ملف متكامل لأساسيات اللغة الانجليزية
ESL – English as a Second Language
DAYS & DATES
MONTHS OF THE YEAR
There are 26 letters in the English alphabet:
Vowels: A E I O U
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 meter
1 yard = 3 feet
1 mile = 5,280 feet
3 miles = 4.83 kilometers
1 acre = 43,560 square feet
1 ounce = 28.35 g
1 pound = 0.45 kg
1 cup = 8 ounces
1 pint = 2 cups
1 pint = 473 mL
1 quart = 2 pints
1 gallon = 4 quarts
Currency & Exchanging Money
USD = United States dollar
EUR = Euro (official currency of the European Union)
“What is the current exchange rate from USD to Euro?”
“I would like to exchange Japanese yen to US dollars.”
“How can I receive a wire transfer?”
Talking About Prices
“Excuse me, how much is this book?”
“That book is $45.99.” (“Forty-five ninety-nine” or “forty-five dollars
and ninety-nine cents.”)
“That comes to $50 with tax.”
“Out of $50? Your change is $4.01.” (“Four-oh-one” or “four dollars
and one cent.”)
“Twenty even.” ($20.00)
“Exact change.” (No change required.)
“Will you be paying by cash or credit card?”
“Here is your receipt.”
$0.01 one cent a penny
$0.05 five cents a nickel
$0.25 twenty-five cents a quarter
$0.50 fifty cents a half dollar
$1.00 one dollar a dollar
$5.00 five dollars a five-dollar bill
$10.00 ten dollars a ten-dollar bill (“a ten”)
$20.00 twenty dollars a twenty-dollar bill (“a twenty”)
$50.00 fifty dollars a fifty-dollar bill (“a fifty”)
$100.00 one hundred dollars a hundred-dollar bill (“a hundred”)
ATM (automated teller machine)
Stages of Life
“What day is it?”
“What’s the date?”
“Today is January 1st, 2001, a new century!”
“It’s the 18th.”
The weekend = Saturday and Sunday
The work week = Monday through Friday
A decade = Ten years
A century = One hundred years
DAYS & DATES
MONTHS OF THE YEAR
100 one hundred
200 two hundred
1,000 one thousand
10,000 ten thousand
1,000,000 1 million
1,000,000,000 1 billion
Vegetables (broccoli, avocado, carrots,
mushrooms, onions, corn)
Fruits (apples, oranges, grapes, berries)
Grains (whole grains, pasta, oatmeal,
tortillas, grits, cereals, rice)
Protein (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu,
nuts, seeds, legumes/beans)
Dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese)
Oils (vegetable oils, margarine, mayonnaise,
avocado, canola oil, nuts)
How Are You? Feeling Healthy Feeling Sick
Responses “I am well. Thank you.”
“I feel great.Thank
“I do not feel well.”
“I have a cold/fever.”
“I have a sore throat.”
“I have a headache.”
Idioms “I am back on my feet.”
“I am under the weather.”
“I am getting over a cold.”
(recovering from a cold)
Responses “I am well-rested.” “I am tired.”
“I am fatigued.”
“I am exhausted.”
Calling in Sick to Work or School
“Unfortunately, I am not feeling well today and will not be able
to come in (to school/to the office).”
“I’m sorry to hear that. I hope you feel better soon.”
“Please take care.”
“Get well soon.”
911 emergency call: “What is
“There has been an accident.”
“I need an ambulance.”
“I need help. I am at 144 Main
Street, Apartment B.”
A B C D E F G H I
J K L M N O P Q R
S T U V W X Y Z
WORLD’S #1 ACADEMIC OUTLINE
Vocabulary, Popular Phrases & Expressions, Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives & More
100th one hundredth
124th one hundred and twenty-fourth
English as a
How’s the weather?
What’s it like outside?
It’s sunny with clear skies.
What’s the temperature
It’s warm, it’s 70 degrees.
It’s cold, it’s 5 below zero./It is
negative 5 degrees.
