Dynamic Mechanical Analysis – for Plastics Engineering

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis – for Plastics Engineering
اسم المؤلف
Michael P. Sepe
التاريخ
23 أكتوبر 2023
المشاهدات
238
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Dynamic Mechanical Analysis – for Plastics Engineering
Michael P. Sepe
Table of Contents
Table of Contents i
Figures .iii
Graphs xi
1 Introduction 1
2 Principles of Polymer Structure And Instrument Operation .• • .3
2.1 Data Presentation 6
2.2 Structural Characteristics of Polymers 7
3 Properties Measured By DMA 11
3.1 Storage Modulus Versus Temperature 11
3.2 The Meaning of Loss Modulus and Tan Delta 12
3.3 The Relationship of DMA to HDT and Vicat Softening 14
3.4 The Effect of Fillers 17
3.5 Polymer Blends 18
4 Time Dependent Behavior 21
4.1 The Equivalency of Temperature and Time • 21
4.2 Creep and Stress Relaxation 23
4.3 The Relationship of Time to Frequency 25
4.4 Using the Master Curve for Practical Problem Solving 28
5 The Effects of Processing and Environment 31
6 Conclusions 35
Appendix 1 – DMA Data Collection 36
Acetal resin 36
acetal homopolymer (POM) 36
acetal copolymer (POM copolymer) 38
Acrylic resin 42
acrylic (PMMA) 42
acrylic copolymer 44
Polyamide 44
amorphous nylon 44
nylon 12 46
nylon 6 48
nylon 612 58
nylon 66 62
nylon 6/66 74
nylon MXD6 78
nylon, aromatic copolymer 78
nylon, partially aromatic 80
Polycarbonate 80
polycarbonate (PC) 80
Polyester 86
polybutylene terephthalate (polyester PBT) 86
polyethylene terephthalate (polyester PET) 90ii
Table of Contents
Polyim.ide 98
polyetherimide (PEl) 98
Polyketone 102
polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 102
Polyolefin 104
polypropylene (PP) 104
polypropylene copolymer (PP copolymer) 114
cyclic olefin copolymer 116
Polyphenylene ether 118
syrene modified polyphenylene ether (modified PPE) 118
Polysolfide 122
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 122
Polysulfone 128
polyethersulfone (PES) 128
Styrenic resin 130
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 130
high impact polystyrene (HIPS) 140
styrene acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) 142
Plastic alloy 142
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/ nylon alloy (ABS/ nylon alloy) 142
acrylic/ polycarbonate alloy (acrylic/ PC alloy) 144
polycarbonate/ acrylonitrile butadiene styrene alloy (PC/ ABS alloy) 144
polycarbonate polybutylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PBT alloy) 146
polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 148
polypropylene/ polystyrene alloy (PP/ PS alloy) 154
Appendix 2 – Data Sheet Properties For Materials in the DMA Data Collection 158
Glossary of Terms 171iii
Figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6a.
Figure 6b
Figure 6c.
Figure 7a.
Figure 7b
Figure 8a.
Figure 8b.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 20a.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Relationship of stress and strain with time for a pure elastic system. . 3
Relationship of stress and strain with time for a purely viscous system 3
Relationship of stress and strain with time for a viscoelastic system 4
The behavior of an elastic system under oscillatory stress. Stress and strain and in phase 4
The behavior of a viscous system under oscillatory stress. Stress and strain are 90° out of phase 5
Relationship of the stress and strain vectors in a dynamic experiment. 5
Stress vectors resolved into the loss and storage components 5
Corresponding modulus vectors with loss vector transposed to form a right triangle 5
Storage and loss properties for an unfilled polycarbonate 7
Expanded plot of storage and loss properties for polycarbonate at Tg. . 8
Storage and loss properties for unfilled nylon 6 8
Storage and loss properties for an unfilled nylon 6/12 showing the rapid rise in tan delta
as the material softens 9
Storage and loss properties for an epoxy circuit board material. 9
Storage and loss properties for a thermoset elastomer 9
Storage modulus vs. temperature for a 30% glass fiber-reinforced PET polyester 11
Comparison of storage modulus properties for PET polyester, PBT polyester, nylon 6,
and nylon 6/6, all with 30% glass fiber reinforcement. 12
Generalized plot of the effects of structure on storage modulus properties 12
Storage and loss properties for amorphous nylon. Tan delta does not resolve to a peak
in the glass transition region but rises rapidly starting at Tg 13
Comparison of tan delta properties for PES and PEl from -50 to 160°C. The higher tendency
for viscous flow is part of the reason for the superior impact resistance of PES 14
Storage and loss properties for an impact-modified acrylic. The low-temperature transition
in the loss modulus curve is due to the rubbery impact modifier 14
Storage and loss properties for a flame-retardant ABS/polycarbonate blend. The HDT values
are shown on the storage modulus plot. 15
Storage and loss modulus plot for unfilled nylon 6 showing the two HDT values in relation to
Tg and the melting point. 16
Storage modulus versus temperature behavior showing the effect of filler content on the
softening point for polycarbonate 16
Storage modulus versus temperature behavior showing the effect of filler content on
the properties of nylon 6 17
Figure 20 showing the modulus levels for the HDT measured by ISO 75 Methods A, B, and C. 17
Storage modulus versus temperature for an unfilled polycarbonate showing the two HDT values
and the Vicat softening point. 17
Effect of filler type and level on the storage modulus properties of nylon 6 17
Effect of filler type and level on the tan delta properties of nylon 6. Note the reduction in peak
heights as the elastic contributions of the filler increase 18
Effect of fiber length and coupling technology on the tan delta properties of a short glass and
long glass PBT polyester. The long glass system has higher elastic properties using the same amount
of reinforcement. 18iv
Figures
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
Figure 35.
Figure 36a.
Figure 36b.
Figure 36c.
Figure 37.
Figure 38a.
Figure 38b.
Figure 39.
Figure 40.
Figure 41.
Figure 42.
Figure 43.
Figure 44.
Figure 45.
Loss modulus versus temperature plots for various blends of PPO and high impact polystyrene.
