Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
اسم المؤلف
Laurence W. McKeen
التاريخ
30 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
135
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Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
Laurence W. McKeen
Table of contents

  1. Introduction to fatigue
  2. Introduction to the Tribology of Plastics and Elastomers
  3. Introduction to Plastics and Polymers
  4. Styrenics
  5. Polyethers
  6. Polyesters
  7. Polyimides
  8. Polyamides
  9. Polyolefins And Acrylics
  10. Thermoplastic Elastomers
  11. Fluoropolymers
  12. High Temperature Plastics
    Appendices
    Abbreviations
    Tradenames
    Conversion Factors
    Glossary of Terms
    abrasion factor See wearfactor.
    Abrasive Index A measure of the abrasion resistance of a test
    vulcanized rubber relative to that of a standard vulcanized rubber
    as tested in an NBS (National Bureau of Standards) Abrasion
    Tester under the same specified conditions. The Abrasive Index
    is calculated as the percent ratio between the number of
    revolutions required to abrade 2.5 mm of the specimen and that
    of the reference sample. In the NBS Abrasion Tester, stationary
    specimen pressed by weighted arm of the specimen holders
    against a rotating drum wrapped in abrasive paper. The Tester is
    equipped with dual thickness gauges that measure the extent of
    the lowering of the arms as specimen thickness decreases due to
    wear. The gauges are in contact with the arms directly over the
    specimens. Also called NBS Abrasion Index.
    ABS See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
    ABS nylon alloy See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer nylon
    alloy.
    ABS PC alloy See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer
    polycarbonate alloy.
    ABS resin See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
    accelerant See accelerator.
    accelerator A chemical substance that accelerates chemical,
    photochemical, biochemical, etc. reaction or process, such as
    crosslinking or degradation of polymers, that is triggered andor
    sustained by another substance, such as a curing agent or
    catalyst, or environmental factor, such as heat, radiation or a
    microorganism. Also called accelerant, promoter, cocatalyst.
    acetal resins Thermoplastics prepared by polymerization of
    formaldehyde or its trioxane trimer. Acetals have high impact
    strength and stiffness, low friction coefficient and permeability,
    good dimensional stability and dielectric properties, and high
    fatigue strength and thermal stability. Acetals have poor acid
    and UV resistance and are flammable. Processed by injection
    and blow molding and extrusion. Used in mechanical parts such
    as gears and bearings, automotive components, appliances, and
    plumbing and electronic applications. Also called acetals.
    acetals See acetal resins.
    acrylate styrene acrylonitrile polymer Acrylic rubber-modified
    thermoplastic with high weatherability. ASA has good heat and
    chemical resistance, toughness, rigidity, and antistatic properties.
    Processed by extrusion, thermoforming, and molding. Used in
    construction, leisure, and automotive applications such as siding,
    exterior auto trim, and outdoor furniture. Also called ASA.
    acrylic resins Thermoplastic polymers of alkyl acrylates such as
    methyl methacrylates. Acrylic resins have good optical clarity,
    weatherability, surface hardness, chemical resistance, rigidity,
    impact strength, and dimensional stability. They ‘ have poor
    solvent resistance, resistance to stress cracking, flexibility, and
    thermal stability. Processed by casting, extrusion, injection
    molding, and thermoforming. Used in transparent parts, auto
    trim, household items, light fixtures, and medical devices. Also
    called polyacrylates.
    acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer ABS resins are
    thermoplastics comprised of a mixture of styrene-acrylonitrile
    copolymer (SAN) and SAN-grafted butadiene rubber. They have
    high impact resistance, toughness, rigidity and processability, but
    low dielectric strength, continuous service temperature, and
    elongation. Outdoor use requires protective coatings in some
    cases. Plating grades provide excellent adhesion to metals.
    Processed by extrusion, blow molding, thermoforming,
    calendering and injection molding. Used in household
    appliances, tools, nonfood packaging, business machinery,
    interior automotive parts, extruded sheet, pipe and pipe fittings.
    Also called ABS, ABS resin, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
    polymer.
    acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer nylon alloy A
    thermoplastic processed by injection molding, with properties
    similar to ABS but higher elongation at yield. Also called ABS
    nylon alloy.
    acrylonitrile butadlene styrene polymer polycarbonate alloy
    A thermoplastic processed by injection molding and extrusion,
    with properties similar to ABS. Used in automotive applications.
    Also called ABS PC alloy.
    acrylonltrile copolymer A thermoplastic prepared by
    copolymerization of acrylonitrile with small amounts of other
    unsaturated monomers. Has good gas barrier properties and
    chemical resistance. Processed by extrusion, injection molding,
    and thermoforming. Used in food packaging.
    acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer See acrylonitrile
    butadiene styrene polymer.
    activation energy An excess energy that must be added to an
    atomic or molecular system to allow a process, such as diffusion
    or chemical reaction, to proceed.
    alkylated See alkylated compounds.
    alkylated compounds Chemical compounds treated to incorporate
    in their molecules one or more covalently bonded alkyl groups, a
    paraffinic hydrocarbon group [CnH(2n+l)] which may be
    derived from an alkane by eliminating one hydrogen. Also called
    alkylated.
    amorphous nylon Transparent aromatic polyamide thermoplastics.
    Produced by condensation of hexamethylene diamine, isophthalic
    and terephthalic acid.
    Armstron abrasion test An abrasion resistance test for vulcanized
    rubber that uses Armstrong tape abrader. Samples are mounted
    on flat holding plates affixed onto a continuous belt rotated with
    the speed V1 by a pair of pulleys. The samples periodically come
    in contact with an abrasive tape moved in the opposite direction
    by a system of tape supply and take-up drums and guiding and
    pressing rollers at the speed V2 Note: V1 so as to provide a
    specified total rate of slip. The contact area is relatively small
    and the speeds and pressure can be adjusted. Also called tape
    abrasion test, MIL-T-5438.
    aromatic polyester estercarbonate A thermoplastic block
    copolymer of an aromatic polyester with polycarbonate. Has
    higher heat distortion temperature than regular polycarbonate. 496
    aromatic polyesters Engineering thermoplastics prepared by
    polymerization of aromatic polyol with aromatic dicarboxylic
    anhydride. They are tough with somewhat low chemical
    resistance. Processed by injection and blow molding, extrusion,
    and thermoforming. Drying is required. Used in automotive
    housings and trim, electrical wire jacketing, printed circuit
    boards, and appliance enclosures.
    ASA See ucrylate styrene ucrylnnitrile polymer
    ASTM D256 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard method for determination of the resistance to breakage
    by flexural shock of plastics and electrical insulating materials,
    as indicated by the energy extracted from standard pendulum-
    type hammers in breaking standard specimens with one
    pendulum swing. The hammers are mounted on standard
    machines of either Izod or Charpy type. Note: Impact properties
    determined include Izod or Charpy impact energy normalized per
    width of the specimen. Also called ASTM method D256-84.
    See also impact energy.
    ASTM D395 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard method for testing the capacity of rubber to recover
    from compressive stress in air or liquid media. The specimen is
    subjected to compression by a specified force for a definite time
    at a specified temperature. The difference between the original
    and the final specimen thickness or compression set is calculated
    as a percentage of the original thickness by measuring the final
    thickness 30 minute after stress removal.
    ASTM D412 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard methods for determining tensile strength, tensile stress,
    ultimate elongation, tensile set and set after break of rubber at
    low, ambient and elevated temperatures using straight, dumbbell
    and cut-ring specimens.
    ASTM D638 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard method for determining tensile strength, elongation and
    modulus of elasticity of reinforced or unreinforced plastics in the
    form of sheet, plate, moldings, rigid tubes and rods. Five (I-V)
    types, depending on dimensions, of dumbbell-shaped specimens
    with thickness not exceeding 14 mm are specified. Specified
    speed of testing varies depending on the specimen type and
    plastic rigidity. Note: Tensile properties determined include
    tensile stress (strength) at yield and at break, percentage
    elongation at yield or at break and modulus of elasticity. Also
    called ASTM method D638-84. See also fensile strength.
    ASTM D638, type IV See ASTM 0638.
    ASTM D671 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of the flexural fatigue
    strength of rigid plastics subjected to repeated flexural stress of
    the same magnitude in a fixed-cantilever type testing machine,
    designed to produce a constant-amplitude-of-force on the test
    specimen each cycle. The test results are presented as a plot (S-N
    curve) of applied stress vs. number of stress cycles required to
    produce specimen failure by fracture, softening, or reduction in
    stiffness by heating caused by internal friction (damping). The
    stress corresponding to the point when the plot becomes clearly
    asymptotic to a horizontal (constant-stress) line is reported as
    fatigue strength in pascals, along with corresponding number of
    cycles. Also called ASTM D671-71B.
    ASTM D671-71 B See ASTM 0671,
    ASTM D746 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard method for determining brittleness temperature of
    plastics and elastomers by impact. The brittleness temperature is
    the temperature at which 50% of cantilever beam specimens fail
    on impact of a striking edge moving at a linear speed of 1.8-2.1
    m/s and striking the specimen at a specified distance from the
    clamp. The temperature of the specimen is controlled by placing
    it in a heat-transfer medium, the temperature of which (usually
    subfreezing) is controlled by a thermocouple.
    ASTM D785 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of indentation hardness of
    plastics by a Rockwell tester. The hardness number is derived
    from the net increase in the depth of impression as the load on a
    ball indenter is increased from a fixed minor load (10 kgf) to a
    major load and then returned to the minor load. This number
    consists of the number of scale divisions (each corresponding to
    0.002 mm vertical movement of the indentor) and scale symbol.
    Rockwell scales, designated by a single capital letter of English
    alphabet, vary depending on the diameter of the indentor and the
    major load.
    ASTM 0813 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of resistance to crack
    growth in vulcanized rubber subjected to repeated bend flexing.
    Specimen cracking is initiated by making a pierced groove and
    continued by flexing on De Mattia-type machine along the axis
    parallel to the groove. The sample is mounted vertically, one end
    in a fixed grip and another in a moving grip. The latter grip is
    moving in a reciprocating fashion, bending the specimen. An
    array of grips are used to test several specimens simultaneously.
    The crack growth data are reported as the number of cycles
    required to reach a specified crack length, the average rate of
    crack growth over entire test period, or as the rate of cracking in
    mm per kilocycle during a portion of the test.
    ASTM D1004 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of the initial tear
    resistance of flexible plastic films and sheeting. The test is
    preformed at very low rates of loading, e.g., 51 mdmin, to
    measure the force required to initiate tearing. The specimen
    geometry in this test produces a stress concentration in a small
    area of the specimen. The maximum stress, usually found near
    the onset of tearing, is recorded in newtons or pounds-force.
    ASTM D1044 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of resistance of
    transparent plastics to surface abrasion by measurement of its
    optical effects. The specimen is subjected to abrasion using
    Taber abraser with CS-1OF disk for specified number of cycles
    under specified load (usually 100 and 500 g, respectively).The
    results are reported as a percentage of transmitted light scattered
    by the abraded specimen.
    ASTM D1052 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of resistance to cut
    growth in vulcanized rubber subjected to repeated bending in
    Ross flexing machine. A fixed pierced specimen is bent
    repeatedly and freely at 90″ angle over a 10-mm diameter rod in
    pierced section by means of a holder arm. The resistance is
    reported as the average number of cycles for each 100% increase
    in cut growth above the initial pierce of 2.5 mm, up and
    including 500%, where possible.
    ASTM D1242 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determination of resistance of plastics to
    abrasion by loose abrasive (Method A) or by abrasive tape
    (Method B) measured in terms of volume loss. In Method A,
    Olsen-type wearometer is used wherein a fresh abrasive, such as
    aluminum oxide, is fed on a rotating disk. The specimen is fixed
    in a holder and pressed against the disk with a load of 10 lb. In
    Method B, samples are mounted on flat holding plates affixed
    onto a continuous belt rotated with the speed V1 by a pair of
    pulleys. The samples periodically come in contact with an
    abrasive tape moved in the opposite direction by a system of tape
    supply and takeup drums and guiding and pressing rollers at the
    speed V2 Note: V1 so as to provide a total rate of slip of about 497
    100 in/min. The volume loss in cm’ is calculated after 1000
    rotation or revolution cycles by measuring the weight of the
    specimen before and after the test and dividing the difference by
    its density. Also called ASTM D1242-56 (1981).
    ASTM D1242-56 (1981) See ASTM 01242
    ASTM D1708 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard method for determining tensile properties of plastics
    using microtensile specimens with maximum thickness 3.2 mm
    and minimum length 38.1 mm, including thin films. Tensile
    properties include yield strength, tensile strength, tensile strength
    at break, elongation at break, etc. determined per ASTM D638.
    ASTM D1709 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determining resistance of polyethylene
    film to impact by the free-falling dart. The impact resistance is
    measured as the energy that causes 50%failure rate of the film.
    The energy is calculated as the product of dart weight and
    dropping height. There are 2 test methods (A and B) using darts
    with different diameters of their hemispherical head and different
    dropping heights.
    ASTM D1894 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determining coefficients of starting and
    sliding friction (static and kinetic coefficients, respectively) of
    plastic film and sheeting when sliding over itself or other
    substances under specified conditions.
    ASTM D1922 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for determining the resistance of flexible
    plastic film or sheeting to tear propagation. The resistance is
    measured as the average force, in grams, required to propagate
    tearing from a precut slit through a specified length, using an
    Elmendorf-type pendulum tester and 2 specimens, a rectangular
    type and one with a constant radius testing length.
