Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems

Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems
اسم المؤلف
Theodore Wildi
التاريخ
8 نوفمبر 2022
المشاهدات
424
التقييم
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Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems
Fifth Edition
Theodore Wildi
Professor Emeritus, Laval University
Contents
PART I. FUNDAMENTALS

  1. UNITS 3
    1 .0 Introduction 3
  2. 1 Systems of units 3
    1.2 Getting used to SI 4
    1 .3 Base and derived units of the SI 4
    1.4 Definitions of base units 5
    1.5 Definitions of derived units 5
    1 .6 Multiples and submultiples
    of SI units 7
    1.7 Commonly used units 7
    1 .8 Conversion charts and their use 8
    1 .9 The per-unit system of
    measurement 9
    I. IO Per-unit system with one base 10
  3. 1 1 Per-unit system with two bases ll
    Questions and Problems 1 2
  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY,
    MAGNETISM, AND CIRCUITS 15
    2.0 Introduction 15
  5. 1 Conventional and electron current
    flow 1 5
    2.2 Distinction between sources and
    loads 16
    2.3 Sign notation 1 7
    2.4 Double-subscript notation for
    voltages 1 7
    2.5 Sign notation for voltages 17
    2.6 Graph of an alternating voltage 18
    2.7 Positive and negative currents 19
    2.8 Sinusoidal voltage 1 9
    2.9 Converting cosine functions into sine
    functions 20
    2.10 Effective value of an ac voltage 20
  6. 1 1 Phasor representation 2 1
  7. 1 2 Harmonics 23
  8. 1 3 Energy in an inductor 25 –
    2.14 Energy in a capacitor 25
  9. 15 Some useful equations 26 A
    ELECTROMAGNETISM JV.y ^7
  10. 16 Magnetic field intensity /7 and
    density B 27 FACUL1AD DE
  11. 17 B-H curve of vacuum 27
  12. 18 B-H curve of a magnetic material’ 27
  13. 1 9 Determining the relative BiSuiOAk
    permeability 28viii CONTENTS
    2.20 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic 3.9 Kinetic energy of rotation, moment of
    induction 29 inertia 54
    2.21 Voltage induced in a conductor 30 3.10 Torque, inertia, and change in
    2.22 Lorentz force on a conductor 3 1 speed 57
    2.23 Direction of the force acting on a 3.11 Speed of a motor/load system 57
    straight conductor 3 1 3.12 Power flow in a mechanically coupled
    2.24 Residual flux density and coercive system 58
    force 32 3.13 Motor driving a load having inertia 58
    2.25 Hysteresis loop 33 3.14 Electric motors driving linear motion
    2.26 Hysteresis loss 33 loads 59
    2.27 Hysteresis losses caused by 3.15 Heat and temperature 60
    rotation 33 3.16 Temperature scales 6 1
    2.28 Eddy currents 34 3.17 Heat required to raise the temperature
    2.29 Eddy currents in a stationary iron of a body 61
    core 35 3.18 Transmission of heat 62
    2.30 Eddy-current losses in a revolving 3.19 Heat transfer by conduction 62
    core 35 3.20 Heat transfer by convection 63
    2.31 Current in an inductor 36
    CIRCUITS AND EQUATIONS
    3.21 Calculating the losses by
    convection 63
    3.22 Heat transfer by radiation 64
    2.32 Kirchhoff’s voltage law 40 3.23 Calculating radiation losses 64
    2.33 Kirchhoff’s voltage law and double¬
    subscript notation 40
    Questions and Problems 65
    2.34 Kirchhoff’s current law 41
    PART II. ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND
    2.35 Currents, impedances, and associated
    voltages 41 TRANSFORMERS
    2.36 Kirchhoff’s laws and ac circuits 43
    2.37 KVL and sign notation 43 4. DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS 71
    2.38 Solving ac and de circuits with sign 4.0 Introduction 7 1
    notation 44 4. 1 Generating an ac voltage 7 1
    2.39 Circuits and hybrid notation 45 4.2 Direct-current generator 72
    Questions and Problems 46 4.3 Difference between ac and de
    generators 73
    FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS 4.4 Improving the waveshape 73