The single Tg indicates a miscible blend with Tg rising as PPO content increases 19
Loss modulus plots for PBT polyester, polycarbonate, and a PBTIPC blend. Two phases are
detectable but the shift of Tg’s toward one another indicates a semi-miscible blend 19
Storage modulus plot comparing an unfilled PBT with a PBTIPC blend 19
Storage and loss modulus plots of a nylon 6/6 and a blend of nylon 6/6 and PPO. The lack
of a shift in the Tg of the nylon and the well-defined modulus plateau between transitions
indicates an immiscible blend 20
A linear plot of apparent modulus vs. time for a 100-hour creep test. 21
A semi-log plot of apparent modulus vs. time for the 100-hour creep test shown in Figure 29 21
A log-log plot of apparent modulus vs. time for the 100-hour creep test shown in Figure 29 21
Apparent modulus vs. time data for short-term creep tests conducted on a thermoset vinylester
at multiple temperatures. The data is plotted in log-log format. The equivalency between time
and temperature is shown for a thirty minute loading at 111°C and a temperature increase of 10°C. 22
Storage and loss properties for a 30% glass fiber-reinforced PEEK 22
Apparent modulus data at multiple temperatures superimposed over the storage modulus plot from
Figure 33. The short-term time-dependent behavior parallels the temperature-dependent properties .22
Comparison of storage modulus properties of ABS and polycarbonate. The more stable modulu
and higher Tg of the polycarbonate equate to superior time-dependent properties 23
Raw apparent modulus data shown in Figure 32 24
Master curve in process for a reference temperature of 100°C 24
Completed master curve for a reference temperature of 100°C. 24
Comparison of first 125 hours of master curve prediction for a rigid thermoset polyurethane
with three real-time 125-hour creep tests. Data is shown on linear scales 24
Raw apparent modulus data from a stress relaxation test on polycarbonate 25
Stress relaxation master curve for polycarbonate in Figure 38a using a reference temperature
of 135°C 25
Loss modulus measurements at multiple frequencies for the glass transition region of a 50%
long glass fiber-reinforced nylon 6. The Tg shifts to slightly higher temperatures as the
frequency increases 26
Loss modulus measurements at multiple frequencies for a 40% long glass fiber-reinforced
polypropylene 26
Storage modulus measurements at multiple frequencies for an unfilled polycarbonate.
Modulus increases with frequency. Frequency-dependent behavior is most pronounced
in the glass transition region 26
Storage modulus measurements at multiple frequencies for a polycarbonate showing the
effects of Tg in greater detail. 27
Loss modulus master curve vs. frequency for a 30% carbon fiber-reinforced nylon 6/6 at
a reference temperature of 40°C 27
Loss modulus master curve vs. time for the material characterized in Figure 43. Time and
frequency are related inversely and this plot is a mirror image of Figure 43. The time at peak
is the relaxation time associated with the glass transition when the material is at the reference
temperature 27
Plot of peak frequency vs. reference temperature for the material characterized in Figures 43
and 44. The data points describe a straight line and the slope of the line is the activation energy
of the glass transition 27v
Figures
Figure 46a.
Figure 46b.
Figure 47a.
Figure 47b.
Figure 48.
Figure 49.
Figure 50.
Figure 51.
Figure 52.
Figure 53.
Figure 54.
Figure 55.
Figure 56.
Figure 57.
Tensile stress-strain curves for an unfilled polypropylene copolymer tested at strain rates of
5, 50, and 500 mm/min. Note the increase in modulus and peak stress and the decrease in
ultimate elongation as strain rate increases. . 28
Tensile stress-strain curves for an unfilled polypropylene copolymer tested at strain rates of
5, 50, and 500 mm/min. The curves have been expanded to show the detail of the yield section
of the test. 28
A creep master curve for a 43% glass-reinforced nylon 6/6 generated at 50°C. 29
A stress-strain curve for a 43% glass-reinforced nylon 6/6 generated at 50°C. The maximum
strain is transposed to the modulus line in order to simulate the linear behavior characterized
by the creep master curve 29
Effects of melt temperature on the storage modulus properties of an unfilled polypropylene run
in a cool mold 31
Effects of melt temperature on the storage modulus properties of an unfilled polypropylene run
in a hot mold. Note that the modulus of the cold melt samples is reduced significantly in the
hotter mold while the high melt product is unchanged 31
The effects of fiber orientation on the storage modulus properties of a 30% glass fiber-reinforced
polyurethane 31
Effect of mold temperature on the storage modulus properties of a 40% glass fiber
reinforced PPS. The reduced modulus and lower glass transition temperature are the
result of incomplete crystallization during molding 32
Tan delta properties for the samples from Figure 50. The reduced crystallinity results
in a higher potential for viscous flow as the material passes through Tg’ 32
Effects of short-term heat aging on the viscoelastic properties of 30% glass fiber
reinforced PEEK. The increased storage modulus and decreased tan delta values
indicate the occurrence of secondary crystallization 32
The effect of moisture content on the storage modulus properties of an unfilled nylon 6 33
The effect of plasticizer loss on the storage and loss properties of a flexible PVc. The rise
in Tg results in the embrittlement of the compound 33
Effects of immersion in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) on the storage properties of an
unfilled PBT/polycarbonate blend. Properties are partially restored after a 30-day
drying out period 33
Effects of solvent immersion on tan delta properties of PBT/polycarbonate blend.
The disappearance of the polycarbonate Tg indicates that permanent damage was
done to this phase of the blend 34vi
Graphs
Graph 1.
Graph 2.
Graph 3.
Graph 4.
Graph 5.
Graph 6.
Graph 7.
Graph 8.
Graph 9.
Graph 10.
Graph 11.
Graph 12.
Graph 13.
Graph 14.
Graph 15.
Graph 16.
Graph 17.
Graph 18.
Graph 19.
Graph 20.
Graph 21.
Graph 22.
Graph 23.
Graph 24.
Graph 25.