    ASTM D2240 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard method for determining the hardness of materials
    ranging from soft rubbers to some rigid plastics by measuring the
    penetration of a blunt (type A) or sharp (type D) indenter of a
    durometer at a specified force. The blunt indenter is used for
    softer materials and the sharp indenter – for more rigid materials.
    ASTM D3702 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard test method for assessing abrasive wear rate of self-
    lubricating plastics intended for bearing applications in which
    wear debris essentially remain in the contact zone. The specimen
    of thrust washer configuration is mounted on a rotary upper
    holder of a thrust washer tester and pressed against a steel washer
    placed on a stationary lower holder. The specimen is rotated at a
    speed of 36-900 rpm under 1-200 Ib load for a specified test
    duration. The wear rate is calculated as an average specimen
    thickness decrease rate in idh. Also called thrust washer friction
    and wear test method.
    ASTM D3841 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard specification for glass fiber-reinforced polyester
    construction panels. The specification covers classification,
    inspection, certification, dimensions, weight, appearance, light
    transmission, weatherability, expansion, impact resistance,
    flammability and load-deflection properties of panels and their
    methods of testing.
    ASTM D4637 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
    standard specification for unreinforced or fabric-reinforced
    vulcanized rubber sheet made from EPDM or chloroprene rubber
    and used as single-ply roof membranes. The specification
    specifies grades, dimensions, mechanical properties,
    weatherability, resistance to ozone and heat aging, appearance,
    and test methods. The mechanical properties tested include
    tensile strength, set and elongation, seam strength, tear resistance
    and tearing strength. The exposure tests include water
    absorption. Also called ASTM DS D4637.
    ASTM DS D4637 SeeASTM 04637.
    atm See atmosphere.
    bar A metric unit of measurement of pressure equal to 1.OE+06
    dynes/cm* or 1.0E+05 pascals. It has a dimension of unit of
    force per unit of areaused to denote the pressure of gases, vapors
    and liquids.
    bendingproperties Seepexural properties.
    bending strength Seejlexural strength.
    bendingstress Seeflexural stress.
    bisphenol A diglycidyl ether The principal monomer used in the
    preparation of epoxy resins, comprising two benzene rings linked
    via isopropylidinebridge. Each ring is substituted with an epoxy
    group in the para position. Highly reactive. Polymerizesto form
    thermosetting epoxy resins. Also called diglycidyl ether of
    bisphenol A, DGEBA.
    bisphenolA polyester A thermoset unsaturated polyesterbased on
    bisphenol A and fumaric acid.
    blown film A plastic film produced by extrusion blowing, wherein
    an extruded plastic tube is continuously inflated by internal air
    pressure,cooled, collapsedby rolls and wound up. The thickness
    of the film is controlled by air pressure and rate of extrusion.
    breakingelongation See elongation.
    C
    CA See cellulose acetate.
    CAB See cellulose acetate butyrate.
    carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile See carboxyl-
    terminated butudiene-acrylonitrile copolymer.
    carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer
    Liquid nitrile rubber containing reactive carboxy end groups,
    used as a toughener or impact modifier in plastics. It cures at
    room or elevated temperatures to solid elastomeric block
    copolymerswith of matrix resins. It improves crack resistance of
    epoxy and polyester compositions and enhances fatigue
    resistance of glass fiber-reinforced plastics. It has good electric
    and wetting properties. Used in epoxy coatings and structural
    adhesives, potting, encapsulation, and cable fillers. Can be
    processed by rotomolding. Also called CTBN, carboxyl-
    terminatedbutadiene-acrylonitrile.
    cast film Film produced by pouring or spreading resin solution or
    melt over a suitable temporary substrate, followed by curing via
    solvent evaporation or melt cooling and removing the cured film
    from the substrate. cellulose acetate Thermoplastic esters of cellulose with acetic acid.
    Have good toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, stiffness,
    hardness, and dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and
    water resistance and compressive strength. Processed by
    injection and blow molding and extrusion. Used for appliance
    cases, steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames,
    brushes, and sheeting. Also called CA.
    cellulose acetate butyrate Thermoplastic mixed esters of cellulose
    with acetic and butyric acids. Have good toughness, gloss,
    clarity, processability, dimensional stability, weatherability, and
    dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and water resistance
    and compressive strength. Processed by injection and blow
    molding and extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering
    wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and
    sheeting. Also called CAB.
    cellulose propionate Thermoplastic esters of cellulose with
    propionic acid. Have good toughness, gloss, clarity,
    processability, dimensional stability, weatherability, and
    dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and water resistance
    and compressive strength. Processed by injection and blow
    molding and extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering
    wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and
    sheeting. Also called CP.
    cellulosic plastics Thermoplastic cellulose esters and ethers. Have
    good toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, and dielectric
    properties, but poor chemical, fire and water resistance and
    compressive strength. Processed by injection and blow molding
    and extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering wheels, pens,
    handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and sheeting.
    chlorendic polyester A chlorendic anhydride-based unsaturated
    polyester.
    chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Thermoplastic produced by
    chlorination of polyvinyl chloride. Has increased glass transition
    temperature, chemical and fire resistance, rigidity, tensile
    strength, and weatherability as compared to PVC. Processed by
    extrusion, injection molding, casting, and calendering. Used for
    pipes, auto parts, waste disposal devices, and outdoor
    applications. Also called CPVC.
    chlorohydrins Halohydrins with chlorine as a halogen atom. One of
    the most reactive of halohydrins. Dichlorohydrins are used in the
    preparation of epichlorohydrins, important monomers in the
    manufacture of epoxy resins. Most chlorohydrins are reactive
    colorless liquids, soluble in polar solvents such as alcohols.
    Note: Chlorohydrins are a class of organic compounds, not to be
    mixed with a specific member of this class, l-chloropropane-2.3-
    diol sometimes called chlorohydrin.
    chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber Thermosetting
    elastomers containing 20- 40% chlorine. Have good
    weatherability and heat and chemical resistance. Used for hoses,
    tubes, sheets, footwear soles, and inflatable boats.
    coefficient of friction See kinetic coefficient of,friction.
    coefficient of friction See kinetic coejjicient offriction.
    coefficient of friction, kinetic See kinetic coefficient offriction.
    coeff lclent of friction, kinetic See kinetic coeficient offriction.
    coefficient of friction, static See stutic coefficient qffriction.
    coeff lcient of friction, static See static coejjicient offriction
    conditioning Process of bringing the material or apparatus to a
    certain condition, e.g., moisture content or temperature, prior to
    further processing, treatment, etc. Also called conditioning
    cycle.
    conditioning cycle See conditioning.
    covulcanization Simultaneous vulcanization of a blend of two or
    more different rubbers to enhance their individual properties such
    as ozone resistance. Rubbers are often modified to improve
    covulcanization.
    CP S e e cellulose propionate.
    crack driving force See stress-intensify factor runge.
    crack growth See fatigue crack growth.
    crack growth rate Seefutigue crack growth rate.
    crack propagation See futigue crack growth.
    crack propagation rate See,fatigue crack growth rate.
    cracking Appearance of external and/or internal cracks in the
    material as a result of stress that exceeds the strength of the
    material. The stress can be external and/or internal and can be
    caused by a variety of adverse conditions: structural defects,
    impact, aging, corrosion, etc. or a combination of thereof. Also
    called cracks. See also processing defects.
    cracks See cracking.
    crazes See crazing.
    crazing Appearance of thin cracks on the surface of the material or,
    sometimes, minute frost-like internal cracks, as a result of stress
    that exceeds the strength of the material, impact, temperature
    changes, degradation, etc. Also called crazes.
    crystal polystyrene See generul purpose polystyrene.
    CTBN See carbo,xyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer.
    CTFE See polychlorotrijluoroethylene.
    cycles to failure See futigue life.
    dddN See fatigue crack growth rate.
    DAP See diallyl phthalate resins.
    degradation Loss or undesirable change in the properties, such as
    color, of a material as a result of aging, chemical reaction, wear,
    exposure, etc. See also smbility.
    delta E See color difference.
    delta K See stress-intensityjuctor range.
    DGEBA See bisphenol A diglycidyl ether
    diallyl phthalate resins Thermosets supplied as diallyl phthalate
    prepolymer or monomer. Have high chemical, heat and water
    resistance, dimensional stability, and strength, Shrink during peroxide curing. Processed by injection, compression and
    transfer molding. Used in glass-reinforced tubing, auto parts,
    and electrical components. Also called DAP.
    diglycldyl ether of bisphenol A See bisphenol A diglycidyl ether.
    DIN 53453 A German Standards Institute (DIN) standard specifying
    conditions for the flexural impact testing of molded or laminated
    plastics. The bar specimens are either unnotched or notched on
    one side, mounted on two-point support and struck in the middle
    (on the unnotched side for notched specimens) by a hammer of
    the pendulum impact machine. Impact strength of the specimen
    is calculated relative to the cross-sectional area of the specimen
    as the energy required to break the specimen equal to the
    difference between the energy in the pendulum at the instant of
    impact and the energy remaining after complete fracture of the
    specimen. Also called DIN 53453 impact test.
    DIN 53453 impact test See DIN 53453.
    DIN 53456 A German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut fuer
    Normen, DIN) standard test method for determining ball
    indentation hardness of plastics. The indentor is forced into the
    specimen under the action of the major load, the position of the
    indentor having been fixed beforehand as a zero point by the
    application of a minor load. The hardness is calculated as the
    ratio of the major load to the area of indentation.
    durometer A hardness See Shore hardness.
    durometer hardness Indentation hardness of a material as
    determined by either the depth of an indentation made with an
    indentor under specified load or the indentor load required to
    produced specified indentation depth. The tool used to measure
    indentation hardness of polymeric materials is called durometer,
    e.g., Shore-type durometer.
    ECTFE See ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer.
    Elmendorf tear strength The resistance of flexible plastic film or
    sheeting to tear propagation. It is measured, according to ASTM
    D1922, as the average force, in grams, required to propagate
    tearing from a pre-cut slit through a specified length, using an
    Elmendorf-type pendulum tester and 2 specimens, a rectangular
    type and one with a constant radius testing length.
    elongation The increase in gauge length of a specimen in tension,
    measured at or after the fracture, depending on the viscoelastic
    properties of the material. Note: Elongation is usually expressed
    as a percentage of the original gauge length. Also called tensile
    elongation, elongation at break, ultimate elongation, breaking
    elongation, elongation at rupture. See also tensile strain.
    elongation at break See elongation.
    elongation at rupture See elongation.
    EMAC See ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer.
    embrittlement A reduction or loss of ductility or toughness in
    materials such as plastics resulting from chemical or physical
    damage.
    endurance limit The maximum stress below which a material can
    endure an infinite number of loading-unloading cycles of
    specified type without failure or, in practice, a very large number
    of cycles. Also called fatigue endurance limit.
    EPDM See EPDM rubber.
    EPDM rubber Sulfur-vulcanizable thermosetting elastomers
    produced from ethylene, propylene, and a small amount of
    nonconjugated diene such as hexadiene. Have good
    weatherability and chemical and heat resistance. Used as impact
    modifiers and for weather stripping, auto parts, cable insulation,
    conveyor belts, hoses, and tubing. Also called EPDM.
    epoxides Organic compounds containing three-membered cyclic
    group(s) in which two carbon atoms are linked with an oxygen
    atom as in an ether. This group is called an epoxy group and is
    quite reactive, allowing the use of epoxides as intermediates in
    preparation of certain fluorocarbons and cellulose derivatives and
    as monomers in preparation of epoxy resins. Also called epoxy
    compounds.
    epoxies See epoxy resins.
    epoxy compounds See epoxides.
    epoxy resins Thermosetting polyethers containing crosslinkable
    glycidyl groups. Usually prepared by polymerization of bisphenol
    A and epichlorohydrin or reacting phenolic novolaks with
    epichlorohydrin. Can be made unsaturated by acrylation.
    Unmodified varieties are cured at room or elevated temperatures
    with polyamines or anhydrides. Bisphenol A epoxy resins have
    excellent adhesion and very low shrinkage during curing. Cured
    novolak epoxies have good UV stability and dielectric properties.
    Cured acrylated epoxies have high strength and chemical
    resistance. Processed by molding, casting, coating, and
    lamination. Used as protective coatings, adhesives, potting
    compounds, and binders in laminates and composites. Also
    called epoxies.
    epoxyethane See ethylene oxide.
    EPR See ethylene propene rubber.
    ETFE See ethylene tetrajluoroethylene copolymer.
    ethylene acrylic rubber Copolymers of ethylene and acrylic esters.
    Have good toughness, low temperature properties, and resistance
    to heat, oil, and water. Used in auto and heavy equipment parts.
    ethylene copolymers See ethylene polymers.
    ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer Thermoplastic copolymers
    of ethylene with <40% methyl acrylate. Have good dielectric
    properties, toughness, thermal stability, stress crack resistance,
    and compatibility with other polyolefins. Transparency decreases
    with increasing content of acrylate. Processed by blown film
    extrusion and blow and injection molding. Used in heat-sealable
    films, disposable gloves, and packaging. Some grades are FDA-
    approved for food packaging. Also called EMAC.
    ethylene polymers Ethylene polymers include ethylene
    homopolymers and copolymers with other unsaturated
    monomers, most importantly olefins such as propylene and polar
    substances such as vinyl acetate. The properties and uses of
    ethylene polymers depend on the molecular structure and weight.
    Also called ethylene copolymers.
    ethylene propene rubber Stereospecific copolymers of ethylene
    with propylene. Used as impact modifiers for plastics. Also
    called EPR. ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer Thermoplastic
    alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. Has
    good impact strength, abrasion and chemical resistance,
    weatherability, and dielectric properties. Processed by molding,
    extrusion, and powder coating. Used in tubing, cables, pump
    parts, and tower packing in a wide temperature range. Also
    called ETFE.
    ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer Thermoplastics prepared by
    hydrolysis of ethylene-vinyl acetate polymers. Have good barrier
    properties, mechanical strength, gloss, elasticity, weatherability,
    clarity, and abrasion resistance. Barrier properties and
    processibility improve with increasing content of ethylene due to
    lower absorption of moisture. Ethylene content of high banier
    grades range from 32 40 44 mole %. Processed by extrusion,
    coating, blow and blow film molding, and thermoforming. Used
    as packaging films and container liners. Also called EVOH.
    ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer A flexible thermoplastic with
    water and chemical resistance and barrier properties similar to
    those of low-density polyethylene and enhanced adhesion, optics,
    toughness, and hot tack properties, compared to the latter.
    Contains 3-20% acrylic acid, with density and adhesion to polar
    substrates increasing with increasing acrylic acid content. FDA-
    approved for direct contact with food. Processed by extrusion,
    blow and film methods and extrusion molding, and extrusion
    coating. Used in rubberlike small parts like pipe caps, hoses,
    gaskets, gloves, hospital sheeting, diaper liners, and packaging
    film.
    EVOH See ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer.
    extenders Relatively inexpensive resin, plasticizer or filler such as
    carbonate used to reduce cost and/or to improve processing of
    plastics, rubbers or nonmetallic coatings.
    F
    falling dart impact See,fulling weight impact energy.
    falling dart impact energy See dart impact energy.
    falling dart impact strength See falling weight impact energy.
    falling sand abrasion test A test for determining abrasion
    resistance of coatings by the amount of abrasive sand required to
    wear through a unit thickness of the coating, when the sand falls
    against it at a specified angle from a specified height through a
    guide tube. Also called falling sand test method.
    falling sand test method See,falling sand abrasion test,
    falling weight impact See,falling weight impact energy.
    falling weight impact energy The mean energy of a free-falling
    dart or weight (tup) that will cause 50% failures after 50 tests to a
    directly or indirectly stricken specimen. The energy is calculated
    by multiplying dart mass. gravitational acceleration and drop
    height. Also called falling weight impact strength, falling weight
    impact, falling dart impact energy, falling dart impact strength,
    falling dart impact, drop dart impact energy, drop dart impact
    strength.
    falling weight impact strength Seefalling weight impact energy.
    fatigue crack growth Crack extension caused by constant-
    amplitude fatigue loading of material specimen. The initial crack
    is often introduced by artificial notching or cutting. Also called
    fatigue crack propagation, crack growth, crack propagation.
    fatigue crack growth rate The rate of crack extension caused by
    constant-amplitude fatigue loading, expressed in terms of crack
    extension per cycle. Also called crack propagation rate, da/dN,
    crack growth rate.
    fatigue crack propagation See fatigue crack growth.
    fatigue endurance limit See endurance limit.
    fatigue life Number of loading-unloading cycles of a specified type
    that material specimen can endure before failing in a fatigue test.
    Also called cycles to failure.
    Faville-LeValley Falex 6 See thrust-washer testing machine.
    FEP See fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer.
    flexural fatigue Progressive localized permanent structural change
    occurring in a material subjected to cyclic flexural stress that may
    culminatain cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number
    of cycles.
    flexural properties Properties describing the reaction of physical
    systems to flexural stress and strain. Also called bending
    properties.
    flexural strength The maximum stress in the extreme fiber of a
    specimen loaded to failure in bending. Note: Flexural strength
    is calculated as a function of load, support span and specimen
    geometry. Also called modulus of rupture in bending, modulus
    of rupture, bending strength.
    flexural stress The maximum stress in the extreme fiber of a
    specimen in bending. Note: Flexural stress is calculated as a
    function of load at a given strain or at failure, support span and
    specimen geometry. Also called bending stress.
    fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer Thermoplastic
    copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene. Has
    decreased tensile strength and wear and creep resistance, but
    good weatherability, dielectric properties, fire and chemical
    resistance, and friction. Decomposes above 204°C (400°F).
    releasing toxic products. Processed by molding, extrusion, and
    powder coating. Used in chemical apparatus liners, pipes,
    containers, bearings, films, coatings, and cables. Also called
    FEP.
    fluoro rubber Seejluoroelastomers.
    fluoroelastomers Fluorine-containing synthetic rubber with good
    chemical and heat resistance. Used in underhood applications
    such as fuel lines, oil and coolant seals, and fuel pumps, and as a
    flow additive for polyolefins. Also called fluoro rubber.
    fluoroplastics Seefluoropolymers.
    fluoropolymers Polymers prepared from unsaturated fluorine-
    containing hydrocarbons. Have good chemical resistance,
    weatherability, thermal stability, antiadhesive properties and low
    friction and flammability, but low creep resistance and strength
    and poor processibility. The properties vary with the fluorine
    content. Processed by extrusion and molding. Used as liners in
    chemical apparatus, in bearings, films, coatings, and containers.
    Also called fluoroplastics.
    fluorosilicones Polymers with chains of alternating silicon and
    oxygen atoms and trifluoropropyl pendant groups. Most are
    rubbers. 501
    FMQ See methy~luorosilicones.
    fractional melt index resin Thermoplastics having a low melt
    index of <1. These resins have higher molecular weights and are
    harder to extrude because of lower rate and greater force
    requirements compared to the lower molecular weight resins.
    They are mainly used for heavy duty applications such as pipe.
    fracture mechanics A method of fracture analysis that can
    determine the stress required to induce fracture instability in a
    structure containing a crack of known size and shape. Also
    called linear elastic fracture mechanics.
    general purpose polystyrene General purpose polystyrene is an
    amorphous thermoplastic prepared by homopolymerization of
    styrene. It has good tensile and flexural strengths, high light
    transmission and adequate resistance to water, detergents and
    inorganic chemicals. It is attached by hydrocarbons and has a
    relatively low impact resistance. Processed by injection molding
    and foam extrusion. Used to manufacture containers, health care
    items such as pipettes, kitchen and bathroom housewares, stereo
    and camera parts and foam sheets for food packaging. Also
    called crystal polystyrene.
    glycol modified polycyclohexylenedimethylene
    terephthalate Thermoplastic polyester prepared from glycol,
    cyclohexylenedimethanol, and terephthalic acid. Has good
    impact strength and other mechanical properties, chemical
    resistance, and clarity. Processed by injection molding and
    extrusion. Can be blended with polycarbonate. Also called
    PCTG.
    Graves tear strength A force required to tear completely across a
    specially designed nicked rubber test specimen, or right-angled
    test specimen, by elongating it at a specified rate using a power-
    driven tensile testing machine (Graves machine) as described in
    the ASTM D624. Expressed in units of force per thickness of
    specimen.
    halogen compounds A class of organic compounds containing
    halogen atoms such as chlorine. A simple example is halocarbons
    but many other subclasses with various functional groups and of
    different molecular structure exist as well.
    halohydrins Halogen compounds that contain a halogen atom(s) and
    a hydroxy (OH) group(s) attached to a carbon chin or ring. Can
    be prepared by reaction of halogens with alkenes in the presence
    of water or by reaction of halogens with triols. Halohydrins can
    be easily dehydrochlorinated in the presence of a base to give an
    epoxy compound.
    HDPE See high density polyethylene.
    HDT See heat dejlection temperature.
    heat deflection point See heat dejlection temperature.
    heat deflection temperature The temperature at which a material
    specimen (standard bar) is deflected by a certain degree under
    specified load. Also called heat distortion temperature, heat
    distortion point, heat deflection point, deflection temperature
    under load, tensile heat distortion temperature, HDT.
    heat distortion point See heat dejlection temperature.
    heat distortion temperature See heat deflection temperature.
    heterocyclic See heterocyclic compounds.
    heterocyclic compounds A class of cyclic compounds containing
    rings with some carbon atoms replaced by other atoms such as
    oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen. Also called heterocyclic.
    high density polyethylene A linear polyethylene with density
    0.94-0.97 g/cm3. Has good toughness at low temperatures,
    chemical resistance, and dielectric properties and high softening
    temperature, but poor weatherability. Processed by extrusion,
    blow and injection molding, and powder coating. Used in
    houseware, containers, food packaging, liners, cable insulation,
    pipes, bottles, and toys. Also called HDPE.
    high impact polystyrene See impact polystyrene.
    high molecular weight low density polyethylene
    Thermoplastic with improved abrasion and s*ss crack resistance
    and impact strength, but poor processibility and reduced tensile
    strength. Also called HMWLDPE.
    HIPS See impact polystyrene.
    HMWLDPE See high molecular weight low density polyethylene.
    I
    impact energy The energy required to break a specimen, equal to
    the difference between the energy in the striking member of the
    impact apparatus at the instant of impact and the energy
    remaining after complete fracture of the specimen. Also called
    impact strength. See also ASTM 0256, ASTM 03763.
    impact polystyrene Impact polystyrene is a thermoplastic produced
    by polymerizing styrene dissolved in butadiene rubber. Impact
    polystyrene has good dimensional stability, high rigidity and
    good low temperature impact strength, but poor barrier
    properties, grease resistance and heat resistance. Processed by
    extrusion, injection molding, thermoforming and structural foam
    molding. Used in food packaging, kitchen housewares, toys,
    small appliances, personal care items and audio products. Also
    called IPS, high impact polystyrene, HIPS, impact PS.
    impact property tests Names and designations of the methods for
    impact testing of materials. Also called impact tests. See also
    impact toughness.
    impact PS See impact polystyrene.
    impact strength See impact energy,
    impact tests See impact property tests.
    impact toughness Property of a material indicating its ability to
    absorb energy of a high-speed impact by plastic deformation
    rather than crack or fracture. See also impact property tests.
    initial tear resistance The force required to initiate tearing of a
    flexible plastic film or thin sheeting at very low rates of loading, 502
    measured as maximum stress usually found at the onset of
    tearing. Also called tear resistance, initial.
    ionomers Thermoplastics containing a relatively small amount of
    pendant ionized acid groups. Have good flexibility and impact
    strength in a wide temperature range, puncture and chemical
    resistance, adhesion, and dielectric properties, but poor
    weatherability, fire resistance, and thermal stability. Processed
    by injection, blow and rotational molding, blown film extrusion,
    and extrusion coating. Used in food packaging, auto bumpers,
    sporting goods, and foam sheets.
    IPS See impact polystyrene
    IS0 2039-2 An International Organization for Standardization (KO)
    standard test method for determination of indentation hardness of
    plastics by Rockwell tester using Rockwell M, L, and R hardness
    scales. The hardness number is derived from the net increase in
    the depth of impression as the load on a ball indenter is increased
    from a fixed minor load (98.07 N) to a major load and then
    returned to the minor load. This number consists of the number
    of scale divisions (each corresponding to 0.002 mm vertical
    movement of the indentor) and scale symbol. Rockwell scale
    vary depending on the diameter of the indentor and the major
    load. For example, scale R corresponds to the ball diameter 12.7
    mm and major load 588.4 N. Also called IS0 2039-B.
    IS0 2039-8 See I S 0 2039-2.
    isophthalate polyester An unsaturated polyester based on
    isophthalic acid.
    lzod See Izod impact energy.
    lzod impact See Izod impact energy.
    lzod impact energy The energy required to break a specimen equal
    to the difference between the energy in the striking member of
    the Izod-type impact apparatus at the instant of impact and the
    energy remaining after complete fracture of the specimen. Also
    called Izod impact, Izod impact strength, Izod.
    lzod impact strength See Izod impact energy
    J
    J Seejoule.
    JIS P8116 A Japanese Standards Association (Nippon Kikaku
    Kyokai) standard test for determining the resistance of flexible
    plastic film or sheeting to tear propagation. The resistance is
    measured as the average force, in grams, required to propagate
    tearing from a precut slit through a specified length, using an
    Elmendorf-type pendulum tester.
    joule A unit of energy in SI system that is equal to the work done
    when the point of application of a force of one newton (N) is
    displaced through distance of one meter (m) in the direction of
    the force. The dimension of joule is N m. Also called J.
    K
    K See wear factor.
    K factor See weur,fuctor.
    kinetic coefficient of friction The ratio of tangential force, which
    is required to sustain motion without acceleration of one surface
    with respect to another, to the normal force, which presses the
    two surfaces together. Also called coefficient of friction,
    coefficient of friction. kinetic.
    kinetic strip test An ozone resistance test for rubbers that involves a
    strip-shaped specimen stretched to 23% and relax to 0 at a rate of
    30 cycles per minute, while subjected to ozone attack in the test
    chamber. The results of the test are reported with 2 digits
    separated with a virgule. The number before the virgule indicates
    the number of quarters of the test strip which showed the cracks.
    The number after the virgule indicates the size of the cracks in
    length perpendicular to the length of the strip.
    L
    labile crack Crack in the process of growth or propagation.
    Unstable crack that can readily begin to grow as a result of
    internal or external processes in the material, such application of
    stress.
    LCP See liquid crystul polymers
    LDPE See low density polyethylene.
    limiting pressure-velocity value The value of the product
    between the load applied to the specimen normal to its friction
    surface and the sliding speed of this surface against a
    countersurface in wear testing of plastics at which friction-
    generated temperatures reach melting or softening points of a
    plastic or at which the wear rate begins to increase rapidly.