    AND HEAT 50 4.5 Induced voltage 75
    3.0 Introduction 50 4.6 Neutral zones 76
    3.1 Force 50 4.7 Value of the induced voltage 76
    3.2 Torque 5 1 4.8 Generator under load: the energy
    3.3 Mechanical work 51 conversion process 77
    3.4 Power 52 4.9 Armature reaction 77
    3.5 Power of a motor 52 4.I0 Shifting the brushes to improve
    3.6 Transformation of energy 53 commutation 78
    3.7 Efficiency of a machine 53 4. II Commutating poles 79
    3.8 Kinetic energy of linear motion 54 4. 1 2 Separately excited generator 79CONTENTS ix
  14. 13 No-load operation and saturation
    curve 79
    4.14 Shunt generator 80
    4.15 Controlling the voltage of a shunt
    generator 81
    4.16 Equivalent circuit 82
    4.17 Separately excited generator under
    load 82
    4.18 Shunt generator under load 83
    4.19 Compound generator 83
    4.20 Differential compound generator 84
    4.21 Load characteristics 84
    4.22 Generator specifications 84
    CONSTRUCTION OF DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS
    4.23 Field 84
    4.24 Armature 85
    4.25 Commutator and brushes 86
    4.26 Details of a multipole generator 88
    4.27 The ideal commutation process 91
    4.28 The practical commutation process 92
    Questions and Problems 93
  15. DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS 96
    5.0 Introduction 96
    5.1 Counter-electromotive force
    (cemf) 96
    5.2 Acceleration of the motor 97
    5.3 Mechanical power and torque 98
    5.4 Speed of rotation 100
    5.5 Armature speed control 101
    5.6 Field speed control 102
    5.7 Shunt motor under load 103
    5.8 Series motor 104
    5.9 Series motor speed control 105
    5.10 Applications of the series motor 106
    5.11 Compound motor 106
    5.12 Reversing the direction of rotation 107
    5.13 Starting a shunt motor 108
    5.14 Face-plate starter 108
    5.15 Stopping a motor 109
    5.16 Dynamic braking 109
    5.17 Plugging 110
  16. 1 8 Dynamic braking and mechanical time
    constant 1 1 1
    5.19 Armature reaction 113
    5.20 Flux distortion due to armature
    reaction 1 1 3
    5.21 Commutating poles 113
    5.22 Compensating winding 114
    5.23 Basics of variable speed control 1 1 4
    5.24 Permanent magnet motors 117
    Questions and Problems 1 18
  17. EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF
    ELECTRICAL MACHINES 120
    6.0 Introduction 1 20
  18. 1 Mechanical losses 1 20
    6.2 Electrical losses 1 20
    6.3 Losses as a function of load 1 23
    6.4 Efficiency curve 123
    6.5 Temperature rise 125
    6.6 Life expectancy of electric
    equipment 126
    6.7 Thermal classification of
    insulators 126
    6.8 Maximum ambient temperature and
    hot-spot temperature rise 127
    6.9 Temperature rise by the resistance
    method 1 29
    6.10 Relationship between the speed and
    size of a machine 130
    Questions and Problems 1 31
  19. ACTIVE, REACTIVE, AND APPARENT
    POWER 134
    7.0 Introduction 1 34
  20. 1 Instantaneous power 1 34
    7.2 Active power 1 36
    7.3 Reactive power 137
    7.4 Definition of reactive load and
    reactive source 1 38
    7.5 The capacitor and reactive
    power 1 39
    7.6 Distinction between active and
    reactive power 140X CONTENTS
    7.7 Combined active and reactive loads:
    apparent power 141
    8.19 Power measurement in 3-phase.
    4-wire circuits 177
    7.8 Relationship between P. Q. and S 141 8.20 Varmeter 177
    7.9 Power factor 143 8.21 A remarkable single-phase to 3-phase
    7.10 Power triangle 144 transformation 178
    7.11 Further aspects of sources and
    loads 1 44
    Questions and Problems 180
    7.12 Systems comprising several loads 146 9. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER 183
    7.13 Reactive power without magnetic 9.0 Introduction 183
    fields 148 9. 1 Voltage induced in a coil 1 83
    7.14 Solving AC circuits using the power
    triangle method 148
    9.2 Applied voltage and induced
    voltage 1 84
    7.15 Power and vector notation 1 5 1 9.3 Elementary transformer 185
    7.16 Rules on sources and loads (sign 9.4 Polarity of a transformer 186
    notation) 154 9.5 Properties of polarity marks 186
    7.17 Rules on sources and loads (double
    subscript notation) 154
    9.6 Ideal transformer at no-load; voltage
    ratio 1 87
    Questions and Problems 155 9.7 Ideal transformer under load; current
    ratio 188
    THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 158 9.8 Circuit symbol for an ideal
    8.0 Introduction 158 transformer 191
    8.1 Polyphase systems 158 9.9 Impedance ratio 191
    8.2 Single-phase generator 159 9.10 Shifting impedances from secondary
    8.3
    8.4
    Power output of a single-phase
    generator 160
    Two-phase generator 160
    to primary and vice versa 192
    Questions and Problems 195
    8.5 Power output of a 2-phase 10. PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS 197
    generator 16 1 10.0 Introduction 197
    8.6 Three-phase generator 162 10.I Ideal transformer with an imperfect
    8.7 Power output of a 3-phase core 1 97
    generator 162 10.2 Ideal transformer with loose
    8.8 Wye connection 164 coupling 199
    8.9 Voltage relationships 165 10.3 Primary and secondary leakage
    8.10 Delta connection 167 reactance 200
    8.11 Power transmitted by a 3-phase
    line 168
    10.4 Equivalent circuit of a practical
    transformer 202
    8.12 Active, reactive and apparent power in
    3-phase circuits 169
    10.5 Construction of a power
    transformer 203
    8.13 Solving 3-phase circuits 1 70 10.6 Standard terminal markings 204
    8.14 Industrial loads 171 10.7 Polarity tests 204
    8.15 Phase sequence 174 10.8 Transformer taps 205
    8.16 Determining the phase sequence 175 10.9 Losses and transformer rating 206
    8.17 Power measurement in ac circuits 176 10.10 No-load saturation curve 206
    8.18 Power measurement in 3-phase. 10.11 Cooling methods 207
    3-wire circuits 176 10.12 Simplifying the equivalent circuit 209CONTENTS xi
    10.13 Voltage regulation 211
    10.14 Measuring transformer
    impedances 212
    10.15 Introducing the per unit method 215
    1 0. 1 6 Impedance of a transformer 2 1 6
    10.17 Typical per-unit impedances 216
    10.18 Transformers in parallel 219
    Questions and Problems 221
  21. SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS 225
    1 1 .0 Introduction 225
    1 1 . 1 Dual-voltage distribution
    transformer 225
    1 1.2 Autotransformer 226
    1 1 .3 Conventional transformer connected
    as an autotransformer 228
    1 1 .4 Voltage transformers 230
    1 1 .5 Current transformers 23 1
    1 1 .6 Opening the secondary of a CT can be
    dangerous 233
    1 1 .7 Toroidal current transformers 234
    1 1.8 Variable autotransformer 235
    1 1.9 High-impedance transformers 236
    1 1. 10 Induction heating transformers 237
    1 1. 1 1 High-frequency transformers 238
    Questions and Problems 24 1
  22. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 243
    12.0 Introduction 243
    1 2. 1 Basic properties of 3-phase
    transformer banks 243
    12.2 Delta-delta connection 244
    12.3 Delta-wye connection 246
    12.4 Wye-delta connection 247
    12.5 Wye-wye connection 248
    12.6 Open-delta connection 248
    12.7 Three-phase transformers 249
    12.8 Step-up and step-down
    autotransformer 25 1
    12.9 Phase-shift principle 253
    12.10 Three-phase to 2-phase
    transformation 254
    1 2. 1 1 Phase-shift transformer 256
    12.12 Calculations involving 3-phase trans¬
    formers 258
    12.13 Polarity marking of 3-phase
    transformers 260
    Questions and Problems 260
  23. THREE-PHASE INDUCTION
    MOTORS 263
    1 3.0 Introduction 263
    1 3. 1 Principal components 263
    1 3.2 Principle of operation 264
    13.3 The rotating field 265
    1 3.4 Direction of rotation 270
    1 3.5 Number of poles-synchronous
    speed 27 1
    1 3.6 Starting characteristics of a squirrel¬
    cage motor 273
    1 3.7 Acceleration of the rotor-slip 274
    1 3.8 Motor under load 274
    1 3.9 Slip and slip speed 274
    1 3. 1 0 Voltage and frequency induced in the
    rotor 275
    1 3. 1 1 Characteristics of squirrel-cage
    induction motors 276
    1 3. 1 2 Estimating the currents in an induction
    motor 277
    1 3. 1 3 Active power flow 278
    1 3. 1 4 Torque versus speed curve 28 1
    1 3. 1 5 Effect of rotor resistance 282
    1 3. 1 6 Wound-rotor motor 284
    1 3. 1 7 Three-phase windings 285
    1 3. 1 8 Sector motor 288
    1 3. 1 9 Linear induction motor 289
    13.20 Traveling waves 291
    13.21 Properties of a linear induction
    motor 291
    13.22 Magnetic levitation 293
    Questions and Problems 295
  24. SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF
    THREE-PHASE INDUCTION
    MOTORS 299
    1 4.0 Introduction 299
    1 4. 1 Standardization and classification of
    induction motors 299
    1 4.2 Classification according to environ¬
    ment and cooling methods 299XII CONTENTS
    15.
