Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook – The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook – The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
اسم المؤلف
Laurence W. McKeen
التاريخ
8 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
259
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook – The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook
Laurence W. McKeen
Contents
PDL Fluorocarbon Series Editor’s Preface xv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments . xix
1 Fundamentals
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 The Discovery of Fluoropolymers .1
1.3 What are Fluoropolymers?2
1.3.1 Perfluorinated Polymers 2
1.3.1.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).2
1.3.1.2 Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) Copolymer .4
1.3.1.3 Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) Polymers .4
1.3.1.4 Teflon AF® .5
1.3.1.5 Other Fully Fluorinated Polymers .6
1.3.2 Partially Fluorinated Polymers .6
1.3.2.1 Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Copolymers 7
1.3.2.2 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) 7
1.3.2.3 Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF)8
1.3.2.4 Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene (E-CTFE) Copolymer .9
1.3.2.5 Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) Polymers.9
1.3.2.6 Fluoroalkyl Modified Polymers 9
1.3.2.7 Lumiflon®, Coraflon®, ADS (Air-Dried System), FEVE .10
1.4 Comparison of Fluoropolymer Properties .10
REFERENCES 13
2 Producing Monomers, Polymers, and Fluoropolymer Finishing
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Monomers 15
2.2.1 Synthesis of Tetrafluoroethylene15
2.2.2 Synthesis of Hexafluoropropylene .15
2.2.3 Synthesis of Perfluoroalkylvinylethers .16
2.2.4 Properties of Monomers 16
2.3 Polymerization 17
2.3.1 Polymerization of Homofluoropolymer PTFE 18
2.3.2 Copolymer and Terpolymer Polymerization.20
2.3.3 Core-Shell Polymerization .20
2.3.4 Polymerization in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 21VI FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
2.3.5 Endgroups . 21
2.4 Finishing 22
2.4.1 Dispersion Concentration 22
2.4.2 Commercial Dispersions and Properties 23
2.4.3 Fine Powder Production 26
2.4.4 PTFE Micropowder Production .27
2.4.4.1 Production of Fluoroadditives by Electron Beam Irradiation . 28
2.4.4.2 Grinding Irradiated PTFE 29
2.4.4.3 Regulatory Compliance 29
2.4.4.4 Commercial Micropowder Products .30
2.4.5 Dispersion Coagulation . 33
2.4.6 Spray Drying 33
2.4.7 Spray Sintering 33
REFERENCES 34
3 Introductory Fluoropolymer Coating Formulations
3.1 Introduction 37
3.2 Components of Paint.37
3.3 Important Properties of Liquid Coatings 37
3.3.1 Rheology/Viscosity 38
3.3.2 Weight Solids, Volume Solids 44
REFERENCES 44
4 Binders
4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 Adhesion 45
4.3 Non-Fluoropolymer Binders 46
4.3.1 Polyamide/Imide (PAI) . 46
4.3.2 Polyethersulfone (PES) . 49
4.3.3 Polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) 49
4.3.4 Polyimide (PI) 49
4.3.5 Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) 51
4.3.6 Polyetherimide (PEI)51
4.3.7 Other Less Common Binders . 52
4.3.7.1 Acid .52
4.3.7.2 Acrylic . 52
4.3.7.3 Phenolic 53
4.3.7.4 Epoxy 53
4.3.7.5 Polyurethane . 53
4.3.7.6 Alkyd .54
4.3.7.7 Electroless Nickel Plating . 54
4.4 Effect of Temperature on Properties of Binders 55CONTENTS VII
4.5 Comparison of Properties of Non-Fluoropolymer Binders 56
REFERENCES 58
5 Pigments, Fillers, and Extenders
5.1 Introduction 59
5.2 Dispersion of Pigments . 59
5.2.1 Ball or Pebble Milling60
5.2.2 Shear Process Dispersion 61
5.2.2.1 Media Mills.61
5.2.2.2 High-Speed Disperser 62
5.2.2.3 Rotor-Stator 63
5.3 Measuring Dispersion Quality or Fineness . 63
5.4 Dispersion Stabilization. 64
5.5 Pigment or Particle Settling .65
5.6 Hard and Soft Settling66
5.7 Functions of Pigments 66
5.7.1 Appearance, Color, Hiding .66
5.7.1.1 Gloss 67
5.7.1.2 Hiding 67
5.7.1.3 Types of Pigments 68
5.7.2 Permeability, Barrier Properties.71
5.7.3 Abrasion Resistance, Reinforcement: Physical Property Improvement .72
5.7.4 Electrically Conductive Fillers 73
5.8 Quantifying Pigment Concentrations in Formulations .75
5.8.1 P/B: PVC . 75
5.9 Commercial Pigment Dispersions 75
REFERENCES 76
6 Solvent Systems
6.1 Introduction 77
6.2 Solids-Viscosity Relationships 77
