كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية – Basic Electrical Engineering

كتاب أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية – Basic Electrical Engineering
اسم المؤلف
V. K. Mehta, Rohit Mehta
التاريخ
10 نوفمبر 2022
المشاهدات
507
التقييم
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أساسيات الهندسة الكهربية
Basic Electrical Engineering
For B.E./B.Tech. and Other Engineering Examinations
V. K. Mehta, Rohit Mehta
Contents
Chapter Pages

  1. Basic Concepts 1 – 35
    Nature of Electricity – Unit of Charge – The Electron – Energy of an Electron – Valence Electrons –
    Free Electrons – Electric Current – Electric Current is a Scalar Quantity – Types of Electric
    Current – Mechanism of Current Conduction in Metals – Relation Between Current and Drift
    Velocity – Electric Potential – Potential Difference – Maintaining Potential Difference –
    Concept of E.M.F. and Potential Difference – Potential Rise and Potential Drop – Resistance –
    Factors Upon Which Resistance Depends – Specific Resistance or Resistivity – Conductance –
    Types of Resistors – Effect of Temperature on Resistance – Temperature Co-efficient of
    Resistance – Graphical Determination of a – Temperature Co-efficient at Various Temperatures –
    Summary of Temperature Co-efficient Relations – Variation of Resistivity With Temperature –
    Ohm’s Law – Non-ohmic Conductors – Electric Power – Electrical Energy – Use of Power and
    Energy Formulas – Power Rating of a Resistor – Non-linear Resistors – Objective Questions.
  2. D.C. Circuits 36 – 105
    D.C. Circuit – D.C. Series Circuit – D.C. Parallel Circuit – Main Features of Parallel Circuits –
    Two Resistances in Parallel – Advantages of Parallel Circuits – Applications of Parallel
    Circuits – D.C. Series-Parallel Circuits – Applications of Series-Parallel Circuits – Internal
    Resistance of a Supply – Equivalent Resistance – Open Circuits – Short Circuits – Duality
    Between Series and Parallel Circuits – Wheatstone Bridge – Complex Circuits – Kirchhoff’s
    Laws – Sign Convention – Illustration of Kirchhoff’s Laws – Method to Solve Circuits by
    Kirchhoff’s Laws – Matrix Algebra – Voltage and Current Sources – Ideal Voltage Source
    or Constant-Voltage Source – Real Voltage Source – Ideal Current Source – Real Current
    Source – Source Conversion – Independent Voltage and Current Sources – Dependent Voltage
    and Current Sources – Circuits With Dependent-Sources – Ground – Voltage Divider Circuit –
    Objective Questions.
  3. D.C. Network Theorems 106 – 238
    Network Terminology – Network Theorems and Techniques – Important Points About Network
    Analysis – Maxwell’s Mesh Current Method – Shortcut Procedure for Network Analysis by
    Mesh Currents – Nodal Analysis – Nodal Analysis with Two Independent Nodes – Shortcut
    Method for Nodal Analysis – Superposition Theorem – Thevenin’s Theorem – Procedure
    for Finding Thevenin Equivalent Circuit – Thevenin Equivalent Circuit – Advantages
    of Thevenin’s Theorem – Norton’s Theorem – Procedure for Finding Norton Equivalent
    Circuit – Norton Equivalent Circuit – Maximum Power Transfer Theorem – Proof of
    Maximum Power Transfer Theorem – Applications of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem –
    Reciprocity Theorem – Millman’s Theorem – Compensation Theorem – Delta/Star and Star/
    Delta Transformation – Delta/Star Transformation – Star/Delta Transformation – Tellegen’s
    Theorem – Objective Questions.
  4. Units – Work, Power and Energy 239 – 259
    International System of Units – Important Physical Quantities – Units of Work or Energy –
    Some Cases of Mechanical Work or Energy – Electrical Energy – Thermal Energy – Units
    of Power – Efficiency of Electric Device – Harmful Effects of Poor Efficiency – Heating
    Effect of Electric Current – Heat Produced in a Conductor by Electric Current – Mechanical
    Equivalent of Heat (J) – Objective Questions.
