
    radiation resistance, 560f
    Fluoropolymer(s), 1, 4f, 7, 9t, 15e16,
    17t, 20t, 103, 348, 371, 564, 679.
    See also Applications of
    fluoropolymers; Chemical
    properties of fluoropolymers;
    Properties of fluoropolymers
    age of polymer science, 1e2
    alternative surfactants for fluoropolymer
    polymerization, 91
    alternative chemical structures,
    93e97
    requirements, 91e93
    special characteristics of APFO, 91
    characterization, 201
    ECTFE polymer, 206
    ethylene tetrafluoroethylene polymer,
    205e206
    FEP, 201e205
    PFA polymer, 201
    polyvinyl fluoride, 208
    polyvinylidene fluoride, 206e208
    compression molding, 375e379
    compression profile, 376t
    consumption, 9e10
    regional, 8e9
    developmental history, 3e5, 16e18
    emission during processing, 681
    environmental protection and disposal
    methods, 688e689
    examples of uses, 18e20
    fibers, 328e344
    perfluoropolymer fibers, 337e340
    PVDF fibers, 330e337
    ultrafine fibers, 340e344
    film extrusion, 308
    ETFE and ECTFE films,
    315e316
    perfluoropolymer films, 316e319
    PVDF films and sheets, 309e315,
    310te311t
    PVF, 319e328
    fluoropolymer-lined
    components, 663f
    fittings, 662f
    FRP pipe and fittings, 663f
    pipe, 662f
    pump, 664f
    food contact, 686
    fundamental properties, 16, 18t
    globalization, 5e6
    growth of, 7e8
    melting points, continuous use, and
    processing temperatures, 680t
    molecular interaction of, 28e30
    onset decomposition, peak mass loss
    rate and ignition temperatures,
    681t
    Poisson ratio of, 511t
    process classification, 46
    PTFE commercialization, 3
    resins, 686, 688
    rotolining, 360e365
    rotomolding, 360e365
    Roy Plunkett’s story, 2e3
    safety measures, 681e685
    scrap and recycling, 686e688
    effect of solvents on, 27e28
    specialty valves and control
    components, 654f
    thermal properties, 679e681
    toxicology, 679
    INDEX 737Fluoropolymer(s) (Continued)
    trends in application development, 5
    tube extrusion, 303e308
    heat shrink tubes, 307e308
    large diameter tubes, 307
    medium diameter tubes, 307
    sizing of tubes, 303e305
    small diameter tubes, 307
    use in microelectronics industry,
    653e656
    special considerations, 655e656
    weight loss, 680f
    wire coating, 294e303
    DDR, 300e301
    melt flow, 298e300
    melt fracture, 298e300
    process control, 298, 298t
    processing conditions, 303
    processing equipment, 294e298
    shear rate and stress calculation, 301
    tooling design, 301
    Fluorotelomers, 85e86
    Fluorspar, 12, 13f, 48e49
    Fluroxene, 14e15
    Foam-insulated wire, 430
    Foamed fluoropolymers, 412
    benefits, 415
    cells, 413
    foam manufacturing process, 415
    foaming technology, 413e425
    melt-processible perfluoropolymers
    extrusion foaming, 426e430
    Foamed plastics, 412
    Foaming
    ECTFE, 423e424
    ETFE, 423e424
    melt-processible perfluoropolymers,
    416e423
    PTFE, 423
    PVDF, 424e425
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 19
    Food contact, 686
    Four-pair FEP plenum cable, 688f
    Freon, 2
    Friction, 492e514
    FRP. See Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
    (FRP)
    Fully positive, 373, 373f
    Fume fever, 681
    Fusion time, 356e357
    G
    Gate, 253, 255e257, 256f
    Gel permeation chromatography (GPC),
    168
    General Motors (GM), 2
    General-purpose screw, 239
    Geometry trends, 645e651. See also
    Microelectronics manufacturing
    detection limit of metal ions, 652t
    DRAM half-pitch projection, 646t
    nature of impurities, 645e651
    particle contamination and chemical
    impurity requirements, 647t
    recommended ultrapure water quality,
    649t
    semiconductor industry association
    technology roadmap, 645t
    silicon wafer fabrication, chemicals used
    in, 651t
    Globalization, 5e6
    Glow discharge method, 573
    Glyme-based etchant, 571e572
    Glymes, 570
    GM. See General Motors (GM)
    Gore-Tex GR sheet gasketing, 667f
    Gore-Tex film, 627
    GPC. See Gel permeation
    chromatography (GPC)
    Gylon sheet gasketing material, 666f
    H
    HagenePoiseuille equation, 266
    Halex reaction, 13e14
    Halogenated solvents, 433
    Halogens, 11, 14
    Hardness, 492
    of fluoroplastics, 513t
    Haze in transmission, 542
    HCFC-22. See Chlorodifluoromethane
    (CHClF2)
    HCl. See Hydrogen chloride (HCl)
    HDPE. See High-density polyethylene
    (HDPE)
    Head-to-head and tail-to-tail units,
    196
    Health hazards, 682t
    Heat, 236
    bonding, 625e626
    heat-sealing films, 623e624
    shrink tubes, 307e308
    Heated tool welding, 593e595, 615,
    620
    Heating elements, 611
    Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 8, 25,
    39e42, 48, 110, 218, 227, 476,
    534
    epoxide, 69
    properties, 69e70, 70t
    synthesis, 64e69
    Hexafluoropropylene index (HFPI),
    138
    Hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO), 71,
    93, 199e201