6.3 Viscosity as a Function of Temperature 78
6.4 Evaporation 79
6.5 Solvent Composition and Evaporation Time .80
6.6 Solubility 80
6.7 Surface Tension and Wetting 81
6.8 N-Methyl-2-Pyrolidone (NMP) 82
6.9 Conductivity 83
6.10 Flash Point and Autoignition 83
6.11 Summary 83
REFERENCES 87VIII FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
7 Additives
7.1 Introduction 89
7.2 Abrasion Resistance Improvers, Antislip Aids.89
7.3 Acid Catalysts 90
7.4 Acid Scavengers . 90
7.5 Adhesion Promoters, Coupling Agents .90
7.6 Algaecides, Biocides, Fungicides .91
7.7 Anti-Cratering Agent, Fisheye Preventer .91
7.8 Anti-Crawling Agent .92
7.9 Anti-Foaming Agent, Defoamer . 92
7.10 Anti-Fouling Agent . 92
7.11 Rust Inhibitor, Corrosion Inhibitor, Flash Rust Inhibitor92
7.12 Anti-Sag Agent, Colloidal Additives, Thickeners, Rheology Modifiers . 93
7.13 Anti-Settling Agent . 93
7.14 Antistatic Agent, Electroconductive Additives94
7.15 Coalescents, Coalescing Agent, Film Forming Agent.94
7.16 Deaerators 94
7.17 Degassing Agent . 94
7.18 Dispersant, Dispersing Agent, or Surfactant. 95
7.19 Flattening Agents. 95
7.20 UV Absorbers and Stabilizers . 95
7.21 Lubricants 95
7.22 Moisture Scavenger.95
7.23 pH Control Agent . 97
7.24 Summary 97
REFERENCES 97
8 Substrates and Substrate Preparation
8.1 Introduction 99
8.2 Substrates 99
8.3 Substrate Preparation .99
8.3.1 Cleaning 99
8.3.2 Increasing Surface Area 100
8.3.2.1 Mechanical Roughening 100
8.3.2.2 Other Methods of Roughening and Cleaning 102
8.3.3 Preventing Rust after Surface Preparation 104
8.3.4 Platings 105
8.3.5 Anodization 105
8.4 Substrate Characterization .106
8.5 Summary 107
REFERENCES 107CONTENTS IX
9 Liquid Formulations
9.1 Introduction 109
9.2 Selecting Ingredients .109
9.2.1 Selection of Fluoropolymer 109
9.2.2 Selection of Binder 109
9.3 Recipes and Formulas 109
9.4 Formulating Water-Based Coatings 111
9.4.1 Fluoropolymer Coatings from Raw Dispersion . 111
9.4.2 Fluoropolymer Coatings by Dispersion of Powders 112
9.5 Solvent-Based Coatings 113
9.6 Soluble Fluoropolymers. 113
9.7 Mixing Liquid Coatings Prior to Use. 113
9.8 Filtering/Straining. 114
9.9 Shelf Life 116
9.10 Commercial Producers and Their Product Lines . 116
9.10.1 Acheson Colloids. 117
9.10.2 Whitford Liquid Products . 117
9.10.3 Weilburger Coatings (Grebe Group) . 118
9.10.4 Akzo Nobel. 118
9.10.5 DuPont 118
9.10.6 Mitsui-DuPont Fluorocarbon Liquid Products 118
REFERENCES 133
10 Application of Liquid Coatings
10.1 Introduction 135
10.2 Liquid Spray Coating Application Technologies and Techniques .135
10.2.1 Conventional Spray Coating 135
10.2.2 High-Volume, Low-Pressure Spray Application . 136
10.2.3 Electrostatic Spray Application 136
10.3 Liquid Bulk or Direct Coating Application Techniques .137
10.3.1 Dip Coating 138
10.3.2 Dip-Spin Coating .139
10.3.3 Spin-Flow Coating .140
10.3.4 Curtain Coating 141
10.3.5 Coil Coating .141
10.3.6 Roller Coating 143
10.3.7 Pad Printing .144
10.4 Summary 146
REFERENCES 146
11 Powder Coating Fluoropolymers
11.1 What is Powder Coating? .147X FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
11.2 Spray Powder Coating Process 147
11.2.1 Corona Charging . 149
11.2.2 Tribocharging .150
11.2.3 Powder Coating Advantages and Limitations 151
11.3 Thick Film Coatings 152
11.3.1 Hot Flocking .152
11.3.2 Special Problems with High-Build Coatings 153
11.3.2.1 Decomposition153
11.3.2.2 Sagging. 154
11.3.2.3 Shrinkage 154
11.4 Bulk Application: Fluidized Bed Coating 154
11.5 Commercial Powder Coating Products 156
11.5.1 Preparation of Powder Coating .156
REFERENCES 162
12 Fluoropolymer Coating Processing Technology
12.1 Introduction 163
12.2 Baking and Curing, Physics or Chemistry 163
12.3 Monitoring Bake 166
12.3.1 Thermocouples . 166
12.3.2 Non-Contact Temperature Measurement 167
12.4 Types of Ovens 168
12.4.1 Convection Heating .168
12.4.2 Infrared Baking (IR)171
12.4.3 Induction Baking 172
REFERENCES 174
13 Measurement of Coating Performance
13.1 Introduction 175
13.2 Viscosity Measurement . 175
13.2.1 Cup Viscosity.175
13.2.2 Brookfield Viscometer . 176
13.3 Density, Gallon Weight, or Liter Weight Measurement 177
13.4 Film Thickness 177
13.4.1 Nondestructive Measurement of Film Thickness 177
13.4.1.1 Magnetic Devices . 177
13.4.1.2 Eddy Current. 178
13.4.1.3 Ultrasound.178
13.4.1.4 Physical Measures of Film Thickness 179
13.4.2 Destructive Film Thickness Tests . 180
13.5 Wet Film Build 180