Storage and loss properties for DuPont Delrin 500 unfilled acetal homopolymer (POM) 36
Storage and loss properties for DuPont Delrin 577 20% glass fiber filled, UV stable
acetal homopolymer (POM) 36
Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celcon M90 unfilled acetal copolymer (POM copolymer) 38
Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celcon M90 unfilled acetal copolymer (POM copolymer)
showing low temperature behavior 38
Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celcon TX90 unfilled, impact modified acetal
copolymer (POM copolymer) .40
Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celcon GC25A 25% glass fiber filled acetal
copolymer (POM copolymer) 40
Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celcon CFX-Ol08 25% glass fiber filled, UV stable
acetal copolymer (POM copolymer) 42
Storage and loss properties for AtoHaas Plexiglas MI-7 unfilled, impact modified acrylic (PMMA) 42
Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zylar ST94-580 unfilled, impact modified acrylic copolymer 44
Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel ST901 unfilled, impact modified amorphous nylon
tested at 0.6% moisture content. 44
Storage and loss properties for EMS Grilamid TR55LX unfilled, amorphous, transparent
nylon 12 tested dry as molded 46
Storage and loss properties for EMS Grilamid TR55LX unfilled, amorphous, transparent
nylon 12 tested at I% moisture content 46
Storage and loss properties for Allied Signal Capron 8202C unfilled, nucleated nylon 6 tested
at 0.15% moisture content 48
Storage and loss properties for Allied Signal Capron 8231 G 6 – 14% glass fiber filled
nylon 6 tested at 0.15% moisture content : 48
Storage and loss properties for Bayer Durethan BKV030 30% glass fiber filled nylon 6
tested at 0.47% moisture content . 50
Storage and loss properties for EMS Grilon PVN-3H 30% glass fiber filled nylon 6 tested
at 0.4% moisture content 50
Storage and loss properties for Allied Signal Capron 8233G 33% glass fiber filled nylon 6
tested at 0.3% moisture content. .52
Storage and loss properties for BASF Ultramid B3EG6 30% glass fiber filled nylon 6 tested
at 0.5% moisture content 52
Storage and loss properties for LNP Thermocomp PF 1006HI 30% glass fiber filled, impact
modified nylon 6 tested at 0.3% moisture content 54
Storage and loss properties for DSM Engineering Fiberfil 17-33 33% glass fiber filled, impact
modified nylon 6 tested at 0.3% moisture content 54
Storage and loss properties for Allied Signal Capron 8267G 40% glass fiber/ mineral filled
nylon 6 tested at 0.3% moisture content 56
Storage and loss properties for Allied Signal Capron 8234G 44% glass fiber filled nylon 6
tested at 0.4% moisture content 56
Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celstran N6G50 50% long glass fiber filled nylon 6
tested at 0.4% moisture content .58
Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel 151 unfi lied nylon 612 58
Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel 77G43L 43% glass fiber filled nylon 612 tested
at 0.35% moisture content 60vii
Graphs
Graph 26. Storage and loss properties for LNP Therrnocomp IF100-12 60% glass fiber filled nylon 612
tested at 0.4% moisture content. 60
Graph 27. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel lOlL unfilled nylon 66 tested at
0.5% moisture content 62
Graph 28. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel CFE4003 unfilled, impact modified
nylon 66 tested at 0.5% moisture content 62
Graph 29. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel ST80l unfilled, impact modified
nylon 66 tested dryas molded 64
Graph 30. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel ST801 unfilled, impact modified
nylon 66 tested at 0.6% moisture content 64
Graph 31. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel 70G13L 13% glass fiber filled
nylon 66 tested at 0.2% moisture content 66
Graph 32. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel 70G33L 33% glass fiber filled
nylon 66 tested at 0.4% moisture content 66
Graph 33. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celanese 1603-240% glass fiber filled
nylon 66 tested at 0.5% moisture content 68
Graph 34. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celanese NFX-0102 40% glass bead filled
nylon 66 tested at 0.6% moisture content 68
Graph 35. Storage and loss properties for DuPont MinIon 6122 40% mineral filled nylon 66
tested at 0.5% moisture content 70
Graph 36. Storage and loss properties for DuPont MinIon IOB40 40% mineral filled nylon 66
tested at 0.2% moisture content. 70
Graph 37. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel FE5128 43% glass fiber filled nylon 66 tested
at 0.35% moisture content 72
Graph 38. Storage and loss properties for DuPont MinIon II C40 40% mineral filled, impact modified
nylon 66 tested at 0.5% moisture content 72
Graph 39. Storage and loss properties for DuPont MinIon 12T 40% mineral filled, impact modified
nylon 66 tested at 0.6% moisture content 74
Graph 40. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel 82G33L 33% glass fiber filled, impact modified
nylon 6/66 tested at 0.2% moisture content 74
Graph 41. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel 72G33L 33% glass fiber filled nylon 6/66 tested
at 0.4% moisture content 76
Graph 42. Storage and loss properties for LNP Verton RF700-l OEM 50% long glass fiber filled nylon 6/66
tested at I% moisture content 76
Graph 43. Storage and loss properties for Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Reny 1032 60% glass fiber
filled nylon MXD6 78
Graph 44. Storage and loss properties for EMS Grivory 5H 50% glass fiber filled nylon, aromatic
copolymer tested at 0.3% moisture content 78
Graph 45. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Zytel HTN51 G35HSL 35% glass fiber filled nylon,
partially aromatic 80
Graph 46. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Lexan 141R unfilled polycarbonate (PC) 80
Graph 47. Storage and loss properties for MRC Polymers PC429MMHI-200 unfilled polycarbonate (PC) 82
Graph 48. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Makrolon T7435 unfilled, impact modified polycarbonate (PC) 82
Graph 49. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Lexan 500 10% glass fiber filled polycarbonate (PC) 84
Graph 50. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Lexan 3412 20% glass fiber filled polycarbonate (PC) 84viii
Graphs
Graph 51. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Valox 325 unfilled polybutylene
terephthalate (polyester PBT) 86
Graph 52. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celanex 2016 unfilled polybutylene
terephthalate (polyester PBT) 86
Graph 53. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Valox 744 10% glass fiber filled, impact
modified polybutylene terephthalate (polyester PBT) 88
Graph 54. Storage and loss properties for LNP Thermocomp PDXW96630 10% glass fiber filled,
impact modified polybutylene terephthalate (polyester PBT) 88
Graph 55. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Valox 420 30% glass fiber filled polybutylene
terephthalate (polyester PBT) 90
Graph 56. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Rynite 530 30% glass fiber filled polyethylene
terephthalate (polyester PET) 90
Graph 57. Storage and loss properties for Plastics Engineering Pienco 50030 30% glass fiber filled
polyethylene terephthalate (polyester PET) 92
Graph 58. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Impet 330R 30% glass fiber filled polyethylene
terephthalate (polyester PET) 92
Graph 59. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Rynite FR530 30% glass fiber filled, flame retardant
polyethylene terephthalate (polyester PET) 94
Graph 60. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Rynite RE5211 30% glass fiber filled, color stable
polyethylene terephthalate (polyester PET) 94
Graph 61. Storage and loss properties for Allied Signal Petra 130 30% glass fiber filled, from recyclate
polyethylene terephthalate (polyester PET) 96
Graph 62. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Rynite 545 45% glass fiber filled polyethylene
terephthalate (polyester PET) 96
Graph 63. Storage and loss properties for DuPont Rynite 555 55% glass fiber filled polyethylene
terephthalate (polyester PET) 98
Graph 64. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Ultem 1000 unfilled polyetherimide (PEl)
tested dryas molded 98
Graph 65. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Ultem 1000 unfilled polyetherimide (PEl)
tested at 0.5% moisture content . 100
Graph 66. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Ultem 2300 30% glass fiber filled
polyetherimide (PEl) tested dryas molded 100
Graph 67. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Ultem 2300 30% glass fiber filled
polyetherimide (PEI) tested at 0.5% moisture content 102
Graph 68. Storage and loss properties for Victrex PEEK 450G unfilled polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 102
Graph 69. Storage and loss properties for Exxon Escorene 1032 unfilled, homopolymer polypropylene (PP) 104
Graph 70. Storage and loss properties for Polypropylene 400121 unfilled, homopolymer polypropylene (PP) 104
Graph 71. Storage and loss properties for Polypropylene 400145 unfilled, homopolymer polypropylene (PP) 106
Graph 72. Storage and loss properties for Montell PF062-2 20% glass fiber filled polypropylene (PP) 106