    HF. See Hydrogen fluoride (HF)
    HFP. See Hexafluoropropylene (HFP)
    HFPI. See Hexafluoropropylene index
    (HFPI)
    HFPO. See Hexafluoropropylene oxide
    (HFPO)
    High-density polyethylene (HDPE),
    405
    High-energy radiation, 554
    Homogeneous tempering, 261
    “Hopper”, 323e325
    Hose brake lines, 675f
    Hot air welding. See Hot gas welding
    Hot gas welding, 595e596, 596f, 597t,
    616
    Hot plate welding. See Heated tool
    welding
    Hot runner manifold tool, 255f
    Hot runner systems, 257e259, 257f
    velocity profiles in, 258f
    Hot stamping, 634
    HPA. See Hydroxyl propyl acrylate
    (HPA)
    Hydraulic diameter (DH), 253, 254f
    Hydrochloric acid, 1
    Hydrofluoric acid, 140
    Hydrogen, 475
    Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 59
    Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 54, 682t
    Hydrolytic stability, 148
    Hydroxyl propyl acrylate (HPA),
    195
    Hysteresis, 597
    I
    IC. See Integrated circuit (IC)
    ICP-MS. See Inductively Coupled
    Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy
    (ICP-MS)
    Imaging. See Photolithography
    Implanted pace maker, 677f
    Inclusion model, 110
    Incubation period, 105
    Induction welding, 596e599
    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass
    Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), 650
    comparison of metal extraction, 657t
    Infrared welding, 604e605, 622
    Initiators, 159
    Injection
    pressure conversion table, 243t
    stretch blow-molding process, 398
    unit, 239e242
    Injection half. See Fixed half
    738 INDEXInjection molding, 236, 241f, 246f, 247t,
    275t
    basic technology, 236e237
    considerations, 236
    fluoropolymers processing, 267,
    275te276t
    dimensional stability of parts,
    279e280
    injection molding equipment,
    267e274
    process conditions and operations,
    274e279
    machinery, 237e247, 237f
    clamp force conversion table, 240t
    clamp unit, 237e239, 238f
    control systems, 245e247
    injection pressure conversion table,
    243t
    injection unit, 239e242
    material residence times, 246f
    power systems, 242e245
    shot volume conversion table, 244t
    shot weight conversion factors, 245t
    materials of construction, 261e262
    parameters for PVDF, 277t
    process, 237, 237t
    settings for ETFE, 278t
    rheology of fluoropolymer melts,
    262e267
    troubleshooting, 247, 248t
    Injection molds, 247e261
    components, 250
    cooling, 259e261, 259fe260f
    ejection, 261
    feed system, 253e259
    materials, 259
    types, 250e253
    venting, 261
    Inks, 634
    Insulated runner, 257e258
    Insulation structures on conductors,
    633t
    Integrated circuit (IC), 642e643
    Integrated Risk Information System
    (IRIS), 90
    Intermittent accumulator extrusion
    blow-molding, 397
    Intermittent extrusion blow molding, 396
    International Standards Organization
    (ISO), 201
    Intrinsic viscosity, 174
    Inversions. See Head-to-head and
    tail-to-tail units
    Ion implantation, 644e645
    IRIS. See Integrated Risk Information
    System (IRIS)
    Iserson process, 162
    ISO. See International Standards
    Organization (ISO)
    iso-PPVE, 71
    Isoflurane, 14e15
    J
    Jacketing, 294
    Jetting avoidance, 274
    Joining, 591e623
    K
    K-416, 3
    kilonewtons (kN), 242
    Knot strength, 335
    Krytox, 71
    L
    L/D ratio. See Length to diameter ratio
    (L/D ratio)
    Land area, 308
    Land length, 256
    Landed positive, 373, 373f
    Large diameter tubes, 307
    Laser welding, 613e614, 614f
    Latent solvents, 166e168
    LCP. See Liquid crystal polymer (LCP)
    LD. See Longitudinal direction (LD)
    Le Chatelier-Braun principle. See Le
    Chatelier’s principle
    Le Chatelier’s principle, 49e50
    Leaching, 645e650
    Length to diameter ratio (L/D ratio), 239,
    283e284, 309, 316e318
    Lennard-Jones potential, 28
    Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 557e559,
    560t
    Line drawing, 325
    Linear low-density polyethylene, 110,
    110f
    Linear vibration welding, 608f
    Lined FRP piping, 662
    Lined plug valve, 664f
    Liquid crystal polymer (LCP),
    408
    Liquid oxygen (LOX), 437e438
    LOI. See Limiting oxygen index (LOI)
    Longitudinal direction (LD), 309
    Low friction, 28e30
    Low surface energy, 28e30
    Low-pressure plasma treatment (LPT),
    564
    LOX. See Liquid oxygen (LOX)
    LPT. See Low-pressure plasma treatment
    (LPT)
    Lumiflon resins, 42, 46f
    M
    Machining, 589e590, 685. See also
    Adhesive bonding methods;
    Welding
    cutting tool for machining tape,
    591f
    drilling, 590
    sawing, 590
    shearing, 590
    skiving, 590
    Manhattan Project, 2e3
    MarkeHouwink equation, 1e2, 174
    Masking. See Photolithography
    Mass polymerization, 105e106
    Material incompatibility, 685
    Mechanical applications, 674e675
    Mechanical foaming, 414
    Medical devices, 677e678
    Medium diameter tubes, 307