13.6 Adhesion 182CONTENTS XI
13.6.1 Measuring Adhesion, Adhesion Tests183
13.6.1.1 Post-Boiling Cross-Hatch Tape Adhesion Test .183
13.6.1.2 Post-Boiling Nail Adhesion Test 184
13.6.1.3 Instron Peel Test .185
13.7 Environmental Exposure Testing .185
13.7.1 Salt Spray 185
13.7.2 Kesternich DIN 50018 . 187
13.7.3 Atlas Cell 187
13.8 Coefficient of Friction (CoF) 188
13.9 Abrasion/Erosion . 189
13.9.1 Taber 189
13.9.2 Falling Abrasive Test 190
13.9.3 Thrust Washer Abrasion Testing .191
13.10 Hardness 192
13.10.1 Pencil Hardness .192
13.11 Cure 192
13.12 Cookware Testing 192
13.12.1 In-Home Testing193
13.12.2 Accelerated Cooking Test . 193
13.12.3 Mechanical Tiger Paw (MTP)194
13.12.4 Steel Wool Abrasion Test (SWAT), Sand Paper Abrasion Test (SPAT) 195
13.12.5 Accelerated In-Home Abuse Test (AIHAT) 195
13.12.6 Blister Test 196
13.12.7 Salt Corrosion Test . 196
13.13 Summary 196
REFERENCES 196
14 Recognizing, Understanding, and Dealing with Coating Defects
14.1 Introduction 197
14.2 Surface Tension and Shear .197
14.3 Common Coating Defects 198
14.3.1 Air Entrapment. 198
14.3.2 Decomposition Bubbles or Foam 199
14.3.3 Blisters 199
14.3.4 Pinholing, Popping, or Solvent Popping .199
14.3.5 Mud Cracking, Stress Cracking, and Benard Cells .200
14.3.6 Cratering 201
14.3.7 Fisheyes 202
14.3.8 Crawling and Dewetting.202
14.3.9 Wrinkling 202
14.4 Summary 203
REFERENCES 203XII FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
15 Commercial Applications and Uses
15.1 Introduction 205
15.2 A Historical Chronology of Fluoropolymer Finishes Technology . 205
15.3 Food Contact 209
15.4 Commercial Applications of Fluorocoatings 210
15.4.1 Housewares: Cookware, Bakeware, Small Electrical Appliances (SEA) 210
15.4.2 Commercial or Industrial Bakeware 210
15.4.3 Fuser Rolls 211
15.4.4 Light Bulbs. 212
15.4.5 Automotive. 212
15.4.6 Chemical Processing Industry (CPI) . 214
15.4.6.1 Chemical Reactors. 214
15.4.6.2 Ducts for Corrosive Fumes, Fire Resistance. 215
15.4.7 Commercial Dryer Drums .216
15.4.8 Industrial Rollers 216
15.4.9 Medical Devices 217
15.5 Summary 217
REFERENCES 218
16 Health and Safety
16.1 Introduction 219
16.2 Toxicology of Fluoropolymers 219
16.3 Safe Handling and Application of Liquid Fluoropolymer Coatings .219
16.4 Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers221
16.4.1 Off-Gases During Baking and Curing 222
16.4.2 Polymer Fume Fever. 222
16.5 Removal of Fluoropolymer Films and Coatings 223
16.6 Fire Hazard 224
16.7 Spillage Cleanup . 224
16.8 Personal Protective Equipment. 224
16.9 Personal Hygiene 225
16.10 Food Contact and Medical Applications .225
16.11 Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling 225
16.12 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods . 225
REFERENCES 226
Appendix I: Chemical Resistance of Fluoropolymers
I.1 PDL Chemical Resistance Guidelines 227
I.2 PDL Resistance Rating. 227
Table I.1 PDL Chemical Resistance Ratings 228
I.3 Chemical Resistance Tables 228
Table I.2 Chemical Resistance of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) .229CONTENTS XIII
Table I.3 Chemical Resistance of Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene
Copolymer (ECTFE) . 233
Table I.4 Chemical Resistance of Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene
Copolymer (ETFE) 259
Table I.5 Chemical Resistance of Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
Copolymer (FEP) 273
Table I.6 Chemical Resistance of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) .277
Table I.7 Chemical Resistance of Perfluoroalkoxy Copolymer (PFA) . 289
Table I.8 Chemical Resistance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) .295
REFERENCE 319
Appendix II: Permeability of Fluoropolymers
II.1 Permeability of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 321
II.2 Permeability of Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer (ECTFE) .323
II.3 Permeability of Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer (ETFE) .327
II.4 Permeation of Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Copolymer (FEP) 329
II.5 Permeability of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) 334
II.6 Permeability of Perfluoroalkoxy Copolymer (PFA) 339
II.7 Permeability of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) 340
II.8 Permeability of Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF)347
REFERENCES 348
Appendix III: Permeation of Automotive Fuels Through Fluoroplastics