    1 4.3 Classification according to electrical
    and mechanical properties 30 1
  25. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 335
    1 6.0 Introduction 335
    1 4.4 Choice of motor speed 303 16.I Com merc iaI sy nch ronous
    1 4.5 Two-speed motors 303 generators 335
    1 4.6 Induction motor characteristics under 16.2 Number of poles 335
    various load conditions 305 16.3 Main features of the stator 336
    I4.7 Starting an induction motor 308 16.4 Main features of the rotor 340
    I4.8 Plugging an induction motor 308 16.5 Field excitation and exciters 342
    1 4.9 Braking with direct current 309 16.6 Brushless excitation 343
    I4.K) Abnormal conditions 310 16.7 Factors affecting the size of
    I4. 1 1 Mechanical overload 3 IO synchronous generators 344
  26. 1 2 Line voltage changes 3 1 0 I6.8 No-load saturation curve 345
  27. 1 3 Single-phasing 310 1 6.9 Synchronous reactance-equivalent
    14.I4 Frequency variation 3 1 1 circuit of an ac generator 346
  28. 1 5 Induction motor operating as a 16.I0 Determining the value of Xs 348
    generator 3ll I6.ll Base impedance, per-unit 349
  29. 16 Complete torque-speed characteristic 16. 1 2 Short-circuit ratio 350
    of an induction machine 314 16. 1 3 Synchronous generator under
  30. 1 7 Features of a wound-rotor induction load 350
    motor 3 15 1 6.14 Regulation curves 352
    14.18 Start-up of high-inertia loads 3 1 5 I6.15 Synchronization of a generator 353
    14.19 Variable-speed drives 315 16.16 Synchronous generator on an infinite
    1 4.20 Frequency converter 315 bus 355
    Questions and Problems 318 1 6. 17 Infinite bus-effect of varying the
    exciting current 355
    EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE 16. 1 8 Infinite bus-effect of varying the
    INDUCTION MOTOR 322 mechanical torque 355
    1 5.0 Introduction 322 16.19 Physical interpretation of alternator
    1 5. 1 The wound-rotor induction motor 322 behavior 357
    1 5.2 Power relationships 325 1 6.20 Active power delivered by the
    1 5.3 Phasor diagram of (he induction generator 358
    motor 326 1 6.2 1 Control of active power 359
    1 5.4 Breakdown torque and speed 327 16.22 Transient reactance 359
    1 5.5 Equivalent circuit of two practical
    motors 327
    1 6.23 Power transfer between two
    sources 36 1
    1 5.6 Calculation of the breakdown
    torque 328
    1 6.24 Efficiency, power, and size of
    electrical machines 362
    1 5.7 Torque-speed curve and other
    characteristics 329
    Questions and Problems 364
    1 5.8 Properties of an asynchronous 17. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 369
    generator 330 17.0 Introduction 369
    1 5.9 Tests to determine the equivalent I7.I Construction 370
    circuit 33 I 17.2 Starting a synchronous motor 372
    Questions and Problems 333 /7.3 Pull-in torque 372CONTENTS xiii
    1 7.4 Motor under load-general
    description 372
    17.5 Motor under load-simple
    calculations 373
    17.6 Power and torque 376
    17.7 Mechanical and electrical angles 377
    17.8 Reluctance torque 378
    1 7.9 Losses and efficiency of a
    synchronous motor 379
    17.10 Excitation and reactive power 380
    1 7. 1 1 Power factor rating 38 1
    17.12 V-curves 382
    17.13 Stopping synchronous motors 383
    1 7. 14 The synchronous motor versus the
    induction motor 385
    17.15 Synchronous capacitor 385
    Questions and Problems 388
  31. SINGLE-PHASE MOTORS 391
    18.0 Introduction 39 1
    1 8. 1 Construction of a single- phase
    induction motor 39I
    1 8.2 Synchronous speed 393
    1 8.3 Torque-speed characteristic 394
    1 8.4 Principle of operation 394
    1 8.5 Locked-rotor torque 396
    1 8.6 Resistance split-phase motor 396
    1 8.7 Capacitor-start motor 398
    1 8.8 Efficiency and power factor of singlephase induction motors 399
    1 8.9 Vibration of single-phase motors 40 1
    I8.10 Capacitor-run motor 402
    1 8. 1 1 Reversing the direction of
    rotation 403
    1 8. 1 2 Shaded-pole motor 403
    1 8. 1 3 Universal motor 404
    I8. 14 Hysteresis motor 405
  32. 1 5 Synchronous reluctance motor 407
    1 8. 1 6 Synchro drive 408
    EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR
    I8.I7 Magnetomotive force distribution 409
    1 8. 1 8 Revolving mint’s in a single-phase
    motor 4I0
  33. 19 Deducing the circuit diagram of a
    single-phase motor 411
    Questions and Problems 414
  34. STEPPER MOTORS 417
    1 9.0 Introduction 417
    1 9. 1 Elementary stepper motor 4I7
    1 9.2 Effect of inertia 4 1 8
    1 9.3 Effect of a mechanical load 4I9
    1 9.4 Torque versus current 420
    1 9.5 Start-stop stepping rate 420
    19.6 Slew speed 421
    19.7 Ramping 422
    19.8 Types of stepper motors 422
    19.9 Motor w indings and associated
    drives 424
    19.10 High-speed operation 427
    19.11 Modifying the time constant 428
    1 9. 1 2 Bilevel drive 428
    19.13 Instability and resonance 434
    19.14 Stepper motors and linear drives 434
    Questions and Problems 434
    PART III. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
    DRIVES
  35. BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL MOTOR
    CONTROL 439
    20.0 Introduction 439
    20.1 Control devices 439
    20.2 Normally-open and normally-closed
    contacts 443
    20.3 Relay coil exciting current 443
    20.4 Control diagrams 445
    20.5 Starting methods 446
    20.6 Manual across-the-line starters 447
    20.7 Magnetic across-the-line starters 448
    20.8 Inching and jogging 450
    20.9 Reversing the direction of
    rotation 451
    20.10 Plugging 453
    20.11 Reduced-voltage starting 454
    20.12 Primary resistance starting 454xiv CONTENTS
    20.13 Autotransformer starting 458
    20.14 Other starting methods 460
    20.15 Carn switches 461
    20.16 Computers and controls 462
    ELECTRIC DRIVES
  36. 1 7 Fundamentals of electric drives 462
  37. 18 Typical torque-speed curves 463
  38. 1 9 Shape of the torque-speed
    curve 464
    20.20 Current-speed curves 466
    20.21 Regenerative braking 467
    Questions and Problems 468
  39. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF
    POWER ELECTRONICS 472
    21.0 Introduction 472
  40. 1 Potential level 472
    2 1.2 Voltage across some circuit
    elements 474
    THE DIODE AND DIODE CIRCUITS
    21.3 The diode 475
    2 1 .4 Main characteristics of a diode 476
    2 1.5 Battery charger with series
    resistor 476
    2 1 .6 Battery charger with series
    inductor 478
    21.7 Single-phase bridge rectifier 480
    21.8 Filters 48 1
    2 1 .9 Three-phase, 3-pulse diode
    rectifier 483
    2 1 . 10 Three-phase. 6-pulse rectifier 485
    2 1. 1 1 Effective line current, fundamental
    line current 489
    2 1 . 1 2 Distortion power factor 490
    2 1. 1 3 Displacement power factor, total
    power factor 490
  41. 1 4 Harmonic content, THD 49 1
    THE THYRISTOR
    AND THYRISTOR CIRCUITS
  42. 15 The thyristor 492
    21.16 Principles of gate firing 492
  43. 1 7 Power gain of a thyristor 494
    2 1 . 1 8 Current interruption and forced
    commutation 495
  44. 19 Basic thyristor power circuits 496
    2 1 .20 Controlled rectifier supplying a
    passive load (Circuit I , Table
    2 1 D) 496
    2 1.2 1 Controlled rectifier supplying an ac¬
    tive load (Circuit 2, Table 2 1 D) 497
    2 1 .22 Line-commutated inverter (Circuit 3.