  5. Electrostatics 260 – 294
    Electrostatics – Importance of Electrostatics – Methods of Charging a Capacitor – Coulomb’s Laws
    of Electrostatics – Absolute and Relative Permittivity – Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form – The
    (v)Superposition Principle – Electric Field – Properties of Electric Lines of Force – Electric Intensity
    or Field Strength (E) – Electric Flux (ψ) – Electric Flux Density (D) – Gauss’s Theorem –
    Proof of Gauss’s Law – Electric Potential Energy – Electric Potential – Electric Potential
    Difference – Potential at a Point Due to a Point Charge – Potential at a Point Due to Group of
    Point Charges – Behaviour of Metallic Conductors in Electric Field – Potential of a Charged
    Conducting Sphere – Potential Gradient – Breakdown Voltage or Dielectric Strength – Uses of
    Dielectrics – Refraction of Electric Flux – Equipotential Surface – Motion of a Charged Particle
    in Uniform Electric Field – Objective Questions.
  6. Capacitance and Capacitors 295 – 349
    Capacitor – How does a Capacitor Store Charge ? – Capacitance – Factors Affecting Capacitance –
    Dielectric Constant or Relative Permittivity – Capacitance of an Isolated Conducting Sphere –
    Capacitance of Spherical Capacitor – Capacitance of Parallel-Plate Capacitor with Uniform
    Medium – Parallel-Plate Capacitor with Composite Medium – Special Cases of Parallel-Plate
    Capacitor – Multiplate Capacitor – Cylindrical Capacitor – Potential Gradient in a Cylindrical
    Capacitor – Most Economical Conductor Size in a Cable – Capacitance Between Parallel
    Wires – Insulation Resistance of a Cable Capacitor – Leakage Resistance of a Capacitor – Voltage
    Rating of a Capacitor – Capacitors in Series – Capacitors in Parallel – Joining Two Charged
    Capacitors – Energy Stored in a Capacitor – Energy Density of Electric Field – Force on Charged
    Plates – Behaviour of Capacitor in a D.C. Circuit – Charging of a Capacitor – Time Constant –
    Discharging of a Capacitor – Transients in D.C. Circuits – Transient Relations During Charging
    Discharging of Capacitor – Objective Questions.
  7. Magnetism and Electromagnetism 350 – 385
    Poles of a Magnet – Laws of Magnetic Force – Magnetic Field – Magnetic Flux – Magnetic Flux
    Density – Magnetic Intensity or Magnetising Force (H) – Magnetic Potential – Absolute and
    Relative Permeability – Relation Between B and H – Important Terms – Relation Between mr
    and χm – Refraction of Magnetic Flux – Molecular Theory of Magnetism – Modern View about
    Magnetism – Magnetic Materials – Electromagnetism – Magnetic Effect of Electric Current –
    Typical Electromagnetic Fields – Magnetising Force (H) Produced by Electric Current – Force
    on Current-Carrying Conductor Placed in a Magnetic Field – Ampere’s Work Law or Ampere’s
    Circuital Law – Applications of Ampere’s Work Law – Biot-Savart Law – Applications of
    Biot-Savart Law – Magnetic Field at the Centre of Current-Carrying Circular Coil – Magnetic
    Field Due to Straight Conductor Carrying Current – Magnetic Field on the Axis of Circular Coil
    Carrying Current – Force Between Current-Carrying Parallel Conductors – Magnitude of Mutual
    Force – Definition of Ampere – Objective Questions.
  8. Magnetic Circuits 386 – 429
    Magnetic Circuit – Analysis of Magnetic Circuit – Important Terms – Comparison Between
    Magnetic and Electric Circuits – Calculation of Ampere-Turns – Series Magnetic Circuits – Air
    Gaps in Magnetic Circuits – Parallel Magnetic Circuits – Magnetic Leakage and Fringing –
    Solenoid – B-H Curve – Magnetic Calculations From B-H Curves – Determination of B/H or
    Magnetisation Curve – B-H Curve by Ballistic Galvanometer – B-H Curve by Fluxmeter –
    Magnetic Hysteresis – Hysteresis Loss – Calculation of Hysteresis Loss – Factors Affecting
    the Shape and Size of Hysteresis Loop – Importance of Hysteresis Loop – Applications of
    Ferromagnetic Materials – Steinmetz Hysteresis Law – Comparison of Electrostatics and
    Electromagnetic Terms – Objective Questions.