Graph 73. Storage and loss properties for Montell PF072-3C 30% glass fiber filled polypropylene (PP) 108
Graph 74. Storage and loss properties for Montell PF072-4C 40% glass fiber filled polypropylene (PP) 108
Graph 75. Storage and loss properties for Ferro RPP40EA63UL 40% glass fiber filled, chemically
coupled polypropylene (PP) 110
Graph 76. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celstran PPG40 40% long glass fiber filled polypropylene (PP) 110ix
Graphs
Graph 77. Storage and loss properties for Ferro HPP40GR09BK 10% glass fiber, 30% talc filled
polypropylene (PP) 112
Graph 78. Storage and loss properties for Ferro TPP40AC45BK 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP) 112
Graph 79. Storage and loss properties for Ferro MPP40FJl5NA 40% mica filled, chemically coupled
polypropylene (PP) 114
Graph 80. Storage and loss properties for Montell SB224-2C 20% glass fiber filled polypropylene
copolymer (PP copolymer) 114
Graph 81. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Topas 5513 unfilled cyclic olefin copolymer 116
Graph 82. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Topas 6013 unfilled cyclic olefin copolymer 116
Graph 83. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Noryl N225X flame retardant, moderate heat
resistance syrene modified polyphenylene ether (modified PPE) 118
Graph 84. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Noryl SEIX flame retardant, high heat resistance
syrene modified polyphenylene ether (modified PPE) 118
Graph 85. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Noryl SEI-GFNI 10% glass fiber filled, flame
retardant syrene modified polyphenylene ether (modified PPE) 120
Graph 86. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Noryl GFN2 20% glass fiber filled syrene
modified polyphenylene ether (modified PPE) 120
Graph 87. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Noryl GFN3 30% glass fiber filled syrene
modified polyphenylene ether (modified PPE) 122
Graph 88. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Fortron 1140 40% glass fiber filled polyphenylene
sulfide (PPS) 122
Graph 89. Storage and loss properties for Phillips 66 Ryton R4 40% glass fiber filled, branched
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 124
Graph 90. Storage and loss properties for Phillips 66 Ryton BR90A 40% glass fiber filled, impact
modified polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 124
Graph 91. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celstran PPSG50 50% long glass fiber filled
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 126
Graph 92. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Fortron 4184 50% glass fiber/ mineral filled
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 126
Graph 93. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Fortron 6165 65% glass fiber/ mineral filled
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 128
Graph 94. Storage and loss properties for Amoco Performance Polymers Radel AG220 20% glass
fiber filled polyethersulfone (PES) 128
Graph 95. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Cycolac T unfilled, high impact, general
purpose acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 130
Graph 96. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Cycolac GSM unfilled, high impact
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 130
Graph 97. Storage and loss properties for Dow Chemical Magnum 9010 unfilled, medium impact
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 132
Graph 98. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Cycolac DFA-R unfilled, medium impact
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 132
Graph 99. Storage and loss properties for Dow Chemical Magnum 941 unfilled, very high impact
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 134
Graph 100. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Cycolac KJW unfilled, flame retardant
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 134x
Graphs
Graph 101. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Cycolac VW300 unfilled, halogen free
flame retardant acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 136
Graph 102. Storage and loss properties for RTP 601 FR 10% glass fiber filled, flame retardant
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 136
Graph 103. Storage and loss properties for RTP 605 30% glass fiber filled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 138
Graph 104. Storage and loss properties for RTP 60740% glass fiber filled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 138
Graph 105. Storage and loss properties for Ticona Celstran ABS SS6 6% long stainless steel fiber
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 140
Graph 106. Storage and loss properties for Dow Chemical Styron 484 unfilled high impact polystyrene (HIPS) 140
Graph 107. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Lustran SAN3l unfilled styrene acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) 142
Graph 108. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Triax 1125 unfilled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/
nylon alloy (ABS/ nylon alloy) 142
Graph 109. Storage and loss properties for Cyro Cyrex RDG200 unfilled, impact modified acrylic/
polycarbonate alloy (acrylic/ PC alloy) 144
Graph 110. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Bayblend FRI44l brominated flame retardant
polycarbonate/ acrylonitrile butadiene styrene alloy (PC/ ABS alloy) 144
Graph 111. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Bayblend FRIIO halogen free flame retardant polycarbonate/
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene alloy (PC/ ABS alloy) 146
Graph 112. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Xenoy 6123 unfilled, impact modified
polycarbonate polybutylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PBT alloy) 146
Graph 113. Storage and loss properties for GE Plastics Xenoy 6240 10% glass fiber filled, impact modified
polycarbonate polybutylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PBT alloy) l 48
Graph 114. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Makroblend UTlOl8 unfilled, impact modified
polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 148
Graph 115. Storage and loss properties for MRC Polymers Stanuloy ST125 unfilled, from recyclate
polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 150
Graph 116. Storage and loss properties for MRC Polymers Stanuloy STiIOWCS impact modified, from
recyclate polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 150
Graph 117. Storage and loss properties for MRC Polymers Stanuloy STl50 unfilled, impact modified, from
recyclate polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 152
Graph 118. Storage and loss properties for Bayer Makroblend UT403 unfilled, impact modified, UV stabilized,
low viscosity polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 152
Graph 119. Storage and loss properties for MRC Polymers Stanuloy STl70-30G 30% glass fiber filled, impact
modified, from recyclate polycarbonate polyethylene terephthalate alloy (PC/ polyester PET alloy) 154
Graph 120. Storage and loss properties for Montell Hivalloy GXPA064 35% glass fiber filled, impact
modified polypropylene/ polystyrene alloy (PP/ PS alloy) 154
Graph 121. Storage and loss properties for Montell Hivalloy GXPA065 35% glass fiber filled, impact
modified polypropylene/ polystyrene alloy (PP/ PS alloy) 156ABS See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
ABS nylon alloy See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer nylon
alloy.
ABS PC alloy See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer polycarbonate
alloy.
ABS resin See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
absorption Taking up of matter in bulk by other matter, as in desolving a gas by a liquid.
acetal resins Thermoplastics prepared by polymerization of
formaldehyde or its trioxane trimer. Acetals have high impact
strength and stiffness, low friction coefficient and permeability,
good dimensional stability and dielectric properties, and high
fatigue strength and thermal stability. Acetals have poor acid and
UV resistance and are flammable. Processed by injection and
blow molding and extrusion. Used in mechanical parts such as
gears and bearings, automotive components, appliances, and
plumbing and electronic applications. Also called acetals.
acetals See acetal resins.
acrylate styrene acrylonitrile polymer Acrylic rubber-modified
thermoplastic with high weatherability. ASA has good heat and
chemical resistance, toughness, rigidity, and antistatic properties. Processed by extrusion, thermoforming, and molding. Used
in construction, leisure, and automotive applications such as siding, exterior auto trim, and outdoor furniture. Also called ASA.
acrylic resins Thermoplastic polymers of alkyl acrylates such as
methyl methacrylates. Acrylic resins have good optical clarity,
weatherability, surface hardness, chemical resistance, rigidity,
impact strength, and dimensional stability. They have poor solvent resistance, resistance to stress cracking, flexibility, and
thermal stability. Processed by casting, extrusion, injection
molding, and thermoforming. Used in transparent parts, auto
trim, household items, light fixtures, and medical devices. Also
called polyacrylates.
