Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
اسم المؤلف
Mahesh Kumar
التاريخ
27 يناير 2022
المشاهدات
119
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
Mahesh Kumar
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology
Hisar
Brief Contents
Preface xxiii
About the Author xxv
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids 1.1
Chapter 2 Fluid Pressure and Its Measurement 2.1
Chapter 3 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Surfaces 3.1
Chapter 4 Liquids in Relative Equilibrium 4.1
Chapter 5 Buoyancy and Floatation 5.1
Chapter 6 Fluid Kinematics 6.1
Chapter 7 Fluid Dynamics 7.1
Chapter 8 Vortex Flow 8.1
Chapter 9 Potential Flow (Ideal Fluid Flow) 9.1
Chapter 10 Flow Through Orifices and Mouthpieces 10.1
Chapter 11 Flow Over Notches and Weirs 11.1
Chapter 12 Laminar Flow (Viscous Flow) 12.1
Chapter 13 Turbulent Flow in Pipes 13.1
Chapter 14 Flow Through Pipes 14.1
Chapter 15 Boundary Layer Theory 15.1
Chapter 16 Drag and Lift on Submerged Bodies 16.1x
Chapter 17 Compressible Fluid Flow 17.1
Chapter 18 Flow in Open Channels 18.1
Chapter 19 Dimensional Analysis and Model Similitude 19.1
Chapter 20 Impact of Free Jets and Basics of Fluid Machines 20.1
Chapter 21 Pelton Turbine (Impulse Turbine) 21.1
Chapter 22 Francis Turbine (Radial Flow Reaction Turbines) 22.1
Chapter 23 Propeller and Kaplan Turbines (Axial Flow Reaction Turbines) 23.1
Chapter 24 Performances of Hydraulic Turbines 24.1
Chapter 25 Centrifugal Pumps 25.1
Chapter 26 Reciprocating Pumps 26.1
Chapter 27 Hydraulic Systems 27.1
Index I.1
Brief ContentsContents
Preface xxiii
About the Author xxv
1 Basic Concepts and Properties
of Fluids 1.1
1.1 Introduction 1.1
1.2 Fluid Mechanics and Its
Applications 1.1
1.2.1 Application Areas of Fluid
Mechanics 1.2
1.3 Units and Dimensions 1.2
1.4 Pressure in Fluids 1.3
1.5 Fluid Continuum 1.3
1.6 Fluid Properties 1.3
1.7 Mass Density or Density 1.3
1.8 Specific Weight or Weight Density 1.4
1.9 Specific Volume 1.4
1.10 Specific Gravity or Relative Density 1.4
1.11 Viscosity or Dynamic Viscosity 1.5
1.11.1 Newton’s Law of Viscosity 1.6
1.11.2 Units of Viscosity 1.6
1.11.3 Variation of Viscosity with
Temperature 1.6
1.12 Kinematic Viscosity 1.7
1.13 Types of Fluids 1.7
1.14 Thermodynamic Properties 1.17
1.14.1 Perfect Gas Law 1.17
1.14.2 Universal Gas Constant 1.18
1.14.3 Isothermal Process (Constant
Temperature Process) 1.18
1.14.4 Isobaric Process (Constant
Pressure Process) 1.18
1.14.5 Reversible Adiabatic Process
(Isentropic Process) 1.19
1.15 Surface Tension 1.19
1.15.1 Pressure Inside a Liquid
Droplet 1.20
1.15.2 Pressure Inside a Soap
Bubble 1.21
1.15.3 Pressure Inside a Liquid Jet 1.21
1.16 Capillarity (Capillary Effect) 1.23
1.16.1 Expression for the Capillary Rise
or Fall 1.23
1.17 Compressibility and the Bulk
Modulus 1.25
1.17.1 Bulk Modulus for an Isothermal
Process 1.26
1.17.2 Bulk Modulus for Reversible
Adiabatic Process (or Isentropic
Process) 1.27
1.18 Vapour Pressure 1.28
1.19 Cavitation 1.29
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
2 Fluid Pressure and Its
Measurement 2.1
2.1 Introduction 2.1
2.2 Fluid Pressure 2.1
2.3 Pascal’s Law 2.2
2.4 Hydrostatic Law (Pressure Variation in a
Static Fluid) 2.3xii
2.5 Atmospheric, Absolute, Gauge
and Vacuum Pressures 2.5
2.6 Measurement of Pressure 2.9
2.6.1 Manometers 2.9
2.6.2 Mechanical Gauges 2.9
2.7 Simple Manometers (Open Type
Manometers) 2.9
2.7.1 Piezometer 2.9
2.7.2 U-tube Manometer (Double
Column Manometer) 2.10
2.7.3 Single Column Manometer 2.14
2.7.4 Double U-tube Manometer
(Compound Manometer) 2.16
2.8 Differential Manometers 2.18
2.8.1 U-tube Differential Manometer
(or Upright U-tube Differential
Manometer) 2.18
2.8.2 Inverted U-tube Manometer 2.22
2.9 Advantages and Limitations of
Manometers 2.24
2.10 Micromanometers 2.25
2.11 Mechanical Gauges 2.26
2.11.1 Bourdon Tube Pressure
Gauge 2.26
2.11.2 Diaphragm Pressure
Gauge 2.27
2.11.3 Bellows Pressure Gauge 2.27
2.11.4 Dead Weight Pressure
Gauge 2.27
2.12 Pressure Variation in Compressible Fluid
(Aerostatics) 2.28
2.12.1 Isothermal Process 2.28
2.12.2 Adiabatic Process 2.28
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions  • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
3 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged
Surfaces 3.1
3.1 Introduction 3.1
3.2 Total Pressure, Centre of Pressure
and Centre of Gravity 3.1
3.2.1 Total Pressure 3.1
3.2.2 Centre of Pressure 3.1
3.2.3 Centre of Gravity 3.2
3.3 Moments of Area and Geometrical
Properties 3.2
3.3.1 First Moment of Area 3.2
3.3.2 Second Moment of Area (or Area
Moment of Inertia) 3.2
3.4 Horizontal Submerged Plane
Surface 3.3
3.4.1 Total Pressure on a Horizontal
Submerged Plane Surface 3.3
3.5 Vertically Submerged Plane
Surface 3.3
3.5.1 Total Pressure on a Vertical
Submerged Plane Surface 3.3
3.5.2 Centre of Pressure on a Vertical
Submerged Plane Surface 3.4
3.6 Inclined Submerged Plane
Surface 3.14
3.6.1 Total Pressure on an Inclined Plane
Submerged Surface 3.14
3.6.2 Centre of Pressure on an Inclined
Plane Submerged Surface 3.15
3.7 Curved Submerged
Plane Surface 3.24
3.8 Analysis of Forces on Dams 3.32
3.9 Lock Gates 3.34
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions  • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
4 Liquids in Relative
Equilibrium 4.1
4.1 Introduction 4.1
4.2 Liquid Containers Subjected to
Constant Horizontal Acceleration 4.1
4.3 Liquid Containers Subjected to
Constant Vertical Acceleration 4.6
4.4 Liquid Containers Subjected to
Constant Acceleration Along
Inclined Plane 4.8
4.5 Liquid Containers Subjected to
Constant Rotation 4.10