    Megapascals (MPa), 242
    Melt
    blowing technology, 342e343, 343f
    flow, 298e300
    fracture, 168, 262, 262t, 282,
    298e300
    processing, 684e685
    techniques, 42e45
    viscosity, 297
    Melt flow index (MFI). See Melt flow rate
    (MFR)
    Melt flow rate (MFR), 70, 96e97,
    124e125, 236, 262e263, 299,
    377, 420, 476
    compression stressestrain behavior,
    483f
    flexural modulus, 490t
    tensile stressestrain behavior, 483f
    Melt-processible fluoroplastics, 198, 589,
    617, 625
    Melt-processible fluoropolymers, 216,
    662, 687e688
    ECTFE polymers, 227
    ETFEs, 227
    FEP polymers, 218
    fluoroplastic films, 227
    PFA polymers, 216e218
    PVDF polymers, 219
    PVF polymers, 227
    terpolymer fluoroplastics, 227, 231t
    Melt-processible resin, 8
    Mercerization, 197
    Metal contamination, 650
    Metal heater, 620
    Metal spring, 665f
    Metal-oxide-silicon (MOS), 641
    Metallization, 626e627
    INDEX 739MFA. See also Ethylene
    tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene
    (FEP)
    creep behavior, 499f
    dielectric constant, 535f
    electrical properties, 534t
    film thickness effect on transmittance,
    550f
    haze comparison, 550f
    isochronous stressestrain curves,
    501f
    MIT flex life, 511t
    Solvay Solexis MFA resins properties,
    220t
    tensile creep curves, 500fe501f
    tensile modulus, 492f
    thermal properties, 521t
    transmittance comparison, 549f
    Young’s modulus, 492t
    MFR. See Melt flow rate (MFR)
    Microelectronics manufacturing, 640
    microelectronic components, 641e642,
    642t
    semiconductor fabrication stages,
    642e645
    semiconductors, 640e641
    Micropowders, 5, 681, 685
    Microwave welding, 609e611
    Mixing head, 296f
    MMH. See Monomethylhydrazine
    (MMH)
    Modified PTFE, 615, 619f
    Modifiers, 487, 615
    Moduli of fluoropolymers, 477e482
    Modulus test, 632
    Moissan’s reactions, 13, 14f
    Mold design, 273e274
    Mold heating, 352
    Moldability, 366
    index, 267
    Molding
    powder, 371e372
    process, 370
    Molecular relaxation, 518e519
    Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
    264
    Molecular weights (MWs), 5, 102
    Molten layer thickness, 595
    Monofilament, 328
    yarns, 292, 292f
    Monoglutaric acid peroxide, 160
    Monoglyme, 570
    Monomethylhydrazine (MMH),
    437e438
    Monosuccinic acid peroxide, 160
    MOS. See Metal-oxide-silicon (MOS)
    Moving half, 251e252
    MPa. See Megapascals (MPa)
    Multifilament, 328
    yarns, 291e292
    MWD. See Molecular weight distribution
    (MWD)
    MWs. See Molecular weights (MWs)
    N
    n-methyl pyrolidine (NMP), 170
    National Aeronautics and Space
    Administration (NASA), 32,
    437e438
    Nd-YAG. See Neodymium ions in
    medium of yttriumealuminume
    garnet (Nd-YAG)
    Near-field welding, 603, 603f
    Neodymium ions in medium of
    yttriumealuminumegarnet
    (Nd-YAG), 613
    Net effect, 354
    Nitrogen tetroxide (NTO), 437e438
    NMP. See n-methyl pyrolidine (NMP)
    Nonmelt techniques, 42e45
    Nonoriented Tedlar SP films,
    227
    NPN transistor, 642f
    NTO. See Nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)
    Nucleation, 414
    Nucleophiles, 27
    O
    Occupational Safety and Health Act
    (OSHA), 681
    1-octanecarbonyl fluoride, 84e85
    OF2. See Oxygen difluoride (OF2)
    Oil hydraulics, 245
    Organic
    halogen compounds, 11
    peroxide initiators, 156
    solvent, 564
    OSHA. See Occupational Safety and
    Health Act (OSHA)
    Oven dwell time, 356e357
    Oven residence cycle, 356
    Oxidation, 643
    Oxygen difluoride (OF2), 432
    P
    Packaging disposal and recycling,
    688e689
    Parison head, 394e395, 394f
    Parison process, 393
    Part formation, 365e366
    Part stripping, 358
    Partially fluorinated fluoropolymers, 16,
    555e557
    chemical compatibility, 436e438
    Particle contribution testing, 657
    Parting line, 402
    PAS. See Polyarylsulfone (PAS)
    PAVE. See Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether
    (PAVE)
    PCTFE. See Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    (PCTFE)
    PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
    Pendulum technique, 618
    Perfluorinated
    fluoroplastics, 482e487
    fluoropolymers, 554e555
    olefins, 185
    surfactants, 84
    vinyl ethers, 185
    Perfluorinated ethylene propylene, 7, 25,
    39e42, 130, 284, 348, 432, 684,
    687e688
    chemical compatibility, 438t
    conformations and transitions,
    33e34
    preparation, 130e140
    stabilization, 140e145
    Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA polymer),
    4e5, 34, 39e42, 96e97,
    216e218, 284, 348, 365, 375,
    410, 432, 475, 555, 617, 661, 684,
    687e688. See also Ethylene
    tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene
    (FEP)
    AGC Chemicals America PFA resins
    properties, 218t
    components for high-purity fluid
    handling systems, 653f
    conformations and transitions, 34
    Daikin PFA resins properties, 219t