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer ABS resins are thermoplastics comprised of a mixture of styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) and SAN-grafted butadiene rubber. They have high
impact resistance, toughness, rigidity and processability, but low
dielectric strength, continuous service temperature, and elongation. Outdoor use requires protective coatings in some cases.
Plating grades provide excellent adhesion to metals. Processed
by extrusion, blow molding, thermoforming, calendaring and
injection molding. Used in household appliances, tools, nonfood
packaging, business machinery, interior automotive parts,
extruded sheet, pipe and pipe fittings. Also called ABS, ABS
resin, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer.
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer nylon alloy A thermoplastic processed by injection molding, with properties similar to
ABS but higher elongation at yield. Also called ABS nylon
alloy.
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer polycarbonate alloy A
thermoplastic processed by injection molding and extrusion, with
properties similar to ABS. Used in automotive applications. Also
171
Glossary of Terms
acrylonitrile copolymer A thermoplastic prepared by copolymerization of acrylonitrile with small amounts of other unsaturated
monomers. Has good gas barrier properties and chemical resistance. Processed by extrusion, injection molding, and thermoforming. Used in food packaging.
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer See acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer.
adsorption Retention of a substance molecule on the surface of a
solid or liquid.
amorphous nylon Transparent aromatic polyamide thermoplastics.
Produced by condensation of hexamethylene diamine, isophthalic and terephthalic acid.
amorphous polymer Amorphous polymers are polymers having noncrystalline or amorphous supramolecular structure or morphology. Amorphous polymers may have some molecular order but
usually are substantially less ordered than crystalline polymers
and subsequently have inferior mechanical properties. Materials
in this class do not have a detectable melting point. Examples are
PVC, acrylic, and polycarbonate.
aromatic polyester estercarbonate A thermoplastic block copolymer of an aromatic polyester with polycarbonate. Has higher
heat distortion temperature than regular polycarbonate.
aromatic polyesters Engineering thermoplastics prepared by polymerization of aromatic polyol with aromatic dicarboxylic anhydride. They are tough with somewhat low chemical resistance.
Processed by injection and blow molding, extrusion, and thermoforming. Drying is required. Used in automotive housings
and trim, electrical wire jacketing, printed circuit boards, and
appliance enclosures.
aromatic polymer Aromatic polymers are polymers, the backbone of
which consist of repeating aromatic ring units. Aromatic rings in
a unit may be single, fused, or joined by a chemical bond, bridging atom, or a group of atoms. Aromatic rings are 6 carbon rings
containing three double bonds and are typified by benzene.
Some hydrogen atoms in these rings may be substituted by other
atoms or atom groups.
ASA See acrylate styrene acrylonitrile polymer.
ASTM 0256 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard method for determination of the resistance to breakage
by flexural shock of plastics and electrical insulating materials,
as indicated by the energy extracted from standard pendulumtype hammers in breaking standard specimens with one pendulum swing. The hammers are mounted on standard machines of
either Izod or Charpy type. Note: Impact properties determined
include Izod or Charpy impact energy normalized per width of
the specimen. Also called ASTM method 0256-84. See also
impact energy.
ASTM method 0256-84 See ASTM D256.
ASTM 0412 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard methods for determining tensile strength, tensile stress,
ultimate elongation, tensile set and set after break of rubber at
low, ambient and elevated temperatures using straight, dumbbell172
ASTM 0638 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard method for determining tensile strength, elongation and
modulus of elasticity of reinforced or unreinforced plastics in
the form of sheet, plate, moldings, rigid tubes and rods. Five (IV) types, depending on dimensions, of dumbbell-shaped specimens with thickness not exceeding 14 mm are specified.
Specified speed of testing varies depending on the specimen
type and plastic rigidity. Note: Tensile properties determined
include tensile stress (strength) at yield and at break, percentage
elongation at yield or at break and modulus of elasticity. Also
called ASTM method 0638-84. See also tensile strength.
ASTM 0638, type IV See ASTM D638.
ASTM method 0638-84 See ASTM D638.
ASTM method 0648 See ISO 75.
ASTM 0671 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard test method for determination of the flexural fatigue
strength of rigid plastics subjected to repeated flexural stress of
the same magnitude in a fixed-cantilever type testing machine,
designed to produce a constant-amplitude-of-force On the test
specimen each cycle. The test results are presented as a plot (SN curve) of applied stress vs. number of stress cycles required to
produce specimen failure by fracture, softening, or reduction in
stiffness by heating caused by internal friction (damping). The
stress corresponding to the point when the plot becomes clearly
asymptotic to a horizontal (constant-stress) line is reported as
fatigue strength in pascals, along with corresponding number of
cycles. Also called ASTM 0671-7IB.
ASTM 0671-71B See ASTM D67I.
ASTM 0696 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard test method for the measurement of the coefficient of
linear thermal expansion of plastics by using a vitreous silica
dilatometer. The test is carried out under conditions excluding
any significant creep or elastic strain rate and effects of moisture, curing, loss of plasticizer, etc. The specimen is placed at the
bottom of the outer dilatometer tube and the tube is immersed in
a liquid bath at a desired temperature.
ASTM 0746 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard method for determining brittleness temperature of plastics and elastomers by impact. The brittleness temperature is the
temperature at which 50% of cantilever beam specimens fail on
impact of a striking edge moving at a linear speed of 1.8-2.1 mls
and striking the specimen at a specified distance from the clamp.
The temperature of the specimen is controlled by placing it in a
heat-transfer medium, the temperature of which (usually subfreezing) is controlled by a thermocouple.
ASTM 0785 An American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
standard test method for determination of indentation hardness
of plastics by a Rockwell tester. The hardness number is derived
from the net increase in the depth of impression as the load on a
ball indenter is increased from a fixed minor load (10 kgf) to a
major load and then returned to the minor load. This number
consists of the number of scale divisions (each corresponding to
0.002 mm vertical movement of the indentor) and scale symbol.
Rockwell scales, designated by a single capital letter of English
alphabet, vary depending On the diameter of the indentor and the
major load.
ASTM 01708 An American Society for Testing of Materials
(ASTM) standard method for determining tensile properties of
plastics using microtensile specimens with maximum thickness
3.2 mm and minimum length 38.1 mm, including thin films.