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions  • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
5 Buoyancy and Floatation 5.1
5.1 Introduction 5.1
5.2 Buoyancy, Buoyant Force and Centre of
Buoyancy 5.1
5.2.1 Buoyancy 5.1
ContentsContents xiii
5.2.2 Buoyant Force 5.1
5.2.3 Centre of Buoyancy 5.1
5.3 Archimedes’ Principle 5.1
5.3.1 Proof 5.2
5.4 Metacentre 5.9
5.5 Metacentric Height and Methods of Its
Determination 5.9
5.5.1 Analytical Method 5.10
5.5.2 Experimental Method 5.11
5.6 Stability of Submerged and Floating
Bodies 5.16
5.6.1 Stability of a Submerged
Body 5.17
5.6.2 Stability of a Floating Body 5.17
5.7 Oscillation of a Floating Body 5.31
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions  •
Review Questions  •  Problems
6 Fluid Kinematics 6.1
6.1 Introduction 6.1
6.2 Velocity of Fluid Particles 6.1
6.3 Types of Fluid Flow 6.2
6.3.1 Steady and Unsteady Flows 6.2
6.3.2 Uniform and Non-uniform
Flows 6.3
6.3.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flows 6.3
6.3.4 Compressible and Incompressible
Flows 6.3
6.3.5 One-dimensional, Two-dimensional
and Three-dimensional Flows 6.3
6.3.6 Rotational and Irrotational
Flows 6.4
6.4 Description of Fluid Flow Pattern
(Flow Visualization) 6.4
6.5 Acceleration of a Fluid Particle 6.7
6.5.1 Lagrangian Method 6.7
6.5.2 Eulerian Method 6.8
6.6 Tangential and Normal
Accelerations 6.12
6.7 Rate of Flow (Discharge) 6.14
6.8 Continuity Equation 6.14
6.9 Continuity Equation in Differential Form
(3-Dimensions) 6.17
6.10 Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Polar
Coordinates 6.19
6.11 Types of Motions of a Fluid
Element 6.25
6.11.1 Linear Translation 6.25
6.11.2 Linear Deformation 6.25
6.11.3 Angular Deformation 6.25
6.11.4 Rotation 6.27
6.11.5 Vorticity 6.27
6.11.6 Circulation 6.28
6.12 Velocity Potential and Stream
Functions 6.34
6.12.1 Velocity Potential
Function 6.34
6.12.2 Stream Function 6.35
6.12.3 Cauchy–Riemann Equations
(Relation between Stream
Function and Velocity Potential
Function) 6.36
6.12.4 Orthogonality of Streamlines
and Equipotential Lines 6.36
6.12.5 Flow Net 6.36
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions  •
Review Questions  •  Problems
7 Fluid Dynamics 7.1
7.1 Introduction 7.1
7.2 Energy and Forces Acting on a Flowing
Fluid 7.1
7.2.1 Energy of a Flowing Fluid 7.1
7.2.2 Forces Acting on a Flowing
Fluid 7.2
7.3 Equations of Motion 7.2
7.4 Euler’s Equation of Motion 7.2
7.5 Bernoulli’s Equation 7.4
7.6 Bernoulli’s Equation for
Real Fluids 7.4
7.7 Bernoulli’s Equation from Energy
Equation 7.4
7.8 Practical Applications of Bernoulli’s
Equation 7.12
7.8.1 Venturimeter 7.12
7.8.2 Orificemeter 7.22
7.8.3 Pitot Tube 7.26
7.9 Kinetic Energy and Momentum
Correction Factors 7.28
7.9.1 Kinetic Energy Correction
Factor 7.28xiv
7.9.2 Momentum Correction
Factor 7.29
7.10 Free Liquid Jet 7.32
7.11 Impulse-momentum Equation 7.38
7.11.1 Impulse-Momentum Equation for
Steady Flow and Force on a Pipe
Bend 7.38
7.12 Moment of Momentum Equation
(Angular Momentum Principle) 7.46
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions  •
Review Questions  •  Problems
8 Vortex Flow 8.1
8.1 Introduction 8.1
8.2 Types of Vortex Flow 8.1
8.2.1 Forced Vortex Flow 8.1
8.2.2 Free Vortex Flow 8.2
8.2.3 Other Types of Vortex Flow 8.2
8.3 Equation of Motion for a Vortex
Flow 8.2
8.4 Equation of Forced Vortex Flow 8.4
8.5 Rotation of Liquid in a Closed
Cylindrical Vessel 8.11
8.6 Closed Cylindrical Rotating Vessel
Completely Filled with a Liquid 8.11
8.7 Equation of Free Vortex Flow 8.18
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
9 Potential Flow
(Ideal Fluid Flow) 9.1
9.1 Introduction 9.1
9.2 Uniform Flow 9.1
9.3 Source Flow 9.4
9.4 Sink Flow 9.6
9.5 Free Vortex Flow 9.7
9.6 Superimposed Flow 9.10
9.6.1 Source and Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Half Body) 9.10
9.6.2 Source and Sink Pair 9.15
9.6.3 Doublet (or Dipole) 9.19
9.6.4 A Doublet in a Uniform Flow (Flow
Past a Circular Cylinder) 9.23
9.6.5 Source, Sink and Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Rankine Oval
Body) 9.28
9.6.6 Doublet, Free Vortex and Uniform
Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder with
Circulation) 9.30
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
10 Flow Through Orifices
and Mouthpieces 10.1
10.1 Introduction 10.1
10.2 Classification of Orifices 10.1
10.3 Flow Through an Orifice 10.2
10.4 Hydraulic Coefficients (Coefficients for
an Orifice) 10.2
10.5 Experimental Determination of Hydraulic
Coefficients 10.5
10.5.1 Determination of Coefficient of
Velocity (Cv) 10.5
10.5.2 Determination of Coefficient of
Discharge (Cd) 10.5
10.5.3 Determination of Coefficient of
Contraction (Cc) 10.6
10.6 Discharge Through a Large Rectangular
Orifice 10.10
10.7 Discharge Through Submerged
Orifices 10.11
10.7.1 Fully Submerged Orifice (or Totally
Drowned Orifice) 10.11
10.7.2 Partially Submerged
Orifice 10.12
10.8 Time of Emptying a Tank Through an
Orifice 10.13
10.8.1 Time of Emptying Vertical Tank of
Uniform Cross Section 10.13
10.8.2 Time of Emptying Hemispherical
Tank 10.15
10.8.3 Time of Emptying a Circular
Horizontal Tank 10.17
10.9 Classification of Mouthpieces 10.19
10.10 Flow Through an External
Mouthpiece 10.19
10.11 Flow Through a Convergent-divergent
Mouthpiece 10.22
ContentsContents xv
10.12 Flow Through an Internal
Mouthpiece (Reentrant or Borda’s
Mouthpiece) 10.24
10.12.1 Borda’s Mouthpiece Running
Free 10.25
10.12.2 Borda’s Mouthpiece Running
Full 10.26
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
11 Flow Over Notches
and Weirs 11.1
11.1 Introduction 11.1
11.2 Comparison Between a Notch and a