    deformation-under-load, 493fe495f
    dielectric constant, 533f
    dissipation factor, 533f
    distribution block, 654f
    DuPont PFA resins properties, 217t
    DuPont ECCtreme ECA 3000
    Fluoropolymer Resin, 221t
    Dyneon PFA resins properties, 218t
    electrical properties, 533e534, 534t
    flare tube fittings, 655f
    flex life, 512f
    flexural modulus, 486f, 490t
    haze comparison, 550f
    high-purity fluid handling components
    from, 670f
    high-temperature PFA, 216
    740 INDEX150-mm PFA wafer handling systems,
    671f
    immersion effect
    in inorganic chemicals, 433t
    in organic chemicals, 434t
    infrared transmittance spectrum, 549f
    isochronous strainestress curves, 495f
    MIT flex life, 511t
    modulus as temperature function, 485f
    nonaqueous polymerization media PFA,
    216e218
    optical properties, 549t
    polymers preparation, 116e130
    aqueous polymerization, 122e130,
    128t
    nonaqueous polymerization,
    116e122, 118te119t
    in perfluorinated solvents, 117t
    radiation effect, 556t
    semicon wafer carrier, 655f
    Solvay Solexis PFA resins properties,
    219t
    stabilization, 145e154
    strainestress curves, 477f
    tensile creep curves, 494f
    tensile modulus, 492f
    thermal properties, 521t
    ultimate elongation, 476f
    wear and friction data, 513t
    welding, 618e620, 619f
    yield stress retention vs. exposure time,
    525f
    Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether (PAVE), 34,
    69, 114, 216
    properties, 72, 73t
    synthesis, 70e71, 72t
    Perfluorobutyl ethane (PFBE), 110
    Perfluorobutyl ethylene (PFBE), 110
    Perfluorobutylsufonate (PFBS), 86
    Perfluoroethyl vinyl ether (PEVE), 110,
    216
    1-H-perfluoroheptane, 87
    Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB), 67, 298,
    682t
    Perfluoromethyl perfluorovinyl ether
    (PMPVE), 129
    Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE), 110
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),
    83e86, 84f
    issues with, 86
    PFOA, 84e86
    physical and chemical properties, 85t
    Perfluorooctanoate ammonium (PFOA),
    189
    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 83e86,
    84f
    PFOA-based salts and compounds, 85t
    physical and chemical properties, 85t
    problem with, 86e90
    degradation, 87e89
    toxicity, 89e90
    Perfluoroolefins, 27
    Perfluoropolymers, 15, 415, 516, 653.
    See also Fluoropolymer(s)
    chemical compatibility, 432e436
    fibers, 337e340
    films, 316e319
    melt-processible extrusion foaming,
    426e430
    Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE), 48,
    110, 121, 131t, 216, 661
    Permeation
    fundamentals, 438e470
    measurement and data, 470
    Personal hygiene, 685
    PEVE. See Perfluoroethyl vinyl ether
    (PEVE)
    PFA polymer. See Perfluoroalkoxy
    polymer (PFA polymer)
    PFBE. See Perfluorobutyl ethane (PFBE);
    Perfluorobutyl ethylene (PFBE)
    PFBS. See Perfluorobutylsufonate
    (PFBS)
    PFF. See Polymer fume fever (PFF)
    PFIB. See Perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB)
    PFOA. See Perfluorooctanoate
    ammonium (PFOA);
    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
    PFOS. See Perfluorooctane sulfonate
    (PFOS)
    Phosphorous (P), 641
    phosphorous-doped silicon crystal, 641f
    Photolithography, 643e644, 644f
    Photoresist layer, 644
    Physical foaming, 414e415
    Physical vapor deposition (PVD), 643
    Piezoelectric films, 627e631
    Piezoelectricity, 534e535, 627e628
    Piezofilm, 629
    properties, 630t
    Pinch-off zones, 402e403, 403f
    Pipe extrusion, 292, 294f
    Piping, 661e662
    Planartron source, 575f
    Plasma treatment, 572e577. See also
    Corona treatment; Flame
    treatment
    Plasmodul device, 574f
    Plastic corona treatment machine, 598f
    Plastic foams, 413
    Plastication unit design, 270e273
    Plasticity number, 330
    Plastics, 607
    Plateeplate viscometer, 266e267
    Plenum cables, 672e673, 687
    Plug flow, 308
    Plunger molding, 380e382, 381f
    PMMA. See Polymethylmethacrylate
    (PMMA)
    PMPVE. See Perfluoromethyl
    perfluorovinyl ether (PMPVE)
    PMVE. See Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
    (PMVE)
    Pock marks, 358
    Poisson ratio of fluoropolymers, 491,
    511t
    Poly[tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene] film, 581e582
    Poly[tetrafluoroethylenecoperfluoroalkyl vinyl ether] film,
    581e582
    Polyarylsulfone (PAS), 611e612
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), 9,
    22, 25e26, 42e45, 48, 377
    conformations and transitions, 32e33
    Polycrystalline silicon, 643
    Polyethylene (PE), 22, 24t, 227
    films, 287e288
    Polymer fume fever (PFF), 681
    Polymeric foams, 412, 412t
    Polymerization
    aid, 83
    mechanism for TFE, 103
    with APFO replacements, 114e116
    copolymer equation, 108e110
    homopolymerization reactions,
    103e105
    monomer for copolymerization with
    TFE, 110e114