    Table 2 ID) 498
    21.23 AC static switch (Circuit 4. Table
    2 ID) 500
    2 1.24 Cycloconverter (Circuit 5, Table
    2lD) 501
    2 1 .25 Three-phase, 6-pulse controllable
    converter (Circuit 6, Table 2 1 D) 502
    21.26 Basic principle of operation 503
    2 1 .27 Three-phase, 6-pulse rectifier feeding
    an active load 504
    2 1 .28 Delayed triggering-rectifier
    mode 505
    21.29 Delayed triggering-inverter mode 507
    21.30 Triggering range 508
    21.3 1 Equivalent circuit of a
    converter 509
    2 1.32 Currents in a 3-phase, 6-pulse
    converter 5 1 1
    2 1.33 Power factor 5 1 1
    21.34 Commutation overlap 514
    21.35 Extinction angle 514
    DC-TO-DC SWITCHING CONVERTERS
    21.36 Semiconductor switches 515
    2 1 .37 DC-to-DC switching converter 5 1 7
    21.38 Rapid switching 519
    21.39 Impedance transformation 522
    2 1 .40 Basic 2-quadrant dc-to-dc
    converter 522
    21.41 Two-quadrant electronic
    converter 525
    21.42 Four-quadrant dc-to-dc
    converter 526
    21.43 Switching losses 528CONTENTS xv
    DC-TO-AC SWITCHING CONVERTERS 23. ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF
    21.44 Dc-to-ac rectangular wave
    converter 529
    ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS 575
    23.0 Introduction 575
    2 1 .45 Dc-to-ac converter with pulse-width 23.1 Types of ac drives 575
    modulation 530 23.2 Synchronous motor drive using
    21.46 Dc-to-ac sine wave converter 532 current-source de link 577
    21.47 Generating a sine wave 533 23.3 Synchronous motor and
    21.48 Creating the PWM pulse train 534 cycloconverter 580
    21.49 Dc-to-ac 3-phase converter 535 23.4 Cycloconverter voltage and frequency
    21.50 Conclusion 537 control 580
    Questions and Problems 537 23.5 Squirrel-cage induction motor with
    cycloconverter 582
    ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF DIRECT¬ 23.6 Squirrel-cage motor and static voltage
    CURRENT MOTORS 541
    22.0 Introduction 54 1
    23.7
    controller 589
    Soft-starting cage motors 590
    22.1
    22.2
    First quadrant speed control 541
    Two-quadrant control-field
    SELF-COMMUTATED INVERTERS
    reversal 544 23.8 Self-commutated inverters for cage
    22.3 Two-quadrant control-armature motors 592
    reversal 545 23.9 Current-source self-commutated
    22.4 Two-quadrant control-two
    converters 545
    frequency converter (rectangular
    wave) 593
    22.5 Four-quadrant control-two converters
    with circulating current 546
    23.10 Voltage-source self-commutated
    frequency converter (rectangular
    22.6 Two-quadrant control with positive wave) 594
    torque 549 23.11 Chopper speed control of a wound¬
    22.7 Four-quadrant drive 549 rotor induction motor 597
    22.8
    22.9
    Six-pulse converter with freewheeling
    diode 551
    Half-bridge converter 556
    23.12 Recovering power in a wound-rotor
    induction motor 599
    22.10 DC traction 558 PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION DRIVES
    22.11 Motor drive using a dc-to-dc
    switching converter 560
    23.13 Review of pulse-width g’
    modulation 602
    22.12 Introduction to brushless de
    motors 565
    23.14 Pulse-width modulation and ind^Hih) – A
    motors 604 E :
    22.13 Commutator replaced by reversing
    switches 566
    TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL
    22.14 Synchronous motor as a brushless de
    machine 568
    OF INDUCTION MOTORS XA4 DE ‘
    22.15 Standard synchronous motor and 23.15 De motor and flux orientation 604 1’ A
    brushless de machine 569 23. 1 6 Slip speed, flux orientation. agdSn-jQiECA
    22.16 Practical application of a brushless de torque 605
    motor 569
    Questions and Problems 57 1
  45. 1 7 Features of variable-speed control¬
    constant torque mode 607xvi CONTENTS
  46. 18 Features of variable-speed control¬
    constant horsepower mode 610
    23.19 Features of variable-speed control¬
    generator mode 6 1 0
    23.20 Induction motor and its equivalent
    circuit 61 1
    23.2 1 Equivalent circuit of a practical
    motor 612
    23.22 Volts per hertz of a practical
    motor 613
    23.23 Speed and torque control of induction
    motors 614
    23.24 Carrier frequencies 615
    23.25 Dynamic control of induction
    motors 615
    23.26 Principle of flux vector control 616
    23.27 Variable-speed drive and electric
    traction 618
    23.28 Principal components 621
    23.29 Operating mode of the 3-phase
    converter 622
    23.30 Operating mode of the single-phase
    converter 624
    23.31 Conclusion 629
    Questions and Problems 629
    PART IV. ELECTRIC UTILITY POWER
    SYSTEMS
  47. GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL
    ENERGY 635
    24.0 Introduction 635
  48. 1 Demand of an electrical system 635
    24.2 Location of the generating station 637
    24.3 Types of generating stations 637
    24.4 Controlling the power balance
    between generator and load 638
    24.5 Advantage of interconnected
    systems 639
    24.6 Conditions during an outage 641
    24.7 Frequency and electric clocks 642
    HYDROPOWER GENERATING STATIONS
    24.8 Available hydro power 642
    24.9 Types of hydropower stations 643
    24.10 Makeup of a hydropower plant 644
    24.11 Pumped-storage installations 646
    THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS
  49. 1 2 Makeup of a thermal generating
    station 648
    24.13 Turbines 650
    24.14 Condenser 650
    24.15 Cooling towers 650
    24.16 Boiler-feedpump 651
  50. 1 7 Energy flow diagram for a steam
    plant 651
  51. 18 Thermal stations and the
    environment 652
    NUCLEAR GENERATING STATIONS
  52. 19 Composition of an atomic nucleus;
    isotopes 655
    24.20 The source of uranium 655
    24.21 Energy released by atomic fission 656
    24.22 Chain reaction 656
    24.23 Types of nuclear reactors 657
    24.24 Example of a light-water reactor 658
    24.25 Example of a heavy-water reactor 659
    24.26 Principle of the fast breeder
    reactor 660
    24.27 Nuclear fusion 661
    Questionsand Problems 661
  53. TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL
    ENERGY 664
    25.0 Introduction 664
  54. 1 Principal components of a power
    distribution system 664
    25.2 Types of power lines 665
    25.3 Standard voltages 667
    25.4 Components of a HV transmission
    line 667
    25.5 Construction of a line 668
    25.6 Galloping lines 669
    25.7 Corona effect-radio interference 669
    25.8 Pollution 669
    25.9 Lightning strokes 670CONTENTS xvii
    25.10 Lightning arresters on buildings 671
    25.11 Lightning and transmission lines 671
    25.12 Basic impulse insulation level
    (BIL) 672
    25.13 Ground wires 673
    25.14 Tower grounding 673
    25.15 Fundamental objectives of a
    transmission line 675
    25.16 Equivalent circuit of a line 676
    25.17 Typical impedance values 676
    25.18 Simplifying the equivalent circuit 678
    25.19 Voltage regulation and power¬
    transmission capability of
    transmission lines 680
    25.20 Resistive line 680
    25.21 Inductive line 681
    25.22 Compensated inductive line 683
    25.23 Inductive line connecting two
    systems 685
    25.24 Review of power transmission 686
    25.25 Choosing the line voltage 687
    25.26 Methods of increasing the power
    capacity 689
    25.27 Extra-high-voltage lines 689
    25.28 Power exchange between power
    centers 692
    25.29 Practical example of power
    exchange 693
    Questions and Problems 695
  55. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL
    ENERGY 698
    26.0 Introduction 698
    i
    SUBSTATIONS ‘
    26.1 Substation equipment 698 ‘sX; t
    26.2 Circuit breakers 698
    26.3 Air-break switches 702 de
    26.4 Disconnecting switches 702 r ?
    26.5 Grounding switches 702
    26.6 Surge arresters 702 ‘
    26.7 Current-limiting reactors 705
    26.8 Grounding transformer 706
    26.9 Example of a substation 707
    26.10 Medium-voltage distribution 709
  56. 1 1 Low-voltage distribution 709
    PROTECTION OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE
    DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
  57. 1 2 Coordination of the protective
    devices 714
  58. 13 Fused cutouts 7 15
    26.14 Reclosers 716
    26.15 Sectionalizers 716
    26.16 Review of MV protection 717
    LOW-VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION
    26.17 LV distribution system 717
    26.18 Grounding electrical installations 719
    26.19 Electricshock 719
    26.20 Grounding of 120 V and 240V/120V
    systems 720
    26.21 Equipment grounding 721
    26.22 Ground-fault circuit breaker 723
    26.23 Rapid conductor heating:
    I2t factor 724
    26.24 The role of fuses 725
    26.25 Electrical installation in
    buildings 725
    26.26 Principal components of an electrical
    installation 725
    Questions and Problems 727
  59. THE COST OF ELECTRICITY 729
    27.0 Introduction 729
    27.1 Tariff based upon energy 730
    \ 27.2 Tariff based upon demand 730
    \ 27.3 Demand meter 730
    y 27.4 Tariff based upon power factor 732
    ] 27.5 Typical rate structures 733
    : 27.6 Demand controllers 733
    .
