Essential Concepts of Bearing Technology

Essential Concepts of Bearing Technology
اسم المؤلف
Tedric A. Harris , Michael N. Kotzalas
4 أبريل 2020
(لا توجد تقييمات)

Essential Concepts of Bearing Technology
Rolling Bearing Analysis
5 th Edition
Tedric A. Harris
Michael N. Kotzalas
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Rolling Bearing Types and Applications
1.1 Introduction to Rolling Bearings
1.2 Ball Bearings
1.2.1 Radial Ball Bearings Single-Row Deep-Groove Conrad-Assembly Ball Bearing Single-Row Deep-Groove Filling-Slot Assembly Ball Bearings Double-Row Deep-Groove Ball Bearings Instrument Ball Bearings
1.2.2 Angular-Contact Ball Bearings Single-Row Angular-Contact Ball Bearings Double-Row Angular-Contact Ball Bearings Self-Aligning Double-Row Ball Bearings Split Inner-Ring Ball Bearings
1.2.3 Thrust Ball Bearings
1.3 Roller Bearings
1.3.1 General
1.3.2 Radial Roller Bearings Cylindrical Roller Bearings Needle Roller Bearings
1.3.3 Tapered Roller Bearings
1.3.4 Spherical Roller Bearings
1.3.5 Thrust Roller Bearings Spherical Roller Thrust Bearings Cylindrical Roller Thrust Bearings Tapered Roller Thrust Bearings Needle Roller Thrust Bearings
1.4 Linear Motion Bearings
1.5 Bearings for Special Applications
1.5.1 Automotive Wheel Bearings
1.5.2 Cam Follower Bearings
1.5.3 Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine and Power Transmission Bearings
1.6 Closure
Chapter 2
Rolling Bearing Macrogeometry
2.1 General
2.2 Ball Bearings
2.2.1 Osculation
2.2.2 Contact Angle and Endplay
2.2.3 Free Angle of Misalignment
2.2.4 Curvature and Relative Curvature
2.3 Spherical Roller Bearings
2.3.1 Pitch Diameter and Diametral Play
2.3.2 Contact Angle and Free Endplay
2.3.3 Osculation
2.3.4 Curvature
2.4 Radial Cylindrical Roller Bearings
2.4.1 Pitch Diameter, Diametral Clearance, and Endplay
2.4.2 Curvature
2.5 Tapered Roller Bearings
2.5.1 Pitch Diameter
2.5.2 Endplay
2.5.3 Curvature
2.6 Closure
Chapter 3
Interference Fitting and Clearance
3.1 General
3.2 Industrial, National, and International Standards
3.2.1 Method of Establishment and Scope
3.2.2 Tolerances for Press-Fitting of Bearing Rings on Shafts and in Housings
3.3 Effect of Interference Fitting on Clearance.
3.4 Press Force
3.5 Differential Expansion
3.6 Effect of Surface Finish
3.7 Closure
Chapter 4
Bearing Loads and Speeds
4.1 General
4.2 Concentrated Radial Loading
4.2.1 Bearing Loads
4.2.2 Gear Loads
4.2.3 Belt-and-Pulley and Chain Drive Loads
4.2.4 Friction Wheel Drives
4.2.5 Dynamic Loading Due to an Eccentric Rotor
4.2.6 Dynamic Loading Due to a Crank-Reciprocating Load Mechanism
4.3 Concentrated Radial and Moment Loading
4.3.1 Helical Gear Loads
4.3.2 Bevel Gear Loads
4.3.3 Hypoid Gear
4.3.4 Worm Gear
4.4 Shaft Speeds
4.5 Distributed Load Systems
4.6 Closure
Chapter 5
Ball and Roller Loads Due to Bearing Applied Loading
5.1 General
5.2 Ball–Raceway Loading
5.3 Symmetrical Spherical Roller–Raceway Loading
5.4 Tapered and Asymmetrical Spherical Roller–Raceway
and Roller–Flange Loading
5.5 Cylindrical Roller–Raceway Loading
5.5.1 Radial Loading
5.5.2 Roller Skewing Moment
5.6 Closure
Chapter 6
Contact Stress and Deformation
6.1 General
6.2 Theory of Elasticity
6.3 Surface Stresses and Deformations
6.4 Subsurface Stresses
6.5 Effect of Surface Shear Stress
6.6 Types of Contacts
6.7 Roller End–Flange Contact Stress
6.8 Closure
Chapter 7
Distributions of Internal Loading in Statically Loaded Bearing
7.1 General