    preparation of PTFE by emulsion
    polymerization, 106e108
    suspension polymerization, 105e106
    surfactants
    EPA action, 90e91
    fluoropolymer polymerization,
    alternative surfactants for, 91e97
    issues with PFOS, 86
    PFOS, 83e86
    problem with PFOA, 86e90
    technologies, 83
    Polymers
    mechanical properties, 42t
    melting, 365e366
    effect of organic chemicals, 45t
    physical and mechanical properties, 40t
    thermal and electrical properties, 43t
    water absorption and effect of inorganic
    chemicals, 44t
    INDEX 741Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), 309
    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 360
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 1, 7, 15,
    22, 24t, 39, 48, 83, 102, 216, 377,
    415, 432, 487, 564, 589, 661, 665,
    674, 679, 687. See also Ethylene
    chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE);
    Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    (ETFE); Fluorinated ethylene
    propylene copolymer (FEP);
    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
    autoignition temperature, 680
    bridge bearing, 674f
    commercialization, 3
    conformations and transitions, 30e32
    images of PTFE molecule, 31e32
    convoluted tubing, 670f
    creep behavior, 499f
    crystalline structure, 31f
    impact of F and CeF bond on properties
    of, 22e24
    fundamental properties, 16t
    high performance aerospace PTFE tapewrapped wire, 672f
    micromachining, 590
    peel strength, 582f
    plasma treatment, 572e577
    poppet valves for high-purity
    applications, 654f
    properties unaffected by molecular
    weight, 686t
    PTFE-lined braided hose, 669f
    PTFE-lined expansion joints, 662f
    PTFE/PFA valve, 671f
    radiation effect, 556t
    sodium etching
    chemistry, 565e568
    surface chemistry, 568f
    surface, 626e627
    temperature effect comparison on
    dielectric constants, 545f
    tensile properties, 531t
    useful attributes, 16t
    wafer carrier, 671f
    welding, 615e617, 619f
    Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 4f, 9e10, 102,
    206e208, 216, 219, 227,
    319e328, 436, 528, 565
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 7, 34,
    140, 348, 415e416, 432, 437,
    476e477, 593, 628, 653, 661.
    See also Ethylene
    tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE);
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene
    (FEP); Perfluoroalkoxy polymer
    (PFA polymer)
    Arkema PVDF homopolymer resins
    properties, 226t
    characteristics, 542t
    chemical compatibility, 451te468t
    compression modulus and ultimate
    compressive strength, 488f
    conformations and transitions, 34e35
    creep behavior, 499f
    creep under tensile stress, 505fe506f
    development of extinction coefficient,
    553f
    dielectric constant, 540fe541f
    dissipation factor, 540fe541f
    electrical properties, 534e535, 539t
    experimental values for creep, 505f
    fibers, 330e337
    films and sheets, 309e315, 310te311t
    flare tube fittings, 655f
    flexural creep, 503fe504f
    flexural modulus, 487fe488f, 491t
    high-purity fluid water piping system,
    655f
    g-rays effect, 557f
    infrared absorption spectrum, 553f
    insoluble fraction, 558f
    mechanical properties, 558f
    modeled isochrones, 504f
    optical properties, 553t
    piezoelectric and pyroelectric constants,
    629t
    properties, 630t
    Solvay Solexis PVDF copolymer resins
    properties, 225t
    Solvay Solexis PVDF homopolymer
    resins properties, 225t
    tensile creep, 502fe503f
    tensile modulus, 487f
    tensile properties, 517te518t, 529f
    tensile strength, 482f
    thermal properties, 522t
    thermogravimetric analysis, 520t
    ultimate elongation, 483f
    ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared
    light transmittance spectra, 552f
    volume resistivity, 540f
    welding, 620e622
    Young’s modulus, 487f
    Porter Process, 569
    Positive-type mold, 373e374
    Powder. See Fluff
    Power factor, 606
    Power systems, 242e245
    PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)
    PPVE. See Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether
    (PPVE)
    Precut-filled PTFE gaskets, 666f
    Preform, 398e399
    Press. See Injection molding
    Pressure and velocity limit (PV limit),
    492e499, 511e514
    Pressure die, 297f
    Pressure-sensitive adhesives. See
    Bonding adhesives
    Primary insulation, 294
    Process G, 216
    Projected area of mold, 237e238
    Properties of fluoropolymers, 475, 475t
    biofilm formation, 559e561
    biofilm removal, 561t
    electrical properties, 532e536
    ECTFE, 536
    ETFE, 535e536, 542t
    perfluoroalkoxy polymers, 533e534
    PVDF, 534e535, 539t
    TFE/HFP copolymer, 534
    flammability, 557e559
    mechanical and dynamic properties, 475
    deformation-under-load, 482e487,
    493f
    flex fatigue properties, 491e492
    friction, wear, and abrasion, 492e514
    hardness, 492
    impact strength, 492
    moduli of fluoropolymers, 477e482