    “i ‘^7.7 Power factor correction 737
    27.8 Measuring electrical energy, the
    watthourmeter 740
    27.9 Operation of the watthourmeter 741
    27.10 Meter readout 742
  60. 1 1 Measuring three-phase energy and
    power 743
    Questions and Problems 743xviii CONTENTS
  61. DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 746
    28.0 Introduction 746
    28.1 Features of de transmission 746
    28.2 Basic de transmission system 747
    28.3 Voltage, current, and power
    relationships 748
    28.4 Power fluctuations on a de line 75 1
    28.5 Typical rectifier and inverter
    characteristic 752
    28.6 Power control 753
    28.7 Effect of voltage fluctuations 754
    28.8 Bipolar transmission line 754
    28.9 Power reversal 755
    28.10 Components of a de transmission
    line 755
  62. 1 1 Inductors and harmonic filters on the
    de side (6-pul.se converter) 756
    28.12 Converter transformers 756
    28.13 Reactive power source 757
    28.14 Harmonic filters on the ac side 757
    28.15 Communicationslink 757
    28.16 Ground electrode 757
  63. 1 7 Example of a monopolar converter
    station 757
    28.18 Thyristor converter station 758
    28.19 Typical installations 760
    Questions and Problems 765
  64. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
    SOLID-STATE CONTROLLERS 768
    TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW CONTROLLERS
    29.0 Introduction 768
  65. 1 Thyristor-controlled series capacitor
    (TCSC) 769
    29.2 Vernier control 77 1
    29.3 Static synchronous compensator 773
    29.4 Eliminating the harmonics 776
    29.5 Unified power How controller
    (UPFC) 776
    29.6 Static frequency changer 780
    DISTRIBUTION CUSTOM POWER PRODUCTS
    29.7 Disturbances on distribution
    systems 782
    29.8 Why PWM converters? 784
    29.9 Distribution system 785
    29.10 Compensators and circuit
    analysis 787
  66. 1 1 The shunt compensator: principle of
    operation 787
  67. 1 2 The series compensator: principle of
    operation 793
    29.13 Conclusion 796
    Questions and Problems 797
  68. HARMONICS 799
    30.0 Introduction 799
    30.1 Harmonics and phasor diagrams 799
    30.2 Effective value of a distorted
    wave 800
    30.3 Crest factor and total harmonic
    distortion (THD) 801
    30.4 Harmonics and circuits 802
    30.5 Displacement power factor and total
    power factor 804
    30.6 Non-linear loads 804
    30.7 Generating harmonics 805
    30.8 Correcting the power factor 807
    30.9 Generation of reactive power 808
    EFFECT OF HARMONICS
    30.10 Harmonic current in a capacitor 809
  69. 1 1 Harmonic currents in a
    conductor 810
    30.12 Distorted voltage and flux in a
    coil 810
    30.13 Harmonic currents in a 3-phase,
    4-wire distribution system 812
    30.14 Harmonics and resonance 813
  70. 15 Harmonic filters 8 1 8
    30.16 Harmonics in the supply
    network 819
    30.17 Transformers and the K factor 821
    HARMONIC ANALYSIS
  71. 18 Procedure of analyzing a periodic
    wave 823
    Questions and Problems 827CONTENTS xix
  72. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
    CONTROLLERS 831
    31.0 Introduction 83 1
    3 1 . 1 Capacity of industrial PLCs 83 1
    3 1 .2 Elements of a control system 832
    3 1.3 Examples of the use of a PLC 835
    3 1 .4 The central processing unit
    (CPU) 838
    3I.5 Programming unit 838
    3 1.6 The I/O modules 839
    31.7 Structure of the input modules 839
    3 1 .8 Structure of the output modules 840
    31.9 Modular construction of PLCs 84 1
    3LI0 Remote inputs and outputs 84I
    3 1 . 1 1 Conventional control circuits and PLC
    circuits 844
  73. 1 2 Security rule 847
  74. 13 Programming the PLC 847
    3I.14 Programming languages 847
    3 1 . 15 Advantages of PLCs over relay
    cabinets 848
    MODERNIZATION OF AN INDUSTRY
    3 1 . 16 Industrial application of PLCs 850
  75. 1 7 Planning the change 850
  76. 1 8 Getting to know PLCs 85 1
  77. 1 9 Linking the PLCs 853
    31.20 Programming the PLCs 853
    31.21 The transparent enterprise 855
    Questions and Problems 856
    References 859
    Appendixes 865
    AXO Conversion Charts 865
    AX1 Properties of Insulating
    Materials 869
    AX2 Electrical, Mechanical and
    Thermal Properties of Some
    Common Conductors (and
    Insulators) 870
    AX3 Properties of Round Copper
    Conductors 871
    Answers to Problems 873
    Answers to Industrial Application
    Problems 877
    Index 879A
    Acceleration (of a drive system).
  78. 59.
    Active power. 136. 140. 169,675
    ACSR cable. 667. 677
    Aerial conductors. 677
    Air. 869
    Air gap. 85
    Alternator. 7 1. 159.335
    three-phase (acc Alternator.
    3-phase)
    two-phase. 160
    Alternator. 3-phase, 335-364
    brushless excitation of. 343
    construction of, 336-340
    cooling of, 339
    elementary. 159
    equivalent circuit, 346
    excitation of. 342
    historical example. 346
    mechanical pole shift. 357
    power output. 358. 362
    saturation curve. 345
    short-circuit ratio. 350
    synchronization of. 353
    synchronous reactance. 346
    synchronous speed. 336. 340
    torque angle. 358
    Index
    transient reactance. 359
    under load. 350
    voltage regulation. 352
    Ambient temperature. 127
    Ampacity, 677
    Amplitude modulation ratio. 532
    Angle. 6
    commutation, 514
    delay. 505
    “effective.” 750
    extinction, 514. 750
    firing. 750
    of advance. 750
    phase. 22
    torque. 359. 376. 377
    Anode. 475, 492
    Apparent power. 141, 147
    Arc furnace. 791
    Arcing horns, 702
    Armature
    of a de generator. 73. 74. 76.
  79. 90
    of a de motor. 99. 100
    reaction. 77, 1 13
    Asynchronous generator. 311. 330
    Autotransformer. 226-230
    variable, 235
    Auxiliary winding. 391. 396
    B
    Back-to-back converters, 747. 760
    Base speed. 1 1 6
    Basic insulation impulse level.