7.2 Load–Deflection Relationships
7.3 Bearings under Radial Load
7.4 Bearings under Thrust Load
7.4.1 Centric Thrust Load
7.4.2 Angular-Contact Ball Bearings
7.4.3 Eccentric Thrust Load Single-Direction Bearings Double-Direction Bearings
7.5 Bearings under Combined Radial and Thrust Load
7.5.1 Single-Row Bearings
7.5.2 Double-Row Bearings
7.6 Closure
Chapter 8
Bearing Deflection and Preloading
8.1 General
8.2 Deflections of Bearings with Rigidly Supported Rings
8.3 Preloading
8.3.1 Axial Preloading
8.3.2 Radial Preloading
8.3.3 Preloading to Achieve Isoelasticity
8.4 Limiting Ball Bearing Thrust Load
8.4.1 General Considerations
8.4.2 Thrust Load Causing Ball to Override Land
8.4.3 Thrust Load Causing Excessive Contact Stress
8.5 Closure
Chapter 9
Permanent Deformation and Bearing Static Capacity
9.1 General
9.2 Calculation of Permanent Deformation
9.3 Static Load Rating of Bearings
9.4 Static Equivalent Load
9.5 Fracture of Bearing Components
9.6 Permissible Static Load
9.7 Closure
Chapter 10
Kinematic Speeds, Friction Torque, and Power Loss
10.1 General
10.2 Cage Speed
10.3 Rolling Element Speed
10.4 Rolling Bearing Friction
10.5 Rolling Bearing Friction Torque
10.5.1 Ball Bearings Torque Due to Applied Load Torque Due to Lubricant Viscous Friction Total Friction Torque
10.5.2 Cylindrical Roller Bearings Torque Due to Applied Load Torque Due to Lubricant Viscous Friction Torque Due to Roller End–Ring Flange Sliding Friction Total Friction Torque
10.5.3 Spherical Roller Bearings Torque Due to Applied Load Torque Due to Lubricant Viscous Friction Total Friction Torque
10.5.4 Needle Roller Bearings
10.5.5 Tapered Roller Bearings
10.5.6 High-Speed Effects
10.6 Bearing Power Loss
10.7 Thermal Speed Ratings
10.8 Closure
Chapter 11
Fatigue Life: Basic Theory and Rating Standards
11.1 General
11.2 Rolling Contact Fatigue
11.2.1 Material Microstructure before Bearing Operation
11.2.2 Alteration of the Microstructure Caused by Over-Rolling
11.2.3 Fatigue Cracking and Raceway Spalling Caused by
11.2.4 Fatigue Failure-Initiating Stress and Depth
11.3 Fatigue Life Dispersion
11.4 Weibull Distribution
11.5 Dynamic Capacity and Life of a Rolling Contact
11.5.1 Line Contact
11.6 Fatigue Life of a Rolling Bearing
11.6.1 Point-Contact Radial Bearings
11.6.2 Point-Contact Thrust Bearings
11.6.3 Line-Contact Radial Bearings
11.6.4 Line-Contact Thrust Bearings
11.6.5 Radial Roller Bearings with Point and Line Contact
11.6.6 Thrust Roller Bearing with Point and Line Contact
11.7 Load Rating Standards
11.8 Effect of Variable Loading on Fatigue Life
11.9 Fatigue Life of Oscillating Bearings
11.10 Reliability and Fatigue Life
11.11 Closure
Chapter 12
Lubricants and Lubrication Techniques
12.1 General
12.2 Types of Lubricants
12.2.1 Selection of Lubricant Type
12.2.2 Liquid Lubricants
12.2.3 Greases
12.2.4 Polymeric Lubricants
12.2.5 Solid Lubricants
12.3 Liquid Lubricants
12.3.1 Types of Liquid Lubricants Mineral Oil Synthetic Oils Environmentally Acceptable Oils
12.3.2 Base Stock Lubricant
12.3.3 Properties of Base Liquid Lubricants Viscosity Viscosity Index Pour Point Flash Point Evaporation Loss
12.3.4 Lubricant Additive Purpose VI Improvers Extreme Pressure/Antiwear Other Additives
12.4 Grease
12.4.1 How Grease Lubrication Functions
12.4.2 Advantages of Grease Lubrication
12.4.3 Types of Greases General Lithium Soap Greases Calcium Soap Greases Sodium Soap Greases Aluminum Complex Greases Nonsoap-Base Greases Inorganic Thickeners for Grease Combining Greases