    Poisson ratio, 491
    tensile properties, 475e477
    microbial fouling of materials, 561f
    optical and spectral properties, 536e552
    processing influence on fluoroplastics,
    475
    radiation effect, 554e557
    thermal properties, 514e522
    temperature-related properties,
    518e520
    thermal aging, 520e522
    thermal stability, 516e518
    weatherability, 522e532
    Protective clothing, 685
    PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
    (PTFE)
    Purging, 278e279
    Purity measurement methods and
    standards, 656e658. See also
    Microelectronics manufacturing
    PV limit. See Pressure and velocity limit
    (PV limit)
    PVD. See Physical vapor deposition
    (PVD)
    PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride
    (PVDF)
    PVF. See Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
    Pyroelectric films, 627e628, 631
    742 INDEXPyroelectricity, 534e535, 627e628
    Pyrolysis, 48e50
    R
    R22. See Dichlorodifluoromethane
    Radiation, 605
    effect, 554e557
    Radiation-induced polymerization of
    VDF, 176, 177t
    Radio-frequency heating (RF heating),
    592
    Radiolysis, 26
    RC318. See TFE dimer
    Reaction mechanism, 27
    Reciprocating screw injection unit, 239,
    241f
    Recrystallization, 357e358
    Recycling, 686e688
    Redox system, 160
    Reflection index, 605
    Reheat injection stretch blow-molding
    process. See Two-stage stretch
    blow-molding process
    Repro polymers. See Reprocessed
    polymers (Repro polymers)
    Reprocessed polymers (Repro polymers),
    686
    Residence time, 242
    Resistant welding, 611e612
    Resistors, 640, 642f
    Restrictor bar, 290
    Reynolds number (Re), 259e260
    RF heating. See Radio-frequency heating
    (RF heating)
    Rheology of fluoropolymer melts,
    262e267
    characterization, 263e267
    Rigid foam, 413
    Ring gates. See Diaphragms
    Rinse test, performance values using,
    657t
    “Rock and roll” motion, 349e350
    Rod welding, 620
    Rotation rate, 358e359
    Rotation ratio, 358e359
    Rotational casting. See Rotational
    molding
    Rotational lining, 359e360, 664
    Rotational molding, 348, 349f
    adhesion of polymer, 350f
    equipment, 352e353
    mold surface preparation, 355
    molds, 353e355
    and process design, 353
    fluoropolymers rotomolding and
    rotolining, 360e365
    melting of polymer, 365e366
    operation, 355
    cooling cycle, 357e358
    oven dwell time, 356e357
    part stripping, 358
    rotation rate and ratio, 358e359
    venting, 358
    part formation, 365e366
    process technology, 349e352
    rotolining process, 359e360
    slush molding process, 348
    troubleshooting, 366e367
    Rotolined transition component,
    663f
    Rotolining. See Rotational lining
    Rotomolding. See Rotational molding
    S
    SAE. See Society of Automotive
    Engineers (SAE)
    Safety devices, 584
    Safety measures of fluoropolymers,
    681e685
    equipment cleaning and maintenance,
    685
    fire hazard, 685
    health hazards, 682t
    limiting oxygen index values, 686t
    material incompatibility, 685
    personal hygiene, 685
    processing and fabrication, 683e685
    protective clothing, 685
    spillage cleanup, 685
    types of exposure limit, 684t
    ventilation of degradation products,
    682e683
    SAP. See Solvent-aided pelletization
    (SAP)
    Saturated perfluorinated solvents, 132
    Sawing, 590
    SCC. See Supercritical carbon dioxide
    (SCC)
    Scrap, 686e688
    and recycling of fluoropolymer,
    686e687
    melt-processible fluoropolymers,
    687e688
    PTFE, 687
    Screw transfer molding, 382
    SEBS. See Styrene-ethylene-butadienestyrene (SEBS)
    Second-order transitions, 518e519
    Self-centered die crosshead design,
    297f
    Self-supporting components, 666e667
    SEMI, 656e657
    proposed list
    of anions, 658t
    of metals, 658t
    proposed part surface roughness
    specification, 659t
    Semiconductor manufacturing industry
    (semicon), 640
    Semiconductor(s), 640e641
    fabrication stages, 642e643
    wafer manufacturing, 643e645
    wafer test and assembly, 645
    manufacturing processes, 640
    processing, 668e672
    trends for fluoropolymers use in
    semiconductor industry, 669e672
    Semicrystalline
    plastics, 604
    polymers, 236
    Semipositive horizontal flash, 373, 373f
    Semipositive vertical flash, 373, 374f
    Semipositive-type mold, 374
    Sevoflurane, 14e15
    SG. See Specific gravity (SG)
    Shark skinning, 282, 318e319
    Sharkskin, 299
    Shear rate calculation, 301
    Shear thinning, 266
    Shearing, 590
    Sheathing. See Jacketing
    Sheet extrusion, 290
    production, 290e291
    Shelf life of etch surfaces, 572
    Short chain fluoroether, 93
    Shot volume conversion table, 244t
    Shot weight conversion factors, 245t
    Shrinkage, 279
    Shuttle machines, 352e353, 352f
    Silicon
    chemicals used in silicon wafer
    fabrication, 651t
    crystals, 641
    wafers, 642e643, 643f
    Simons Electro-Chemical Fluorination.