  9. Electromagnetic Induction 430 – 480
    Electromagnetic Induction – Flux Linkages – Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction –
    Direction of Induced E.M.F. and Current – Induced E.M.F. – Dynamically Induced E.M.F. –
    Statically Induced E.M.F. – Self-inductance (L) – Magnitude of Self-induced E.M.F. – Expressions
    for Self-inductance – Magnitude of Mutually Induced E.M.F. – Expressions for Mutual
    Inductance – Co-efficient of Coupling – Inductors in Series – Inductors in Parallel with no Mutual
    Inductance – Inductors in Parallel with Mutual Inductance – Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field –
    (vi)Magnetic Energy Stored Per Unit Volume – Lifting Power of a Magnet – Closing and Breaking an
    Inductive Circuit – Rise of Current in an Inductive Circuit – Time Constant – Decay of Current
    in an Inductive Circuit – Eddy Current Loss – Formula for Eddy Current Power Loss – Objective
    Questions.
  10. Chemical Effects of Electric Current 481 – 520
    Electric Behaviour of Liquids – Electrolytes – Mechanism of Ionisation – Electrolysis – Back
    e.m.f. or Polarisation Potential – Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis – Relation Between E and Z –
    Deduction of Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis – Practical Applications of Electrolysis – Cell – Types
    of Cells – Lead-Acid Cell – Chemical Changes During Discharging – Chemical Changes During
    Recharging – Formation of Plates of Lead-acid Cells – Construction of a Lead-acid Battery –
    Characteristics of a Lead-acid Cell – Curves of a Lead-acid Cell – Indications of a Fully Charged
    Lead-acid Cell – Load Characteristics of a Lead-acid Cell – Sulphation of Plates – Methods
    of Charging Batteries – Important Points About Charging of Lead-Acid Batteries – Effects of
    Overcharging – Care of Lead-acid Batteries – Applications of Lead-acid Batteries – Voltage
    Control Methods – Alkaline Batteries – Nickel-Iron Cell or Edison Cell – Electrical Characteristics
    of Nickel-Iron Cell – Nickel-Cadmium Cell – Comparison of Lead-acid Cell and Edison Cell –
    Silver-Zinc Batteries – Solar Cells – Fuel Cells – Objective Questions.
  11. A.C. Fundamentals 521 – 577
    Alternating Voltage and Current – Sinusoidal Alternating Voltage and Current – Why Sine
    Waveform? – Generation of Alternating Voltages and Currents – Equation of Alternating
    Voltage and Current – Important A.C. Terminology – Important Relations – Different Forms
    of Alternating Voltage – Values of Alternating Voltage and Current – Peak Value – Average
    Value – Average Value of Sinusoidal Current – R.M.S. or Effective Value – R.M.S. Value of
    Sinusoidal Current – Importance of R.M.S. Values – Form Factor and Peak Factor – Complex
    Waveforms – R.M.S. Value of a Complex Wave – Phase – Phase Difference – Representation
    of Alternating Voltages and Currents – Phasor Representation of Sinusoidal Quantities – Phasor
    Diagram of Sine Waves of Same Frequency – Addition of Alternating Quantities – Subtraction
    of Alternating Quantities – Phasor Diagrams Using R.M.S. Values – Instantaneous Power – A.C.
    Circuit Containing Resistance Only – A.C. Circuit Containing Pure Inductance Only – A.C.
    Circuit Containing Capacitance Only – Complex Waves and A.C. Circuit – Fundamental Power
    and Harmonic Power – Objective Questions.
  12. Series A.C. Circuits 578 – 633
    R-L Series A.C. Circuit – Impedance Triangle – Apparent, True and Reactive Powers – Power
    Factor – Significance of Power Factor – Q-factor of a Coil – Power in an Iron-Cored Choking
    Coil – R-C Series A.C. Circuit – Equivalent Circuit for a Capacitor – R-L-C Series A.C.
    Circuit – Resonance in A.C. Circuits – Resonance in Series A.C. Circuit (Series Resonance) –
    Resonance Curve – Q-Factor of Series Resonant Circuit – Bandwidth of a Series Resonant
    Circuit – Expressions for Half-power Frequencies – To Prove : fr = f f 1 2 – Expressions for
    Bandwidth – Important Relations in R-L-C Series Circuit – Applications of Series Resonant
    Circuits – Decibels – Objective Questions.