    Limiting PV is usually expressed in the unit of pressure or stress
    such as kg(f)/cm2 times the unit of speed such as c d s . Also
    called limiting PV, LPV, PV, PV limit.
    limiting PV See limiting pressure-velocity value.
    linear elastic fracture mechanics Seefracture mechanics
    linear low density polyethylene Linear polyethylenes with
    density 0.91-0.94 p/cm3. Has better tensile, tear, and impact
    strength and crack resistance properties, but poorer haze and
    gloss than branched low-density polyethylene. Processed by
    extrusion at increased pressure and higher melt temperatures
    compared to branched low-density polyethylene, and by molding.
    Used to manufacture film, sheet, pipe, electrical insulation,
    liners, bags and food wraps. Also called LLDPE, LLDPE resin.
    linear polyethylenes Linear polyethylenes are polyolefins with
    linear carbon chains. They are prepared by copolymerization of
    ethylene with small amounts of higher alfa-olefins such as 1-
    butene. Linear polyethylenes are stiff, tough and have good
    resistance to environmental cracking and low temperatures.
    Processed by extrusion and molding. Used to manufacture film,
    bags, containers, liners, profiles and pipe.
    liquid crystal polymers Thermoplastic aromatic copolyesters with
    highly ordered structure. Have good tensile and flexural
    properties at high temperatures, chemical, radiation and fre
    resistance, and weatherability. Processed by sintering and
    injection molding. Used to substitute ceramics and metals in
    electrical components, electronics, chemical apparatus, and
    aerospace and auto parts. Also called LCP.
    LLDPE See linear low density polyethylene. 503
    LLDPE resin See linear low density polyethylene.
    low density polyethylene A branched-chain thermoplastic with
    density 0.91-0.94 g/cm3. Has good impact strength, flexibility,
    transparency, chemical resistance, dielectric properties, and low
    water permeability and brittleness temperature, but poor heat,
    stress cracking and fire resistance and weatherability. Processed
    by extrusion coating, injection and blow molding, and film
    extrusion. Can be crosslinked. Used in packaging and shrink
    films, toys, bottle caps, cable insulation, and coatings. Also
    called LDPE.
    LPV See limiting pressure-velocity vulue.
    macroscopic properties See thermodynumic properties.
    mechanical properties Properties describing the reaction of
    physical systems to stress and strain.
    methylfluorosilicones Silicone rubbers containing pendant
    fluorine and methyl groups. Have good chemical and heat
    resistance. Used in gasoline lines, gaskets, and seals. Also called
    FMQ.
    methylphenylsilicones Silicone rubbers containing pendant
    phenyl and methyl groups. Have good resistance to heat,
    oxidation, and radiation, and compatibility with plastics.
    methylsilicone Silicone rubbers containing pendant methyl groups.
    Have good heat and oxidation resistance. Used in electrical
    insulation and coatings. Also called MQ.
    methylvinylfluorosilicone Silicone rubbers containing pendant
    vinyl, methyl, and fluorine groups. Can be additionally
    crosslinked via vinyl groups. Have good resistance to petroleum
    products at elevated temperatures.
    methylvinylsilicone Silicone rubbers containing pendant methyl
    and vinyl groups. Can be additionally crosslinked via vinyl
    groups. vulcanized to high degrees of crosslinking. Used in
    sealants, adhesives, coatings, cables, gaskets, tubing, and
    electrical tape.
    micron A unit of length equal to 1E-6 meter. Its symbol is Greek
    small letter mu or mum.
    microtensile specimen A small specimen as specified in ASTM
    D1708 for determining tensile properties of pldstics. It has
    maximum thickness 3.2 mm and minimum length 38.1 mm.
    Tensile properties determined with this specimen include yield
    strength, tensile strength, tensile strength at break and elongation
    at break.
    MIL-T-5438 See Armstron ubrusion test
    modified polyphenylene ether Thermoplastic polyphenylene
    ether alloys with impact polystyrene. Have good impact strength,
    resistance to heat and fire, but poor resistance to solvents.
    Processed by injection and structural foam molding and
    extrusion. Used in auto parts, appliances, and
    telecommunication devices. Also called MPE, MPO, modified
    polyphenylene oxide.
    modified polyphenylene oxide See modified polyphenylene
    ether.
    modulus of rupture See,fZexurul strength.
    modulus of rupture in bending Seejlexurul strength.
    molecular weight The sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in a
    molecule. Also called MW.
    molybdenum disulfide Molybdenum disulfide (MoS,) is a
    crystalline filler used as an external lubricant in plastics such as
    polystyrene, nylons, and fluoropolymers to improve their wear
    resistance.
    MPE See modified polyphenylene ether.
    MPO See modijied polyphenylene ether.
    MQ See methylsilicone.
    MW See moleculur weight
    NBS Abrasion Index See Abrasive Index.
    neoprene rubber Polychloroprene rubbers with good resistance to
    petroleum products, heat, and ozone, weatherability, and
    toughness.
    nitrile rubber Rubbers prepared by free-radical polymerization of
    acrylonitrile with butadiene. Have good resistance to petroleum
    products, heat, and abrasion. Used in fuel hoses, shoe soles,
    gaskets, oil seals, and adhesives.
    nonelastomeric thermoplastic polyurethanes See rigid
    thermoplustic polyurethanes.
    nonelastomeric thermosetting polyurethane Curable mixtures
    of isocyanate prepolymers or monomers. Have good abrasion
    resistance and low-temperature stability, but poor heat, fire, and
    solvent resistance and weatherability. Processed by reaction
    injection and structural foam molding, casting, potting,
    encapsulation, and coating. Used in heat insulation, auto panels
    and trim, and housings for electronic devices.
    notch effect The effect of the presence of specimen notch or its
    geometry on the outcome of a test such as an impact strength test
    of plastics. Notching results in local stresses and accelerates
    failure in both static and cycling testing (mechanical, ozone
    cracking, etc.).
    notched lzod See notched Izod impact energy.
    notched lzod impact See notched Izod impact energy.
    notched lzod impact energy The energy required to break a
    notched specimen equal to the difference between the energy in
    the striking member of the hod-type impact apparatus at the
    instant of impact and the energy remaining after complete
    fracture of the specimen. Note: Energy depends on geometry
    (e.g., width, depth, shape) of the notch, on the cross-sectional
    area of the specimen and on the place of impact (on the side of
    the notch or on the opposite side). In some tests notch is made
    on both sides of the specimen Also called notched Izod impact
    strength, notched Izod impact, notched Izod.
    notched lzod impact strength See notched Izod impact energy. nylon Thermoplastic polyamides often prepared by ring-opening
    polymerization of lactam. Have good resistance to most
    chemicals, abrasion, and creep, good impact and tensile
    strengths, barrier properties, and low friction, but poor resistance
    to moisture and light. Have high mold shrinkage. Processed by
    injection, blow, and rotational molding, extrusion, and powder
    coating. Used in fibers, auto parts, electrical devices, gears,
    pumps, appliance housings, cable jacketing, pipes, and films.
    nylon 11 Thermoplastic polymer of 1 1-aminoundecanoic acid having
    good impact strength, hardness, abrasion resistance,
    processability, and dimensional stability. Processed by powder
    coating, rotational molding, extrusion, and injection molding.
    Used in electric insulation, tubing, profiles, bearings, and
    coatings.
    nylon 12 Thermoplastic polymer of lauric lactam having good
    impact strength, hardness, abrasion resistance, and dimensional
    stability. Processed by powder coating, rotational molding,
    extrusion, and injection molding. Used in sporting goods and
    auto parts.
    nylon 46 Thermoplastic copolymer of 2-pyrrolidone and
    caprolactam.
    nylon 6 Thermoplastic polymer of caprolactarn. Has good
    weldability and mechanical properties but rapidly picks up
    moisture which results in strength losses. Processed by injection,
    blow, and rotational molding and extrusion. Used in fibers, tire
    cord, and machine parts.
    nylon 61 0 Thermoplastic polymer of hexamethylenediamine and
    sebacic acid having decreased melting point and water
    absorption and good retention of mechanical properties.
    Processed by injection molding and extrusion. Used in fibers and
    machine parts.
    nylon 612 Thermoplastic polymer of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and
    hexamethylenediamine having good dimensional stability, low
    moisture absorption, and good retention of mechanical
    properties. Processed by injection molding and extrusion. Used
    in wire jackets, cable sheath, packaging film, fibers, bushings,
    and housings.
    nylon 66 Thermoplastic polymer of adipic acid and
    hexamethylenediamine having good tensile strength, elasticity,
    toughness, heat resistance, abrasion resistance, and solvent
    resistance but low weatherability and color resistance. Processed
    by injection molding and extrusion. Used in fibers, bearings,
    gears, rollers, and wire jackets.
    nylon 666 Thermoplastic polymer of adipic acid, caprolactam, and
    hexamethylenediamine having good strength, toughness,
    abrasion and fatigue resistance, and low friction but high
    moisture absorption and low dimensional stability. Processed by
    injection molding and extrusion. Used in electrical devices and
    auto and mechanical parts.
    nylon MXD6 Thermoplastic polymer of m-xylyleneadipamide having
    good flexural strength and chemical resistance but decreased
    tensile strength.
    0
    olefin resins See polyoletins.
    olefinic resins See polyolefins.
    olefinic thermoplastic elastomers Blends of EPDM or EP
    rubbers with polypropylene or polyethylene, optionally
    crosslinked. Have low density, good dielectric and mechanical
    properties, and processibility but low oil resistance and high
    flammability. Processed by extrusion, injection and blow
    molding, thermoforming, and calendering. Used in auto parts,
    construction, wire jackets, and sporting goods. Also called TPO.
    one-side notched specimen See single-edge notched specimen.
    OPP See oriented polypropylene
    organic compounds See halogen compounds. Also called organic
    substances.
    organic substances See organic compounds.
    orientation A process of drawing or stretching of as-spun synthetic
    fibers or hot thermoplastic films to orient polymer molecules in
    the direction of stretching. The fibers are drawn uniaxially and
    the films are stretched either uniaxially or biaxially (usually
    longitudinally or longitudinally and transversely, respectively).
    Oriented fibers and films have enhanced mechanical properties.
    The films will shrink in the direction of stretching, when reheated
    to the temperature of stretching.
    oriented polypropylene A grade of polypropylene film hot
    stretched uniaxially or biaxially (usually longitudinally or
    longitudinally and transversely, respectively) to orient polymer
    molecules in the direction of stretching. Oriented films have
    enhanced mechanical properties. They will shrink in the
    direction of stretching when reheated, e.g., during heat sealing.
    Also called OPP.
    P
    Pa Seepascal
    PABM See polyaminobismuleimide resins.
    paraffinic Containing, being derived from, or belonging to a class of
    liquid or solid long-chain alkanes or paraffins, like in paraffinic
    oils. The molecules of paraffins are linear or branched
    hydrocarbon chains (-CH,-) that are fully saturated, i.e., contain
    no double or triple bonds between carbon atoms.
    paraffinic plasticizer Plasticizers for plastics comprising liquid or
    solid long-chain alkanes or paraffins (saturated linear or
    branched hydrocarbons).
    Paris plot A plot of fatigue crack propagation rate da/dN (crack
    extension per cycle) vs. stress-intensity factor range delta K.
    parts per hundred A relative unit of concentration, parts of one
    substance per 100 parts of another. Parts can be measured by
    weight, volume, count or any other suitable unit of measure.
    Used often to denote composition of a blend or mixture, such as
    plastic, in terms of the parts of a minor ingredient, such as
    plasticizer, per 100 parts of a major, such as resin. Also called
    Ph.
    parts per hundred million A relative unit of concentration, parts
    of one substance per 100 million parts of another. Parts can be
    measured by weight, volume, count or any other suitable unit of
    measure. Used often to denote very small concentration of a
    substance, such as impurity or toxin, in a medium, such as air.
    Also called pphm. 505
    pascal An SI unit of measurement of pressure equal to the pressure
    resulting from a force of one newton acting uniformly over an
    area of one square meter. Used to denote the pressure of gases,
    vapors or liquids and the strength of solids. Also called Pa.
    PBI See polybenzimidazoles.
    PBT See polybutylene terephthalate.
    PC See polycarbonates.
    PCT See polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalute.
    PCTG See glycol modified polycyclohexylenedimethylene
    terephthalate.
    PE copolymer See polyethylene copolymer.
    PEEK See polyetheretherketone.
    PEI See polyetherimides.
    PEK See polyetherketone.
    pentaerythritol A polyol, C(CHZOH)~, prepared by reaction of
    acetaldehyde with an excess formaldehyde in alkaline medium.
    Used as plasticizer and as monomer in alkyd resins.
    perfluoroalkoxy resins Thermoplastic polymers of
    perfluoroalkoxyethylenes having good creep, heat, and chemical
    resistance and processibility but low compressive and tensile
    strengths. Processed by molding, extrusion, rotational molding,
    and powder coating. Used in films, coatings, pipes, containers,
    and chemical apparatus linings. Also called PFA.
    PES See polyethersulfone.
    PET See polyethylene terephthalate.
    PETG S e e polycyclohexylenedimethylene ethylene terephthalate.
    PFA See petfluoroalkoxy resins.
    phase transition See phase transition properties.
    phase transition point The temperature at which a phase transition
    occurs in a physical system such as material. Note: An example
    of phase transition is glass transition. Also called phase
    transition temperature, transition point, transition temperature.
    phase transition properties Properties of physical systems such
    as materials associated with their transition from one phase to
    another, e.g., from liquid to solid phase. Also called phase
    transition.
    phase transition temperature See phase transition point.
    phenolic resins Thermoset polymers of phenols with excess or
    deficiency of aldehydes, mainly formaldehyde, to give resole or
    novolak resins, respectively. Heat-cured resins have good
    dielectric properties, hardness, thermal stability, rigidity, and
    compressive strength but poor chemical resistance and dark
    color. Processed by coating, potting, compression, transfer, or
    injection molding and extrusion. Used in coatings, adhesives,
    potting compounds, handles, electrical devices, and auto parts.
    phr See parts per hundred.