    See Electrochemical fluorination
    (ECF)
    Single-mode microwave system, 611f
    Single-screw extruder, 283f
    Single-stage injection stretch blowmolding process, 398e399, 399f
    Sintering, 684
    Skiving, 590
    Sleeve ejectors, 261
    Slurry capping, 141
    Slush molding process, 348
    Small diameter tubes, 307
    Smear head design, 272e273, 272f
    INDEX 743Smooth PTFE-lined braided hoses,
    669f
    Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
    632e633
    Society of Plastics Industry, Inc. (SPI),
    679
    Sodium, 564
    Sodium etching of fluoroplastics,
    564e572
    apparent defluorination depth, 568f
    elevated temperature etching,
    570e572
    new chemistry, 570
    skived PTFE film etched on one side,
    569f
    sodium etching chemistry of PTFE,
    565e568
    sodium etching process description,
    568e570
    Sodium naphthalenide, 569, 569f
    Sodium naphthalide. See Sodium
    naphthalenide
    Solid reaction products analysis, 56, 56t
    Solubility parameter, 607
    Solvent
    cement, 607
    solvent-aided extrusion of polyvinyl
    fluoride, 328f
    welding, 607
    Solvent-aided pelletization (SAP), 135
    Special halogenated solvents, 564
    Specific gravity (SG), 477e482
    Specific melt viscosity, 141e142
    Specific viscosity, 174
    Specific wear rate. See Wear factor
    Speed, 358
    SPI. See Society of Plastics Industry, Inc.
    (SPI)
    Spider-type die for pipe extrusion, 292,
    293f
    Spillage cleanup, 685
    Spin casting, 350e351
    Spin stretch factor (SSF), 339e340
    Spin welding, 599e601, 621
    Sponge, 412
    Sprue, 253e255, 255f
    gating, 256e257
    Sputtering, 626
    Square pitch screw, 283
    SR. See Stretch ratio (SR)
    SSF. See Spin stretch factor (SSF)
    Stack mold, 252e253, 253f
    Stallings process, 166e168
    Staphylococcus epidermidis film, 559
    Steel vessels, 662
    Storage modulus, 165
    Stress
    calculation, 301
    cracking, 607
    relaxation, 487
    Stretch ratio (SR), 309
    Structure-rheology-fabrication process,
    46, 46t
    Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene
    (SEBS), 405
    Submarine gate, 257
    Super shear zone, 299
    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCC),
    3e4, 4f
    polymerization in, 198e201
    Surface energy, 582
    Surface treatment of fluoropolymers for
    adhesion, 564
    APT, 577e583
    corona treatment, 583e584
    effect on surface composition and
    adhesion bond strength, 566te567t
    flame treatment, 584e586, 585t
    fluorine content effect, 565t
    peel strength of adhesive bonded
    fluoropolymers, 572t
    plasma treatment of fluoropolymers and
    PTFE, 572e577
    sodium etching of fluoroplastics,
    564e572
    Surface-to-volume ratio, 656
    Suspension polymerization, 83, 102e103
    Suspension processes, 39
    T
    Tab gate, 257
    TAIC. See Triallyl cyanurate, triallyl
    isocyanurate (TAIC)
    Tapping, 590
    TCAP. See Trichloroacetyl peroxide
    (TCAP)
    TCFM. See Trichlorofluoromethane
    (TCFM)
    TCTFE. See 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-
    trifluoroethane (TCTFE)
    TD. See Transverse direction (TD)
    Tedlar, 39, 227
    Teflon AF, 16e17
    Teflon, 1
    Telomerization, 84e86
    Temperature-related properties, 518e520
    Tensile properties of fluoropolymers,
    475e477
    Tentered biaxially oriented film, 290,
    290f
    Tenterhooks, 290
    Tentering. See Biaxial orientation
    Tergital hydrocarbon surfactants, 96,
    97f
    Terpolymer, 183e184
    Terpolymer fluoroplastics, 227, 231t
    Tert-amyl perpivalates, 172
    Tert-butyl perpivalates, 172
    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 7, 23, 39, 65,
    83, 102, 131t, 360, 476, 534, 679,
    682t. See also Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
    copolymers, 24
    FEP, 25
    polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 25e26
    copolymers, 39e42
    dimer, 67
    homopolymers, 39
    polymerization mechanism,
    103e116
    preparation, 48e59
    review of developments for TFE
    synthesis, 51e59
    properties, 62e64, 63t
    purification, 59e61
    Tetraglyme, 570
    Tetrahydrofuran, 569e570
    Tex, 291
    TFE. See Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
    TGA. See Thermogravimetric analysis
    (TGA)
    Thermal aging, 520e522
    Thermal conductivity, 236
    Thermal degradation, 357
    Thermal stability of fluoropolymers,
    344e345, 516e518
    Thermally induced discoloration, 154
    Thermoforming, 633, 634f
    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),
    516
    Thermoplastic(s)
    abrasion resistance of, 515t
    materials, 611e612
    polymers, 370
    comparison of molding and extrusion
    techniques for, 370t
    Thread sealant tapes, 665f
    Threading, 590
    3D blow molding, 402, 402f
    Three-multimanifold coextrusion die,
    295f
