Electric Energy System Theory – An Introduction

Electric Energy System Theory – An Introduction
اسم المؤلف
Olle I. Elgerd
التاريخ
18 نوفمبر 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Electric Energy System Theory – An Introduction
Olle I. Elgerd
Contents
Preface Vll
Chapter 1 Introduction
– 1 Electric Energy – Its Impact on Society
1-2 Electric Energy Sources
1-2.1 Hydropower
1-2.2 Fossil Fuels
1-2.3 Nuclear Power
1-3 the Structure and Economy of the Electric Energy
Industry
1-4 the Future of Eese
References
Chapter 2 Fundamental Concepts of Electric Energy Systems
Engineering
2-1 the Fundamental Power Formula – Electromagnetic
Energy
2-2 Additional Forms of Electric Energy
2-2.1 Electric Field Energy We!
2-2.2 Magnetic Field Energy Wmf
2-2.3 Ohmic, or Dissipative, Energy Wn
2-3 Dc Versus Ac Power
– Concepts of Real and Reactive
Powers
2-3.1 Single-phase Transmission
2-3.2 Three-phase Transmission
2-4 Concept of Complex Power
2-5 Per-unit Representation of Impedances, Currents, Voltages,
And Powers
2-6 Summary
Exercises
References
Exercises
References
Chapter 6 the Power Transformer 114 *
5-1 Practical Design Considerations
5-1.1 Different Types of Core Arrangements
5-1.2 Different Winding Arrangements and Electrical
Connections
5-1.3 Ratings
5-2 Equivalent Circuits for Two-winding Transformers
5-2.1 Exact Equivalent Circuits of Yy-connected
Transformers
5-2.2 Approximate Equivalent Circuits for Yy-connected
Transformers
5-2.3 Equivalent Circuit for a-connected
Transformers
5-2.4 7t Equivalents
5-2.5 the Impedance Matrix of a Symmetrically
Operated Three-phase Transformer
5-3 Equivalent Circuits for Multiwinding Transformers
5-4 Autotransformers
5-5 the Transformer as a Control Device
5-5.1 Tcul Transformers
5-5.2 Regulating Transformers
5-6 Summary
Exercises
References
Chapter 3 the Electric Energy System – Operational
Considerations
3-1 Objectives
3-2 the Structure of the Electric Energy System
3-2.1 Distribution Level
3-2.2 Subtransmission Level
3-2.3 Transmission Level
3-3 Transmission Capacity 49
-* 3-4 Load Characteristics
– 3-4.1 Voltage and Frequency Load Dependency
– 3-5 the Real Power Balance and Its Effect on System
Frequency
3-5.1 Load-frequency Mechanism
3-5.2 a Mechanical Analog
– 3-6 the Reactive Power Balance and Its Effect on System
Voltage 60
*~ 3-7 Questions of Security and Cost
3-8 Summary * 65
Exercises 65
References
Chapter 4 the Synchronous Machine – System Model
Representation
4-1 Introduction
4 – 2 Elementary Models and Analogs
4-2.1 Control of Synchronous Machines
4 – 2.2 a. Mechanical Analog
4 – 2.3 the Torque – Power Angle Mechanism
4-2.4 Torque Creation
4-3 Development of General Machine Equations
4 – 3.1 the Basic Machine Parameters
4 – 3.2 the General Machine Equations
4 – 3.3 the General Power Equation
4 – 3.4 the Blondel Transformation
4 – 4 Steady-state Machine Models
4-4.1 the Machine at No Load
4-4.2 the Machine Under Symmetrical Loading
Conditions
4 – 5 Machine Ratings
4 – 6 Summary
Chapter 6 the High-energy Transmission Line
6-1 Introduction
6-2 Design Considerations
6-3 Electric Line Parameters
6-3.1 Line Resistance and Shunt Conductance
6-3.2 Line Inductance
6-3.3 Line Capacitance
6-4 Long-line Theory
6-4.1 Long-line Equations