What will the weather be
What is the weather forecast for
Check the weather report.
It’s partly sunny.
There is a weather advisory.
There is a severe wind chill.
There is a storm/hurricane/
WEATHER & CLIMATE
Hello Good night
Good morning Hey (very casual)
Good evening Hi
First-Time Greetings/Endings Common Responses
“How are you?” “I am fine, thank you, and you?”
“What’s your name?” “My name is Peter.”
“Thank you.” “You are welcome.”
“Let me introduce you to Mary.” “Hello Mary, delighted to meet you.”
“This is Mary. Mary, this is Tom.” “Hi, it’s a pleasure to meet you.”
“See you later.” “Hope to see you soon.”
“Goodbye.” “Goodbye, it was nice meeting you.”
Conversation Responses in a Conversation
“Can you please speak slowly?” “Yes. I am sorry.”
“Could you please repeat that?” “Of course.”
Meeting after Some Time
“It’s nice to see you again.”
“It’s great to see you!”
“It’s been a long time. How have you been?”
“Long time, no see.”
“How are you doing these days?”
Federal Holidays (Offices Closed)
New Year’s Day = January 1
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day = Third Monday in January
Presidents’ Day = Third Monday in February
Memorial Day = Last Monday in May
Independence Day = July 4
Labor Day = First Monday in September
Columbus Day = Second Monday in October
Veterans Day = November 11
Thanksgiving = Fourth Thursday in November
Christmas = December 25
THE 50 UNITED STATES & JURISDICTIONS
People & Positions
City council members
US post office
State capitol building
Data entry clerk
Food service worker
Human resource specialist
“Would you like to …”
EX: “Would you like to go for a hike this weekend?”
“Yes, I would love to.” OR
“Unfortunately, I have plans this weekend. Maybe another time.”
EX: “The holiday party is this Friday. Would you like to carpool?”
“Yes, that would be great.”
“How about …” (casual)
EX: “How about dinner tonight?” / “How about grabbing a bite
“Sorry, I already have plans. Maybe another time.” OR
“Sure, I’d love to.”
“Is it all right if I …” “I think I’m going to … Is that okay?”
“Would you mind if I …” “May I (please) …”
“I wonder if I could …” “Do you think I should …”
“Would it be possible to …” “What would you think if I …”
“Sure, go ahead.” “Of course!”
“Yes, please feel free to.” “Yeah, sure!” (casual)
“Yes, absolutely.” “No problem.”
“Actually that’s not possible.” “That sounds great, but …”
“I’d rather you not.” “I wish I could come, but …”
“I’d prefer you didn’t.” “Sorry, I’m afraid I can’t.”
“I’m afraid not.” “Thank you, but I have to …”
Asking for Help
“Would you be willing to help me out with …”
“Are you free to help me with …”
“Could you possibly help me …”
“Would you be able to do me a favor?”
Promotions & Offers
“Would you like to try a free sample?”
“Please accept this gift free of charge.”
INVITATIONS & OFFERS
North, northern (adj)
South, southern (adj)
East, eastern (adj)
West, western (adj)
Northeast, northeastern (adj)
Northwest, northwestern (adj)
Southeast, southeastern (adj)
Southwest, southwestern (adj)
Other Cultural or Religious Holidays
Valentine’s Day = February 14
St. Patrick’s Day = March 17
Halloween = October 31
Christmas Eve = December 24
New Year’s Eve = December 31
Asking for Directions
“How can I get to ?”
“Do you know where is?”
“Head northwest …”
“Take a right on Main Street, then it’s the second
“The library is in the south end of town.”
“I live in the northern part of New York state.”