  13. Phasor Algebra 634 – 665
    Notation of Phasors on Rectangular Co-ordinate Axes – Significance of Operatorj – Mathematical
    Representation of Phasors – Conversion from One Form to the Other – Addition and Subtraction
    of Phasors – Conjugate of a Complex Number – Multiplication and Division of Phasors – Powers
    and Roots of Phasors – Applications of Phasor Algebra to A.C. Circuits – R-L Series A.C.
    Circuit – R-C Series A.C. Circuit – R-L-C Series A.C. Circuit – Power Determination Using
    Complex Notation – Power Determination by Conjugate Method – A.C. Voltage Divider –
    Objective Questions.
    (vii)14. Parallel A.C. Circuits 666 – 721
    Methods of Solving Parallel A.C. Circuits – By Phasor Diagram – By Phasor Algebra – Equivalent
    Impedance Method – Admittance (Y) – Importance of Admittance in Parallel A.C. Circuit
    Analysis – Admittance Triangle – Admittance Method for Parallel Circuit Solution – Application
    of Admittance Method – Some Cases of Parallel Connected Elements – Series-Parallel A.C.
    Circuits – Series-to-Parallel Conversion and Vice-Versa – Resonance in Parallel A.C. Circuits
    (Parallel Resonance) – Graphical Representation of Parallel Resonance – Q-factor of a Parallel
    Resonant Circuit – Bandwidth of Parallel Resonant Circuit – Key Points About Parallel
    Resonance – General Case for Parallel Resonance – Comparison of Series and Parallel Resonant
    Circuits – Objective Questions.
  14. Polyphase Circuits 722 – 829
    Polyphase System – Reasons for the Use of 3-phase System – Elementary 3-Phase Alternator –
    Some Concepts in 3-Phase System – Interconnection of Three Phases – Star or Wye Connected
    System – Important 3-Phase Terminology – Voltages and Currents in Balanced Y-Connected
    Supply System – Checking Correct Connections for Y-connected Alternator – Delta (D) or Mesh
    Connected System – Correct and Incorrect D Connections of Alternator – Voltages and Currents
    in Balanced D Connected Supply System – Advantages of Star and Delta Connected Systems –
    Constancy of Total Power in Balanced 3-phase System – Effects of Phase Sequence – Phase
    Sequence Indicator – Y/D or D/Y Conversions for Balanced Loads – 3-phase Balanced Loads
    in Parallel – Use of Single-Phase Wattmeter – Power Measurement in 3-phase Circuits – ThreeWattmeter Method – Two-Wattmeter Method – Proof for Two-Wattmeter Method – Determination
    of P.F. of Load by Two-wattmeter Method (For balanced Y or D load only) – Effect of Load p.f.
    on Wattmeter Readings – Leading Power Factor – How to Apply p.f. Formula ? – One-Wattmeter
    Method–Balanced Load – Reactive Power with Two-Wattmeter Method – Reactive Power with
    One Wattmeter – Unbalanced 3-Phase Loads – Four-Wire Star-Connected Unbalanced Load –
    UnbalancedD-Connected Load – Unbalanced 3-Wire Star-Connected Load – Methods of Solving
    Unbalanced 3-wire Y load – Solving Unbalanced 3-Wire Y Load by Kirchhoff’s Laws – Solving
    Unbalanced 3-wire Y Load By Loop Current Method – Solving Unbalanced 3-Wire Y Load by
    Y/D Conversion – Solving Unbalanced 3-Wire Y Load by Millman’s Theorem – Significance
    of Power Factor – Disadvantages of Low Power Factor – Causes of Low Power Factor – Power
    Factor Improvement – Power Factor Improvement Equipment – Calculations of Power Factor
    Correction – Objective Questions.