Weir 11.1
11.3 Classifications of Notches and
Weirs 11.1
11.3.1 Classification of Notches 11.1
11.3.2 Classification of Weirs 11.2
11.4 Discharge Over a Rectangular Notch or
Weir 11.2
11.4.1 Effect on Discharge Due to Error
in Measurement of Head 11.3
11.4.2 Velocity of Approach 11.3
11.5 Empirical Formulae for Discharge Over
Rectangular Weirs 11.6
11.5.1 Francis’s Formula 11.6
11.5.2 Bazin’s Formula 11.7
11.5.3 Rehbock’s Formula 11.7
11.6 Discharge Over a Triangular Notch or
Weir 11.10
11.6.1 Effect on Discharge Due to Error
in Measurement of Head 11.11
11.6.2 Advantages of a Triangular Notch
(or Weir) Over a Rectangular
Notch (or Weir) 11.11
11.7 Discharge Over a Trapezoidal Notch or
Weir 11.14
11.8 Cipolletti Weir or Notch 11.15
11.9 Discharge Over a Stepped
Notch 11.17
11.10 Discharge Over a Broad-crested
Weir 11.18
11.11 Discharge Over a Narrow-crested
Weir 11.20
11.12 Discharge Over an Ogee Weir 11.20
11.13 Discharge Over a Submerged or
Drowned Weir 11.20
11.14 Ventilation of Suppressed
Weir 11.21
11.15 Time of Emptying a Reservoir with
Rectangular Weir or Notch 11.22
11.16 Time of Emptying a Reservoir with
Triangular Weir or Notch 11.23
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
12 Laminar Flow (Viscous
Flow) 12.1
12.1 Introduction 12.1
12.2 Reynolds Experiments 12.1
12.3 Navier-Stokes Equations of
Motion 12.3
12.4 Relation Between Shear Stress
and Pressure Gradient 12.5
12.5 Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes
(Hagen-Poiseuille Theory) 12.6
12.6 Laminar Flow Through
Annulus 12.19
12.7 Laminar Flow Between Two Parallel
Plates When Both Plates are at
Rest 12.22
12.8 Laminar Flow Between Two Parallel
Plates When One Plate Moves and
Other at Rest (Couette Flow) 12.27
12.9 Power Absorbed in Bearings 12.31
12.9.1 Journal Bearing 12.31
12.9.2 Foot Step Bearing 12.32
12.9.3 Collar Bearing 12.33
12.10 Movement of Piston in
Dashpot 12.35
12.11 Measurement of Viscosity
(Viscometers) 12.36
12.11.1 Capillary Tube
Viscometer 12.36
12.11.2 Rotating Cylinder
Viscometer 12.37
12.11.3 Falling Sphere
Viscometer 12.38
12.11.4 Efflux Viscometer 12.40
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problemsxvi
13 Turbulent Flow in Pipes 13.1
13.1 Introduction 13.1
13.2 Loss of Head in Pipes (Darcy-Weisbach
Equation) 13.1
13.3 Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
(Turbulence) 13.4
13.3.1 Classification of Turbulence 13.4
13.3.2 Mean and Fluctuating
Velocities 13.4
13.3.3 Degree and Intensity of
Turbulence 13.5
13.3.4 Scale of Turbulence 13.5
13.3.5 Kinetic Energy of
Turbulence 13.6
13.3.6 Reynolds Equations of
Turbulence 13.6
13.4 Shear Stresses in Turbulent Flow 13.8
13.4.1 Boussinesq’s Theory 13.8
13.4.2 Reynolds Theory 13.8
13.4.3 Prandtl’s Mixing Length
Theory 13.9
13.4.4 Von Karman Similarity
Concept 13.9
13.5 Universal Velocity Distribution
Equation 13.10
13.6 Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough
Boundaries 13.12
13.7 Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Smooth Pipes 13.13
13.8 Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Rough Pipes 13.16
13.9 Velocity Distribution in Terms of Average
Velocity 13.17
13.10 Power Law for Velocity Distribution in
Smooth Pipes 13.19
13.11 Resistance to Flow of Fluid in Smooth
and Rough Pipes 13.20
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
14 Flow Through Pipes 14.1
14.1 Introduction 14.1
14.2 Energy Loss (Head Loss) in Pipes 14.1
14.2.1 Major Losses 14.1
14.2.2 Minor Losses 14.1
14.3 Formulae for Major Energy Loss in
Pipes 14.2
14.3.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula 14.2
14.3.2 Chezy’s Formula 14.2
14.3.3 Manning’s Formula 14.2
14.3.4 Hazen William’s Formula 14.3
14.4 Minor Energy Losses in Pipes 14.6
14.4.1 Loss of Head Due to Sudden
Enlargement 14.6
14.4.2 Loss of Head Due to Sudden
Contraction 14.9
14.4.3 Loss of Head at the Inlet
(Entrance) of a Pipe 14.13
14.4.4 Loss of Head at the Outlet (Exit) of
a Pipe 14.13
14.4.5 Loss of Head Due to Obstruction
in a Pipe 14.14
14.4.6 Loss of Head Due to Bend in a
Pipe 14.14
14.4.7 Loss of Head in Various Pipe
Fittings 14.14
14.5 Hydraulic Gradient Line and Total
Energy Line 14.17
14.6 Pipes in Series (Compound
Pipes) 14.24
14.7 Equivalent Pipe 14.26
14.8 Pipes in Parallel 14.27
14.9 Branched Pipe System 14.36
14.10 Siphon 14.40
14.11 Power Transmission Through
Pipes 14.42
14.12 Flow Through Nozzles 14.45
14.12.1 Discharge through
Nozzle 14.45
14.12.2 Efficiency of Power Transmission
through Nozzle 14.46
14.12.3 Condition for Maximum Power
through Nozzle 14.46
14.12.4 Diameter of Nozzle for Maximum
Power Transmission through
Nozzle 14.47
14.13 Water Hammer 14.49
14.13.1 Gradual Closure of Valve 14.49
14.13.2 Sudden Closure of Valve in a
Rigid Pipe 14.49
14.13.3 Sudden Closure of Valve in an
Elastic Pipe 14.50
ContentsContents xvii
14.13.4 Time Taken by Pressure Wave to
Travel from Valve to the Tank and
from Tank to Valve 14.51
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
15 Boundary Layer Theory 15.1
15.1 Introduction 15.1
15.2 Description of Boundary Layer 15.1
15.2.1 Laminar Boundary Layer 15.2
15.2.2 Transition Region 15.2
15.2.3 Turbulent Boundary Layer 15.2
15.2.4 Laminar Sublayer 15.3
15.3 Boundary Layer Parameters 15.3
15.3.1 Boundary Layer Thickness 15.3
15.3.2 Displacement Thickness (δd) 15.3
15.3.3 Momentum Thickness (δm) 15.4
15.3.4 Energy Thickness (δe) 15.5
15.4 Drag Force on a Flat Plate (Von Karman
Momentum Integral Equation) 15.9
15.5 Prandtl’s Boundary Layer
Equations 15.11
15.6 Blasius Solution for Laminar Boundary
Layer Flows 15.13
15.7 Velocity Profiles for Laminar Boundary
Layer 15.13