6-4.2 Computational Considerations
6-4.3 Equivalent Network of Long Line
6-4.4 the Lossless Line
6-5 Summary
Exercises
References
Chapter 7 the Energy System in Steady State – System Modeling
And Load Flow Analysis
7-1 a Demonstration Example
7-1.1 System Model – the Static Load Flow
* Equations (Slfe)
7-1.2 Important Characteristics of Slfe
^7-1.3 Classification of System Variables
7-1.4 Solution of Slfe – a Basic Dilemma
7-1.5 Modified Specifications – Solution of Our
Dilemma
7-1.6 Generalization to N-bus System
^7-1.7 Practical State-variable Constraints
7-1.8 Practical Control-variable Constraints
7-1.9 Practical Variable Specification Procedure
7-1.10 Bus Classification on the Basis of Specification
Type
7-2 Sensitivity Analysis and the Problem of Control
7-2.1 Perturbation or Sensitivity Analysis
7-2.2 Jacobian and Sensitivity Matrices
7-3 Definition of the Load Flow Problem
7-4 Network Model Formulation
– 4.1 a Demonstration Example
1-4.2 Slfe in General Form
7-4.3 Network Terminology
7-44 Primitive Networks
7-4.5 Linear Network Graphs
, 7-4.6 Choice of Linearly Independent Network
Variables
. 7-4.7 Network Variables in Loop Frame
Of Reference
. 7-4.8 Network Variables in Bus Frame
Of Reference
7-5 a Load Flow Sample Study
7-6 Computational Aspects of the Load Row Problem
7-6.1 Iterative Computation of Nonlinear Algebraic
Equations
7-6.2 Iterative Computation of the Load Row
Equations
7-7 Effects of Regulating Transformers
7-8 Summary
Exercises
References
Chapter 8 the Energy System in Steady State –
200 – Optimum Operating Strategies 274
201 8-1 the General Programming Problem
8-2 Optimum Generator Allocation – Line Losses
Neglected
8-2.1 Cost Criterion
8-2.2 Constraint Relations
8-2.3 Optimum Dispatch Strategy for a Two-bus
System
8-2.4 Optimum Dispatch of N-bus System
8-2.5 Computational Considerations
8-3 Optimum Generator Allocation, Including the Effect
Of Transmission Losses
8-3.1 Derivation of Optimum Dispatch Formula
8-3.2 Optimum Dispatch Strategy for Two-bus
System
8-3.3 Optimum Dispatch Strategy for N-bus
System
8-3.4 Computational Considerations
8
– 4 the General Optimum Operational Problem
8-4.1 a Demonstration Example
– 4.2 Mathematical Problem Formulation
– 4.3 Necessary Conditions for Optimum C
– 4.4 Computational Procedure
5 Summary
Exercises
References
Chapter 9 the Energy System in Steady State –
The Control Problem
9-1 ‘ Control Systems Structure
9-1.1 Dynamic Incremental State Variables
9-1.2 Coherency
9-1.3 Pf Versus Qv Control
9-1.4 Dynamic Interaction Between Pf and Qv
Loops
9-2 the Megawatt Frequency Control Problem
9-2.1 Fundamental Characteristics of the Power Control
Mechanism of an Individual Generator
– 9-2.2 Areas Division of Power System Into Control
9-2.3 Pf Control of Single Control Area
Xvi Contents Contents Xvli
9-2.4 Economic Dispatch Controller
– 2.5 Pf Control of Multi-control-area Systems
‘(Pool Operation)
9-3 the Megavar Voltage Control Problem
9-3.1 Control Strategy
9-3.2 Fundamental Characteristics of Typical
Excitation System
9-3.3 Newer Aspects of the Megavar Voltage Control
Problem
10-4.2 Effects of Winding Resistances and Damper
Windings
10-4.3 Practical Computational Considerations
10-5 Symmetrical Short-circuit Analysis – 4 Simple