New Hampshire (NH)
New Jersey (NJ)
New Mexico (NM)
New York (NY)
North Carolina (NC)
North Dakota (ND)
Rhode Island (RI)
South Carolina (SC)
South Dakota (SD)
West Virginia (WV)
District of Columbia (DC)
Puerto Rico (PR)3
Middle school/Junior high school
Co-ed vs. all girls or all boys
Communication and media studies
Education: Physical education, special education, elementary education,
early childhood education
Engineering: Civil engineering, environmental engineering, structural
engineering, electrical engineering,
Hospitality, leisure, recreation, and
Mathematics: Geometry, algebra,
Music: Music history, composition,
performance, music education
Science: Biology, chemistry, physics
“I am majoring in business.”
“She was accepted into the
“Most of his classes were in the
“She majored in architecture and
minored in creative writing.”
SCHOOL & UNIVERSITY
Body weight (in pounds)
CT (cat scan)
Health insurance card
Height (in feet/inches)
Intensive care unit (ICU)
“I would like to make an
appointment for a chestX-ray.”
“I am here for my regular
“Please bring your health
insurance card to your appointment.”
“She is having surgery on
“I am feeling nauseated.”
“I have the flu.” (influenza)
“I am having an allergic
“I am having an asthma attack.” (asthma)
Head, scalp, hair
Ears, eyes, mouth, nose,
throat, tongue, gums
Arms, elbows, wrists, fingers
Legs, knees, ankles, toes
Asking for Someone’s
“What do you think about …?”
“How do you feel about …?”
“What is your opinion of him/
“What is your opinion on the new
“Do you have an opinion about
“Personally, I feel that …”
“In my opinion, …”
“From my perspective, …”
“I believe/think …”
“If you’d like my opinion, …”
“To be honest, …”
“I don’t really have an opinion
“I don’t feel strongly either way.”
“I’m neither for nor against it.”
“Thank you. I hear what you’re
“I understand where you’re coming from.”
“I see your point.”
“I agree with you.”
“I partly agree with you.”
“Although I do not fully agree, I
respect your opinion.”
Writing a blog post
Create an account
Leaving a comment
PC (personal computer)
“Write a post.”
“Post a photo.”
“Create a profile.”
“Google is the most
popular search engine.”
SEO (search engine
Social Network Service (SNS)
“I tagged you in the photo.”
“I sent him a text.” /
“I texted him.”
“Most people have several
web browsers installed on
“What time is it?” / “Do you
have the time?”
“It is a quarter of two.”
Morning = AM
Afternoon = PM
Evening = After 7 PM
12 AM = Midnight
2:10 AM = Two ten or ten
past two (in the morning)
5:35 AM = Five thirty-five
(in the morning)
12 PM = Noon
3:15 PM = Three fifteen or a
quarter past three (in the afternoon)
4:30 PM = Four thirty or half
past four (in the afternoon)
7:50 PM = Seven fifty or ten
ʼtil eight (in the evening)
11:45 PM = Eleven fortyfive or a quarter of twelve
(in the evening)
Last week Yesterday
The day before yesterday Two days ago
Today Right now
Tomorrow Two days from now
The day after tomorrow A week from today
Next week Next year
Eastern Standard Time (EST)
Central Standard Time (CST)
Mountain Standard Time (MST)
Pacific Standard Time (PST)
Alaska Standard Time (AKST)
Hawaii-Aleutian Standard (HAST)
● Nouns are names for:
– People: Mary, boy, woman
– Places: New York, Canada, North America, home,
– Animals: Dog, horse,
– Things: Car, book,
– Ideas: Honesty, beauty,
● There are:
– Common nouns: Building, planet, boy, lake, city
– Proper nouns: White
House, Earth, George,
Lake Champlain, Paris
There are two types of nouns:
Count Noun Noncount Noun
A book, a store Water, honesty
[singular & plural] [no plural]
two books some water
some books some water
a lot of books a lot of water
many books much water
a few books a little water
In grammar, noncount nouns cannot be counted.
● The verb following a noncount
noun is always singular.
EX: A lot of water passes under
● A noncount noun never takes
the indefinite article a/an.
Here are a few common noncount
noun categories and examples:
mail beauty hair
food luck salt
traffic music sugar
ice French weather
smoke Arabic heat
paper Spanish soccer
● Expressions of quantity come
before a noun:
– Some are used with only
– Some are used with only
– Some are used with both.