15.8 Turbulent Boundary Layer 15.25
15.9 Total Drag Due to Laminar and Turbulent
Layers 15.30
15.10 Boundary Layer Separation, Its Effects,
and Control 15.33
15.10.1 Effects of Boundary Layer
Separation 15.34
15.10.2 Methods of Controlling
Separation 15.34
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
16 Drag and Lift on
Submerged Bodies 16.1
16.1 Introduction 16.1
16.2 Drag and Lift 16.1
16.2.1 Types of Drag 16.2
16.2.2 Expression for Drag and
Lift 16.2
16.2.3 Dimensional Analysis of Drag
and Lift 16.4
16.3 Streamlined and Bluff Bodies 16.10
16.3.1 Streamlined Body 16.10
16.3.2 Bluff Body 16.11
16.4 Drag on a Sphere (Stokes’ Law) 16.11
16.5 Terminal Velocity of a Body 16.11
16.6 Drag on a Cylinder 16.15
16.7 Circulation and Lift on a Cylinder 16.16
16.8 Expression for Lift on a Rotating
Cylinder 16.18
16.8.1 Expression for Lift Coefficient for a
Rotating Cylinder 16.20
16.9 Basic Terminology for an Airfoil 16.22
16.10 Circulation and Lift on an Airfoil 16.23
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
17 Compressible Fluid Flow 17.1
17.1 Introduction 17.1
17.2 Continuity Equation 17.1
17.3 Bernoulli’s Equation (Energy
Equation) 17.2
17.3.1 Bernoulli’s Equation for Isothermal
Process 17.2
17.3.2 Bernoulli’s Equation for Adiabatic
Process 17.2
17.4 Velocity of Sound in a Fluid
Medium 17.4
17.4.1 Velocity of Sound in Terms of Bulk
Modulus 17.5
17.4.2 Velocity of Sound for Isothermal
Process 17.6
17.4.3 Velocity of Sound for Adiabatic
Process 17.6
17.5 Mach Number 17.7
17.6 Propagation of Pressure Wave in a
Compressible Fluid 17.7
17.7 Stagnation Properties 17.10
17.7.1 Stagnation Pressure 17.10
17.7.2 Stagnation Density 17.12
17.7.3 Stagnation Temperature 17.12xviii
17.8 Area and Velocity Relationship
for Compressible Flow 17.14
17.9 Compressible Fluid Flow Through a
Convergent Nozzle 17.15
17.10 Compressible Fluid Flow Through a
Venturimeter 17.19
17.11 Shock Waves 17.22
17.11.1 Normal Shock Wave 17.22
17.11.2 Oblique Shock Wave 17.24
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
18 Flow in Open Channels 18.1
18.1 Introduction 18.1
18.2 Geometrical Parameters for Open
Channels 18.1
18.3 Types of Flow in Open Channels 18.1
18.4 Discharge Through Open Channels
(Chezy’s Formula) 18.3
18.5 Most Economical Section of
Channels 18.8
18.5.1 Most Economical Rectangular
Channel Section 18.9
18.5.2 Most Economical Trapezoidal
Channel Section 18.11
18.5.3 Most Economical Circular
Channel Section 18.16
18.6 Non-uniform Flow Through Open
Channels 18.21
18.6.1 Specific Energy Curve 18.21
18.6.2 Critical Depth 18.22
18.6.3 Critical Velocity 18.22
18.6.4 Sub-Critical Flow 18.23
18.6.5 Super-Critical Flow 18.23
18.6.6 Minimum Specific Energy in Terms
of Critical Depth 18.23
18.6.7 Condition for Maximum Discharge
for a Given Value of Specific
Energy 18.23
18.7 Hydraulic Jump 18.25
18.7.1 Depth of Hydraulic Jump 18.26
18.7.2 Length of Hydraulic Jump 18.28
18.7.3 Loss of Energy Due to Hydraulic
Jump 18.28
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
19 Dimensional Analysis
and Model Similitude 19.1
19.1 Introduction 19.1
19.2 Dimensions and Units of Physical
Quantities 19.1
19.3 Dimensional Homogeneity 19.3
19.4 Methods of Dimensional Analysis 19.4
19.4.1 Rayleigh Method 19.4
19.4.2 Buckingham p Method 19.7
19.4.3 Advantages and Limitations of
Dimensional Analysis 19.10
19.5 Model Studies 19.26
19.6 Similitude-types of Similarities 19.27
19.6.1 Geometric Similarity 19.27
19.6.2 Kinematic Similarity 19.27
19.6.3 Dynamic Similarity 19.28
19.7 Dimensionless Numbers and their
Significance 19.29
19.7.1 Reynolds Number 19.29
19.7.2 Froude Number 19.29
19.7.3 Euler Number 19.30
19.7.4 Weber Number 19.30
19.7.5 Mach Number 19.30
19.8 Similarity Laws or Model Laws 19.31
19.8.1 Reynolds Model Law 19.31
19.8.2 Froude Model Law 19.33
19.8.3 Euler Model Law 19.35
19.8.4 Weber Model Law 19.36
19.8.5 Mach Model Law 19.36
19.9 Types of Models 19.38
19.10 Scale Effects in Models 19.39
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
20 Impact of Free Jets and
Basics of Fluid Machines 20.1
20.1 Introduction 20.1
20.2 Impulse-momentum Principle 20.1
20.3 Force Exerted by a Jet on a Stationary
Vertical Flat Plate 20.2
20.4 Force Exerted by a Jet on a Moving
Vertical Flat Plate 20.2
20.5 Force Exerted by Jet on a Stationary
Inclined Flat Plate 20.4
ContentsContents xix
20.6 Force Exerted by a Jet on a Moving
Inclined Flat Plate 20.5
20.7 Force Exerted by a Jet on a Series of
Flat Plates 20.8
20.8 Force Exerted by a Jet on Stationary
Curved Vane 20.10
20.8.1 Force Exerted on a Stationary
Symmetrical Curved Vane
When the Jet Strikes at the
Centre of Vane 20.10
20.8.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary
Curved Vane When the Jet Strikes
the Symmetrical Curved Vane at
One End Tangentially 20.11
20.8.3 Force Exerted on a Stationary
Curved Vane When the Jet Strikes
the Unsymmetrical Curved Vane
at One End Tangentially 20.12
20.9 Force Exerted by Jet on Moving Curved
Vane 20.13
20.9.1 Force Exerted on a Single
Symmetrical Moving Curved
Vane When the Jet Strikes at the
Centre of Vane 20.13
20.9.2 Force on a Series of Symmetrical
Moving Curved Vanes When
the Jet Strikes at the Centre of
Vanes 20.16
20.9.3 Force Exerted by a Jet on an
Unsymmetrical Moving Curved
Vane When the Jet Strikes
Tangentially at One of the
Tips 20.18
20.9.4 Force Exerted by a Jet on
a Series of Radial Curved
Vanes 20.25
20.10 Force Exerted by a Jet on a Hinged
Plate 20.29
20.11 Jet Propulsion of Ships 20.33
20.11.1 Inlet Orifices at Right Angle to
the Motion of the Ship 20.33
20.11.2 Inlet Orifices Face the Direction
of Motion of the Ship 20.34