III.1 Introduction 349
III.2 IVA Test Method 349
III.3 Fuel Types 349
REFERENCES 350
Appendix IV: Permeation of Chemicals Through Fluoroplastics
IV.1 Introduction 351
REFERENCES 353
Trade Names 355
Glossary357
Index .36
Index
A
Abrasion
measuring 189
Abrasion resistance 89, 102, 212
Abrasion tests 190, 195
thrust washer 191
Absorbers 95
Accelerated tests
cookware 193
Acid catalysts 90
Acid primer 52
Acid scavengers 90
Acrylic polymer 22
Acrylic resin
for cracking 112
Acrylics 52
Acyl fluoride 28
Additives 37, 89, 219
food contact 209
function 89
to powders 157
Adhesion 45
of coating 209
to copper 99
of films 182
measurement of 182
Adhesion promoters 90
Adhesion tests 185
post-boiling nail 184
Adhesive bond strength 182, 183
Aerosil® 93
Agglomerates 27
AgION® 91
AIHAT test procedure 195
Air
removal of entrapped 199
Air bubbles 198
Air entrapment 94, 198
Air-knife coating 146
Alkyd resins 54
Alkyl ammonium salts 91
Alligatoring 200
Alloy 309 102
Aluminized steel 105
Aluminum flake 95
Aluminum oxide abrasive 100, 190
Amines 93
Ammonium hydroxide 91, 97
Ammonium salts 20
Amorphous
fluoropolymer 5
regions 3
Andrade’s equation 78
Anodizing 105
Anti-cratering additives 201
Anti-cratering agents 91
Anti-foaming agents 92
Anti-sag agents 93
Antisettling agents 93
Antistatic agents 94
Application efficiency
of coating techniques 146
Application problems 89
Application techniques
liquid coatings 135
Applications
automotive 209, 212
automotive industry 212
bakeware 207
chemical processing industry 214
commercial bakeware 210
cookware 206, 207
ductwork 215
electrical appliances 207
food 209
fuser drums 211
glass ovenware 208
gourmet cookware 208
hardware 207
laser printers 211
light bulbs 212
of liquid coatings 143
office automation 209
reactors 214
Aquadag® 95
Aqueous dispersions 111, 219
Aqueous fluoropolymer coatings 91
Arc spray 102
Architectural coatings 8
ASTM
B117-03 186
C868-02 187
D1005-95 179
D1186-01 178
D1212-91 181
D1475-98 177
D1644-01 44
D1654-92 187
D1876-01 185
D1894-01 189
D2196-99 176
D2697-03 44
D2803-03 187
D3359-97 183368 FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
D3363-00 192
D3702-94 191
D4060-01 189
D4138-94 180
D4212-99 176
D4214-98 186
D4414-95 180
D4541-02 185
D610-01 186
D6132-04 179
D714-02 186
D968-93 190
G87-02 187
ASTM industry standard tests 175
Atlas Cell test 187
Atomization 198
Atomizing air pressure 136
Auminum anodizing 105
Autocatalytic nickel plating 54
Autoignition 83
Automotive applications 103, 212
Autopolymerization
TFE inhibitors 16
Axial impellers 114
Azeotropes 80
B
Bake temperatures 99
Baking
of coatings 163
methods 168
Baking soda 101
Ball mills 60
Batch ovens 171
Batch size 110
Bearings
coatings 207
Benard Cell 200
Benzoguanamine-formaldehyde
dispersing aid 113
Bimetallic corrosion 102
Binders 37, 45
additional 52
polymer 45
resins 207
selecting 109
Bisulfite initiators 18, 19
Black body radiation 167
Blended pigments 157
Blisters 199
cookware coatings 196
Block copolymer 51
Bodying agents 93
Box feeder 148
Branched chain alcohols 92
Brookfield Viscometer 38, 176
Bubble breakers 92
Bubble-breaking additives 199
Bubbles 153
Bubbling onset temperature 199
Bulk application 154
liquid coatings 135
techniques 147
C
Calcium carbonate 90
Cantilever beam 55
Capture velocity 220
Carbon
degradation temperature 166
Carbon dioxide
supercritical 21, 113, 137
Carbonyl fluoride 222
Carboxylic acid 28
Cascading action 61
Cataracting action 61
Ceramic fillers 209
Certification program
quality 206
Chain transfer 17
Charging
powder 148
Checking 200
Chemetall Oakite 104
Chemical agents 91
Chemical etch 102
Chemical processing industry applications 214
Chemical resistance test
Atlas Cell 187
Chemical washes 99
Chromate conversion 102
Chromic anodizing 105
Clear coatings 206
Clothing
protective 224
Cloud point 22
Co-solvent 77
Coagulated dispersion 18
Coagulum 22
Coating defects 198
Coating process
fry pans 165
Coating properties
tests 175
Coating techniques
application efficiency of 146
Coating weight 103
Coatings 77, 219
modification of 89
from powder 112INDEX 369
selection 109
solvent-based 113, 224
stability 77
Coefficient of friction 188
Coil
induction 173
Colloidal dispersion 93
Colloidal particles 93
Complex inorganic pigments 69
Complex parts 155
Components of paint 37
Composition of the solvent system 80
Conductive coatings 73
Conductive pigment loading 74
Conductivity 83
Contaminants