● Expression of quantity:
– Count noun:
◊ One book
◊ Each/Every book
◊ Two/Both/A couple of books
◊ Three, etc., books
◊ A few/Several books
◊ Many/A number of books
– Noncount nouns:
◊ A little water
◊ Much water
◊ A great deal of water
– For both count and noncount nouns:
◊ Not any/No book/water
◊ Some books/water
◊ A lot of/Lots of/Plenty of books/
◊ Most books/water
◊ All books/water4
● For most regular plurals, add an -s to the word.
EX: Coins, apples
Other Noun Plurals
● When the singular ends in s, sh, ch, x, z, add -es.
● When the singular ends in o, add -s.
Exceptions: Tomatoes, potatoes, echoes, heroes
● When the singular ends in y (preceded by a vowel), only -s is
● When the singular ends in y (preceded by a consonant), -ies is
● Nouns that end in -f or -fe change to -ves endings:
EX: Calf, calves; shelf, shelves; half, halves; loaf, loaves; thief,
thieves; scarf, scarves; wolf, wolves; leaf, leaves; self, selves
EX: Life, lives; knife, knives
Exceptions: Beliefs, chiefs, cliffs, roofs
● The following are some irregular plurals:
– Child, children; man, men; woman, women; mouse, mice; louse,
lice; goose, geese; ox, oxen; tooth, teeth; foot, feet
● Some nouns in English come from other languages and have foreign
– Analysis, analyses; hypothesis, hypotheses; appendix, appendices,
appendixes; index, indices, indexes; medium, media; bacterium,
bacteria; memorandum, memoranda; basis, bases; oasis, oases;
cactus, cacti, cactuses; parenthesis, parentheses; crisis, crises; phenomenon, phenomena; criterion, criteria; stimulus, stimuli; curriculum, curricula; syllabus, syllabi, syllabuses; datum, data; thesis,
theses; formula, formulae, formulas; vertebra, vertebrae
PLURALS OF NOUNS
● Pronouns take the place of a noun; they
are noun substitutes:
– Boy = He
– Book = It
– Mary = She
● Subject pronouns (refer to the subject):
I (I speak English.) we
he, she, it they
● Object pronouns (refer to the object of
me (Jan called me.) us
him, her, it them
● Possessive pronouns (indicate ownership):
mine (This book is mine.) ours
his, hers, its theirs
● Reflexive pronouns (refer to the subject, sometimes used for emphasis):
myself (I like to
EX: You should treat yourself to ice
● The expression by + a reflexive pronoun
usually means “alone.”
EX: He lives by himself.
● Indefinite pronouns (non-specific, singular):
– Everyone (Everyone has his or her
– Something (Did I leave something on
– Anybody (Anybody is welcome.)
– No one (No one attended the meeting.)
● One means “any person, people in general.”
EX: One should always be on time.
● You means “any person, people in general.”
EX: I am lost; how do you get to the
train station from here?
Demonstrative Adjectives vs.
Demonstrative adjectives modify a noun.
● This (singular)
EX: This table has been here for ten
● That (singular)
EX: That car is very old.
● Those (plural)
EX: Those flowers only bloom in May.
● These (plural)
EX: These apples are not very sweet.
Demonstrative pronouns replace a noun
or noun phrase.
● “Please take these to the office.”
● “I love this.”
● “How much is this?”
● “Where did you find those?”
● “I can’t stand that.”
● “Is that yours?”
Adjectives give more information about nouns:
● The following are called descriptive adjectives;
they describe the noun.
– Good student, bad student, intelligent student, hot
day, hot food, cold day, cold food
● The following common endings turn nouns or verbs
– -y (milky), -ous (joyous), -ful (hopeful), -able
(workable), -less (helpless)
EX: He is a joyous child. (He is full of joy.)