20.12 Fluid Machines 20.37
20.13 Hydraulic Machines and Its Main
Parts 20.38
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
21 Pelton Turbine (Impulse
Turbine) 21.1
21.1 Introduction 21.1
21.2 Classification of Hydraulic
Turbines 21.1
21.3 Impulse Turbine Operation
Principle 21.3
21.4 General Layout of a Hydroelectric Power
Plant 21.3
21.5 Heads and Efficiencies of a Hydraulic
Turbine 21.4
21.6 Waterwheel 21.6
21.7 Pelton Turbine (Pelton Wheel) 21.6
21.8 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines 21.8
21.9 Governing of Pelton Turbines 21.8
21.9.1 Working of the Governor 21.9
21.10 Velocity Triangles, Work Done and
Efficiency of the Pelton Turbine 21.9
21.11 Design Aspects of the Pelton
Turbine 21.12
21.11.1 Working Proportions of the
Pelton Turbine 21.12
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
22 Francis Turbine (Radial Flow
Reaction Turbines) 22.1
22.1 Introduction 22.1
22.2 Radial Flow Reaction Turbines 22.2
22.2.1 Inward Radial Flow Reaction
Turbine 22.3
22.2.2 Outward Radial Flow Reaction
Turbine 22.3
22.3 Comparisons Between Impulse
and Reaction Turbines 22.4
22.4 Differences Between Inward
and Outward Radial Flow
Reaction Turbines 22.4
22.5 Francis Turbine 22.5
22.6 Velocity Triangles, Work Done and
Efficiency of Radial Flow Reaction
Turbines and Francis Turbine 22.7
22.6.1 Change of Kinetic Energy and
Pressure Energy in the Runnerxx
of a Radial Flow Reaction
Turbine 22.9
22.6.2 Degree of Reaction 22.10
22.7 Definitions and Working Proportions
of a Francis Turbine and Radial Flow
Reaction Turbines 22.11
22.8 Design of Francis Turbine
Runner 22.12
22.8.1 Shape of Francis Turbine
Runner 22.14
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
23 Propeller and Kaplan Turbines (Axial
Flow Reaction Turbines) 23.1
23.1 Introduction 23.1
23.2 Propeller and Kaplan Turbines 23.1
23.2.1 Governing of Kaplan
Turbine 23.3
23.3 Working Proportions of Kaplan
and Propeller Turbines 23.4
23.4 Difference Between Francis and Kaplan
Turbines 23.5
23.5 Draft Tube 23.12
23.5.1 Types of Draft Tubes 23.12
23.5.2 Draft Tube Theory 23.13
23.5.3 Efficiency of Draft Tube 23.14
23.6 Cavitation in Turbines 23.18
23.7 New Types of Turbines 23.19
23.7.1 Deriaz or Diagonal Turbine 23.19
23.7.2 Tubular Turbine 23.20
23.7.3 Bulb Turbine 23.20
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
24 Performances of Hydraulic
Turbines 24.1
24.1 Introduction 24.1
24.2 Unit Quantities 24.1
24.2.1 Unit Speed 24.2
24.2.2 Unit Discharge 24.2
24.2.3 Unit Power 24.2
24.2.4 Use of Unit Quantities 24.3
24.3 Specific Speed 24.4
24.3.1 Significance of Specific
Speed 24.5
24.4 Suction Specific Speed 24.6
24.5 Specific Speed in Terms of Known
Coefficients 24.7
24.5.1 Specific Speed of Pelton
Turbine 24.7
24.5.2 Specific Speed of Francis
Turbine 24.8
24.5.3 Specific Speed of Kaplan
and Propeller Turbines 24.9
24.6 Model Relationship and Testing
of Turbines 24.9
24.6.1 Head Coefficient 24.9
24.6.2 Capacity or Flow
Coefficient 24.10
24.6.3 Power Coefficient 24.10
24.6.4 Model Testing of Turbines 24.11
24.6.5 Scale Effect 24.12
24.7 Characteristic Curves 24.17
24.7.1 Main Characteristic Curves (or
Constant Head Characteristic
Curves) 24.18
24.7.2 Operating Characteristic Curves
(or Constant Speed Characteristic
Curves) 24.19
24.7.3 Muschel Curves (or Constant
Efficiency Curves or Iso-efficiency
Curves) 24.19
24.8 Selection of Turbines 24.20
24.9 Surge Tanks 24.21
24.9.1 Types of Surge Tanks 24.22
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
25 Centrifugal Pumps 25.1
25.1 Introduction 25.1
25.2 Brief Historical Development of
Centrifugal Pumps 25.1
25.3 Classification of Pumps 25.2
25.3.1 Rotodynamic Pumps (or Dynamic
Pressure Pumps or Rotary
Pumps) 25.2
25.3.2 Positive Displacement
Pumps 25.2
ContentsContents xxi
25.3.3 Classification of Centrifugal
Pumps 25.3
25.4 Construction and Working of Centrifugal
Pumps 25.4
25.4.1 Main Parts of a Centrifugal
Pump 25.4
25.4.2 Working of a Centrifugal
Pump 25.6
25.4.3 Priming Devices 25.7
25.5 Velocity Triangles and Work Done by
Centrifugal Pump 25.7
25.6 Head of a Centrifugal Pump 25.9
25.7 Pressure Rise in the Impeller 25.10
25.8 Losses, Power and Efficiencies of
Centrifugal Pumps 25.12
25.8.1 Losses in Centrifugal
Pumps 25.12
25.8.2 Power of Centrifugal
Pumps 25.13
25.8.3 Efficiencies of Centrifugal
Pumps 25.13
25.9 Effect of Outlet Vane Angle on
Manometric Efficiency 25.14
25.10 Effect of Number of Vanes of Impeller on
Head and Efficiency 25.15
25.11 Slip Factor 25.16
25.12 Loss of Head Due to Reduced or
Increased Flow 25.16
25.13 Minimum Starting Speed 25.23
25.14 Design Considerations 25.25
25.15 Multistage Pumps 25.26
25.16 Specific Speed of Centrifugal
Pumps 25.28
25.17 Model Testing of Centrifugal
Pumps 25.29
25.18 Performance Characteristics of
Centrifugal Pumps 25.32
25.18.1 Main Characteristic
Curves 25.33
25.18.2 Operating Characteristic
Curves 25.33
25.18.3 Constant Efficiency Curves
(Muschel Curves) 25.33
25.18.4 Constant Head and
Constant Discharge
Characteristics 25.34
25.19 Maximum Suction Lift (or Suction
Height) 25.35
25.20 Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSH) 25.35
25.21 Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps 25.36
25.22 Troubles in Centrifugal Pumps
and their Causes 25.37
25.23 Axial Flow Pump 25.39
25.24 Deep Well (Vertical Turbine Pump)
and Submersible Pumps 25.39
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
26 Reciprocating Pumps 26.1
26.1 Introduction 26.1
26.2 Classification of Reciprocating
Pumps 26.1
26.3 Main Parts and Working of a
Reciprocating Pump 26.2
26.3.1 Main Parts of a Reciprocating
Pump 26.2