removing 201
Contamination 91
Convection heating 163
Convection ovens 168, 171
Conversion coatings 102
Cookware 205
coating of 210
quality 206
Cookware testing
accelerated 193
in-home 192
Copolymers 4
Core-shell polymer 20
Corona charging 148, 149
Corona treatment 103
Corrosion
inhibition 93
Corrosion resistance tests 185, 187
Cracks 200
in coatings 112, 198, 200
formed during curing 163
Craters 91, 201
in coatings 198
formation 201
Crawling defects 92, 202
Crazing 200
Critical cracking thickness 112
Critical pigment volume concentration (CVPC) 75
Cross-hatch tests 182, 183
Crosslinkers 53
Crosslinking 163
Crosslinks 45
Crushed glass 101
CTFE 9
Cup method 39
Cure tests 192
Curing
of coatings 163
IR radiation 171
Curing process
fluoropolymer coatings 163, 165
Curtain coating 141, 210
D
Deaerators 94
Deagglomeration 27
Decomposition
gases 153
of fluoropolymers 222
products 220, 221, 223, 225
Defects
“chicken tracks” 143
in coatings 198, 203
Defoamers 92, 199
Degassing agents 94
Degradation
of polytetrafluoroethylene 27
products 219, 222
temperatures 27
Density measurements 94
of coatings 177
Destructive film thickness measurement 180
Dewetting 202
Diamond stylus 100
Dilatant flow 39
Dimethyl formamide (DMF) 82
DIN 50018 187
Dip coating 137, 138
Dip-cups 175
Dip-spin coating 139, 140
Direct-fired ovens 171
Dispersed pigment particles 64
Dispersibility 183
Dispersing agent 20
Dispersing aids 113
Dispersing mills 61
Dispersion polymerization 18, 22
Dispersion processes 60
Dispersion products 18
Dispersion stabilization 65
Dispersion-based fluoropolymer products 94
Dispersions
aqueous 219
commercial 111
for liquid coatings 112
Disposal
fluoropolymer 226
Disuccinic acid peroxide 19
Drip marks 138
Dripping 154
Dry blending 157
Dry film thickness 189
calculated 180
measurement 180370 FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
Dry lubrication 95, 188
Dry paint 147
Dry powders 37
Dry spraying 202
Dry-film thickness 155
Dryer basket coatings 216
Ductwork coatings 215
Dyneon™ THE 6
Dyneon™ THV 6
E
E-CTFE 9
Eddy current 173
film thickness measurments 178
Egg Release Test 195
Elasticity 183
Electroless nickel plating 54
Electron beam irradiation 28
Electroplate 105
Electrostatic coating 151
Electrostatic spraying 83, 136, 137, 147
Electrostatic wrap 151, 152
Emissions
control 220
Emissivity 168
temperature calculation 168
Emitter temperatures 172
Emulsion polymerization 18
Enamel topcoat 207
Encapsulated pigments 157
Endgroups 28
hydroxyl 19
stability 21
Engrave 102
Environments
corrosive 186
Erosion
measuring 189
ETFE 7
mechanical properties of 7
Evaporation
solvent 202
Evaporation rate 79
Evaporation time 80
Exafluoropropylene epoxy (HFPO) 16
Exhaust air 220
F
Fabric printing rollers 216
Falling abrasive test 190
Faraday Cage effect 152, 156
Fast-evaporating non-solvents 82
Fasteners coatings 213
Fatty acids 92
FDA compliance 30
FEP
fluff 33
melting point 163
powder 33
Ferrous metals 100
Fillers 37, 222
Film build 152
Film forming agent 94
Film shrinkage 70
Film thickness
powder coatings 112, 151
Film thickness measurements 177, 178
Filtration 114
Fine powder
processing steps 26
products 18
PTFE 26
resins 18
Fines mixtures 224
Fingerprint contamination 99
Fisheyes 91
formation 202
Flake pigments 70
Flame treating 103
Flammability
tetrafluoroethylene 16
Flash point 83
Flash rusting 92, 104
Flattening agents 95
Flexibility 56
Flocculation 64
Flow agent
fumed silica 157
Fluid energy mill 29
Fluidization
of powder 147
Fluidized bed 147
coating 154
Fluorad® 91
Fluorinated coatings 55, 106, 109
Fluorinated ethylene propylene 4, 21. See also
FEP
Fluorinated surfactants 91
Fluorine
in fluoropolymers 219
sheath 3
Fluorine-containing polymers 1
Fluoroadditives 27, 30, 225
irradiated 30
Fluoroalkenes 222
Fluoroolefin polymerization 21
Fluoropolymer endgroups 21
Fluoropolymer one-coats 46
Fluoropolymer polymerizations 20INDEX 371
Fluoropolymer powder 89
Fluoropolymer properties
comparison of 10
Fluoropolymers
coatings 1, 10, 37
discovery of 1
dispersions 225
disposal of 226
handling and processing 219
paint formulations 37
selection of 109
Foam
macro 94
micro 94
Food contact 209, 225
Formic acid rinse 100
Formulas 109
Free radical
mechanism 18
reaction 18
Frictional force
kinetic 188
static 188
Fuel pump coatings 213
Fume fever 223
Fumed silica 157
Fuser rolls 211
G
Gallon weight 177, 198
GALVALUME® 105
Galvanized steel 105
Glass beads 101