Demonstration Example
10-5.1 Statement of the Problem
10-5.2 Solution Procedure
10-6 Systematic Short-circuit Computations
10-7 Summary
Exercises
References
– 4 Optimum Systems Control
– . 99-4.1 “static” Versus “dynamic” Stability
– 4.2 Need for a New Approach
– 4.3 Development of Dynamic State-variable Model
For Two-area System
– 4.4 Optimum Control Criterion
– 4.5 Optimum Control Strategy
– 9 – 4.6 Introduction of Damping Into the Pf Loop
Through Voltage Control
Chapter 11 Unbalanced System Analysis 430
373 11-1 the Transformation (Sct) Symmetrical
Component
11-1.1 Definitions
11-1.2 Useful Properties of Sct ’ ’
11-2 Sequence Impedances of Network Components
11-2.1 Sequence Impedances of Synchronous
Machines
11-2.2 Sequence Impedances of Transformers
11-2.3 Sequence Impedances for Transmission
Lines
11-3 Digital Computation of Unbalanced Faults
11-3.1 Sequence Network Assembly
11-3.2 General Formulas for Postfault Currents
And Voltages
11-3.3 Determination of the Fault Matrices
Zj and Y
9-5 Summary
Exercises
References
Chapter 10 Energy System Transients – Surge Phenomena
And Symmetrical Fault Analysis
^ 10-1 Classification of System Transients 453
10-1.1 Class a. Ultrafast Transients
– Surge
Phenomena
390
391 458
10-1.2 Class B. Medium-fast Transients
– Short-circuit
Phenomena
10-1.3 Class C. Slow-transients
– Transient
Stability
10-2 Class a. Transmission Line Transients
10-2.1 Traveling Waves
10-2.2 Switching Transients
10-3 Symmetrical Short Circuits
10-3.1 Concept of Short-circuit Capacity
(Scc)
391 464
11 473
4 Summary
Exercises
References
Chapter 12 Transient Stability Analysis
12-1 Introduction 477
•*“ 12-2 Transient System Models
12-2.1 Basic Assumptions
12-2.2 the Swing Equation
12-2.3 the Transient Turbine Power Pt
10-3.2 Connection Between Scc and Thevenin’s
Theorem
10-4 Behavior of the Synchronous Machine During
A Balanced Short Circuit
10-4.1 Analysis of a Balanced Terminal Short Circuit –
Winding Resistances Neglected
12-2.4 the Transient Generator Power Pt 484
12-3 Solution of Swing Equation – the Single-generator
Case
12-3.1 Small-scale Oscillations
Contents
12-3.2 Large-scale Oscillations
12-3.3 Direct Stability Analysis Methods
12-3.4 Computer Solution of Swing Equation
(“indirect” Stability Analysis)
12-4 Solution of Swing Equations – the Multigenerator
Case
– 4.1 System Description
12-4.2 Fault Sequence
12-4.3 Assumptions
12-4.4 Determination of Initial System State
12-4.5 Postfault System Models (Postfault
Period I )
Postfault System Models (Postfault
Period Ii)
Computational Sequence
Computer Results
the Theirload Effect Frequency on Transient and Voltage Stabilitycontrollers –
12-5.1 Effects of Pf Control Loop
12-5.2 Effects of Voltage Control Loop
12-5.3 Summary of Model
12-6 Summary * 527
Exercises
References
Appendix a Elements of Vector and Matrix Algebra 533
A-l Vectors
A-1.1 Special Vectors
A-l.2 Elementary Vector Operations
A-l.3 the Inner Vector Product
A-2 Matrices
A-2.1 Elementary Matrix Operations
A-2.2 Special Matrices
A-2.3 Determinants and Adjugate (Adjoint)
Matrices
A-2.4 the Matrix Inverse
References 545
Appendix B Computer Program for Solution of Slfe 546
Index 553
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