26.3.2 Working of a Single Acting
Reciprocating Pump 26.2
26.3.3 Discharge, Work Done and Power
Required for Driving a Single
Acting Reciprocating Pump 26.3
26.3.4 Working of a Double Acting
Reciprocating Pump 26.4
26.3.5 Discharge, Work Done and Power
Required for Driving a Double
Acting Reciprocating Pump 26.5
26.4 Coefficient of Discharge and Slip of
Reciprocating Pump 26.6
26.4.1 Coefficient of Discharge 26.6
26.4.2 Slip of the Reciprocating
Pump 26.6
26.4.3 Negative Slip of the Reciprocating
Pump 26.6
26.5 Comparisons of Reciprocating
and Centrifugal Pumps 26.7
26.6 Effect of Acceleration of Piston on
Velocity and Pressure in the Suction
and Delivery Pipes 26.8
26.7 Effect of Variation of Velocity in the
Suction and Delivery Pipes 26.10xxii
26.8 Indicator Diagrams 26.12
26.8.1 Theoretical Indicator
Diagram 26.12
26.8.2 Effect of Acceleration in Suction
and Delivery Pipes on Indicator
Diagram 26.13
26.8.3 Maximum Speed of a
Reciprocating Pump 26.15
26.8.4 Effect of Friction in Suction
and Delivery Pipes on Indicator
Diagram 26.20
26.8.5 Effect of Acceleration and Friction
in Suction and Delivery Pipes on
Indicator Diagram 26.21
26.9 Air Vessels 26.25
26.10 Theoretical Analysis of Air
Vessels 26.26
26.10.1 Water Flow Rate In and Out
of Air Vessel 26.27
26.10.2 Pressure Heads in the Cylinder
During Suction Stroke of a
Reciprocating Pump with Air
Vessel 26.28
26.10.3 Pressure Heads in the Cylinder
During Delivery Stroke
of a Reciprocating Pump with Air
Vessel 26.29
26.10.4 Work Done by a Reciprocating
Pump with Air Vessel and
Its Effect on Indicator
Diagram 26.30
26.10.5 Maximum Speed of a
Reciprocating Pump with Air
Vessel 26.31
26.10.6 Work Saved Against Friction by
Fitting Air Vessel 26.32
26.11 Characteristic Curves of a Reciprocating
Pump 26.38
26.12 Rotary Positive Displacement
Pumps 26.39
26.12.1 Vane Pump 26.39
26.12.2 Lobe Pump 26.40
26.12.3 Axial Piston Pump 26.40
26.12.4 Gear Pump 26.41
26.12.5 Screw Pumps 26.41
26.12.6 Radial Piston Pump 26.42
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
27 Hydraulic Systems 27.1
27.1 Introduction 27.1
27.2 Hydraulic Press 27.1
27.2.1 Working Principle 27.1
27.2.2 Actual Hydraulic Press 27.3
27.2.3 Applications 27.4
27.3 Hydraulic Accumulator 27.5
27.3.1 Simple Hydraulic
Accumulator 27.5
27.3.2 Capacity of Accumulator 27.6
27.3.3 Differential Hydraulic
Accumulator 27.8
27.4 Hydraulic Intensifier 27.9
27.5 Hydraulic Ram 27.12
27.6 Hydraulic Lift 27.15
27.6.1 Direct Acting Hydraulic
Lift 27.15
27.6.2 Suspended Hydraulic Lift 27.15
27.7 Hydraulic Crane 27.18
27.8 Hydraulic Coupling 27.21
27.9 Hydraulic Torque Converter 27.22
27.10 Air Lift Pump 27.23
27.11 Jet Pump 27.24
27.12 External Gear Pump 27.25
Summary  •  Multiple-choice Questions   • 
Review Questions  •  Problems
Index    I.1
Index
A
Absolute pressure, 2.5
Accelerated flow, 17.15
Actual hydraulic press, 27.3
Advective acceleration, 6.9
Aerodynamics, 1.1
Air lift pump, 27.23
Air vessel, 26.25
Angle of attack, 16.23
Angular deformation, 6.25
Archimedes’ principle, 5.1
Aspect ratio, 16.23
A timeline, 6.6
Atmospheric pressure, 2.5
Average coefficient of drag, 15.11
Axial flow pumps, 25.39
Axial piston pump, 26.40
B
Bazin formula, 11.7, 18.4
Bellows pressure gauge, 2.27
Bernoulli’s equation, 7.4, 17.2
Bingham plastic, 1.8
Bluff body, 16.11
Borda–Carnot equation, 14.7
Borda’s mouthpiece, 10.24
Boss, 23.2
Boundary layer, 15.1
Boundary layer thickness, 15.3
Bourdon tube pressure gauge, 2.26
Boussinesq’s theory, 13.8
Braking jet, 21.8
Breadth ratio, 22.12
Breastshot wheel, 21.6
Broad-crested weir, 11.18
Buckingham π method, 19.7
Bulb turbine, 23.20
Bulk modulus of elasticity,
1.25, 17.5
Buoyancy, 5.1
Buoyant force, 5.1
C
Camber line, 16.23
Capacity of accumulator, 27.6
Capillarity, 1.23
Capillary depression, 1.23
Capillary rise, 1.23
Capillary tube viscometer, 12.36
Casing, 21.8, 25.5
Casing with guide blades, 25.5
Cauchy–Riemann equations, 6.36
Cavitation, 1.29, 23.18, 25.36
Centre of buoyancy, 5.1
Centre of gravity, 3.2
Centre of pressure, 3.1
Characteristic curves, 24.17
Characteristic curves for a
reciprocating pump, 26.38
Chezy’s formula, 14.2, 18.3
Choked passage, 17.18
Chord, 16.23
Cipolletti Weir or Notch, 11.15
Circular channel, 18.16
Circulation, 6.28, 16.23
Clinging nappe, 11.22
Closed cylindrical surge tank, 24.22
Closed turbomachines, 20.37
Coefficient of contraction, 10.3
Coefficient of discharge, 10.3, 26.6
Coefficient of friction, 13.2
Coefficient of resistance, 10.3
Coefficient of velocity, 1.6, 10.2
Collar bearing, 12.33
Compound manometer, 2.16
Compound pipes, 14.24
Compressibility, 1.25
Compressibility correction factor,
17.12
Compressibility factor, 17.12
Compressible flow, 6.3, 17.1
Compressible flow machine, 20.38
Continuity equation, 6.14, 17.1
Continuity equation in
three-dimensions, 6.18
Continuum, 1.3
Convergent-divergent mouthpiece,
10.19, 10.22
Convergent mouthpiece, 10.19
Convergent nozzle, 17.15
Conveyance, 18.4
Couette flow, 12.27
Covective acceleration, 6.9
Crest, 11.1
Crest height, 11.1
Critical cavitation factor, 23.19
Critical depth, 18.22
Critical flow, 18.3I.2 Index
Critical pressure ratio, 17.18
Critical Reynolds number, 12.2
Critical velocity, 18.22
Cylindrical mouthpiece, 10.19
Cylindrical vortex flow, 8.2
D
D’Alembert’s principle, 4.1
Darcy coefficient of friction, 13.2
Darcy friction factor, 12.9
Darcy-Weisbach equation, 12.9, 13.2,
14.2
Dashpot, 12.35
D’Aubuisson’s efficiency, 27.13
Dead weight pressure gauge, 2.27
Decelerated (retarded) flow, 17.15
Deep well pumps, 25.39
Degree of reaction, 22.10
Degree of turbulence, 13.5
Delivery head, 25.9
Depressed nappe, 11.22