Tensile properties include yield strength, tensile strength, tensile
strength at break, elongation at break, etc. determined per
ASTM 0638.
ASTM 02240 An American Society for Testing of Materials
(ASTM) standard method for determining the hardness of materials ranging from soft rubbers to some rigid plastics by measuring the penetration of a blunt (type A) or sharp (type 0)
indenter of a durometer at a specified force. The blunt indenter
is used for softer materials and the sharp indenter – for more
rigid materials.
ASTM 03763 An American Society for Testing of Materials
(ASTM) standard method for determination of the resistance of
plastics, including films, to high-speed puncture over a broad
range of test velocities using load and displacement sensors.
Note: Puncture properties determined include maximum load,
deflection to maximum load point, energy to maximum load
point and total energy. Also called ASTM method 03763-86.
See also impact energy.
ASTM method 03763-86 See ASTM D3763.
B
bending properties See flexural properties.
bending strength See flexural strength.
bending stress See flexural stress.
bisphenol A polyester A thermoset unsaturated polyester based on
bisphenol A and fumaric acid.
breaking elongation See elongation.
brittle temperature Temperature at which a material transforms
from being ductile to being brittle, i.e., the critical normal stress
for fracture is reached before the critical shear stress for plastic
deformation.
bursting strength Bursting strength of a material, such as plastic
film, is the minimum force per unit area or pressure required to
produce rupture. The pressure is applied with a ram or a
diaphragm at a controlled rate to a specified area of the material held rigidly and initially flat but free to bulge under the
increasing pressure.
c
CA See cellulose acetate.
CAB See cellulose acetate butyrate.
carbon black A black colloidal carbon filler made by the partial combustion or thermal cracking of natural gas, oil, or another hydrocarbon. There are several types of carbon black depending Onthe starting material and the method of manufacture. Each type
of carbon black comes in several grades. Carbon black is widely used as a filler and pigment in rubbers and plastics. It reinforces, increases the resistance to UV light and reduces static
charging.
cellulose acetate Thermoplastic esters of cellulose with acetic acid.
Have good toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, stiffness,
hardness, and dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and
water resistance and compressive strength. Processed by injection and blow molding and extrusion. Used for appliance cases,
steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames,
brushes, and sheeting. Also called CA.
cellulose acetate butyrate Thermoplastic mixed esters of cellulose
with acetic and butyric acids. Have good toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, dimensional stability, weatherability, and
dielectric properties, but poor chemical, fire and water resistance and compressive strength. Processed by injection and
blow molding and extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering
wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and
sheeting. Also called CAB.
cellulose propionate Thermoplastic esters of cellulose with propionic
acid. Have good toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, dimensional stability, weatherability, and dielectric properties, but poor
chemical, fire and water resistance and compressive strength.
Processed by injection and blow molding and extrusion. Used for
appliance cases, steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and sheeting. Also called CPo
cellulosic plastics Thermoplastic cellulose esters and ethers. Have
good toughness, gloss, clarity, processability, and dielectric
properties, but poor chemical, fire and water resistance and compressive strength. Processed by injection and blow molding and
extrusion. Used for appliance cases, steering wheels, pens, handles, containers, eyeglass frames, brushes, and sheeting.
chain scission Breaking of the chainlike molecule of a polymer as a
result of chemical, photochemical, etc. reaction such as thermal
degradation or photolysis.
Charpy impact energy The energy required to break a notched specimen, for metals in accordance with ASTM E23, equal to the difference between the energy in the striking member of the impact
apparatus at the instant of impact with the specimen and the
energy remaining after complete fracture of the specimen.
chemical saturation Absence of double or triple bonds in a chain
organic molecule such as that of most polymers, usually
between carbon atoms. Saturation makes the molecule less reactive and polymers less susceptible to degradation and crosslinking. Also called chemically saturated structure.
chemical unsaturation Presence of double or triple bonds in a chain
organic molecule such as that of some polymers, usually
between carbon atoms. Unsaturation makes the molecule more
reactive, especially in free-radical addition reactions such as
addition polymerization, and polymers more susceptible to
degradation, crosslinking and chemical modification. Also
called polymer chain unsaturation.
chemically saturated structure See chemical saturation.
chlorendic polyester A chIorendic anhydride-based unsaturated polyester.
173
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Thermoplastic produced by chlorination of polyvinyl chloride. Has increased glass transition temperature, chemical and fire resistance, rigidity, tensile strength,
and weatherability as compared to PVc. Processed by extrusion,
injection molding, casting, and calendering. Used for pipes, auto
parts, waste disposal devices, and outdoor applications. Also
called CPVc.
chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber Thermosetting elastomers
containing 20- 40% chlorine. Have good weatherability and heat
and chemical resistance. Used for hoses, tubes, sheets, footwear
soles, and inflatable boats.
coefficient of friction See kinetic coefficient offriction.
coefficient of friction, kinetic See kinetic coefficient offriction.
coefficient of friction, static See static coefficient offriction.
compatibilizer A chemical compound used to increase the compatibility or miscibility and to prevent the separation of the components
in a plastic composition, such as the compatibility of a resin and a
plasticizer or of two polymers in a blend. Block copolymers bearing blocks similar to the polymers in the blend are often used as
compatibilizers in the latter case.
concentration units The units for measuring the content of a distinct
material or substance in a medium other than this material or
substance, such as solvent. Note: The concentration units are
usually expressed in the units of mass or volume of substance
per one unit of mass or volume of medium. When the units of
substance and medium are the same, the percentage is often
used.
conditioning Process of bringing the material or apparatus to a certain condition, e.g., moisture content or temperature, prior to
further processing, treatment, etc. Also called conditioning
cycle.
conditioning cycle See conditioning.
continuous maximum service temperature Maximum temperature
at which a material can perform reliably in a long-term application.
copolymer Copolymers are polymers prepared by polymerization of
two or sometimes more monomers. Copolymers are called random when different repeating units are in random order, block
when they are arranged in blocks consisting of different repeating units, alternating when they alternate, and graft when some
monomers are polymerized and grafted to the existing polymer.
covulcanization Simultaneous vulcanization of a blend of two or
more different rubbers to enhance their individual properties
such as ozone resistance. Rubbers are often modified to improve
covulcanization.
CP See cellulose propionate.
CPVC See chlorinated polyvinyl chloride.
cracking Appearance of external and/or internal cracks in the material as a result of stress that exceeds the strength of the material.
The stress can be external and/or internal and can be caused by
a variety of adverse conditions: structural defects, impact, aging,
corrosion, etc. or a combination of thereof. Also called cracks.