    Three-plate mold, 252, 252f
    3M FC series solvents, 564
    Tiger of elements, 11
    TOC. See Total organic carbon (TOC);
    Total oxidizable carbon (TOC)
    Total organic carbon (TOC), 659t
    Total oxidizable carbon (TOC), 650e651
    744 INDEXTransfer molding, 379. See also Blow
    molding; Compression molding
    advantages for manufacturing, 379
    examples, 390e392
    fluoropolymers, 383
    mold design, 383e386, 386t
    mold operation, 386
    process variables, 387e390
    plunger molding, 380e382, 381f
    screw transfer molding, 382
    transfer molds types, 382e383
    transfer-in compression mold, 380
    versatile process, 379e380
    Transfer-in compression mold, 380
    Transistors, 640e641
    Transition
    period, 105e106
    section, 296
    Transmission index, 605
    Transverse direction (TD), 288
    Triallyl cyanurate, triallyl isocyanurate
    (TAIC), 631e632
    1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
    (TCTFE), 72e73
    Trichloroacetyl peroxide (TCAP), 130
    Trichlorofluoromethane (TCFM), 130
    Trifluoroacetyl fluoride (CF3COF), 69
    5-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole (TTD),
    151
    Triisobutylborane, 196
    Triton hydrocarbon surfactants, 96, 96f
    Troubleshooting, 247, 248t, 366e367
    TTD. See 5-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole
    (TTD)
    Tube die, 297f
    Tube extrusion, 292, 294f
    Tubular die, 300f, 303f
    Tubular extrusion, 311
    Tubular process. See Blown process
    Tunnel gate. See Submarine gate
    Twin roll stretch device, 318f
    Two-plate mold, 251e252, 252f
    Two-stage screws. See Vented screws
    Two-stage stretch blow-molding process,
    399
    2003 process, 67
    U
    Ubbelohde viscometer, 175
    UF6. See Uranium hexafluoride (UF6)
    Ultrafine fibers, 340e344
    Ultrahigh-purity fluoropolymer O-ringfree poppet check valves, 670f
    Ultrapure water (UPW), 641
    Ultrasonic vibrations, 601e602
    Ultrasonic welding, 601e604, 602f,
    621e622
    Ultraviolet (UV), 528
    Unbalanced runner, 254, 255f
    Unique fabrication techniques, 4e5
    UPW. See Ultrapure water (UPW)
    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), 3
    US Environmental Protection Agency
    (EPA), 83
    action, 90e91
    UV. See Ultraviolet (UV)
    V
    Vacuum trough method, 303e305, 306f
    Van der Waals forces, 28
    Vapor capping, 141
    VDF. See Vinylidene fluoride (VDF)
    VDF-based polymers, 628t
    Vented screws, 284e285
    Ventilation of degradation products,
    682e683
    Venting, 261, 358
    Vessel(s), 662e664
    internals, 668f
    VF. See Vinyl fluoride (VF)
    VI. See Volatiles index (VI)
    Vibration welding, 607e609, 610f
    Vinyl chloride, 77
    Vinyl fluoride (VF), 39, 76e77, 102
    estimated thermal conductivity and
    viscosity, 79t
    flammability properties, 79t
    polymers, 45e46, 196e198
    properties, 77e78, 78t
    solubility, 78t
    synthesis, 76e77
    Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 25, 39, 48,
    102
    polymers, 45, 154e178, 627e628
    emulsion polymerization, 156e170,
    163te164t
    high-temperature polymerization,
    159t
    process conditions and polymer
    characteristics, 157te158t
    solution polymerization, 175e178
    suspension polymerization, 170e175
    properties, 76, 76t
    synthesis, 75e76
    Viscosity, 236, 570
    Volatiles index (VI), 142
    W
    Wafer, 642e643
    carriers, 653
    manufacturing, 643e645
    test and assembly, 645
    Washing, 571e572
    Water Quench, 286e288, 287fe288f
    Water-soluble dibasic peroxides, 160
    Wear, 492e514
    Wear factor, 499, 507
    Weather-o-meters, 524
    Weatherability, 522e532
    Weld factor (WF), 592, 621
    Weld induction time. See Weld initiation
    time (WIT)
    Weld initiation time (WIT), 600
    Weld penetration, 609
    Weld-quality analysis, 596f
    Welding, 591e623. See also Adhesive
    bonding methods; Machining
    ECTFE, 623
    ETFE, 622e623
    extrusion, 612e613, 613f
    factor, 620
    FEP, 618
    heated tool, 593e595
    hot gas, 595e596, 596f, 597t
    induction, 596e599, 597f
    infrared, 604e605
    laser, 613e614, 614f
    methods for welding fluoroplastics, 592t
    microwave, 609e611
    PFA, 618e620, 619f
    of polymer, 685
    PTFE, 615e617, 619f
    PVDF, 620e622
    resistant, 611e612
    RF, 605e607
    sheets and skived films, 616f
    solvent, 607
    spin, 599e601
    techniques, 592e614
    ultrasonic, 601e604, 602f
    vibration, 607e609, 610f
    “Welding by distance”, 594
    “Welding by pressure”, 593e594
    WF. See Weld factor (WF)
    Wheel machines, 396
    White Knight air-operated doublebellows pumps (White Knight
    AODB pumps), 653f
    Winkle gate, 257
    Wire insulation line equipment, 295t
    WIT. See Weld initiation time (WIT)
    Work coils, 599
    Y
    Yield stress, 333

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