    PI See polyimides.
    plasticizer A substance incorporated into a material such as plastic
    or rubber to increase its softness, processability and flexibility via
    solvent or lubricating action or by lowering its molecular weight.
    Plasticizers can lower melt viscosity, improve flow and increase
    low-temperature resilience of material. Most plasticizers are
    nonvolatile organic liquids or low-melting-point solids, such as
    dioctyl phthalate or stearic acid. They have to be non-bleeding,
    nontoxic and compatible with material. Sometimes plasticizers
    play a dual role as stabilizers or crosslinkers.
    plastics See polymers.
    PMMA See polymethyl methacrylate.
    PMP See polymethylpentene.
    polyacrylates See acrylic resins.
    polyallomer Crystalline thermoplastic block copolymers of ethylene,
    propylene, and other olefins. Have good impact strength and flex
    life and low density.
    polyamide thermoplastic elastomers Copolymers containing
    soft polyether and hard polyamide blocks having good chemical,
    abrasion, and heat resistance, impact strength, and tensile
    properties. Processed by extrusion and injection and blow
    molding. Used in sporting goods, auto parts, and electrical
    devices. Also called polyamide TPE.
    polyamide TPE See polyamide thermoplastic elastomers.
    pol yamides Thermoplastic aromatic or aliphatic polymers of
    dicarboxylic acids and diamines, of amino acids, or of lactams.
    Have good mechanical properties, chemical resistance, and
    antifriction properties. Processed by extrusion and molding.
    Used in fibers and molded parts. Also called PA.
    polyaminobismaleimide resins Thermoset polymers of aromatic
    diamines and bismaleimides having good flow and
    thermochemical properties and flame and radiation resistance.
    Processed by casting and compression molding. Used in aircraft
    parts and electrical devices. Also called PABM.
    polyarylamides Thermoplastic crystalline polymers of aromatic
    diamines and aromatic dicarboxylic anhydrides having good
    heat, fue, and chemical resistance, property retention at high
    temperatures, dielectric and mechanical properties, and stiffness
    but poor light resistance and processibility. Processed by solution
    casting, molding, and extrusion. Used in films, fibers, and
    molded parts.
    polyarylsulfone Thermoplastic aromatic polyether-polysulfone
    having good heat, fire, and chemical resistance, impact strength,
    resistance to environmental stress cracking, dielectric properties,
    and rigidity. Processed by injection and compression molding
    and extrusion. Used in circuit boards, lamp housings, piping,
    and auto parts.
    polybenzimidazoles Mainly polymers of 3,3′,4,4′-
    tetraminonbiphenyl (diaminobenzidine) and diphenyl
    isophthalate. Have good heat, fire, and chemical resistance. Used
    as coatings and fibers in aerospace and other high-temperature
    applications. Also called PBI.
    polybutylene terephthalate Thermoplastic polymer of dimethyl
    terephthalate and butanediol having good tensile strength,
    dielectric properties, and chemical and water resistance, but poor
    impact strength and heat resistance. Processed by injection and
    blow molding, extrusion, and thermoforming. Used in auto body
    parts, electrical devices, appliances, and housings. Also called
    PBT. polycarbodiimlde Polymers containing -N=C=N- linkages in the
    main chain, typically formed by catalyzed polycondensation of
    polyisocyanates. They are used to prepare open-celled foams with
    superior thermal stability. Sterically hindered polycarbodiimides
    are used as hydrolytic stabilizers for polyester-based urethane
    elastomers.
    polycarbonate See polycarbonates.
    polycarbonate polyester alloys High-performance thermoplastics
    processed by injection and blow molding. Used in auto parts.
    polycarbonate resins See polycarbonates.
    polycarbonates Polycarbonates are thermoplastics prepared by
    either phosgenation of dihydric aromatic alcohols such as
    bisphenol A or by transesterification of these alcohols with
    carbonates, e.g., diphenyl carbonate. Polycarbonates consist of
    chains with repeating carbonyldioxy groups and can be aliphatic
    or aromatic. They have very good mechanical properties,
    especially impact strength, low moisture absorption and good
    thermal and oxidative stability. They are self-extinguishing and
    some grades are transparent. Polycarbonates have relatively low
    chemical resistance and resistance to stress cracking. Processed
    by injection and blow molding, extrusion, thermoforming at
    relatively high processing temperatures. Used in telephone parts,
    dentures, business machine housings, safety equipment,
    nonstaining dinnerware, food packaging, etc. Also called
    polycarbonate, PC, polycarbonate resins.
    polychlorotrifluoroethylene Thermoplastic polymer of
    chlorotrifluoroethylene having good transparency, barrier
    properties, tensile strength, and creep resistance, modest
    dielectric properties and solvent resistance, and poor
    processibility. Processed by extrusion, injection and compression
    molding, and coating. Used in chemical apparatus, low-
    temperature seals, films, and internal lubricants. Also called
    CTFE.
    polycyclohexylenedimethylene ethylene terephthalate
    Thermoplastic polymer of cyclohexylenedimethylenediol,
    ethylene glycol, and terephthalic acid. Has good clarity,
    stiffness, hardness, and low-temperature toughness. Processed
    by injection and blow molding and extrusion. Used in containers
    for cosmetics and foods, packaging film, medical devices,
    machine guards, and toys. Also called PETG.
    polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate Thermoplastic
    polymer of cyclohexylenedimethylenediol and terephthalic acid
    having good heat resistance. Processed by molding and
    extrusion. Also called PCT.
    polyester resins See polyesters.
    polyester thermoplastic elastomers Copolymers containing soft
    polyether and hard polyester blocks having good dielectric
    strength, chemical and creep resistance, dynamic performance,
    appearance, and retention of properties in a wide temperature
    range but poor light resistance. Processed by injection, blow, and
    rotational molding, extrusion casting, and film blowing. Used in
    electrical insulation, medical products, auto parts, and business
    equipment. Also called polyester TPE.
    polyester TPE See polyester thermoplastic elastomers.
    polyesters A broad class of polymers usually made by condensation
    of a diol with dicarboxylic acid or anhydride. Polyesters consist
    of chains with repeating carbonyloxy group and can be aliphatic
    or aromatic. There are thermosetting polyesters, such as alkyd
    resins and unsaturated polyesters, and thermoplastic polyesters
    such as PET. The properties, processing methods and
    applications of polyesters vary widely.
    resins.
    Also called polyester
    polyetheretherketone Semi-crystalline thermoplastic aromatic
    polymer having good chemical, heat, fire, and radiation
    resistance, toughness, rigidity, bearing strength, and
    processibility. Processed by injection molding, spinning, cold
    forming, and extrusion. Used in fibers, films, auto engine parts,
    aerospace composites, and electrical insulation. Also called
    PEEK.
    pol yetherimides Thermoplastic cyclized polymers of aromatic
    diether dianhydrides and aromatic diamine. Have good
    chemical, creep, and heat resistance and dielectric properties.
    Processed by extrusion, thermoforming, and compression,
    injection, and blow molding. Used in auto parts, jet engines,
    surgical instruments, industrial apparatus, food packaging,
    cookware, and computer disks. Also called PEI.
    polyetherketone Thermoplastic having good heat and chemical
    resistance. Thermal stability. Used in advanced composites,
    wire coating, filters, integrated circuit boards, and bearings. Also
    called PEK.
    polyethersulfone Thermoplastic aromatic polymer having good
    heat and fire resistance, transparency, dielectric properties,
    dimensional stability, rigidity, and toughness, but poor solvent
    and stress cracking resistance, processibility, and weatherability.
    Processed by injection, blow, and compression molding and
    extrusion. Used in high temperature applications electrical
    devices, medical devices, housings, and aircraft and auto parts.
    Also called PES.
    polyethylene copolymer Thermoplastics polymers of ethylene
    with other olefins such as propylene. Processed by molding and
    extrusion. Also called PE copolymer.
    polyimides Thermoplastic aromatic cyclized polymers of trimellitic
    anhydride and aromatic diamine. Have good tensile strength,
    dimensional stability, dielectric and barrier properties, and creep,
    impact, heat, and fire resistance, but poor processibility.
    Processed by compression and injection molding, powder
    sintering, film casting, and solution coating. Thermoset
    uncyclized polymers are heat curable and have good
    processability. Processed by transfer and injection molding,
    lamination, and coating. Used in jet engines, compressors,
    sealing coatings, auto parts, and business machines. Also called
    PI.
    polymer chain unsaturation See chemical unsaturation.
    polymers Polymers are high-molecular-weight organic or inorganic
    compounds the molecules of which comprise linear, branched,
    crosslinked or othenvise shaped chains of repeating molecular
    groups. Synthetic polymers are prepared by polymerization of
    one or more monomers. The monomers are low-molecular-
    weight substances with one or more reactive bonds or functional
    groups. Also called resins, plastics.
    polymethylpentene Thermoplastic stereoregular polyolefin
    obtained by polymerizing 4-methyl-I-pentene based on
    dimerization of propylene; having low density, good
    transparency, rigidity, dielectric and tensile properties, and heat
    and chemical resistance. Processed by injection and blow
    molding and extrusion. Used in laboratory ware, coated paper,
    light fixtures, auto parts, and electrical insulation. Also called
    PMP.
    polyolefin resins See polyolefins
    polyolefins Polyolefins are a broad class of hydrocarbon-chain
    elastomers or thermoplastics usually prepared by addition (co)polymerization of alkenes such as ethylene. There are
    branched and linear polyolefins and some are chemically or
    physically modified. Unmodified polyolefins have relatively low
    thermal stability and a nonporous, nonpolar surface with poor
    adhesive properties. Processed by extrusion, injection molding,
    blow molding and rotational molding. Polyolefins are used more
    and have more applications than any other polymers. Also called
    olefinic resins, olefin resins, polyolefin resins.
    polyphenylene ether nylon alloys Thermoplastics having
    improved heat and chemical resistance and toughness. Processed
    by molding and extrusion. Used in auto body parts.
    polyphenylene sulfide High-performance engineering
    thermoplastic having good chemical, water, fire, and radiation
    resistance, dimensional stability, and dielectric properties, but
    decreased impact strength and poor processibility. Processed by
    injection, compression, and transfer molding and extrusion. Used
    in hydraulic components, bearings, electronic parts, appliances,
    and auto parts. Also called PPS.
    polyphenylene sulfide sulfone Thermoplastic having good heat,
    fire, creep, and chemical resistance and dielectric properties.
    Processed by injection molding. Used in electrical devices. Also
    called PPSS.
    polyphthalamide Thermoplastic polymer of aromatic diamine and
    phthalic anhydride. Has good heat, chemical, and fire resistance,
    impact strength, retention of properties at high temperatures,
    dielectric properties, and stiffness, but decreased light resistance
    and poor processibility. Processed by solution casting, molding,
    and extrusion. Used in films, fibers, and molded parts. Also
    called PPA.
    polypropylene Thermoplastic polymer of propylene having low
    density and good flexibility and resistance to chemicals,
    abrasion, moisture, and stress cracking, but decreased
    dimensional stability, mechanical strength, and light, fire, and
    heat resistance. Processed by injection molding, spinning, and
    extrusion. Used in fibers and films for adhesive tapes and
    packaging. Also called PP.
    polypyrrole A polymer of pyrrole, a five-membered heterocyclic
    substance with one nitrogen and four carbon atoms and with two
    double bonds. The polymer can be prepared via electrochemical
    polymerization. Polymers thus prepared are doped by electrolyte
    anion and are electrically conductive. Polypyrrole is used in
    lightweight secondary batteries, as electromagnetic interference
    shielding, anodic coatings, photoconductors, solar cells, and
    transistors.
    polystyrene Polystyrenes are thermoplastics produced by
    polymerization of styrene with or without modification (e.g., by
    copolymerization or blending) to make impact resistant or
    expandable grades. They have good rigidity, high dimensional
    stability, low moisture absorption, optical clarity, high gloss and
    good dielectric properties. Unmodified polystyrenes have poor
    impact strength and resistance to solvents, heat and UV
    radiation. Processed by injection molding, extrusion,
    compression molding, and foam molding. Used widely in
    medical devices, housewares, food packaging, electronics and
    foam insulation. Also called polystyrenes, PS, polystyrol.
    polystyrenes See polystyrene
    polystyrol See polystyrene.
    polysulfones Thermoplastics, often aromatic and with ether
    linkages, having good heat, fire, and creep resistance, dielectric
    properties, transparency, but poor weatherability, processibility,
    and stress cracking resistance. Processed by injection,
    compression, and blow molding and extrusion. Used in
    appliances, electronic devices, auto parts, and electric insulators.
    Also called PSO.
    polytetrafluoroethylene Thermoplastic polymer of
    tetrafluoroethylene having good dielectric properties, chemical,
    heat, abrasion, and fire resistance, antiadhesive properties,
    impact strength, and weatherability, but decreased strength,
    processibility, barrier properties, and creep resistance. Processed
    by sinter molding and powder coating. Used in nonstick
    coatings, chemical apparatus, electrical devices, bearings. and
    containers. Also called PTFE.
    polyurethane resins See polyurethanes
    polyurethanes Polyurethanes (PUS) are a broad class of polymers
    consisting of chains with a repeating utethane group, prepared by
    condensation of polyisocyanates with polyols, e.g., polyester or
    polyether diols. PUS may be thermoplastic or thermosetting,
    elastomeric or rigid, cellular or solid, and offer a wide range of
    properties depending on composition and molecular structure.