  80. 705
    B-H curve. 27
    of vacuum. 27
    of soft magnetic materials, 28. 29
    BIL. 672,705
    Billing demand. 734, 735
    Bilevel drive, 428
    Bipolar line. 754
    Bipolar winding. 424
    BJT, 472.516
    Boiler, 648
    efficiency. 647
    feed pump, 65 1
    Boolean language. 848
    Boost chopper, 524
    Braking, 463
    of a de motor. 109-1 1 1
    of an induction motor. 308, 309
    of a synchronous motor, 383
    regenerative. 3 1 2
    time. 1 1 1
    Bridge rectifier. 480. 486-489
    brownout. 783
    Brush. 86. 87
    879880 INDEX
    Brushless de motor. 569
    Brushless excitation. 343. 371
    Brush losses. 122
    Buck chopper, 519
    Bushing. 231,232. 699
    C
    Cable. 677. 693
    impedance of. 677
    submarine, 693
    Cam switch, 441. 461
    CANDU. 659
    Capacitance (distributed). 230. 23 1
  81. 720
    Capacitor, 139. 145
    energy in, 25
    Carrier frequency. 530. 615
    Catenary. 558
    Cathode. 475, 492
    cemf (see Counter emf)
    Central processing unit, 833. 838
    Centrifugal switch. 396. 397
    Celsius (degree) 5. 7
    Chain reaction, 656
    Characteristic impedance (see
    surge impedance)
    Chopper, 5 18-52 1. 558-560
    Circuit
    equations for. 26
    (PLC). 844
    solution of, 40-15, 148, 170
    three-phase. 158
    tw’o-phase. 160, 254
    Circuit breakers
    air-blast. 700
    manual. 439
    minimum oil. 700
    oil. 699
    solid-state. 790, 797
    sulfur hexafluoride. 700
    vacuum. 701, 702
    Circular mil, 866
    Clock motor. 406. 642
    Coercive force, 32
    Coil pitch. 89. 285. 288
    Commutating poles. 79. 1 13
    Commutation
    de machine. 91-93
    forced, 495
    line. 484
    power factor of, 490. 5 1 1
    two-quadrant, 525
    natural, 484 pl. I’NGElW. with freewheeling diode. 55 1
    overlap, 5 14, TSO ‘ J 12-pulse, 760
    self. 592 F 1R Cn Cooling tower, 650
    Commutator, 72, 73^6rj99iQ‘fECA Coordination of protective
    Compensating winding, 114 devices, 714
    Compensation (line), 683, 688
    Compensator
    (series), 786. 793
    (shunt), 786, 787
    Computer control, 831
    Condenser, 649, 650
    synchronous, (see Synchronous
    capacitor)
    Conductors, 677 (see also
    Appendix AX3)
    bundled, 669
    gauge number, 87 1
    round copper. 87 1
    Conjugate (of vector), 151
    Consequent poles, 304
    Constant horsepower mode, 1 16
    Constant torque mode, 116
    Contact
    normally closed. 443
    normally open, 443
    self-sealing, 449
    (simulated). 833
    Contactor
    electronic, 500
    magnetic, 442
    Contingency, 641
    Control diagram, 445, 832
    Control system, 832
    Convection (heat loss by). 63
    Conventional current flow, 15
    Conversion charts, 8 (see
    Appendix AX0)
    Converter, 495
    dc-to-ac, 529
    dc-to-ac, three phase, 535
    dc-to-dc. 517, 522, 560
    equivalent circuit of, 509
    four-quadrant, 526
    PWM. 784
    half bridge, 556
    (mercury-arc), 757
    Copper loss. 121
    Corona effect. 669
    Cosine-sine conversion. 20
    Counter emf. 96
    CPU (see Central processing unit)
    Crest factor, 801
    Current density, 121
    Current (follow through), 671
    Current transformer, 231-234
    Cutout, 715
    Cycloconverter, 501. 580, 582
    D
    Damper winding. 340. 370
    DC link, 576. 592,596
    DC transmission (see HVDC
    transmission)
    Delta connection, 167, 169
    voltage and current in, 169
    Demand, 635, 730
    controller. 733
    meter, 730
    Deuterium, 655
    Differential compound, 84. 107
    Diode
    operation of, 475
    properties of, 476
    Direct-current
    motors. 96
    generators, 7 1
    Displacement power factor,
    490, 512
    Distortion
    de field. 78, 113
    harmonic, 24. 799.810-812,
  82. 823
    power factor, 490
    Distribution systems
    disturbances. 782
    low-voltage, 709.717, 725
    medium-voltage, 709INDEX 88 1
    three-phase. 3-wire. 719
    three-phase, 4-wire, 718
    Disturbances on distribution
    systems, 782
    Drives (fundamentals of), 57, 462
    Drives, electronic
    (types of ac), 575
    chopper and series motor, 559
    converters with circulating
    current, 546
    current-fed de link, 577
    (de motor), 560-565
    electric traction. 618-625
    principles of, 57. 58. 462
    cycloconverter, 580. 582. 627
    first quadrant control. 541
    four-quadrant control, 549
    hoist control. 549
    induction motor. 582. 587.
    592-596
    synchronous motor. 577-579
    wound rotor motor. 597-602
    DSTATCON, 787. 796
    Duty cycle. 520, 526
    DVR, 796
    Dynamic braking, 109
    Dynamo, (see generator, de)
    E
    E-business. 855
    Eddy currents. 34. 35, 822
    Effective value. 20
    Efficiency. 53
    of de machines. 123-125
    of electrical machines. 362
    EHV line. 689
    Electromagnetic induction. 29
    Electronic power circuits
    basic types. 496
    Electronvolt. 866
    Enclosures. 299
    Energy. 53
    consumed by a city. 738
    consumed by appliances. 736
    consumed in the U.S., 729
    flow in a thermal station. 65 1
    in three-phase circuits. 743
    measurement of. 740
    transformation of, 53
    unit of. 7
    eV, {see Electronvolt)
    Exciter, 342
    brushless, 343. 371
    ‘■pilot. 336
    F
    Fahrenheit (degree). 61
    Faraday, law of electromagnetic
    induction. 29
    Fast breeder reactor. 660
    Feeder, 705, 727
    Field
    of a de machine, 85
    revolving. 335
    Filter. 481,486. 756. 757,818
    Firing (see Triggering)
    Fission, 656
    Flashover, 671, 672. 674, 675
    Flux (see Magnetic flux)
    Flux orientation. 604. 605
    Flux vector control, 616
    Force, 50
    on a conductor, 3 1
    of gravity, 50
    unit of. 6
    Foucault currents, (see Eddy
    currents)
    Fourier series analysis (see
    Harmonic analysis)
    Freewheeling diode, 519. 551
    Frequency, 19
    Frequency converter. 309, 370.
  83. 806
    Frequency modulation
    ratio, 532
    Fuse. 715. 725
    Fusion (nuclear), 661
    G
    Galloping line, 669
    Gate. 492
    Gear motor. 303
    Generator, de, 71-93
    compound. 83
    , . construction of, 84-90
    differential compound, 84
    equivalent circuit of. 82
    historical note. 89
    induced voltage, 75, 76, 80
    neutral zone, 76
    rating, 84
    separately-excited, 82
    shunt, 80
    voltage, 76
    voltage regulation. 84
    Generator, ac. (.see alternator)
    GFCI. (.see Ground fault circuit
    breaker)
    Grafcet. 847
    Grand Coulee dam. 643
    Ground
    resistance of, 673
    wire, 673, 722
    Ground fault circuit breaker, 723
    Grounding
    of de terminals. 757
    of electrical systems, 719
    of equipment. 72 1
    GTO.472. 516
    H
    Half bridge converter. 556
    Half-step drive. 425
    Harmonic analysis, 823-827
    Harmonic distortion (.see
    Distortion )
    Harmonics, 23, 783. 799
    analysis of. 823-827
    and circuits, 802. 809-812
    and phasor diagrams, 799
    and transformers. 821
    effective value of. 801
    elimination of. 776, 790. 8 1 8
    filter. 756, 757,818
    in a square wave. 25
    in an alternator. 337
    in power systems. 812. 815.
  84. 821
    generation of. 805
    resonance. 8 1 3-8 16
    Heat. 60
    conduction of. 62
    convection. 63
    radiation of. 64882 INDEX
    Heat, continued
    (specific), (see Appendix.
    Table AX2)
    transmission of. 62
    Heating
    by induction. 237. 739
    of electrical machines. 127-130
    Heavy water, 655. 659
    Hertz. 6
    Historical machines. 89. 346
    Horsepower. 52
    Hot spot temperature. 127
    HVDC transmission, 746-765
    basic equations, 750
    bipolar line. 754
    components of. 755
    ground electrode, 757
    harmonic filter. 756. 757
    rectifier and inverter
    characteristic, 752-754
    scale model. 750
    typical converter stations. 757-765
    Hydrogen. 655. 869. 870
    cooling. 339. 364. 386
    isotopes of. 655
    Hydropower station. 642-646
    power of. 642
    Hysteresis, 33
    loop, 33
    loss, 33
    motor. 405
    I
    1GBT. 472.517
    Impedance
    of ac circuits, 26. 41, 813
    per unit. 215, 216, 349
    ratio. 191
    transformation. 192, 522
    Impulse voltage. 672
    Inching. 450
    Induced voltage. 183
    equality with applied
    voltage, 184
    Faraday’s law. 29
    Inductance
    current in, 36-40
    energy in. 25
    smoothing, 748, 757
    voltage induced in, 36. 183
    Inductor (see Inductance)
    Inertia
    effect of, 58. 418
    energy due to. 56
    moment of, 54. 56
    Infinite bus, 353
    Input module. 833, 834, 839
    Insulation
    classes, 126-128
    life expectancy. 126
    Insulators
    deterioration of. 1 26
    pin-type. 667
    properties of. 869, 870
    suspension-type. 667
    Interpole (see Commutating poles)
    Inverter (see also Converter)
    equivalent circuit of, 5 1 1
    line-commutated. 498, 503
    self-commutated. 498, 529. 576.