Synonyms are words that have the same or similar
EX: Smart/Intelligent, rich/wealthy, sad/unhappy,
Antonyms are words that have the opposite or nearly opposite meanings. There are different categories
of antonyms: graded and complementary.
● Graded antonyms express opposites along a continuum: rich/poor, wet/dry, smart/dumb, fast/slow,
● Complementary antonyms express two opposites:
dead/alive, able/unable, come/go, inside/outside,
raise/lower, give/receive, on/off.
● Some antonyms can be made simply by adding a
– Fair/Unfair ̶ Eligible/Ineligible
– Possible/Impossible ̶ Agree/Disagree
– Religious/Nonreligious ̶ Relevant/Irrelevant
Comparisons & Superlatives
Two nouns with adjectives can be compared:
● In most cases, add -er to an adjective to make a
EX: Earth is big. Uranus is bigger (than Earth).
EX: Sugar is sweet. Honey is sweeter (than sugar).
● In adjectives with more than two syllables, use
more to compare.
EX: John is handsome. Peter is more handsome.
EX: Algebra is difficult. Calculus is more difficult.
When comparing more than two nouns with adjectives,
use the superlative:
● Add the and -est to adjectives which use -er. Use the
most with adjectives with more than two syllables.
EX: Earth is big. Uranus is bigger. Jupiter is the
biggest of all planets.
EX: Algebra is difficult. Calculus is more difficult.
Nuclear physics is the most difficult of all subjects.
Adjective Comparison Superlative
adjective with a
ending in “e”
wise wiser wisest
adjective with a
fat fatter fattest
ending in “y”
dry drier driest
ending in “y”
happy happier happiest
quick quicker quickest
Irregular far farther farthest
bad worse worst
Possessive Adjectives vs. Possessive Pronouns
Both possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns describe ownership. Possessive adjectives modify a noun.
my (My car is blue.) our (This is our car.)
your your (Your car isn̕t here.)
his, her, its their (Their car is huge.)
Possessive pronouns replace a noun or noun phrase.
mine (This book is mine.) ours (You may use ours.)
yours (Is that yours?) yours (Yours is over there.)
his, her, its theirs (That is theirs.)
Articles are words that modify
nouns. There are two types of
Definite Articles (the)
Definite articles are used with singular count nouns, plural count
nouns, and noncount nouns.
● When the noun is known to the
EX: The car I have is very
EX: The question they want to
ask is about homework.
● When the noun is “the only
one” of its kind:
EX: The sun rises in the east.
EX: The moon is full.
EX: The door is locked. (There
is only one door.)
● When the noun is a representative of a general class of items:
EX: The computer is the most
EX: The piano is a beautiful
Indefinite Articles (a, an)
● Indefinite articles are used with
singular count nouns only:
EX: A bird, a boy, a book, a
dictionary, a piece of cake
● Use an with a noun that begins
with a vowel sound:
EX: An apple, an examination,
an hour (a university, a hotel
because “university” and “hotel” begin with a consonant
● When the noun is unknown to
EX: I have a car.
EX: Mary has a test tomorrow.
EX: They want to ask a question.
● When the noun is being introduced for the first time:
EX: A banana is usually yellow.
EX: A book is a good friend on
a long trip.
Plural count nouns and noncount
nouns do not need definite articles
when they are referring to all of
● Plural count nouns:
– I love apples. (apples, in
– The apples in this box are bad.
– Books are expensive. (books,
– The books in that store are
cheap. (specific books)
– That store has computers.
(computers, in general)
– The computers they have are
old. (specific computers)
● Noncount nouns:
– I love coffee. (coffee, in
– The coffee in this cup is cold.
– Many people enjoy rice. (rice,
– The rice I ate last night was
good. (specific rice)
– Water is necessary. (water, in
– The water here isn’t good to
drink. (specific water)
Remember: A singular count
noun cannot appear alone.