Depth of bucket, 21.13
Depth of flow, 18.1
Depth of hydraulic jump, 18.26
Deriaz turbine, 23.19
Derived quantities, 19.1
Diaphragm pressure gauge, 2.27
Differential hydraulic
accumulator, 27.8
Differential manometer, 2.9, 2.18
Differential surge tank, 24.23
Dilatancy, 6.26
Dilatant, 1.8
Dimension, 19.1
Dimensional homogeneity, 19.3
Direct acting hydraulic lift, 27.15
Displacement thickness, 15.3
Distorted models, 19.38
Divergent mouthpiece, 10.19
Double acting pump, 26.1
Double acting reciprocating
pump, 26.4
Double cylinder pumps, 26.2
Doublet, 9.19
Doublet strength, 9.19
Draft tube, 22.2, 23.12
Draft tube theory, 23.13
Drag force, 16.1
Drowned weir, 11.20
Duplex double acting pumps, 26.2
Dupuit’s equation, 14.27
Dynamic similarity, 19.28
Dynamic viscosity, 1.6
E
Eddy viscosity, 13.8
Efficiency of a draft tube, 23.14
Efficiency of the converter, 27.23
Efficiency of the coupling, 27.21
Efflux viscometer, 12.40
Energy loss due to hydraulic jump,
18.28
Energy thickness, 15.5
Equation of motion, 7.2
Equivalent pipe, 14.26
Euler head, 25.8
Eulerian method, 6.7
Euler model law, 19.35
Euler number, 19.30
Euler’s equation, 25.9
Euler’s equation of motion, 7.2
Euler’s momentum equation, 20.27,
22.8
Euler’s velocity triangles, 25.7
Extensive properties, 1.3
External gear pump, 27.25
External mouthpiece, 10.19
F
Falling sphere viscometer, 12.38
Fanning equation, 12.10
Fanning friction factor, 12.10
Fanno line equation, 17.23
Fast runner, 21.8, 21.11
First moment of area, 3.2
Flow coefficient, 24.10, 25.29
Flow net, 6.36
Flow ratio, 22.12, 25.25
Fluid dynamics, 1.1
Fluid kinematics, 1.1
Fluid statics, 1.1
Foot step bearing, 12.32
Forced vortex flow, 8.1
Forebay, 21.4
Francis’s formula, 11.6
Francis turbine, 22.5
Free jet, 20.1
Free liquid jet, 7.32
Free nappe, 11.21
Free vortex flow, 8.2, 9.7
Friction factor, 12.9
Friction velocity, 13.3
Froude model law, 19.33
Froude number, 19.29
Fully submerged orifice, 10.11
G
Gas constant, 1.17
Gas dynamics, 1.1
Gauge pressure, 2.5
Gear pump, 26.41
Geometric similarity, 19.27
Governing of a turbine, 21.8
Governing of Kaplan turbine, 23.3
Governing of Pelton turbines, 21.8
Gradual closure of valve, 14.49
Gradually varied flow, 18.2
Gross head, 21.4
H
Hagen-Poiseuille equation, 12.9
Hazen William’s formula, 14.3
Head coefficient, 24.9, 25.29
Hinged plate, 20.29
Hub, 23.2
Hydraulic accumulator, 27.5
Hydraulic coefficients, 10.2
Hydraulic coupling, 27.21
Hydraulic crane, 27.18
Hydraulic depth, 18.1
Hydraulic efficiency, 21.4, 25.15
Hydraulic gradient line, 14.17
Hydraulic intensifier, 27.9
Hydraulic jump, 18.25
Hydraulic lift, 27.15
Hydraulic losses, 25.13
Hydraulic mean depth, 14.2, 18.1
Hydraulic press, 27.1
Hydraulic radius, 14.2, 18.1
Hydraulic ram, 27.12
Hydraulics, 1.1
Hydraulic torque converter, 27.22
Hydrodynamics, 1.1
Hydroelectric power plant, 21.3
Hydrostatic law, 2.3
Hydrostatic paradox, 2.4
Hypersonic flow, 6.3Index I.3
I
Ideal fluid, 1.7
Ideal plastic fluid, 1.8
Impact of the jet, 20.1
Impeller, 25.5
Impeller power, 25.13
Impulse-momentum equation,
7.38, 20.1
Impulse-momentum principle, 20.1
Impulse turbine, 21.1, 21.3
Impulse turbomachine, 20.37
Inclined venturimeter, 7.14
Incompressible flow, 6.3
Incompressible flow machine, 20.38
Indicator diagram, 26.12
Induced drag, 16.2
Intensive properties, 1.3
Internal mouthpiece, 10.19, 10.24
Irrotational flow, 6.4
Isentropic process, 1.19
Isobaric process, 1.18
Isothermal process, 1.18
J
Jet propulsion of ship, 20.33
Jet pump, 27.24
Jet ratio, 21.13
Journal bearing, 12.31
K
Kaplan turbine, 23.2
Karman-Prandtl equation, 13.14
Karman-Prandtl resistance equation,
13.22
Karman universal constant, 13.10
Karman vortex street, 16.15
Karman vortex trails, 16.15
Kinematic similarity, 19.27
Kinematic viscosity, 1.7
Kinetic energy correction factor, 7.28
Kinetic energy of turbulence, 13.6
Kinetic head, 7.1
Kutta-Joukowski equation, 16.20
Kutter’s formula, 18.4
L
Lagrangian method, 6.7
Laminar boundary layer, 15.2
Laminar flow, 6.3, 18.3
Laminar sublayer, 15.3
Large rectangular orifice, 10.10
Leading edge, 16.23
Leakage loss, 25.13
Length of bucket, 21.13
Length of hydraulic jump, 18.28
Leverage of the hydraulic press, 27.2
Lift force, 16.1
Linear deformation, 6.25
Linear translation, 6.25
Lobe pump, 26.40
Local acceleration, 6.9
Local coefficient of drag, 15.11
Lock gates, 3.34
M
Mach angle, 17.9
Mach cone, 17.9
Mach model law, 19.36
Mach number, 6.3, 17.7, 19.30, 20.38
Magnus effect, 9.33, 16.17
Main characteristic curves, 24.18, 25.33
Major loss, 14.1
Manning’s formula, 14.2, 18.5
Manometers, 2.9
Manometric efficiency, 25.13
Manometric head, 25.9
Mass density, 1.3
Maximum suction lift, 25.35
Mechanical efficiency, 21.5, 25.14
Mechanical losses, 25.12
Medium runner, 21.11
Metacentre, 5.9
Metacentric height, 5.9
Metacentric radius, 5.11
Micromanometer, 2.25
Minimum starting speed, 25.23
Minor energy losses, 14.6
Minor losses, 14.1
Mixing length, 13.9
Model studies, 19.26
Moment of inertia, 3.2
Moment of momentum equation, 7.46
Momentum correction factor, 7.29
Momentum diffusivity, 1.7
Momentum thickness, 15.4
Moody diagram, 13.20
Mouthpiece, 10.1, 10.19
Mouthpiece running free, 10.19
Mouthpiece running full, 10.19
Multi-cylinder pump, 26.1
Multistage pump, 25.26
Muschel curves, 24.19, 25.33
N
Nappe, 11.1, 11.21
Narrow-crested weir, 11.20
Navier-Stokes equation, 7.2,
13.7, 12.5
Negative slip, 26.6
Net head, 21.4
Net positive suction head, 25.35
Neutral equilibrium, 5.17
Newtonian fluid, 1.6, 1.8
Newton’s law of viscosity, 1.6
Newton’s second law of motion, 20.1
Non-Newtonian fluids, 1.6, 1.8
Non-uniform flow, 6.3, 18.2
Normal acceleration, 6.13