  85. 594
    I/O modules. 839
    Ionization. 669
    Iron losses. 33-36. 122
    Isotope, 655
    J
    Jogging, 450
    Joule. 6
    K
    kcmil, 866
    K factor, 82 1
    Kelvin, 5
    Kinetic energy, 54
    of linear motion, 54
    of rotary motion, 54
    Kirchhoff (KVL, KCL), 40. 41
    kVA, 141
    L
    Ladder diagram. 836, 847
    Lagging. 21, 22. 143
    Laminations, 36. 203, 265, 338
    Lap winding
    of a de generator. 75
    of a de motor, 100
    of an induction motor, 285-288
  • of a synchronous machine, 336
    Leading, 22, 143
    Leakage flux, 199, 200, 276
    Leakage reactance, 200, 322
    Lightning, 670
    arresters, 671, 702
    surge on a line, 672
    Light water, 655
    Line voltage, 166
    Line commutated (see
    Commutation, natural)
    Linear induction motor, 289
    Linear motion, 59
    Limit switch, 442
    Load, definition of. 16. 154
    active. 137. 154
    nonlinear. 791
    reactive. 138, 154
    Load duration curve, 637
    Lorentz force, 31, 264
    Losses
    in electrical machines, 120-125
    in transmission lines, 676
    in transformers, 206, 821
    (stray), 821
    M
    Magnetic
    constant, 27
    field intensity, 27
    flux, 27
    flux density, 27-29
    levitation, 293
    permeability. 28
    Magnetomotive force, 27
    Mass, unit of, 5
    MCM, 838 (see kcmil)
    Memory (non volatile), 838
    (volatile), 838
    Metals, properties of. 842
    MeV, (see eV)
    Mil. 867
    Mil (circular), 866
    Mill, 735
    Moment of inertia, 56
    equations for, 55INDEX 883
    MOSFET, 472,517
    Motor, direct current. 96-1 1 7
    braking, 109-1 1 1
    brushless, 565, 568, 569
    compound, 106
    differential compound, 107
    mechanical power, 98
    permanent magnet, 117
    plugging, 1 10
    series. 104-105
    shunt, 103. 108
    speed control, 100-103, 114
    starting of, 97, 108
    torque, 98
    torque-speed curve, 116
    Motor, single-phase induction,
    391-414
    capacitor-run, 402
    capacitor-start. 398
    construction of, 391
    equivalent circuit, 409-413
    mmf distribution, 409
    principle of, 394
    revolving mmf. 410
    shaded-pole, 403
    split-phase, 396
    synchronous speed, 393
    torque-speed characteristic.
  1. 400
    vibration of, 401
    Motor, synchronous (see
    Synchronous motor)
    Motor, three-phase induction,
    263-295
    abnormal operating conditions, 310
    as generator, 305
    basic equations. 273-275, 279,
    291,306
    braking of, 308, 309
    construction of, 263-267, 290
    direction of rotation. 270
    enclosures. 299
    equivalent circuit. 323-325,
    331,612
    (flux orientation in), 605
    flux vector control. 616, 619
    linear type. 289
    mechanical power, 279
    plugging of, 308
    principle of, 264, 607-610
    rotating field, 265
    rotor voltage and frequency, 275
    sector type, 288
    slip, 274, 291
    slip speed, 274, 307, 605
    standardization of, 299
    synchronous speed, 271
    torque, 279, 284
    torque-speed characteristic, 28 1.
    283, 302, 308, 329, 330. 463
    two speed, 303
    typical characteristics of, 276, 297
    variable speed, 465
    volts per hertz rule, 613
    wound rotor, 264, 284. 315
    N
    National Electrical Code, 725
    Network, 665
    Neutral
    of single-phase system. 225. 717
    of three-phase system, 164, 707,
    719,812
    zone, 76, 78, 89, 113
    Newton. 6, 50
    Non-linear load, 804. 808
    Notation (E, A P), 17, 19, 151,
    154, 472
    Nuclear
    power stations, 654-661
    reactors (types of). 657
    O
    Ohm, 6
    Oil (as coolant), 63
    Outage, 641
    Outlet, 145. 727
    power of, 145
    Output module, 833, 840
    Over-compound generator, 84
    P
    PAM motor, 305
    Pascal, 6
    , PCC.(see point of common coupling)
    Peak load, 635, 636, 646
    Peak inverse voltage, 476. 486
    Penstock, 644
    Permeability, 27, 28
    of a vacuum. 27
    Per unit impedance
    of an alternator, 349
    of a transformer, 2 15-2 1 7
    Per unit system, 9-1 1
    Phase
    angle, (see Angle)
    meaning of, 162
    sequence. 174-176
    Phasor, 2 1
    Pilot exciter, 336
    Pilot light, 442
    Pitch. 285. 286, 288
    PIV, 476
    PLC (see Programmable logic
    controller)
    PLC
    advantages of. 848
    industrial application of. 850
    security rule. 847
    Plugging. 1 10. 308, 453
    Point of common coupling, 819
    Polarity
    additive, subtractive, 204
    of a transformer, 186, 204, 260
    of a voltage, 18
    mark, 186
    Potential
    level, 472
    transformer, (see Voltage
    transformer)
    Power, 52
    active, 136, 141, 169, 806
    angle (see Torque angle)
    apparent, 141, 143
    factor (.ve^ Power factor)
    in ac circuits, 146, 147
    in 3-phase circuits. 162
    instantaneous, 134, 135, 160. 162
    of a motor, 52. 58. 401
    of electrical machines. 362
    measurement of, 176
    mechanical. 52
    reactive. 137, 138.806
    triangle. 144, 148884 INDEX
    Power factor, 143, 169,512, 586
    correction, 146, 737, 791. 807
    (displacement), 148.490,
    512, 804
    (distortion), 490
    in rate structures, 732
    (total), 490, 804
    Power generation
    base load, 637, 646
    hydropower, 642-646
    nuclear, 654-662
    pumped storage, 646
    thermal, 646-654
    thermal model, 652
    Power transfer, 361
    Primary winding, 185
    Programmable logic controller,
    831-857
    Programming language. 847
    Programming unit, 834. 838
    Prony brake, 53
    Properties
    of conductors, 870
    of insulators. 869, 870
    Protective devices, 7 14
    Pull-in torque, 372, 407
    Pull-out torque, 373, 407
    Pulse width modulation. 530-536,
    602, 784
    Pumped storage, 646
    Push button. 441
    PWM (see pulse width modulation)
    Q
    Quadrant, 462
    Quadrature component. 141
    Quadruple valve, 760. 761
    R
    Radiation. 64
    emissivity. 65
    Ramping. 422
    Rate structure. 733
    Rating
    name plate. 84
    nominal, 84
    of a de machine, 84
    of an alternator, 342, 362
    of a transformer, 206
    of a synchronous motor, 380
    Reactance
    leakage, 200,217, 322
    Reactive power, 137, 138
    without magnetic field, 148,
    806, 808
    generation of, 808
    Reactor
    current limiting. 705
    line compensating. 691
    nuclear, 657
    smoothing, 748, 757
    Real power (see Active power)
    Receptacle, 727
    Recloser, 716
    Rectifier (see also Converter)
    bridge, 480. 485
    controlled, 494
    equivalent circuit, 5 1 1
    power factor of, 5 1 1
    three-phase. 3-pulse, 483
    three-phase, 6-pulse, 485, 503
    References. 859
    Regenerative braking (see Braking)
    Regulating transformer, 709
    Relay
    (control), 441, 831
    exciting current of. 443
    overload. 44 1. 449
    (simulated), 833
    thermal, 441. 448
    time delay, 455. 837
    Reluctance
    motor. 407
    torque, 378
    Remanent magnetism, 103
    Residual flux density, 32
    Residual magnetism, 103
    Resilient mounting, 401
    Resistance
    unit of, 6
    ground, 673
    Resonance, 813, 816
    Rheostat
    field, 81, 103
    wound-rotor, 284
    Ripple, 482, 486
    Rotating field
    in a three-phase machine. 265
  • in a single-phase motor, 395
    synchronous speed of, 271
    S
    Sag, 669, 783
    Salient pole. 338
    Saturation curve (see also B-H curve)
    of a de generator, 80
    of an alternator, 345
    of a transformer, 206
    Scanning (of a PLC), 838
    Scott connection, 255
    SCR (see Thyristor)
    Scroll case, 645
    Secondary winding, 185
    Sectionalizer, 716
    Sector motor, 288
    Segment (commutator). 72. 87
    Self-commutated inverters, 592
    Selsyn, (see Synchro drive)
    Semiconductor switch, 5 15
    Sequential flow chart. 847
    Series capacitor (thyristor
    controlled). 769
    Series compensation, 689. 769
    Series motor
    de. 104
    single-phase. 404
    Service factor. 310
    Servo (see Synchro)
    SFC (see sequential flow chart)
    Shaded-pole, 403
    Shock (electric), 719
    Short-circuit
    of an alternator. 360
    of a transformer. 2 1 2. 236
    protection (see Protective devices)
    ratio, 350
    Simulation (of relays), 833
    SI units, 4
    Siemens, 6, 866
    Sign notation
    hybrid, 45
    positive and negative, 17. 19.