  15. Electrical Instruments and Electrical Measurements 830 – 935
    Classification of Electrical Measuring Instruments – Types of Secondary Instruments – Principles
    of Operation of Electrical Instruments – Essentials of Indicating Instruments – Deflecting
    Torque – Controlling Torque – Damping Torque – Ammeters and Voltmeters – Permanent-Magnet
    Moving Coil (PMMC) Instruments (Ammeters and Voltmeters) – Extension of Range of PMMC
    Instruments – Extension of Range of PMMC Ammeter – Extension of Range of PMMC Voltmeter –
    Voltmeter Sensitivity – Dynamometer Type Instruments (Ammeters and Voltmeters) – Deflectiing
    Torque (Td) of Dynamometer Type Instruments in Terms of Mutual Inductance – Range Extension
    of Dynamometer Type Instruments – Moving-Iron (M.I.) Ammeters and Voltmeters – Attraction
    Type M.I. Instruments – Repulsion Type M.I. Instruments – Td of M.I. Instruments in Terms of
    Self-Inductance – Sources of Errors in Moving Iron Instruments – Characteristics of MovingIron Instruments – Extending Range of Moving-Iron Instruments – Comparison of Moving
    Coil, Dynamometer type and Moving Iron Voltmeters and Ammeters – Hot-Wire Ammeters
    and Voltmeters – Thermocouple Instruments – Electrostatic Voltmeters – Attracted Disc Type
    Voltmeter – Quadrant Type Voltmeter – Multicellular Electrostatic Voltmeter – Characteristics
    of Electrostatic Voltmeters – Range Extension of Electrostatic Voltmeters – Induction Type
    Instruments – Induction Ammeters and Voltmeters – Characteristics of Induction Ammeters
    and Voltmeters – Wattmeters – Dynamometer Wattmeter – Characteristics of Dynamometer
    Wattmeters – Wattmeter Errors – Induction Wattmeters – Three-phase Wattmeter – Watthour
    (viii)Meters or Energy Meters – Commutator Motor Meter – Mercury Motor Watthour Meter –
    Induction Watthour Meters or Energy Meters – Single-Phase Induction Watthour Meters or
    Energy Meters – Errors in Induction Watthour Meters – Three-Phase Watthour Meter – D.C.
    Potentiometer – Direct Reading Potentiometers – Modern D.C. Potentiometers – Crompton D.C.
    Potentiometers – Volt Ratio Box – Applications of D.C. Potentiometers – A.C. Potentiometer –
    Drysdale A.C. Potentiometer – Ballistic Galvanometer – Vibration Galvanometer – Frequency
    Meters – Vibrating-Reed Frequency meter – Electrodynamic Frequency Meter – Moving-Iron
    Frequency Meter – Power Factor Meters – Single-Phase Electrodynamic Power Factor Meter – 3-
    Phase Electrodynamic Power Factor Meter – Moving-Iron Power Factor Meter – 3-Voltmeter
    Method of Determining Phase Angle – Ohmmeter – Megger – Instrument Transformers – Current
    Transformer (C.T.) – Potential Transformer (P.T.) – Advantages of Instrument Transformers –
    Objective Questions.
  16. A.C. Network Analysis 936 – 983
    A.C. Network Analysis – Kirchhoff’s Laws for A.C. Circuits – A.C. Mesh Current Analysis – A.C.
    Nodal Analysis – Superposition Theorem for A.C. Circuits – Thevenin’s Theorem for A.C.
    Circuits – Norton’s Theorem for A.C. Circuits – Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits –
    Millman’s Theorem for A.C. Circuits – Reciprocity Theorem – Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
    for A.C. Circuits – A.C. Network Transformations – Objective Questions.