Glass containment 212
Glass transition temperature 55
Glycerol
for cracking 112
Glycol
for cracking 112
Granular resins 18
Graphite 95
Gravimetric film thickness measurement 179
Grinding
directional 102
Grinding media 61
Grinding process 60
Grit blasting 100, 209, 223
air pressures 100
Grit types
properties 100
Grounding 151
H
Halar® 9
Hammer mill 29
Hand-tool applications 207
Hansen Solubility Parameters 80
Hard grit 100
Hardcoat anodizing 106
Hardness 183
test 192
Health hazards 223
Heat transfer
IR source 172
Heating methods
convection 163
induction 163, 172
infrared 163
Hegman Fineness Gauge 63
Hexafluoropropylene 4
as comonomer 15, 16
Hiding ability of a coating 67
High molecular weight amides 92
High-bake coatings 95
High-build coatings 153
High-speed disperser (HSD) 62
High-temperature non-fluoropolymer binders
properties of 56
High-temperature polymers 51, 109
High-temperature processing
thermal degradation 153
Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) 95
History of fluoropolymer 205
Homopolymer 4
Horizontal media mills 62
Hot flocking 147
House paint 39
HVLP atomization 136
Hydantoin 91
Hydrofluoric acid production 21
Hydrogen bonding 80
Hydrogen gas 95
Hydrolysis
of free radicals 19
Hygroscopic silica 95
Hysteresis heating 173
I
Impeller variations 114
Indirect-fired ovens 171
Induction heating 163, 172, 173
Infrared heating 163
Ingredients
order of addition 110
selection of 209
Inherently conductive polymers 94
Inhibitors
corrosion 93
rust 92372 FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
Initiation 4, 18
Initiators 17
bisulfite 19
Inorganic acids 26
Inorganic glass 52
Inorganic pigments 68
Inorganic salts 26
Instron Peel Test 185
Intercoat adhesion 182
Interpenetrating polymer network 46
Inversions 8
IR curing 172
IR radiation
heating 171
temperature measurement 167
IR source
heat transfer 172
IR thermometers 167
IR wavelengths 171
Iron impregnation 101
Iron phosphates 103
Irradiated fluoropolymers 209
Irradiation 30
ISO 3231 187
Isocyanate group 53
J
Jet mill 29
K
Kapton® 49
Kesternich Test 187
Ketjen black 73
Kinetic frictional force 188
KYNAR® 7
L
Landau-Levich equation 137
Lawn and garden tools 207
Leveling 79
Licensees 206
Light bulbs 212
Light colored primers 49
Liquid coatings 37
application methods 135
by dip 138
by dip-spin 139
properties describing 37
Liquid paint
spraying 135
Liquid spray techniques 137
Low Build Topcoat 205
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) 83
Lubrication
dry 188
Lucite® 52
Lumiflon® 10
M
Magnetic “permeability” 173
Magnetic pull-off gauges 177
Manual Tiger Paw Test 194
Manufacturing equipment 110
Marine organisms
preventing attachment of 92
Market segments
industrial 209
Measurement
of coatings 175
film thickness 177
Mechanical Tiger Paw (MTP) 194
Media mills 61, 62
Medical applications 225
Medical devices
coatings 217
Melamine-formaldehyde
dispersing aid 113
Melt creep viscosity
PTFE 19
Melt viscosity 4, 5, 154
Melting 163
IR radiation 171
Meniscus-coating techniques 137
Mesh number 116
“Metal temperature” 166
Metallic soaps 92
Methacrylics 52
Mica pigments 70
Micrometer film thickness measurement 179
Micron sizes
for screens 116
Micropowders 27, 30
Microscopic film thickness measurement 180
Mixing
impellers 114
instructions 113
RPM 110
Modified granular PTFE
improvements 4
Moisture scavengers 95
Mold-release applications 206
Molecular weight
micropowders 27
Molybdenum disulfide 95
Monomers
polytetrafluoroethylene 15
Morpholine 93INDEX 373
Mud-cracking 200
Mud-cracks 163
Multiple coats
powder coatings 152
Multiple polar groups 92
N
N-methyl-2-pyrolidone (NMP) 82
Nanoscale titanium dioxide 91
Naphtha 104
Newtonian Flow 38
NMP 51
advantages of 82
Non-fluoropolymer binders 45
Non-metallic substrates 103
Non-perfluorinated polymers 109
Non-polar 80
Non-solvents 82
Non-stick coatings 92
Non-stick cookware 206
Nondestructive measurements 177
Nozzles
for spray guns 135
O
One-coat coatings 49
Optical pyrometers 167
Organic polyesters 54
Organic substrates 104
OSHA 220
Ovens
types 168
Overheating 222
Overspray 151
Oxidation products 222
Oxygen
in oven air 166
Ozone 104, 225
P
Paint defects 197
Paint density 198
Paint recipe 109
Paint spraying 135
Painting
bulk applications 137
Paints
adding pigments 60
color matching 66
dry 147
Paper-making rollers 216
Partially fluorinated polymers 7
Particle morphology 157
Particle sizes
powder 156
of powders 155