    43, 44
    voltage, 17INDEX 885
    SIL (see Surge impedance load)
    Single-phase to three-phase
    transformation, 178
    Sine-cosine conversion, 20
    Single-phasing, 310
    Size of electrical machines, 130, 362
    Slew speed, 421
    Slip, 274, 291
    Slip ring, 72. 264. 267
    Slip speed, 274, 307
    Snubber. 528
    Source
    active, 137. 154
    definition of. 16. 154
    reactive, 138, 154
    Specific heat. 61, 870
    Speed, of a drive system, 57. 114
    Spillway, 644
    SSB, 790. 797
    Stability, 359, 638, 640
    Stabilized-shunt, 1 13
    Star connection (see Wye
    connection)
    Starter
    across-the-line, 446
    autotransformer, 458
    de motor, 108
    part winding, 460
    primary resistance, 454
    reduced voltage, 454
    solid-state. 590
    wound rotor, 284
    wye-delta, 46 1
    Start-stop stepping, 420
    STATCOM, 773
    Static frequency changer, 780
    Static switch, 500
    Static synchronous compensator, 773
    Static var compensator, 237, 691
    Stator, 263, 391
    Stepper motor, 4 17-434
    Stray losses, 821
    Substation, 665,698, 707, 710
    Submarine cable, 693
    Sulfur hexafluoride, 700, 869
    Surge diverter, 702 *
    Surge impedance. 690. 691
    Surge impedance load. 691
    SVC (.s’^ Static var compensator)
    Swell, 783
    Switch
    air-break, 702
    as non-linear load, 805
    centrifugal, 396, 397
    disconnecting, 703
    grounding. 702
    Switching losses, 528
    Symbols (electrical diagram), 444
    Synchro drive, 408
    Synchronization, 353
    Synchronous capacitor, 385. 757
    Synchronous generator, (see
    Alternator)
    Synchronous motor (three-phase)
    as brushless de machine, 568, 569
    braking of, 383
    characteristics, 380
    construction of. 369-371
    equivalent circuit, 375
    excitation of, 371. 380
    mechanical power, 376
    power factor rating. 381
    reactive power, 380
    starting of, 372
    synchronous speed, 371
    torque, 376, 378
    under load, 372
    V-curve, 382
    versus induction motor, 385
    Synchronous reactance, 346
    Synchronous speed
    of single-phase motors, 393
    of synchronous motors, 371
    of synchronous generators, 336
    of 3-phase induction motors, 271
    Synchroscope. 354
    T
    Taps, 205
    Tariff (see Rate structure)
    TCSC, 769
    Temperature, 60
    ambient, 127
    hottest spot. 128
    *• rise (seeTemperature rise)
    scales, 5, 61
    unit of. 5
    Temperature rise
    by resistance method, 129
    of electrical machines, 125-130
    of insulation classes, 127. 128
    Tera. 866
    Tertiary winding, 248, 757
    Tesla, 6, 27, 285
    THD (see total harmonic distortion)
    Thermal generating stations,
    646-654
    Thyristor, 492
    power gain, 494
    principle of, 492. 494
    properties of. 493
    Time constant, 1 1 1
    Torque, 51
    angle, 358, 373, 376
    breakdown, 282, 327
    of a drive system, 57, 58
    locked rotor. 282, 283
    measurement of, 53
    pull-in, 372,407
    pull-out, 373, 407
    pull-up, 282
    reluctance, 378
    Total harmonic distortion, 491, 801
    Transformers
    autotransformer. 226
    classification of, 208
    construction of, 203
    (converter), 756
    cooling of, 207
    (current), 231
    distribution, 225
    equivalent circuit. 187,202,
    209, 217
    exciting current. 197
    flux in, 185, 199
    grounding type, 706. 709
    (high-frequency), 238
    high impedance type, 236
    ideal, 183-195
    impedance of. 215-2 1 7
    impedance (measurement of). 212
    induced voltage, 185
    leakage reactance. 200, 202
    losses in, 206886 INDEX
    Transformers, continued ‘
    magnetizing current. 197
    parallel operation of. 219
    phase shift. 243, 253. 256
    polarity of. 186. 204
    rating of, 206
    ratio. 187. 188. 191
    reflected impedance, 191-195
    saturation curve. 206
    taps, 5
    temperature rise, 209
    (toroidal), 234
    three-phase (see Transformers,
    three-phase)
    (voltage), 230
    voltage regulation. 211
    Transformers (three-phase)
    autotransformer, 251
    delta-delta. 244
    delta-wye. 246
    open-delta. 248
    phase shift in. 243. 253. 256
    phase shifting, 256
    polarity of, 260
    Scott connection, 255
    tertiary winding, 248, 757
    three-phase to two-phase, 254
    voltage regulation, 258
    wye-delta, 247
    wye-wye, 248
    Transient reactance, 359
    Transmission lines
    de, 746
    choice of conductors, 677
    components of. 664, 667
    dampers. 669
    equivalent circuit. 676-678
    impedance of. 676
    interconnection of, 665
    power and voltage of. 680-685
    selection of line voltage, 687
    submarine, 693
    surge impedance loading of. 691
    towers. 669, 673, 675
    types of. 665
    voltage classes, 666

    ; 7£Transparent enterprise, 855
    Traveling wave. 672
    Triggering of gate, 492
    Triplen, 812
    Turbines, 639, 646. 650
    Two-speed motor, 303
    Two-phase transformation. 254-256
    U
    Unified power flow controller, 776
    Uninterruptible power supply
    (see UPS)
    Unipolar winding, 425
    Units
    base, 4, 5
    conversion of, 8, 9 (see
    Appendix AX0)
    derived. 4, 5
    in electricity, 8
    in magnetism, 8
    in mechanics, 7
    in thermodynamics. 7
    multiples, 7
    per-unit system, 9
    SI, 4
    Universal motor. 404
    UPS. 785
    UPFC, 776
    Uranium. 655
    enriched, 655
    V
    Valve, 748, 761
    Var, 137
    Varmeter, 137, 143
    V-curve. 382
    Vector notation, 151
    Volt, 7
    Voltage
    ac, 18, 19
    classes, 666
    choice of transmission line,
  1. 687
    effective value, 20, 800
    induced. 30, 183
    level. 472-474
    peak. 18,20,21
    peak inverse, 476, 486
    Voltage transformer, 230
    Volt-second. 36-39, 519
    Volts per hertz rule. 613
    W
    Ward-Leonard system, 101
    Watt. 7, 52
    Watthourmeter, 740
    Wattmeter. 136
    Wave drive. 424
    Weber, 7, 30
    Websites, 863
    Weight, (see Force of gravity)
    Wheeling (charge), 640
    Wire table. 87 1
    Work, 51
    Wound-rotor motor. 264, 284
    as frequency converter. 315
    electronic control of, 597-601
    starling of, 284
    torque-speed curve, 283
    Wye connection, 164, 169
    voltage and current in. 169
    Z
    Zero-speed switch, 454

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