12.4.4 Grease Properties Properties of Retained Oil Dropping Point Low-Temperature Torque Oil Separation Penetration
12.5 Solid Lubricants
12.6 Lubricant Delivery Systems
12.6.1 Oil Bath/Splash Oil
12.6.2 Circulating Oil
12.6.3 Air–Oil/Oil Mist
12.6.4 Grease
12.6.5 Polymeric Lubricant
12.7 Seals
12.7.1 Function of Seals
12.7.2 Types of Seals Labyrinth Seals Shields Elastomeric Lip Seals Garter Seals
12.8 Closure
Chapter 13
Structural Materials of Bearings
13.1 General
13.2 Rolling Bearing Steels
13.2.1 Types of Steels for Rolling Components
13.2.2 Through-Hardening Steels
13.2.3 Case-Hardening Steels
13.2.4 Steels for Special Bearings
13.3 Steel Manufacture
13.3.1 Melting Methods
13.3.2 Raw Materials
13.3.3 Basic Electric Furnace Process
13.3.4 Vacuum Degassing of Steel
13.3.5 Ladle Furnace
13.3.6 Methods for Producing Ultrahigh-Purity Steel Vacuum Induction Melting Vacuum Arc Remelting Electroslag Refining
13.3.7 Steel Products
13.3.8 Steel Metallurgical Characteristics Cleanliness Segregation Structure
13.4 Effects of Processing Methods on Steel Components
13.5 Heat Treatment of Steel
13.5.1 Basic Principles
13.5.2 Time–Temperature Transformation Curve
13.5.3 Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves
13.5.4 Hardenability
13.5.5 Hardening Methods
13.5.6 Through-Hardening, High-Carbon–Chromium
Bearing Steels General Heat Treatment Martensite Marquenching Bainite
13.5.7 Surface Hardening Methods Carburizing Carbonitriding Induction Heating Flame-Hardening
13.5.8 Thermal Treatment for Structural Stability
13.5.9 Mechanical Properties Affected by Heat Treatment Elasticity Ultimate Strength Fatigue Strength Toughness Hardness Residual Stress
13.6 Materials for Special Bearings
13.7 Cage Materials
13.7.1 Material Types
13.7.2 Low-Carbon Steel
13.7.3 Brass
13.7.4 Bronze
13.7.5 Polymeric Cage Materials Advantages and Disadvantages Rolling Bearing Polymer Cages
13.7.6 High-Temperature Polymers
13.8 Seal Materials
13.8.1 Function, Description, and Illustration
13.8.2 Elastomeric Seal Materials
13.9 Tribological Coatings for Bearing Components
13.9.1 Coatings in General
13.9.2 Coating Deposition Processes General Chemical Conversion Coatings Electroplating and Electroless Plating Chemical Vapor Deposition Physical Vapor Deposition
13.9.3 Surface Treatments for Mitigation of Damage Mechanisms
Associated with Severe Operating Conditions General Interruption or Lack of Lubricant Supply to the Bearing False Brinelling Indentations Caused by Hard Particle Contaminants Severe Wear (Galling or Smearing) Surface-Initiated Fatigue
13.10 Closure
Chapter 14
Vibration, Noise, and Condition Monitoring
14.1 General
14.2 Vibration- and Noise-Sensitive Applications
14.2.1 Significance of Vibration and Noise
14.2.2 Noise-Sensitive Applications
14.2.3 Vibration-Sensitive Applications
14.3 The Role of Bearings in Machine Vibration
14.3.1 Bearing Effects on Machine Vibration
14.3.2 Structural Elements
14.3.3 Variable Elastic Compliance
14.3.4 Geometric Imperfections General Microscale Waviness and Other Form Errors
14.3.5 Waviness Model
14.4 Measurement of Nonroundness and Vibration
14.4.1 Waviness Testing
14.4.2 Vibration Testing
14.4.3 Bearing Pass Frequencies
14.4.4 Relation of Vibration and Waviness or Other Defects
14.5 Detection of Failing Bearings in Machines
14.6 Condition-Based Maintenance
14.7 Closure
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