It must have:
● An article: A book, the car, an
● A demonstrative: This TV, that
radio, this newspaper
● A possessive: My pen, her key,
Common Idioms Using Possessive
“Your guess is as good as mine.” (Meaning: I have
“What’s mine is yours.” (Meaning: Everything that
belongs to me also belongs to you.)
Possession with ’s
● Another way to show possession is with ’s.
EX: This book belongs to John. (John has a
EX: This is John’s book. (It is his book.)
● If a noun is singular, use only ’s.
EX: The boy’s book; the dog’s food; the girl’s
hat; the man’s car
● If a noun is plural, use only ’.
EX: The boys’ books; the dogs’ food; the girls’
● If a noun has an irregular plural with no s, then
EX: The men’s cars; the children’s toys
● If a noun or name has an s, use either ’ or ’s.
EX: Thomas’ book or Thomas’s book
– This book (close to the speaker); This book is
– That car (far from the speaker); That book is
– These houses (close to speaker); These books
– Those chairs (far from speaker); Those books
Adverbs give information about verbs, adjectives, and
● Adverbs are often formed by adding -ly to an adjective:
– He spoke quickly. (adjective = quick)
– They are extremely intelligent.
– She opened the box very carefully.
● Adverbs often answer questions:
“How?” She opens the present quickly.
“Where?” She opens the present inside.
“When?” She opened the present yesterday.
“To what extent?” She opens the present very quickly.
● Adverbs express time (tomorrow, yesterday, today,
early, late, etc.).
EX: John arrives tomorrow.
● Frequency adverbs (sometimes, usually, often, never,
etc.) tell “how often” some action happens.
EX: “How often do you smoke?” “I never smoke.”
100% <=> 50% => <=> 0%
always usually sometimes rarely never
often occasionally seldom not ever
● Adverbs of frequency come before verbs in the simple
present and past (usually comes, never ate, often do,
EX: She usually comes at 8 PM.
● They come after the verb “be” in the simple present and
past (is usually, are never, was often, were rarely).
EX: She is usually on time.
● Frequency adverbs come between an auxiliary and main
verb (has always been, will never eat, had often come).
EX: She has always been on time.
Comparison & Superlatives with Adverbs
● With one-syllable adverbs, use -er when two persons or
two things are compared.
EX: He came later than I did.
EX: She wakes up earlier than the rest of us do.
EX: Mary types faster than I do.
● With three or more nouns, add -est (latest, earliest,
EX: Alice types fastest of all of us.
● Most adverbs that end in -ly use the word more when
comparing two verbs + adverbs.
EX: He runs more quickly (than his brother).
EX: She speaks more clearly (than her classmates).
● When comparing more than two verbs and adverbs, use
EX: He runs more quickly than his brother, but his
cousin runs the most quickly (of the three).
● Some adverbs change their forms completely when they
are used in comparisons. These are considered irregular:
– Well, better, best
– Badly, worse, worst
– Much, more, most
– Little, less, least
– Far, farther/further,
Prepositions are words that show a special relationship
between two things.
● Prepositions answer such questions as where?, when?,
– The students are in the library. (Where are they?)
– John is coming by bus. (How is he coming?)
– She leaves at 8:00 a.m. (When does she leave?)
The dog walked across the park.
The mirror is leaning against the wall.
The brown horse is ahead of the white horse.
The white horse is behind the brown horse.
The trail runs along the edge of the forest.
The fish are swimming among the sharks.
The moat was built around the castle.
She stood between her mother and her father.
He just got home from school.
We live near the White House.
“We drove from home to school.”
“He poured the lemonade into the cups.”
“She placed her books onto the counter.” (“Onto” is generally interchangeable with “on.”)
About, before, despite, of, to[ward][s], above, behind, down,
off, under, across, below, during, on, until, after, beneath,
for, out, up[on], against, beside[s], from, over, with, along,
between, in[to], through, within/without, among, beyond,
like, throughout, around, by, near, till, at
● Many verbs are followed by prepositions.
● It is important to learn common verb and preposition
combinations and their meanings.
● The meaning of a verb will change, depending on the
preposition that follows it.