    Index 985 – 989
    A
    Absolute permeability, 355
    Absolute permittivity, 263
    Absolute potential, 278
    Admittance, 669
    Air dielectric capacitor, 304
    Air gap, 390
    Alternating current, 521
  • average value, 532
  • effective value, 535
  • peak value, 532
  • voltage, 521
    Ampere, 381
  • turns, 386
    Angular velocity, 527
    Apparent Power, 581
    Atom, 2
    Average Power (a.c.) :
  • in pure resistance, 565
  • in pure inductance, 569
  • in pure capacitance, 573
  • in R-L series circuit, 579
  • in R-C series circuit, 597
  • in R-L-C series circuit, 606
  • three phase circuit, 731
    B
    Balanced three phase, 728
    Bandwidth :
  • series resonant circuit, 617
    Battery (Lead-Acid), 492
  • care, 509
  • charging, 504
  • chemical action, 492
  • construction, 496
  • resistance, 498
  • sulphation, 503
    B–H curve, 404
    Bridge :
  • Wheatstone, 62
    C
    Calorie, 242
    Capacitance :
  • in d.c. circuit, 296
  • in a.c. circuit, 571
  • parallel plate, 301
    Capacitive reactance, 572
    Capacitor, 295
  • dielectric materials, 285
  • in parallel, 320
  • in series, 319
    Cell, 491
  • alkaline, 512
  • lead-acid, 492
  • nickel-cadmium, 514
  • solar, 516
    Charge, 1
    Circuit :
  • d.c. series, 36
  • d.c. parallel, 39
  • d.c. series-parallel, 48
  • a.c. series, 578
  • a.c. parallel, 666
  • polyphase, 722 – 829
    Co-efficient :
  • of coupling, 447
  • temperature, 18
    Compass, 352
    Conductance, 669
    Conventional current, 4
    Cost of energy, 30
    Coulomb, 1
    985
    Index986 Basic Electrical Engineering
    Coulomb’s Laws, 350
    Complex Numbers, 634 – 665
  • addition and subtraction, 639
  • conjugate, 641
  • multiplication and division, 641
  • polar form, 637
    Current :
  • alternating, 521
  • conventional, 4
  • direct, 4
  • electron, 1
    Cutting of flux, 431
    Cycle, alternating current, 526
    D
    Decaying – R-L circuit, 471
    Delta connection, 740
    Delta-Wye transformation, 216
    Dielectric :
  • constant, 297
  • strength, 285
    Discharging :
  • battery, 492
  • capacitor, 338
    E
    Eddy current loss, 476
    Effective value :
  • sinusoidal, 535
    Electric field, 268
  • intensity, 269
  • energy stored, 328
    Electric force between :
  • parallel plates, 332
    Electric Potential, 7
  • difference, 8
    Electromagnetic force between :
  • current carrying conductors, 380
  • Current carrying conductor in magnetic
    field, 364
    Electromagnetic induction, 430
  • Faraday’s laws, 431
    Electromotive force, 431
    Electrons :
  • valence, 2
  • free, 2
  • theory, 1
    Energy :
  • electrical, 241
  • thermal, 242
  • stored in electric field, 328
  • stored in magnetic field, 459
    F
    Farad, 297
    Faraday’s laws :
  • electromagnetic induction, 431
    Field :
  • electric, 268
  • magnetic, 352
    Field intensity :
  • electric, 269
  • magnetic, 355
    Figure of merit (Q), 583
    Fleming’s rule :
  • left-hand, 365
  • right-hand, 433
    Form factor, 538
    Flux :
  • electric, 273
  • magnetic, 352
  • leakage (magnetic), 391
  • linkages, 431
    Flux-density :
  • electric, 273
  • magnetic, 353
    Free electrons, 2
    Free space :
  • permeability, 355
  • permittivity, 263
    Frequency, 527Index 987
    G
    Generator :
  • elementary a.c., 523
    Graphical representation of :
  • temperature co-efficient, 18
    H
    Henry, 440
    Horse power, 243
    Hydrometer, 502
    Hysteresis :
  • phenomenon, 417
  • loss, 419
    I
    Impedance, 579
  • triangle, 580
    Inductance :
  • self, 439
  • mutual, 445
    Instruments :
  • controlling torque, 832
  • damping torque, 836
  • deflecting torque, 832
  • dynamometer type instruments, 851
  • electrostatic voltmeters, 871
  • frequency meter, 919
  • hot-wire instruments, 867
  • induction type instruments, 878
  • induction wattmeters, 893
  • induction watthour meter, 902
  • moving-iron instruments, 857
  • permanent magnet moving-coil instruments, 838
  • power factor meter, 923
  • wattmeters, 882
    Internal resistance :
  • battery, 498
  • supply, 49
    K
    Kilovolt-ampere, 581