    Many PUS have high abrasion resistance, good retention of
    properties at low temperatures and good foamability. Some have
    poor heat resistance, weatherability and resistance to solvents.
    PUS are flammable and can release toxic substances.
    Thermoplastic PUS are not crosslinked and are processed by
    injection molding and extrusion. Thermosetting PUS can be
    cured at relatively low temperatures and give foams with good
    heat insulating properties. They are processed by reaction
    injection molding, rigid and flexible foam methods, casting and
    coating. PUS are used in load bearing rollers and wheels,
    acoustic clamping materials, sporting goods, seals and gaskets,
    heat insulation, potting and encapsulation. Also called PUR, PU,
    urethane polymers, urethane resins, urethanes, polyurethane
    resins.
    polyvinyl chloride Thermoplastic polymer of vinyl chloride,
    available in rigid and flexible forms. Has good dimensional
    stability, fire resistance, and weatherability, but decreased heat
    and solvent resistance and high density. Processed by injection
    and blow molding, calendering, extrusion, and powder coating.
    Used in films, fabric coatings, wire insulation, toys, bottles, and
    pipes. Also called PVC.
    polyvinyl fluoride Crystalline thermoplastic polymer of vinyl
    fluoride having good toughness, flexibility, weatherability, and
    low-temperature and abrasion resistance. Processed by film
    techniques. Used in packaging, glazing, and electrical devices.
    Also called PVF.
    polyvlnylldene chloride Stereoregular thermoplastic polymer of
    vinylidene chloride having good abrasion and chemical
    resistance and barrier properties. Vinylidene chloride (VDC)
    content always exceeds 50%. Processed by molding and
    extrusion. Used in food packaging films, bag liners, pipes,
    upholstery, fibers, and coatings. Also called PVDC.
    polyvinylldene fluoride Thermoplastic polymer of vinylidene
    fluoride having good strength, processibility, wear, fire, solvent,
    and creep resistance, and weatherability, but decreased dielectric
    properties and heat resistance. Processed by extrusion, injection
    and transfer molding, and powder coating. Used in electrical
    insulation, pipes, chemical apparatus, coatings, films, containers,
    and fibers. Also called PVDF.
    PP See polypropylene.
    PPA See polyphrhulumide.
    pphm See parts per hundred million.
    ppm A unit for measuring small concentrations of material or
    substance as the number of its parts (arbitrary quantity) per 508
    million parts of medium consisting of another material or
    substance.
    PPS See polyphenylene sulfide.
    PPSS See polyphenylene sulfide suljone
    pressure Stress exerted equally in all directions. See processing
    pressure
    prevulcanization See scorching.
    process characteristics See processing parameters.
    process conditions See processing parameters
    process media See processing agents.
    process parameters See processing parameters.
    process pressure See processing pressure.
    process rate See processing rate.
    process speed See processing rate.
    process time See processing time.
    process velocity See processing rate.
    processing additives See processing agents.
    processing agents Agents or media used in the manufacture,
    preparation and treatment of a material or article to improve its
    processing or properties. The agents often become a part of the
    material. Also called process media, processing aids, processing
    additives.
    processing aids See processing agents.
    processing defects Structural and other defects in material or
    article caused inadvertently during manufacturing, preparation
    and treatment processes by using wrong tooling, process
    parameters, ingredients, part design, etc. Usually preventable.
    Also called processing flaw, defects, flaw. See also cracking.
    processing flaw See processing dejects.
    processing methods Method names and designations for material
    or article manufacturing, preparation and treatment processes.
    Note: Both common and standardized names are used. Also
    called processing procedures.
    processing parameters Measurable parameters such as
    temperature prescribed or maintained during material or article
    manufacture, preparation and treatment processes. Also called
    process characteristics, process conditions, process parameters.
    processing pressure Pressure maintained in an apparatus during
    material or article manufacture, preparation and treatment
    processes. Also called process pressure. See also pressure.
    processing procedures See processing methods.
    processing rate Speed of the process in manufacture, preparation
    and treatment of a material or article. It usually denotes the
    change in a process parameter per unit of time or the throughput
    speed of material in a unit of weight, volume, etc. per unit of
    time. Also called process speed, process velocity, process rate.
    processing time Time required for the completion of a process in
    the manufacture, preparation and treatment of a material or
    article. Also called process time, cycle time. See also time.
    propene See propylene.
    propylene An alkene (unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon) with three
    carbon atoms, CHz=CHCH3. A colorless, highly flammable gas.
    Autoignition temperature 497°C. Derived by thermal cracking of
    ethylene or from naphtha. Used as monomer in ‘polymer and
    organic synthesis. Also called propene.
    PS See polystyrene.
    PSO See polysulfones.
    PTFE See polytetrajluoroethylene.
    PU See polyurethanes.
    PUR See polyurethanes.
    PV See limiting pressure-velocity value.
    PV limit See limiting pressure-velocity value.
    PVC See polyvinyl chloride.
    PVDC See polyvinylidene chloride.
    PVDF See polyvinylidene jluoride.
    PVF See polyvinyl jluoride.
    PVT relationship Pressure (P)-volume (V)-temperature (T)
    relationship of Boyle’s law stating that the product of the volume
    of a gas times its pressure is a constant at a given temperature,
    PV/T=R, where R is Boltzmann constant.
    Ra See roughness average.
    reaction injection molding system Liquid compositions, mostly
    polyurethane-based, of thermosetting resins, prepolymers,
    monomers, or their mixtures. Have good processibility,
    dimensional stability, and flexibility. Processed by foam
    molding with in-mold curing at high temperatures. Used in auto
    parts and office furniture. Also called RIM.
    resins See polymers.
    resistance to flex cut growth A measure of vulcanized rubber
    deterioration on repeated bending in a suitable flexing machine,
    such as Ross or De Mattia machine. A pierced or unpierced
    specimen is bent repeatedly at a specified angle. The resistance
    is expressed as the average number of cycles for each 100%
    increase in cut size. Note: ASTM D3708 Also called resistance
    to flex cut growth, Ross-pierced, resistance to flex cut growth,
    Ross-unpierced, resistance to flex cut growth, De Mattia-pierced.
    resistance to flex cut growth, De Mattia-pierced See
    resistance to flex cut growth.
    resistance to flex cut growth, Ross-pierced See resistance to
    flex cut growth. 509
    resistance to flex cut growth, Ross-unpierced See resistunce
    to flex cut growth.
    resorcinol modified phenolic resins Thermosetting polymers of
    phenol, formaldehyde, and resorcinol having good heat and creep
    resistance and dimensional stability.
    RIM See reaction injection molding system
    Rockwell A See Rockwell hardness
    Rockwell E See Rockwell hardness.
    Rockwell hardness A number derived from the net increase in the
    depth of impression as the load on an indenter is increased from a
    fixed minor load (10 kgf) to a major load and then returned to the
    minor load. This number consists of the number of scale
    divisions (each corresponding to 0.002 mm vertical movement of
    the indentor) and scale symbol. Rockwell scales, designated by a
    single capital letter of English alphabet, vary depending on the
    diameter of the indentor and the major load. For example, scale
    A indicates the use of a diamond indentor and major load 60 kgf,
    E – 118″ ball indentor and 100 kgf, K – same ball and 150 kgf, M
  • 1/4″ ball and 100 kgf, R – 112″ ball and 60 kgf. The hardness
    increases in the order of R, M, K, E, and A scales. Also called
    Rockwell A, Rockwell E, Rockwell K, Rockwell M, Rockwell R.
    Rockwell K See Rockwell hardness
    Rockwell M See Rockwell hardness.
    Rockwell R See Rockwell hardness.
    roughness average A height parameter of surface roughness equal
    to the average absolute deviation of surface profile from the mean
    line, calculated as the integrated area of peaks and valleys above
    and below the mean line, respectively, divided by the length of
    this line. Also called Ra.
    S-N curve A plot showing the relationship of stress (S) to the
    number of cycles (N) before fracture in fatigue testing of
    materials. Also called Wohler curve, S-N diagram, S-N plot.
    S-N diagram See S-N curve
    S-N plot See S-N curve.
    SAN See styrene ucrylonitrile copolymer.
    SAN copolymer See styrene acrylonitrile copolymer.
    SAN resin See styrene acrylonitrile copolymer.
    SEN See single-edge notched specimen.
    service llfe The period of time required for the specified properties
    of the material to deteriorate under normal use conditions to the
    minimum allowable level with material retaining its overall
    usability.
    shelf life Time during which a physical system, such as a material,
    retains its storage stability under specified conditions. Also
    called storage life.
    Shore A See Shore hardness.
    Shore D See Shore hardness.
    Shore hardness Indentation hardness of a material as determined
    by the depth of an indentation made with an indentor of the
    Shore-type durometer. The scale reading on this durometer is
    from 0, corresponding to 0.100” depth, to 100 for zero depth.
    The Shore A indenter has a sharp point, is spring-loaded to 822
    gf, and is used for softer plastics. The Shore B indenter has a
    blunt point, is spring-loaded to 10 Ibf, and is used for harder
    plastics. Also called Shore D, Shore A, durometer A hardness.
    silicone There are rigid thermoplastic and liquid silicones and
    silicone rubbers consisting of alternating silicone and oxygen
    atom chains with organic pendant groups, prepared by hydrolytic
    condensation of chlorosilanes, followed by crosslinking. Silicone
    rubbers have good adhesion, flexibility, dielectric properties,
    weatherability, barrier properties, and heat and fire resistance, but
    decreased strength. Rigid silicones have good flexibility,
    weatherability, soil repelling properties, dimensional stability, but
    poor solvent resistance. Processed by coating, casting, and
    injection compression, and transfer molding. Used in coatings,
    electronic devises, diaphragms, medical products, adhesives, and
    sealants. Also called siloxane.
    single-edge notched specimen A specimen, such as bar
    specimen used in impact testing of plastics, that has a notch or
    groove with a roughly triangular profile of various sharpness
    machined transversely across the entire width of its one side or
    edge. The notch is intended to simulate the crack and ensures the
    maximum test stress in the notched cross-section of the
    specimen. Also called SEN, one-side notched specimen.
    sinusoidal wave form Something that resembles a sine wave
    which is a wave whose amplitude varies as the sine of a linear
    function of time. For example, in fatigue testing of materials, the
    applied stress amplitude can be varied sinusoidally, i.e.,
    increasing gradually to a maximum value and then decreasing to
    a minimum value.
    sliding velocity The relative speed of movement of one body
    against the surface of another body (counterbody) without the
    loss of contact as in a sliding motion during wear and friction
    testing of materials. In the sliding motion, the velocity vectors of
    the body and the counterbody remain parallel and should be
    unequal if they have the same direction.
    slip factor A property that characterizes the lubricity of a material
    such as plastic sliding in contact with another material that is
    reciprocal of the friction coefficient.
    SMA See styrene maleic unhydride copolymer.
    SMA PTB alloy See styrene muleic unhydride copolymer PBT alloy.
    specific wear rate See weurfactor.
    square wave form Something that resembles a square wave which
    is a wave whose amplitude shows periodic discontinuities
    between two values, remaining constant between jumps. For
    example, in fatigue testing of materials, the applied stress
    amplitude can be varied by increasing stress rapidly to a
    maximum value, keeping it constant for a period of time, then
    decreasing it rapidly to a minimum value and keeping it constant
    for a period of time before increasing it again.
    stability The ability of a physical system, such as a material, to resist
    a change or degradation under exposure to outside forces,
    including mechanical force, heat and weather. See also
    degradation. static coefficient of friction The ratio of the force that is required
    to start the friction motion of one surface against another to the
    force, usually gravitational, acting perpendicular to the two
    surfaces in contact. Also called coefficient of friction, static.
    storage life See she(f’l(f’e.
    storage stability The resistance of a physical system, such as a
    material, to decomposition, deterioration of properties or any
    type of degradation in storage under specified conditions.
    strain The per unit change, due to force, in the size or shape of a
    body referred to its original size or shape. Note: Strain is
    nondimensional but is often expressed in unit of length per unit
    of length or percent.
    stress amplitude One-half the algebraic difference between the
    maximum and minimum stresses in one cycle of a repetitively
    varying stress as in fatigue testing of materials.
    stress cracking Appearance of external and/or internal cracks in
    the material as a result of stress that is lower than its short-term
    strength.
    stress cycle frequency Number of loading-unloading cycles per
    unit time in fatigue testing of materials.
    stress pattern Distribution of applied or residual stress in a
    specimen, usually throughout its bulk. Applied stress is a stress
    induced by an outside force, e.g., by loading. Residual stress or
    stress memory may be a result of processing or exposure. The
    stress pattern can be made visible in transparent materials by
    polarized light.
    stress-intensity factor The magnitude of the ideal crack tip stress
    field for a particulate mode of fracture in a homogeneous,
    linearly elastic body. It can be calculated as a limit of a power
    function of stress and a distance directly forward from the crack
    tip to a location where the stress is calculated in fatigue testing of
    materials.
    stress-intensity factor range The difference between maximum
    and minimum values of stress-intensity factor in a cycle during
    fatigue testing of materials. Also called crack driving force, delta
    K.
    styrene acrylonitrile copolymer SAN resins are thermoplastic
    copolymers of about 70% styrene and 30% acrylonitrile with
    higher strength, rigidity and chemical resistance than
    polystyrene. Characterized by transparency, high heat deflection
    properties, excellent gloss, hardness and dimensional stability.
    Have low continuous service temperature and impact strength.