See also processing defects.174
cracks See cracking.
crazes See crazing.
crazing Appearance of thin cracks on the surface of the material or,
sometimes, minute frost-like internal cracks, as a result of stress
that exceeds the strength of the material, impact, terperature
changes, degredation, ect. Also called crazes.
creep Time-dependent increase in strain in material, occuring under
stress.
crosslinked polyethylene Polyethylene thermoplastics partially photochemically or chemically crosslinked. Have improved tensile
strength, dielectric properties, and impact strength at low and elevated temperatures.
crosslinking Reaction of formation of covalent bonds between chainlike polymer molecules or between polymer molecules and lowmolecular compounds such as carbon black fillers. As a result of
crosslinking polymers, such as thermosetting resins, may become
hard and infusible. Crosslinking is induced by heat, UV or electron-beam radiation, oxidation, etc. Crosslinking can be achieved
ether between polymer molecules alone as in unsaturated polyesters or with the help of multifunctional crosslinking agents
such as diamines that react with functional side groups of the
polymers. Crosslinking can be catalysed by the presence of transition metal complexes, thiols and other compounds.
crystal polystyrene See general purpose polystyrene.
crystalline melting point The temperature of melting of the crystallite phase of a crystalline polymer. It is higher than the temperature of melting of the surrounding amorphous phase.
crystallinity Content of crystalline phase, usually as percentage.
CTFE See polychlorotrifluoroethylene.
cycle time See processing time.
cyclic compounds A broad class of organic compounds consisting of
carbon rings that are saturated, partially unsaturated or aromatic, in which some carbon atoms may be replaced by other atoms
such as oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen.
D
DAP See diallyl phthalate resins.
dart impact energy The mean energy of a free-falling dart that will
cause 50% failures after 50 tests to a specimen directly stricken
by the dart. The energy is calculated by multiplying dart mass,
gravitational acceleration and drop height. Also called falling
dart impact energy, dart impact strength, falling dart impact
strength.
dart impact strength See dart impact energy.
deflection temperature under load See heat deflection temperature.
deformation under load The dimensional change of a material under
load for a specified time following the instantaneous elastic
deformation caused by the initial application of the load.
degradation Loss or undesirable change in the properties, such as
color, of a material as a result of aging, chemical reaction, wear,
exposure, etc. See also stability.
diallyl phthalate resins Thermosets supplied as diallyl phthalate prepolymer or monomer. Have high chemical, heat and water resistance, dimensional stability, and strength. Shrink during peroxide curing. Processed by injection, compression and transfer
molding. Used in glass-reinforced tubing, auto parts, and electrical components. Also called DAP.
diffusion Spontaneous slow mixing of different substances in contact
without influence of external forces.
DIN 53453 A German Standards Institute (DIN) standard specifying
conditions for the flexural impact testing of molded or laminated plastics. The bar specimens are either unnotched or notched
on one side, mounted on two-point support and struck in the
middle (on the unnotched side for notched specimens) by a hammer of the pendulum impact machine. Impact strength of the
specimen is calculated relative to the cross-sectional area of the
specimen as the energy required to break the specimen equal to
the difference between the energy in the pendulum at the instant
of impact and the energy remaining after complete fracture of
the specimen. Also called DIN 53453 impact test.
DIN 53453 impact test See DIN 53453.
DIN 53456 A German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut fuer
Normen, DIN) standard test method for determining ball indentation hardness of plastics. The indentor is forced into the specimen under the action of the major load, the position of the indentor having been fixed beforehand as a zero point by the application of a minor load. The hardness is calculated as the ratio of the
major load to the area of indentation.
DIN 53461 See ISO 75.
DMA See dynamic mechanical analysis.
drop dart impact See falling weight impact energy.
drop dart impact energy See falling weight impact energy.
drop dart impact strength See falling weight impact energy.
drop weight impact See falling weight impact energy.
drop weight impact energy See falling weight impact energy.
drop weight impact strength See falling weight impact energy.
durometer A hardness See Shore hardness.
DTUL See heat deflection temperature.
durometer hardness Indentation hardness of a material as determined
by either the depth of an indentation made with an indentor under
specified load or the indentor load required to produced specified
indentation depth. The tool used to measure indentation hardness of
polymeric materials is called durometer, e.g., Shore-type durometer.
dynamic mechanical analysis A technique that employs a lowstrain, oscillatory stress in order to quantify the viscoelastic
behavior of materials. Commonly referred to as DMA.E
ECTFE See ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer.
elasticity Property whereby a solid material changes its shape and
size under action of opposing forces, but recovers its original
configuration when the forces are removed.
elastomer A large class of polymers that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice their original length and, after having
been stretched and the stress removed, return with force to
approximately their original length in a short time. This class
includes natural and synthetic rubbers, i.e., elastomers that can be
vulcanized, and thermoplastic elastomers. They are characterized
by a combination of low modulus and good elastic recovery.
Polymeric materials of this type are above the glass transition in
the temperature range at which they are useful.
elongation The increase in gauge length of a specimen in tension,
measured at or after the fracture, depending on the viscoelastic
properties of the material. Note: Elongation is usually expressed
as a percentage of the original gauge length. Also called tensile
elongation, elongation at break, ultimate elongation, breaking
elongation, elongation at rupture. See also tensile strain.
elongation at break The increase in distance between two gauge
marks, resulting from stressing the specimen in tension, at the
exact point of break. See also elongation.
elongation at rupture See elongation. elongation at break.
elongation at yield The increase in distance between two gauge
marks resulting from stressing the specimen in tension to the
yield point. See also elongation.
EMAC See ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer.
embrittlement A reduction or loss of ductility or toughness in materials such as plastics resulting from chemical or physical damage.
endurance limit The maximum stress below which a material can
endure an infinite number of loading-unloading cycles of specified type without failure or, in practice, a very large number of
cycles. Also called fatigue endurance limit.
EPDM See EPDM rubber.
EPDM rubber Sulfur-vulcanizable thermosetting elastomers produced from ethylene, propylene, and a small amount of nonconjugated diene such as hexadiene. Have good weatherability and
chemical and heat resistance. Used as impact modifiers and for
weather stripping, auto parts, cable insulation, conveyor belts,
hoses, and tubing. Also called EPDM.
epoxides Organic compounds containing three-membered cyclic
group(s) in which two carbon atoms are linked with an oxygen
atom as in an ether. This group is called an epoxy group and is
quite reactive, allowing the use of epoxides as intermediates in
preparation of certain fluorocarbons and cellulose derivatives
and as monomers in preparation of epoxy resins. Also called
epoxy compounds.
epoxies See epoxy resins.
epoxy compounds See epoxides.
175
epoxy resins Thermosetting polyethers containing crosslinkable glycidyl groups. Usually prepared by polymerization of bisphenol
A and epichlorohydrin or reacting phenolic novolaks with
epichlorohydrin. Can be made unsaturated by acrylation.