Verb Meaning Example
To complete a
Please fill out the
form before your
fill in To do someone’s
job while they are
She filled in for the
secretary while he
was on vacation.
She looks up to her
Aunt Louise and
wants to be like her.
To view with
employees often look
down on the new,
Other Common Verb & Preposition Combinations
ask for grow out of stand out
believe in get up stand up
break up with listen for stay out of
break down listen to run into
care for let out take after
come up with keep away wait for
deal with pass off wait on
drop by pay for wake up
get on put up with walk around
get out of show off walk out on
go through stand for work for
In front of
Connecting Independent Clauses
● An independent clause is a sentence [subject +
verb] that has meaning when it stands by itself.
EX: I need help.
EX: She likes soccer.
● Independent clauses can be combined with “connectors” or conjunctions that show the relationship
between the first and second clause.
● The first clause in all the examples below is the
same; however, the second clauses are different.
– And signals an addition of equal importance:
John is sick, and he is not going to school
– But (yet) signals a contrast:
John is sick, but he is going to school today.
– Or signals a choice:
John is sick, or he is a very good actor.
– So signals a result:
John is sick, so he is not going to school today.
– For signals a reason:
John is sick, for he got a cold in the rain.
● Use a comma between the first independent clause
and the second.
● When two subjects are connected, the subject
closer to the verb determines whether the verb
is singular or plural.
– Not only + noun + but also + noun:
Not only my brother but also my sister is in
– Either + noun + or + noun:
Either my brother or my sister was in Europe.
– Neither + noun + nor + noun:
Neither my brother nor my sister is in Europe.
Neither my brothers nor my sisters are in
● When two subjects are connected by both, they
take a plural verb:
– Both + noun + and + noun:
Both my brother and my sister are in Europe.
A sentence usually has a subject [S] and a verb [V].
Boys run. People eat. Fish swim.
S V S V S V
● Some sentences also have an object [O].
– People eat food.
S V O
– Mary enjoyed the movie.
S V O
– They need passports.
S V O
● Some sentences also have an indirect object [IO].
– John gave a present to me.
– John gave me a present. [no preposition]
THE ENGLISH SENTENCE
● Basically, a sentence is a “clause.”
● A clause has a subject and a verb.
● There are two basic clauses in English: independent and
EX: I’m going to the store because I need milk.
● The dependent clause needs the independent clause for
the complete meaning.
● There are three types of dependent clauses in English.
● Each of them has a name that describes what each does in a
sentence: adjective clauses, noun clauses, and adverb clauses.
● Adjective clauses work like adjectives; they give more
information about nouns they are describing.
– Who is used for persons.
– Which is used for things.
– That is used for both.
◊ Which girl? The girl who is talking is my cousin.
◊ Which book? The book that you borrowed is my
– Whose is used for possession:
◊ My friend whose car was stolen went to the police.
◊ I met a girl whose mother is a pilot.
Noun clauses are used like nouns. A noun can be a subject
or an object in a sentence. A noun clause can also be a
subject or an object of a sentence.
Subjects of Sentences
Your coming late
That you came late makes me angry.
That he didn’t do his work
● When a noun clause is used as a subject, the word that
is often used.
● The subject it can also be used by placing the noun clause
at the end of the sentence.
EX: It makes me angry that you came late.
EX: It makes me angry that he didn’t do his work.
Objects of Sentences
I know French.
[that] your birthday is tomorrow.
[that] Washington was the first
Note: That is optional in the two sentences above.
● Adverb clauses are used like adverbs.
● They answer questions like when, why, and how long.
● Adverb clauses show relationships between two sentences:
● I’ve been here since I was young.
● They came after we had eaten dinner.
● The student stood when the teacher entered.
Future Time Clauses
● When talking about the future:
● The verb in the time clause is always present tense.
● The main verb is future tense:
– When I get home, I will call you.
– Mary will be here when she finishes her work.
– When you press this button, the police will come.