    Processed by injection molding, extrusion, injection-blow
    molding and compression molding. Used in appliances,
    housewares, instrument lenses for automobiles, medical devices,
    and electronics. Also called styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer,
    SAN, SAN resin, SAN copolymer.
    styrene butadiene block copolymer Thermoplastic amorphous
    block polymer of butadiene and styrene having good impact
    strength, rigidity, gloss, compatibility with other styrenic resins,
    water resistance, and processibility. Used in food and display
    containers, toys, and shrink wrap.
    styrene butadiene copolymer Thermoplastic polymers of
    butadiene and >SO% styrene having good transparency,
    toughness, and processibility. Processed by extrusion, injection
    and blow molding, and thermoforming. Used in film wraps,
    disposable packaging, medical devices, toys, display racks, and
    office supplies.
    styrene rnaleic anhydride copolymer Thermoplastic copolymer
    of styrene with maleic anhydride having good thermal stability
    and adhesion, but decreased chemical and light resistance.
    Processed by injection and foam molding and extrusion. Used in
    auto parts, appliances, door panels, pumps, and business
    machines. Also called SMA.
    styrene rnaleic anhydride copolymer PBT alloy Thermoplastic
    alloy of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer and polybutylene
    terephthalate having improved dimensional stability and tensile
    strength. Processed by injection molding. Also called SMA PTB
    alloy.
    styrene plastics See styrenic resins.
    styrene polymers See styrenic resins.
    styrene resins See styrenic resins.
    styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer See styrene ucrylonitrik
    copolymer.
    styrenic resins Styrenic resins are thermoplastics prepared by free-
    radical polymerization of styrene alone or with other unsaturated
    monomers. The properties of styrenic resins vary widely with
    molecular structure, attaining the high performance level of
    engineering plastics. Processed by blow and injection molding,
    extrusion, thermoforming, film techniques and structural foam
    molding. Used heavily for the manufacture of automotive parts,
    household goods, packaging, films, tools, containers and pipes.
    Also called styrene resins, styrene polymers, styrene plastics.
    styrenic thermoplastic elastomers Linear or branched
    copolymers containing polystyrene end blocks and elastomer
    (e.g., isoprene rubber) middle blocks. Have a wide range of
    hardnesses, tensile strength, and elongation, and good low-
    temperature flexibility, dielectric properties, and hydrolytic
    stability. Processed by injection and’ blow molding and
    extrusion. Used in coatings, sealants, impact modifiers, shoe.
    soles, medical devices, tubing, electrical insulation, and auto
    parts. Also called TES.
    surface roughness Relatively fine spaced surface irregularities, the
    heights, widths and directions of which establish the
    predominant surface pattern.
    surface tack Stickiness of a surface of a material such as wet paint
    when touched.
    T
    Taber abrasion See Tuber ubrusion resistance.
    Taber abrasion resistance The weight loss of a plastic or other
    material specimen after it was subjected to abrasion in Taber
    abraser for a prescribed number of specimen disk rotations,
    usually 1000. Taber abraser consists of an idling abrasive wheel,
    designated depending on the type and grit of the abrasive used as
    CS-lOF, H 22, etc., and a rotary disk with the specimen mounted
    on it. The load is applied to the wheel. The produced motion
    simulates that of rolling with slip. Also called Taber abrasion.
    tape abrasion test See Armstron ubrusion test.
    tear propagation resistance The force required to propagate a slit
    in a flexible plastic film or thin sheeting at a constant rate of
    loading, calculated as an average between the initial and the 51 1
    maximum tear-propagation forces. Also called tear resistance,
    propagated.
    tear resistance, initial See initial tear resistance.
    tear resistance, propagated See tear propagation resistance.
    tearing energy Tearing energy is a function of strain energy density
    and crack length, often expressed in kN/m. Plots of tearing
    energy vs. fatigue crack growth rate are used to characterize the
    kinetics of fatigue crack extension in rubbers, which do not obey
    the classical theory of elasticity. Also called tearing energy
    parameter.
    tearing energy parameter See tearing energy
    temperature Property which determines the direction of heat flow
    between objects. Note: The heat flows from the object with
    higher temperature to that with lower.
    tensile elongation See elongation.
    tensile fatigue Progressive localized permanent structural change
    occurring in a material subjected to cyclic tensile stress that may
    culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number
    of cycles.
    tensile properties Properties describing the reaction of physical
    systems to tensile stress and strain. See also tensile property
    tests.
    tensile property tests Names and designations of the methods for
    tensile testing of materials. Also called tensile tests. See also
    tensile properties.
    tensile strain The relative length deformation exhibited by a
    specimen in tension. See also elongation.
    tensile strength The maximum tensile stress that a specimen can
    sustain in a test carried to failure. Note: The maximum stress
    can be measured at or after the failure or reached before the
    fracture, depending on the viscoelastic behavior of the material.
    Also called tensile ultimate strength, ultimate tensile strength,
    UTS, tensile strength at break, ultimate tensile stress. See also
    ASTM 0638.
    tensile strength at break See tensile strength.
    tensile stress The stress is perpendicular and directed to the
    opposite plane on which the forces act.
    tensile tests See tensile property tests.
    tensile ultimate strength See tensile strength.
    terephthalate polyester Thermoset unsaturated polymer of
    terephthalic anhydride.
    TES See styrenic thermoplastic elastomers
    test methods Names and designations of material test methods.
    Also called testing methods.
    test variables Terms related to the testing of materials such as test
    method names.
    testing methods See test methods.
    tetrachloroethylene Also called perchloroethylene.
    tetrafluoroethylene propylene copolymer Thermosetting
    elastomeric polymer of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene having
    good chemical and heat resistance and flexibility. Used in auto
    parts.
    thermal properties Properties related to the effects of heat on
    physical systems such as materials and heat transport. The effects
    of heat include the effects on structure, geometry, performance,
    aging, stress-strain behavior, etc.
    thermal stability The resistance of a physical system, such as a
    material, to decomposition, deterioration of properties or any
    type of degradation in storage under specified conditions.
    thermodynamic properties A quantity that is either an attribute of
    the entire system or is a function of position, which is continuous
    and does not vary rapidly over microscopic distances, except
    possibility for abrupt changes at boundaries between phases of
    the system. Also called macroscopic properties.
    thermoplastic polyesters A class of polyesters that can be
    repeatedly made soft and pliable on heating and hard (flexible or
    rigid) on subsequent cooling.
    thermoplastic polyurethanes A class of polyurethanes including
    rigid and elastomeric polymers that can be repeatedly made soft
    and pliable on heating and hard (flexible or rigid) on subsequent
    cooling. Also called thermoplastic urethanes, TPUR, TPU.
    thermoplastic urethanes See thermoplastic polyurethanes.
    thrust washer friction and wear test method See ASTM

  1. thrust washer test apparatus See thrust-washer testing machine.
    thrust washer test machine See thrust-washer testing machine.
    thrust-washer testing machine A machine, such as Falex
    Multispecimen Test Machine, used for assessing abrasive wear
    rate of of self-lubricating plastics intended for bearing
    applications in which wear debris essentially remain in the
    contact zone. The specimen of thrust washer configuration is
    mounted on a rotary upper holder and pressed against a steel
    washer placed on a stationary lower holder. The pressure load is
    applied to the lower holder via a level arm with dead weights.
    The upper holder is driven via a spindle by a d.c. electric motor
    at speeds 14-4420 rpm. The speed is controlled by a
    potentiometer and can be monitored by a tachometer. The
    machine also has an elapsed time indicator and a torque
    measurement device. Loose particles may be introduced in the
    contact zone either in a continuous stream or dispressed in a
    carrier fluid. Also called thrust washer test machine, Faville-
    LeValley Falex 6, thrust washer test apparatus.
    time One of basic dimensions of the universe designating the
    duration and order of events at a given place. See also
    processing time.
    toughness Property of a material indicating its ability to absorb
    energy by plastic deformation rather than crack or fracture.
    TPO See olejinic thermoplastic elastomers.
    TPU See thermoplastic polyurethanes
    TPUR See thermoplastic polyurethanes.
    tribological Something having to do with friction, like in
    tribological behavior of material. UHMWPE See ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene.
    ultimate elongation See elongation.
    ultimate seal strength Maximum force that a heat-sealed
    thermoplastic film can sustain in a tensile test without seal failure
    per unit length of the seal.
    ultimate tensile strength See tensile strength.
    ultimate tensile stress See tensile strength.
    ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene Thermoplastic linear
    polymer of ethylene with molecular weight in the millions. Has
    good wear and chemical resistance, toughness, and antifriction
    properties, but poor processibility. Processed by compression
    molding and ram extrusion. Used in bearings, gears, and sliding
    surfaces. Also called UHMWPE.
    unlaxlally oriented A state of material such as polymeric film or
    composite characterized by the permanent orientation of its
    components such as polymer molecules or reinforcing fibers in
    one direction. The orientation is achieved by a number of
    different processes, e.g., stretching, and is intended to improve
    the mechanical properties of the material.
    units See units of meusurement,
    units of measurement Systematic and non-systematic units for
    measuring physical quantities, including metric and US pound-
    inch systems. Also called units.
    urea resins Thermosetting polymers of formaldehyde and urea
    having good clarity, colorability, scratch, fire, and solvent
    resistance, rigidity, dielectric properties, and tensile strength, but
    decreased impact strength and chemical, heat, and moisture
    resistance. Must be tilled for molding. Processed by compression
    and injection molding, impregnation, and coating. Used in
    cosmetic containers, housings, tableware, electrical insulators,
    countertop laminates, adhesives, and coatings.
    urethane polymers See polyurethanes.
    urethane resins See polyurethnes.
    urethane thermoplastic elastomers Block polyether or polyester
    polyurethanes containing soft and hard segments. Have good
    tensile strength, elongation, adhesion, and a broad hardness and
    service temperature ranges, but decreased moisture resistance and
    processibility. Processed by extrusion, injection molding, film
    blowing, and coating. Used in tubing, packaging film, adhesives,
    medical devices, conveyor belts, auto parts, and cable jackets.
    Also called TPU.
    urethanes See polyurethanes.
    UTS See tensile strength.
    V 4
    vinyl ester resins Thermosetting acrylated epoxy resins containing
    styrene reactive diluent. Cured by catalyzed polymerization of
    vinyl groups and crosslinking of hydroxy groups at room or
    elevated temperatures. Have good chemical, solvent, and heat
    resistance, toughness, and flexibility, but shrink during cure.
    Processed by filament winding, transfer molding, pultrusion,
    coating, and lamination. Used in structural composites, coatings,
    sheet molding compounds, and chemical apparatus.
    vinyl resins Thermoplastics polymers of vinyl compounds such as
    vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate. Have good weatherability, barrier
    properties, and flexibility, but decreased solvent and heat
    resistance. Processed by molding, extrusion, and coating. Used
    in films and packaging.
    vinyl thermoplastic elastomers Vinyl resin alloys having good
    fire and aging resistance, flexibility, dielectric properties, and
    toughness. Processed by extrusion. Used in cable jackets and
    wire insulation.
    vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene copolymer
    Thermoplastic polymer of vinylidene fluoride and
    hexatluoropropylene having good antistick, dielectric, and
    antifriction properties and chemical and heat resistance, but
    decreased mechanical strength and creep resistance and poor
    processibility. Processed by molding, extrusion, and coating.
    Used in chemical apparatus, containers, films, and coatings.
    vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene tetrafluoroethylene
    terpolymer Thermosetting elastomeric polymer of vinylidene
    fluoride, hexafluoropropylene, and tetrafluoroethylene having
    good chemical and heat resistance and flexibility. Used in auto
    parts.
    volumetric wear rate See wear factor.
    vulcanizate Rubber that had been irreversibly transformed from
    predominantly plastic to predominantly elastic material by
    vulcanization (chemical curing or crosslinking) using heat,
    vulcanization agents, accelerants, etc.
    vulcanizate crosslinks Chemical bonds formed between polymeric
    chains in rubber as a result of vulcanization.
    W
    wear coefficient See wear,factor.
    wear factor The ratio of the wear volume or volume loss, caused by
    the abrasive wear of a specimen, to the product of the sliding
    distance that the specimen travels against the counterbody, and
    the load applied to the specimen. Also called K, K factor, wear
    coefficient, abrasion factor, specific wear rate, volumetric wear
    rate.
    weight The gravitational force with which the earth attracts a body
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    ~ ~~ ~
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    Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol. 2, Engineering Plastics,
    reference book – ASM International, 1988. Trade Name Index
    Acetron (Polymer)
    Acetal
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Acsium (DuPont)
    CSM
    Appendix IV . 463
    Alcryn (DuPont)
    TPO
    Appendix IV . 463
    Amodel (Amoco)
    PPA
    Fatigue .51
    Atlac (Reichhold)
    Polyester (Bisphenol A)
    Fatigue .55
    Bexloy (DuPont)
    Amorphous Nylon
    Fatigue .19
    Calibre (Dow)
    Polycarbonate
    Fatigue .55
    Tribolcgical 245
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV . 463
    Calibre Megarad (Dow)
    Polycarbonate
    Appendix IV . 463
    Celanex (Hoechst AG)
    PBT
    Fatigue .71
    Tribological 247
    Celanex (Hoechst Cel.)
    PBT
    Fatigue .71
    Appendix I. 309
    Appendix IV . 463
    Celazole (Hoechst Cel.)
    PBI
    Tribolcgical 243
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix I. 309
    Celcon (Hoechst Cel.)
    Acetal Copol.