    Kilowatt-hour, 30
    Kirchhoff’s laws :
  • current, 65
  • voltage, 66
    L
    Laminations, 476
    Leakage flux, 391
    Lenz’s law, 432
    Line voltage, 730
    Lines of force :
  • electric, 269
  • magnetic, 352
    Loads :
  • balanced Y, 728
  • balanced ∆, 728
  • unbalanced 4-wire Y, 787
    Losses :
  • eddy currents, 476
    M
    Magnetic circuits, 386
  • series, 389
  • parallel, 390
    Magnetic :
  • attraction, 350
  • field, 352
  • materials, 360
  • reluctance, 387
    Magnetism :
  • molecular theory, 358
  • residual, 418
    Magnetic fields :
  • long straight conductors, 361
  • parallel conductors, 361
  • solenoid, 362
    Magnetisation curves, 404
    Magneto-motive force, 387988 Basic Electrical Engineering
    Maximum power transfer, 198
    Microfarad, 297
    Millman’s theorem, 209
    N
    Negative temperature co-efficient, 18
    Network theorems, 106 – 238
    Newton, 240
    Neutral current, 731
    Neutral point, 727
    Neutral wire, 727
    Nickel-iron cell, 512
    Nickel-cadmium cell, 514
    Norton’s theorem, 179
    Notation :
  • double subscript, 726
  • symbolic, 636
    Numbers, complex, 634 – 655
    Nucleus, 1
    O
    Oersted, 360
    Ohm, 10
    Ohm’s law, 27
    P
    Parallel circuits :
  • a.c., 666 – 721
  • capacitors, 320
  • d.c., 39
  • magnetic, 390
  • resistance, 39
    Parallel-plate capacitors, 301
    Peak factor, 539
    Peak value, 532
    peak, a.c., 532
    Permittivity, 263
    Phase, 555
  • difference, 555
    Phasor, 556
    Phase sequence, 725
    Phase voltage, 727
    Pico-farad, 297
    Poles, 350
    Polyphase circuits, 722
    Potential, 7
    Potential difference, 8
    Power :
  • active, 581
  • apparent, 581
  • reactive, 582
  • three phase, 731, 743
    Power factor, 583
  • improvement, 817
  • significance, 815
    Power transfer theorem, 198
    Primary cell, 491
    Product-over sum rule :
  • capacitors in series, 319
  • resistors in parallel, 41
    Protons, 1
    Q
    Quality factor (Q) :
  • parallel circuits, 707
  • series circuits, 617
    Quadrature component, 635
    R
    Reactance :
  • capacitive, 572
  • inductive, 569
    Reactive volt-ampere, 582
    Real component, 635
    Reciprocity theorem, 207
    Relative permeability, 355
    Reluctance, 387
    Residual, 418
    Resistance, 10
  • combination in series, 36
  • parallel combinations, 39
  • temperature co-efficient, 18
  • variation with temperature, 18Index 989
    Resistivity, 11
    Right-hand rule, 360
    Root mean square value, 535
  • mathematical determination, 537
    S
    Secondary cells, 491
  • charging method, 504
    Self-induced voltage, 438
    Self-inductance, 439
  • factors affecting, 440
    Series circuits :
  • d.c., 36
  • a.c., 578 – 633
    Series-parallel circuit, d.c., 48
    Sine curve, 522
    Sinusoidal waveform, 522
    Solar cell, 516
    Star connection, 727
    Storage cells, 491
  • Edison type, 512
  • lead-acid, 492
  • nickel-cadmium, 514
    Superposition theorem, 133
    Susceptance, 669
    Symbolic notation, 636
    System of units, S.I., 239
    T
    Temperature co-efficient of resistance, 18
    Test charge, 278
    Theorems (a.c.) :
  • max. power transfer, 973
  • Millman’s, 969
  • Notron’s, 964
  • superposition, 950
  • Thevenin’s, 955
    Theorems (d.c.) :
  • max. power transfer, 198
  • Millman’s, 209
  • Norton’s, 179
  • reciprocity, 207
  • superposition, 133
  • Thevenin’s, 150
    Three phase circuits, 722 – 829
  • delta connection, 740
  • power, 731, 743
  • star connection, 727
    Thumb rule, 505
    Time period, a.c., 526
    Triangle impedance, 580
    Trigonometrical form, 636
    Two-wattmeter method, 765
    U
    Unbalanced load, 786
    Unit magnetic pole, 351
    Units :
  • energy, 240
  • power, 242
  • thermal, 242
  • work, 240
    V
    Var, 582
    Voltage, 8
    Volt-ampere, 581
    Voltage law (Kirchhoff), 66
    W
    Wattless component, 582
    Watt, 30
  • component, 582
  • hour, 30
  • second, 30
    Weber, 351
    Wheatstone bridge, 62
    Work, 240
    Wye load, 728
    Y
    Y-load, 728
    Y-∆ transformation, 217

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