Particulates 201, 223
Pebble mill 60, 61
Peel tests 182
Peeling
cookware 196
Pencil hardness test 192
Pencil type
thickness gauge 177
Percolation threshold 73
Perfluorinated polymers 109
Perfluorinated side groups 9
Perfluoro-2-alkoxy-propionyl fluoride 16
Perfluoroalkoxy 4. See also PFA
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA) 21
Perfluoroalkylvinylethers 16
Perfluorocarbon solvents 21
Perfluoromethylvinylether 4
Perfluoropolymers 2
Perfluoropropyl 4
Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether 17
Performance tests 175
“Permeability”
magnetic 173
Personal protective equipment 222
Persulfate
degradation of 18
PFA 4
melt point 153
powders 157
Pfund Gauge 181
pH 97
Phosphate esters 92
Phosphate treatments 103
Pigment dispersions 112
Pigment level 202
Pigments 37, 59
acicular distribution 72
additives 59
concentration 75
and fillers 59
fluorinated coatings 68
food contact 209
measure of 75
mica 70
paint formulations 59
purpose 66
used in fluoropolymer coatings 68
Pinholes
in coatings 198
Pistons
coatings 212
Planck’s law 167, 171374 FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
Plasma 103
Plasma treatment 104
hand held devices 104
Plastic grit 101
Plexiglass® 52
Polar groups 104
Polar or dipole 80
Polyaddition reaction 17
Polyamide-imide (PAI) 46, 82, 165
Polyamide-imide binder 109
Polyaniline 94
Polybasic acid 54
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) 51
Polyether sulfone (PES) 49, 82
binder 109
Polyetherimide (PEI) 51
binder 109
Polyetherimide sulfone 51
Polyfluoroethylene/vinyl ether 10
Polyhydric alcohol 54
Polyimide (PI) 49
Polymer fume fever 223
Polymerization 17
in carbon dioxide 21
particles 27
pressure conditions 19
regimes 18
techniques 20
Polymerization reaction
tetrafluoroethylene 20
Polymers
properties 109
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 52
Polyols
for cracking 112
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 49
binder 109
Polysiloxanes 92
release coatings 210
Polytetrafluoroethylene 1, 22. See also PTFE
agglomerates 26
degradation 27
homopolymers 19
monomers 15, 18
Polyurethanes 53
Polyvinylidene fluoride 7. See alsoPVDF
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) 21
Poor charging 151
Popping 199
Post-boiling nail adhesion test 184
Powder coatings 147, 151, 152, 209
grades 155
layers 152
multiple coats 152
thickness 182
Powder dispersions 112
Powder particles
charging 149
Powder pump 148
Powdered fluoropolymer 59
Powders
particle size 155
Preheating metal substrates 100
Primers 106
Printers
coatings 208
Production code 110
Profilometers 100, 106
Propagation
of free radicals 18
Protective clothing 224
Pseudoplastic 39
PTFE 2. See alsoPolytetrafluoroethylene
fibrillated 26
granular 27
irradiated 29
molecular weight 19
scrap 225
self ignition temperature 224
thermal decomposition 27
Pull-off gauges 177
Pulmonary edema 223
Pumps
powder 148
PV rating 192
PVDF 7. See alsoPolyvinylidene fluoride
key attributes of 8
PVF 8. See also Polyvinyl fluoride
Pyrolysis
fumes 222
reaction 16
Pyrometers 167
R
Radial impellers 114
Radiation
black body 167
exposure 28
Radiation resistance 49
Radical 17, 28
Raw dispersions 22
Raw fluoropolymers 1
Reactor deflagaration 20
Reactor tanks 214
Recipes 109
Regulatory agencies
food contact 209
Release coatings
polysiloxane 210INDEX 375
Remote-sensing temperature 168
Repro
molding polymers 225
Residual voids 19
Resin-bonded coating 207
Resins
DEGBA 53
epoxy 53
fine powder 18
polyamide/imide 46
Respirators 221
Rheocin® 93
Rheology 38, 77
Rollback thickness gauge 177
Roller coating 143, 210
Rollers
coating of 216
Rotogravure 143
Rotor-stator 63
Rotoviscometer 38
Roughness 100, 106, 107
Rust inhibiting formulations
commercial 104
S
Sagging 154
Salt Corrosion Test 196
Salt fog test 185
Salt spray resistance 106
Salt spray test 185, 186
Sand grit 100
Sand mill 61
Sand paper abrasion testing 195
Scouring pad abrasion testing 195
Scrap material 225
Scratch testing
tiger paw 193
Scratches
cookware 196
Screens
mesh or micron size 116
Seat belt D-rings 213
Semiconductor industry applications 215
Shear force
affects paint flow 197
Shear rate 38
Shear stability
of dispersions 111
Shear stress 38
Shear-thickening 39
Shear-thinning 39
Shelf life 116
solvent-based coatings 113
Shrinkage 154
Sieves 116
Silanes 90
Silica grit 100
Silicon carbide grit 100
Silicon dioxide grit 100
Silk-screen coating 146
Siltem® 51
SilverStone® 208