    Fatigue 3
    Tribolcgical . 219
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix IV 463
    Cycolac (GE)
    ABS
    Fatigue 137
    Cycoloy (GE)
    PCIABS
    Fatigue 163
    Cycovin (GE)
    ABSIPVC
    Fatigue 161
    Delrin (DuPont)
    Acetal
    Fatigue 1
    Tribdogical .217
    Appendix II .377
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix 111 429
    Derakane (Dow)
    Vinyl Ester
    Fatigue I91
    Ensicar (Ensinger)
    Polycarbonate
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Ensidur (Ensinger)
    ABS
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Ensifide (Ensinger)
    PPS
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix I1 .377
    Ensifone (Ensinger)
    Polysulfone
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Ensikem (Ensinger)
    PVDF
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Ensilon (Ensinger)
    Nylon 66
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Ensital (Ensinger)
    Acetal
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Ensitep (Ensinger)
    PET
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Evoprene Super (Evode)
    Styrenic TPE
    Appendix IV 463
    Fiberloc (Geon Co.)
    PVC
    Fatigue 151
    Fluon (ICI)
    TFE
    Tribological .227
    Appendix I .309
    Fluoromelt (LNP)
    PFA
    PVDF
    Tribdogical .225
    Tribdogical .233
    Foraflon (Atochem)
    PVDF
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix IV 463
    Forprene (Evode)
    TPO
    Appendix IV 463
    Fortron (Hoechst AG)
    PPS
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Fulton (LNP)
    Acetal
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix 11 .3n
    Appendix 111 429 520
    Gallagher (Gallagher)
    Urethane
    Fatigue 135
    Tribological . 303
    Geloy (GE)
    ASA
    Fatigue 141
    Fatigue 159
    Fatigue 161
    ASNPC
    ASNPVC
    Geon (Geon Co.)
    PVC
    Fatigue 151
    Appendix I . 309
    Halar (Ausimont)
    ECTFE
    Appendix I . 309
    Halon (Ausimont)
    TFE
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Hercules (Solidur)
    UHMWPE
    Tribolcgical. 265
    Hercuprene (J-Von)
    Styrenic TPE
    Hetron (Ashland)
    Appendix IV 463
    Polyester (Chlorendic)
    Hostacom (Hoechst AG)
    Fatigue . 55
    PP
    Fatigue 107
    Tribological . 273
    Hostaform (Hoechst AG)
    Acetal Cop01 .
    Fatigue 3
    Tribdogical . 219
    Hostalen (Hoechst AG)
    HDPE
    Fatigue 103
    Hostalen GUR (Hoechst AG)
    UHMWPE
    Tribological . 265
    Hostalen GUR (Hoechst Cel.)
    UHMWPE
    Tribdcgical . 265
    Appendix IV 463
    Hostalen PPN (Hoechst AG)
    PP
    Fatigue 107
    Hostalloy (Hoechst Cel.)
    Polyolefin Alloy
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Hypalon (DuPont)
    CSM
    Appendix IV 463
    Hytrel (DuPont)
    Polyester TPE
    Fatigue 195
    Tribological . 295
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    lsoplast (Dow)
    RTPU
    Fatigue 135
    Appendix IV 463
    lupiace (Mitsubishi)
    Modified PPE
    Fatigue 1 17
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    lupital (Mitsubishi)
    Acetal Cop01 .
    Fatigue 3
    lxef (Solvay)
    Polyatylamide
    Fatigue . 49
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Kalrez (DuPont)
    Fluoroelastomer (FFKM)
    Appendix IV 463
    Kel-F (3M)
    CTFE
    Appendix I . 309
    Klnel (Rhone Pou.)
    Polyimide
    Fatigue . 87
    Tribdcgical . 287
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Kraton (Shell)
    Styrenic TPE
    Kydex (Kleerdex)
    AcryliclPVC
    Tribolcgical . 299
    Appendix IV 463
    Lexan (GE)
    Polycarbonate
    Fatigue . 55
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Fatigue . 69
    PPC
    Lomod (GE)
    Polyester TPE
    Lubricomp (LNP)
    Appendix IV 463
    Nylon 61 0
    Fatigue . 27
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix Ill 429
    Fatigue . 31
    Tribological . 239
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix Ill 429
    Fatigue . 97
    Tribdcgical . 257
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix Ill 429
    Fatigue . 91
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue . 55
    Tribdcgical . 245
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix IV 463
    Fatigue 125
    Tribdogical . 275
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Nylon 66
    PEEK
    PEI
    Polycarbonate
    PPS
    Appendix 111 429
    Tribdcgical . 227
    TFE
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Lubriplas (Bay Resins)
    Acetal
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Nylon 6 521
    Nylon 66
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    PBT
    Pol ycarbonate
    Lupolen (BASF AG)
    HDPE
    Tribological 263
    Tribolqical 265
    UHMWPE
    Luran (BASF AG)
    SAN
    Fatigue . 149
    Luran S (BASF AG)
    ASA
    Fatigue . 141
    Magnum (Dow)
    ABS
    Appendix I . 309
    Makrolon (Bayer)
    Pol ycarbonate
    Fatigue , 55
    Appendix IV . 463
    Maranyl (DuPont)
    Nylon 66
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix Ill . 429
    Mearthane (Mearthane)
    Urethane
    Tribological 303
    Millathane (TSE)
    PU
    Tribolqical 303
    Minlon (DuPont)
    Nylon 66
    Fatigue .31
    Tribolqical 239
    Appendix IV . 463
    Noryl (GE)
    Modified PPE
    Fatigue . 117
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix IV . 463
    Modified PPE/PA
    PEIIPC
    Fatigue i75
    Fatigue i73
    Noryl GTX (GE)
    Modified PPE/PA
    Appendix IV 463
    Ny-Kon (LNP)
    Nylon 66
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .3n
    Nylatron (Polymer)
    Nylon 6
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix II .377
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix I .309
    Nylon 66
    Nylon (Hoechst Cel.)
    Nylon 66
    Fatigue .31
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix IV 463
    Paxon (Paxon)
    HDPE
    Fatigue I03
    PCTA (Eastman)
    Copolyester
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix IV 463
    Pebax (Atochern)
    Polyamide TPE
    Appendix IV 463
    Pellethane (Dow)
    TPAU
    TPU
    Appendix IV 463
    Tribological .297
    Pibiflex (EniChern)
    Polyester TPE
    Appendix IV 463
    Pocan (Bayer)
    PBT
    Fatigue .71
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix IV 463
    Polysar (Polysar)
    GPPS
    Fatigue I45
    Prevex (GE)
    Modified PPE
    Fatigue 117
    Primef (Solvay)
    PPS
    Fatigue I25
    PS (Mobil)
    IPS
    Fatigue 147
    Reny (Mitsu bishi)
    Nylon MXD6
    Fatigue .45
    Appendix IV 463
    Riteflex (Hoechst Cel.)
    Polyester TPE
    Rogers (Rogers)
    Appendix IV 463
    Phenolic
    Fatigue 185
    Rove1 (Dow)
    ASA
    Appendix IV 463
    Rynite (DuPont)
    PBT
    Appendix I .309
    PET
    Fatigue .79
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix IV 463
    Ryton (Phillips)
    PPS
    Fatigue 125
    Tribolcgical .275
    Appendix IV 463
    Santoprene (Adv. Elast.)
    TPO
    Fatigue I93
    Sarlink (DSM)
    TPO
    Appendix IV 463
    Sclair (DuPont)
    HDPE
    Tri bological .263
    Solef (Solvay)
    PVDF
    Appendix I .309
    Appendix IV 463 522
    Solidur (Solidur)
    UHMWPE
    Tribological . 265
    Appendix I . 309
    Stanyl (DSM)
    Nylon 46
    Fatigue . 21
    Tribolcgical . 235
    Star-C PA6 (Ferro)
    Nylon 6
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-C PA66 (Ferro)
    Nylon 66
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-C PBT (Ferro)
    PBT
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-C PC (Ferro)
    Pol ycarbonate
    Star-C PPS (Ferro)
    Appendix I . 309
    PPS
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-L PA6 (Ferro)
    Nylon 6
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-L PA66 (Ferro)
    Nylon 66
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-L PC (Ferro)
    Polycarbonate
    Star-L POM (Ferro)
    Acetal Cop01 .
    Star-L PPO (Ferro)
    Modified PPE
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix I . 309
    Star-L PS (Ferro)
    PS
    Appendix I . 309
    Stat-Kon (LNP)
    Nylon 66
    Fatigue . 31
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix I1 . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    PBT
    Fatgue . 71
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue . 97
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue 131
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue . 55
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix IV 463
    Fatigue . 51
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix I1 . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue 125
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    PEEK
    PES
    Pol ycarbonate
    PPA
    PPS
    Styron (Dow)
    GPPS
    IPS
    Fatigue 145
    Fatigue 147
    Tribdcgical . 283
    Appendix I . 309
    Supec (GE)
    PPS
    Fatigue 125
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix IV 463
    Surlyn (DuPont)
    lonomer
    Appendix IV 463
    Techster (Rhone Pou.)
    PBT
    Appendix IV 463
    Tedur (Bayer)
    PPS
    Appendix I . 309
    Teflon (DuPont)
    ETFE
    FEP
    Appendix I . 309
    Tribological . m
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 3 n
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix IV 463
    Tribological . 227
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix IV 463
    TFE
    Teflon PFA (DuPont)
    PFA
    Tribological . 225
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 3n
    Tefzel (DuPont)
    ETFE
    Fatigue . 13
    Tribdcgical . 221
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Tenite (Eastman)
    PP
    Fatigue 107
    Texin (Bayer)
    TPAU
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Fatigue 197
    Tribolcgical . 297
    TPU
    Thermocomp (LNP)
    Acetal
    Fatigue 1
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue 145
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue 117
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Fatigue . 23
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    GPPS
    Modified PPE
    Nylon 6 523
    Nylon 61 0
    Fatigue . 27
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix Ill . 429
    Fatigue . 31
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Nylon 66
    PBT
    Fatigue . 71
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Fatigue . 97
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Fatigue . 91
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix I1 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Fatigue . 131
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Fatigue . 55
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix Ill . 429
    Appendix IV . 463
    Fatigue . 129
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Appendix IV . 463
    Fatigue . 107
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix 111 . 429
    Fatigue . 51
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix Ill . 429
    Fatigue . 125
    PPS 309
    PPS 377
    PPS 429
    PEEK
    PEI
    PES
    Polycarbonate
    Polysulfone
    PP
    PPA
    PPS
    SAN
    Fatigue . 149
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II 377
    Appendix Ill . 429
    Torlon (3M)
    PA1
    Appendix 1 . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Torlon (Amoco)
    PA1
    Fatigue . 87
    Tribological . 253
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Toyolac (Toray)
    ABS
    Fatigue 137
    Trogamid (Huls)
    Amorphous Nylon
    Fatigue . 19
    Appendix IV 463
    Ube (Ube)
    Nylon 6
    Fatigue . 23
    Tribdogical . 237
    Nylon 66
    Fatigue . 31
    Tnbological . 239
    Udel (Amoco)
    Polysulfone
    Fatigue 129
    Tribological . 277
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Ultem (GE)
    PEI
    Fatigue . 91
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Appendix IV 463
    Ultradur (BASF AG)
    PBT
    Fatigue . 71
    Tribdogical . 247
    Ultraform (BASF AG)
    Acetal Cop01 .
    Fatigue 3
    Tribdogical . 219
    Ultramid (BASF)
    Nylon 6
    Fatigue . 23
    Tribological . 237
    Fatigue . 31
    Tribdogical . 239
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Nylon 66
    Ultramid (BASF AG)
    Nylon 66
    Fatigue . 31
    Ultramid T (BASF AG)
    Nylon 616T
    Fatigue . 47
    Ultrapek (BASF AG)
    PAEK
    Fatigue . 95
    Tribdogical . 255
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Ultrason E (BASF AG)
    PES
    Fatigue 131
    Appendix 1 . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Ultrason 5 (BASF AG)
    Polysulfone
    Fatigue 129
    Appendix 1 . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Upimol (Ube)
    Polyimide
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Appendix 111 429
    Valox (GE)
    PBT
    Fatigue . 71
    Appendix IV 463
    Fatigue 169
    Fatigue . 83
    Fatigue . 79
    Fatigue 171
    PCIPBT
    PCT
    PET
    PETIPBT
    Vectra (Hoechst AG)
    LCP
    Fatigue . 85
    Tribological . 251
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix IV 463
    Appendix 1 . 309
    Vekton (Ensinger)
    Nylon 6
    Appendix 1 . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429 Verton (LNP)
    Nylon 66
    Fatigue . 31
    Appendix II . 377
    Fatigue 107
    Fatigue . 51
    PP
    PPA
    Vespel (DuPont)
    Polyimide
    Fatigue . 87
    Tribological . 253
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Vestodur (Huls)
    PBT
    Tnbological . 247
    Victrex PEEK (Victrex)
    PEEK
    Fatigue . 97
    Tribological . 257
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Victrex PEEK (Victrex USA)
    PEEK
    Appendix IV 463
    Victrex PEK (Victrex)
    PEK
    Fatigue 101
    Victrex PES (Victrex)
    PES
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix II . 377
    Appendix 111 429
    Victrex PES (Victrex USA)
    PES
    Fatigue 131
    Tribolcgical . 279
    Appendix IV 463
    Xenoy (GE)
    PCIPBT
    Fatigue 169
    Appendix IV 463
    Zenite (DuPont)
    LCP
    Fatigue . 85
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Zytel (DuPont)
    Nylon 6
    Nylon 612
    Tribdogical . 237
    Fatigue . 29
    Appendix IV 463
    Fatigue . 31
    Tribological . 239
    Appendix I . 309
    Appendix IV 463
    Nylon 66

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