Normal runner, 21.8
Normal shock wave, 17.22
Notch, 11.1
O
Oblique shock wave, 17.24
Ogee Weir, 11.20
One-dimensional flow, 6.3
One-seventh power law, 15.25
Open channel flow, 18.1
Open conical surge tank, 24.22
Open turbomachines, 20.37
Operating characteristic curves,
24.19, 25.33
Orifice, 10.1
Orificemeter, 7.22
Overall efficiency, 21.5, 25.14
Overshot wheel, 21.6
P
Partially submerged orifice, 10.12
Pascal’s law, 2.2
Pathline, 6.5
Pelton turbine, 21.6
Piezometer, 2.9
Pitching, 5.32
Pitot-static tube, 7.27I.4 Index
Pitot tube, 7.26
Positive displacement machines,
20.38
Positive displacement pumps, 25.2
Potential head, 7.1
Power coefficient, 24.10, 25.30
Power dissipated in hydraulic
jump, 18.28
Power law of velocity
distribution, 13.20
Prandtl’s boundary layer
equation, 15.13
Pressure coefficient, 9.13, 9.26
Pressure drag, 16.2
Pressure head, 7.2
Primary quantities, 19.1
Priming, 25.6
Priming devices, 25.7
Profile drag, 16.2
Propeller turbine, 23.2
Prototype, 19.26
Pseudo-plastic fluids, 1.8
Q
Quintuplex pump, 26.2
R
Racing speed, 21.12
Radial discharge, 22.12
Radial piston pump, 26.42
Rankine efficiency, 27.13
Rankine half body, 9.11
Rankine–Hugoniot equations, 17.23
Rankine line equation, 17.23
Rapidly varied flow, 18.2
Rate of shear strain, 1.6
Rayleigh method, 19.4
Reaction turbine, 21.1
Reaction turbomachine, 20.37
Real fluids, 1.7
Rectangular channel, 18.9
Rectangular notch or weir, 11.2, 11.22
Rehbock’s formula, 11.7
Relative density, 1.4
Restricted orifice surge tank, 24.23
Reversible adiabatic process, 1.19
Reynolds equation of motion, 7.2
Reynolds equations, 13.7
Reynolds experiments, 12.1
Reynolds model law, 19.31
Reynolds number, 12.2, 19.29
Reynolds stresses, 13.7, 13.8
Rheopectic, 1.8
Rolling, 5.32
Rotary positive displacement
pumps, 26.39
Rotating cylinder viscometer, 12.37
Rotation, 6.27
Rotational flow, 6.4
Rotodynamic pumps, 25.2
Rotor, 20.38
Rough boundary, 13.12
Runaway speed, 21.12
S
Saturation pressure, 1.28
Saturation temperature, 1.28
Scale effect, 19.39, 24.12
Screw pumps, 26.41
Scroll casing, 22.2
Second moment of area, 3.2
Separation point, 15.33
Shape factor, 15.5
Shear drag, 16.2
Shear velocity, 13.3
Shock strength, 17.24
Shock wave, 17.9, 17.22
Sill, 11.1
Similarity laws, 19.31
Similitude, 19.27
Simple hydraulic accumulator, 27.5
Simple manometers, 2.9
Single acting pump, 26.1
Single acting reciprocating
pump, 26.2
Single cylinder pump, 26.1
Sink flow, 9.6
Siphon, 14.40
Skin friction coefficient, 15.11
Slip, 26.6
Slip factor, 25.16
Slow runner, 21.8, 21.11
Smooth boundary, 13.12
Sonic flow, 6.3
Source flow, 9.4
Span, 16.23
Specific energy curve, 18.21
Specific gravity, 1.4
Specific speed, 24.4, 25.28
Specific volume, 1.4
Specific weight, 1.4
Speed ratio, 21.13, 22.11, 25.25
Spiral vortex flow, 8.2
Stability of a floating body, 5.17
Stability of a submerged body, 5.17
Stable equilibrium, 5.16
Stagnation density, 17.12
Stagnation point, 9.11
Stagnation pressure, 7.26, 17.10
Stagnation temperature, 17.12
Stall, 16.23, 27.21
Standing wave, 18.25
Stanton diagram, 13.20
Static head, 25.9
Static power, 25.13
Stay ring, 23.2
Steady and unsteady flow, 18.2
Steady flow, 6.2
Stepped notch, 11.17
Stokes’ law, 16.11
Stratosphere, 2.28
Streakline, 6.6
Stream function, 6.35
Streamline, 6.4
Streamlined body, 16.10
Stream-tube, 6.5
Strength of the jump, 18.28
Strouhal number, 16.16
Sub-critical flow, 18.3, 18.23
Submerged orifices, 10.11
Submersible centrifugal
pumps, 25.39
Subsonic flow, 6.3
Suction height, 25.35
Suction lift, 25.9
Suction specific speed, 24.6, 25.37
Sudden closure of valve, 14.49
Supercritical flow, 18.3, 18.23
Superimposed flow, 9.10
Supersonic flow, 6.3
Suppressed weir, 11.21
Surface tension, 1.19
Surge tank, 21.4, 24.21
Suspended hydraulic lift, 27.15
T
Tail race, 21.4
Tangential acceleration, 6.13
Taygun formula, 21.13Index I.5
Temporal acceleration, 6.9
Terminal velocity, 16.11
Thixotropic fluids, 1.8
Thoma’s cavitation factor, 23.18
Three-dimensional flow, 6.4
Top width, 18.1
Torricellian vacuum, 2.5
Torricelli’s equation, 10.2
Total acceleration, 6.9
Total energy line, 14.17
Total pressure, 3.1
Trailing edge, 16.23
Transitional flow, 18.3
Trapezoidal channel, 18.11
Trapezoidal notch or weir, 11.14
Triangular notch or weir, 11.10, 11.23
Triple cylinder pumps, 26.2
Troposphere, 2.28
Tubular turbine, 23.20
Turbines, 21.1
Turbomachines, 20.37
Turbulence, 13.4
Turbulence constant, 13.9
Turbulent boundary layer, 15.2, 15.25
Turbulent flow, 6.3, 18.3
Turbulent stresses, 13.7
Two-dimensional flow, 6.4
Types of draft tubes, 23.12
U
Undershot wheel, 21.6
Undistorted models, 19.38
Uniform flow, 6.3, 9.1, 18.2
Unit, 19.1
Unit discharge, 24.2
Unit power, 24.2
Unit quantities, 24.1
Unit speed, 24.2
Universal gas constant, 1.18
Unstable equilibrium, 5.16
Unsteady flow, 6.2
Upstream Froude number, 18.27
U-tube manometer, 2.10
V
Vacuum pressure, 2.5
Vane efficiency, 25.15
Vane pump, 26.39
Vapour pressure, 1.28
Variable pitch propeller turbine, 23.3
Vein, 11.1
Velocity defect, 13.11
Velocity defect law, 13.11
Velocity gradient, 1.6
Velocity of approach, 11.3
Velocity of sound wave, 17.5
Velocity potential function, 6.34
Velocity ratio, 27.19
Venturimeter, 7.12
Viscometer, 12.36
V-notch, 11.10
Volumetric efficiency, 21.5, 25.14
Volute casing, 25.5
von Kármán momentum integral
equation, 15.11
Vortex casing, 25.5
Vortex flow, 8.1
Vorticity, 6.27
W
Water hammer, 14.49
Water power, 21.5
Waterwheel, 21.6
Wave drag, 16.2
Weber model Law, 19.36
Weber number, 19.30
Weight density, 1.4
Weir, 11.1
Wetted area, 18.1
Wetted perimeter, 18.1
Width of bucket, 21.13

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