Single Package Prime 205
Sintering 2
“Skin depth” 173
Skin over 199
“Skinning over” 172
Snake oils 89
Soda lime glass 101
Sodium bicarbonate slurries 100
Sodium chromate 102
Solubility 183
in perfluorinated solvents 113
Solubility of paint materials 80
Solvent cleaning 99
Solvent evaporation 202
Solvent molecules 71
Solvent pops
in coatings 198, 200
Solvent system 77
Solvent-based coatings 113
Solvents
application properties 77
SPAT abrasion testing 195
Spectragraphics® 208
Spin-flow coating 140
Splitting 200
Spontaneous ignition 83
Spray application 135
Spray booth 220
Spray can 135
Spray coating 136, 210
Spray dryer
key components 33
operational considerations 33
Spray gun 135, 147, 149, 150
Spray sintering 33
Spray techniques
dry 147
electrostatic spray 147
hot flocking 147
powder 147
Spray velocity 135
Spraying
electrostatic 137
Spraying molten metal 102
Stability 22
Stabilizers 95376 FLUORINATED COATINGS AND FINISHES HANDBOOK
Stack gas treatment 29
Stain resistance 207
Staining
of coatings 207
cookware 196
Stainless steel shot 101
Static electricity 73
Static frictional force 188
Steel grit 101
Steel wool abrasion testing 195
Stefan-Boltzmann law 167
Steric stabilization 65
Stokes’ Law 65, 94
Strainers 114
Stratification 46
control 209
Stresses
in coatings 200
Stylus deflection 107
Styrene
heat of polymerization 16
Substrate adhesion 182
Substrate preparation 99
Substrates
continuous 141
Sulfur dioxide
corrosion test 187
Sulfuric anodizing 106
Supercritical carbon dioxide 21
Surface area
calculate 44
roughened 100
Surface profiles 100
Surface tension 81
gradients 200
microscopic 197
Surface-active agent coating 65
Surfactants
in aqueous dispersions 111
perfluorinated carboxylic ammonium 19
with fluorocoatings 95
Surging powder 152
Suspension method 18
Suspension polymerization 18
SWAT testing 195
T
Taber Abraser 189
Tallamadge Withdrawal Theory 137
Target absorptivity factor 172
Tedlar® 8
Tefal® 205, 206
Teflon AF® 5
Teflon-S® 46, 207
Teflon® 1, 2, 205
Teflon® NXT resins 4
Temperature dependence of viscosity 79
Temperature measurement
optical pyrometers 167
Temperatures
curing 207, 210
maximum continuous-use 221
monitoring 163, 166
non-contact measurement 167
processing 219
remote-sensors 168
Termination
of endgroups 19
Terpolymer 6
Test equipment 175
Tests and measurement
of coatings 175
Tetrafluoroethylene 1, 15, 16, 20
molecular structure 2
monomer 18
polymerization 18, 20
Tetrafluoromethane 222
TFE 1
autopolymerization inhibitors 16
deflagration 16
heat of polymerization 16
Thermal degradation
during high-temperature processing 153
Thermal stability 183, 222
of polymers 109
Thermally stability 49
Thermocouples 166
attachment to substrate 167
Thermoplastics 49, 225
Thermosets 45
Thick films
electrostatic spray 147
hot flocking 152
powder coatings 152
Thick fluoropolymer coating, 152
Thickeners 93
Thin films 155
electrostatic spray 147
Thinner 77
Thixotropic flow 39
Thixotropic loop 39
Thrust Washer Abrasion Test 191
Tiger paw test 193
Titanates 90
tetraalkyl 90
Toluene 104
Toner beads 208
Tools
coatings 207
Toxic gases 224INDEX 377
Toxicity
of fluoropolymers 219
Tribocharge 208
Tribocharging 148, 150
Triboelectric charge 211
Triboelectric Series 150
Tribology 189
Triethyl amine 104
Tunnel ovens 171
Two-package primers 206
Tyvek® 225
U
U.S. Food and Drug Administration 225
Ultem® 51
Ultrasonic film thickness gauge 178
Unsaturated 17
Upper Explosive Limit (UEF) 83
V
Vapor degreasing 99
Vapor pocket 199
Venturi pump 148
Vertical paint film 197
Vespel® 49
Vibratory box feeder 148
View factor 172
Vinyl chloride
heat of polymerization 16
Virgin molding polymers 225
Viscometers 175, 176
Viscosity 38, 77
dispersion-based products 112
Viscosity cups 175
Viscosity measurement 175
Viscous resistance 65
Voids
closure 19
Volatile gases 142
Voltage blocking equipment 137
Volume solids 44
Volumetric film thickness measurement 179
W
Walnut shells 101
Waste fluoropolymer 225
Water 77
purified 20
Water-based coatings 111
Wear factor
calculation 191
Weight solids 44
Weld-nut coating 213
Wet-film gauge 180, 182
Wet-film thickness 180
measurement 181
Wetting 81
Wheel sanding 102
White Teflon® 207
Wien Displacement 171
Wire brushing 102
Wire coating 138
Wrinkling
of fluorinated finishes 202
Z
Zahn cup 175
number 176
Zeolite matrix. 91
Zinc electroplating 105
Zinc phosphate process 103
Zonyl® 91

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