Cause & Effect
● We can’t go swimming because it’s raining.
● It’s raining so we can’t go swimming.
● Although it’s cold, I’m going swimming.
● She got a good grade even though she didn’t study.
● If it rains, we will cancel the picnic.
● I would have gone if I had known about the party.
● She came early so that she could get a good seat.
● He drove fast to make up for the delay.
Making Sentences Negative
● You can make a sentence negative by putting
the word not with the auxiliary form of the verb.
Verb Tense Auxiliary Negative Contractions
simple present do/does do not/
am/are/is am not/are
simple past did did not didn’t
past continuous was/were was not/
simple future will will not won’t
future continuous will be will not be won’t be
present perfect have/has have not/
past perfect had had not hadn’t
had been had not
future perfect will have will not
● Do not use double negatives, which are two forms of negation in one sentence. They are nearly always incorrect.
– Correct: Don’t touch anything.
– Incorrect: Don’t touch nothing.
– Correct: She didn’t speak any English.
– Incorrect: She didn’t speak no English.
– Correct: He isn’t going anywhere.
– Incorrect: He isn’t going nowhere.
These require either a “yes” or “no” answer.
Auxiliary [Tense +
Do they live here?
Are you and I going tomorrow?
Did he do his work?
Will she come next week?
Has Mary eaten yet?
Remember that the auxiliary carries tense information, and
sometimes “number” information, about the subject.
Example Question with Auxiliary
They speak English. Do they speak English?
He smokes. Does he smoke?
I am doing well. Am I doing well?
She is listening. Is she listening?
We are leaving now. Are we leaving now?
She cooked dinner. Did she cook dinner?
It was raining. Was it raining?
They were working. Were they working?
He will understand. Will he understand?
He has been sick. Has he been sick?
You have been eating well. Have you been eating well?
They had come early. Had they come early?
These ask for specific information.
“Wh” questions follow the same pattern as yes/no questions,
except the first word in a wh-question is the wh-word, not
When do you eat dinner?
Where has he learned English?
Why did Mary come late?
will you borrow ?
have they chosen ?
How does Bob go to work?
How did he do on his test?
Who is going tomorrow?
Who[m] are you marrying ?
What has she bought me?
Who in the sentence “Who is going tomorrow” is asking a
question about the subject of the sentence. When you are
asking any kind of wh-question about the subject of the
sentence, do not use an auxiliary in your question.
● Three children have been injured. [subject]
● How many children have been injured? [no auxiliary]
● She has three children. [object]
● How many children does she have? [auxiliary needed]
Whom (as in the sentence “Whom are you marrying”) is
used when asking a question about the object of a sentence:
Whom are you talking to?
● It is often very formal.
● Today, many people do not use the word whom; instead,
they use “who.”
● There is one exception: To whom are you talking?
– When a preposition comes before who, you
must use whom, such as for whom, by whom,
with whom, against whom, etc.
WH-Word Meaning/Use Example Answers
when time Tomorrow. Two weeks ago. Now.
where place At home. Here. In New York.
why reason Because I’m sick. To eat lunch.
whose possession Mary’s book. The man’s car.
which choice The math homework.
how manner Quickly. By bus. Very well.
who person [subject] The boy. Mary and John.
whom person [object] The boy. Mary and John.
what things The dog. The car. The radio.
Tag questions are added to the end of a sentence to make
sure the information is correct or to seek agreement:
● Affirmative sentence + negative tag = affirmative answer
You like coffee, don’t you? = Yes, I do
● Negative sentence + affirmative tag = negative answer
You don’t like coffee, do you? = No, I don’t
● When asking a negative question, use not with the auxiliary and follow the same procedure for asking either
“yes/no” or “wh” questions.
Didn’t you go last night? No, I didn’t.
Why weren’t you in class? I was sick.
Hasn’t the mail come? Yes, it has.
Who didn’t come yesterday? John and I didn’t.
The English Sentence (continued)
See our ESL Verbs QuickStudy guide.
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