Unmodified varieties are cured at room or elevated temperatures
with polyamines or anhydrides. Bisphenol A epoxy resins have
excellent adhesion and very low shrinkage during curing. Cured
novolak epoxies have good UV stability and dielectric properties. Cured acrylated epoxies have high strength and chemical
resistance. Processed by molding, casting, coating, and lamination. Used as protective coatings, adhesives, potting compounds,
and binders in laminates and composites. Also called epoxies.
EPR See ethylene propene rubber.
ETFE See ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer.
ethylene An alkene (unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon) with two carbon atoms, CH2=CH2. A colorless, highly flammable gas with
sweet odor. Autoignition point 543°C. Derived by thermal
cracking of hydrocarbon gases or from synthesis gas. Used as
monomer in polymer synthesis, refrigerant, and anesthetic. Also
called ethene.
ethylene acrylic rubber Copolymers of ethylene and acrylic esters.
Have good toughness, low temperature properties, and resistance to heat, oil, and water. Used in auto and heavy equipment
parts.
ethylene copolymers See ethylene polymers.
ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer Thermoplastic copolymers of
ethylene with <40% methyl acrylate. Have good dielectric properties, toughness, thermal stability, stress crack resistance, and compatibility with other polyolefins. Transparency decreases with increasing content of acrylate. Processed by blown film extrusion and blow and injection molding. Used in heat-sealable films, disposable gloves, and packaging. Some grades are FDA-approved for food packaging. Also called EMAC. ethylene polymers Ethylene polymers include ethylene homopolymers and copolymers with other unsaturated monomers, most importantly olefins such as propylene and polar substances such as vinyl acetate. The properties and uses of ethylene polymers depend on the molecular structure and weight. Also called ethylene copolymers. ethylene propene rubber Stereospecific copolymers of ethylene with propylene. Used as impact modifiers for plastics. Also called EPR. ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer Thermoplastic alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. Has good impact strength, abrasion and chemical resistance, weatherability, and dielectric properties. Processed by molding, extrusion, and powder coating. Used in tubing, cables, pump parts, and tower packing in a wide temperature range. Also called ETFE. ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer Thermoplastics prepared by hydrolysis of ethylene-vinyl acetate polymers. Have good barrier properties, mechanical strength, gloss, elasticity, weatherability, clarity, and abrasion resistance. Barrier properties and processibility improve with increasing content of ethylene due to lower absorption of moisture. Ethylene content of high barrier grades range from 32 to 44 mole %. Processed by extrusion, coating, blow and blow film molding, and thermoforming. Used as packaging films and container liners. Also called EVOH.176 ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer A flexible thermoplastic with water and chemical resistance and barrier properties similar to those of low-density polyethylene and enhanced adhesion, optics, toughness, and hot tack properties, compared to the latter. Contains 3- 20% acrylic acid, with density and adhesion to polar substrates increasing with increasing acrylic acid content. FDA-approved for direct contact with food. Processed by extrusion, blow and film methods and extrusion molding, and extrusion coating. Used in rubberlike small parts like pipe caps, hoses, gaskets, gloves, hospital sheeting, diaper liners, and packaging film. Evon See ethyLene vinyL aLcohoL copoLymer. extenders Relatively inexpensive resin, plasticizer or filler such as carbonate used to reduce cost and/or to improve processing of plastics, rubbers or nonmetallic coatings. F falling dart impact See falling weight impact energy. falling dart impact energy See dart impact energy. falling dart impact strength See falling weight impact energy. falling weight impact See falling weight impact energy. falling weight impact energy The mean energy of a free-falling dart or weight (tup) that will cause 50% failures after 50 tests to a directly or indirectly stricken specimen. The energy is calculated by multiplying dart mass, gravitational acceleration and drop height. Also called falling weight impact strength, falling weight impact, falling dart impact energy, falling dart impact strength, falling dart impact, drop dart impact energy, drop dart impact strength. falling weight impact strength See faILing weight impact energy. fatigue endurance limit See endurance Limit. fatigue life Number of loading-unloading cycles of a specified type that material specimen can endure before failing in a fatigue test. Also called cycles to failure. FEP See fluorinated ethyLene propyLene copoLymer. filler A relatively inert substance added to plastics to reduce their cost and/or improve physical properties such as impact strength. In contrast to reinforcement, filler particles are usually nonfibrous, small, and do not improve the tensile strength. The fillers are added to the plastics at fairly high percentages (>5 vol.%). The
most important fillers are mineral and glass fillers. Based on
their use, the fillers are also classified as extenders and reinforcing fillers.
fireproofing agent See flame retardant.
flame retardant A substance that reduce the flammability of materials such as plastics or textiles in which it is incorporated. There
are inorganic flame retardants such as antimony trioxide (Sb20 3)
and organic flame retardants such as brominated polyols. The
mechanisms of flame retardation vary depending on the nature of
material and flame retardant. For example, some flame retardants
yield a substantial volume of coke on burning, which prevents
oxygen from reaching inside the material and blocks further combustion. Also called fireproofing agent, flame retardant chemical
additives, ignition resistant chemical additives.
flame retardant chemical additives See flame retardant.
flammability UL rating A vertically oriented sample with a thickness of 0.125 inches is exposed to a Bunsen burner flame for 10
s. If burning ceases within 30 s, a second lOs application of
flame is required. Cotton is placed under the sample to catch
flame drippings. If the average burning time is lower than 5 s
and drips do not ignite the cotton, the material is self- extinguishing, rating V-O. If the time is lower than 25 s and drips do
not ignite the cotton, the material is self- extinguishing, rating vI; and if the cotton is ignited, the material is self-extinguishing,
rating V-2. If the sample bums slower than 1.5 in/min than the
rating is HE.
flaw See processing defects.
flexural fatigue Progressive localized permanent structural change
occurring in a material subjected to cyclic flexural stress that
may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient
number of cycles.
flexural modulus of elasticity The ratio, within the elastic limit, of
the applied stress on a test specimen in flexure to the corresponding strain in the outermost fibers of the specimen.
flexural properties Properties describing the reaction of physical
systems to flexural stress and strain. Also called bending
properties.
flexural strength The maximum stress in the extreme fiber of a specimen loaded to failure in bending. Note: Flexural strength is calculated as a function of load, support span and specimen geometry. Also called modulus of rupture in bending, modulus of rupture, bending strength.
flexural stress The maximum stress in the extreme fiber of a specimen in bending. Note: Flexural stress is calculated as a function
of load at a given strain or at failure, support span and specimen
geometry. Also called bending stress.
flexural yield strength The maximum stress in the bended specimen
at the yield point, i.e., when the deflection increases without an
increase in the load. For metals, it is measured according to
ASTM E290 and related standards. Note: Flexural yield
strength is calculated if the specimen does not break.
flexure Condition of a specimen under bending loading in which the
points originally lying on any straight line are displaced to form
a plane curve.
fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer Thermoplastic copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene. Has
decreased tensile strength and wear and creep resistance, but
good weatherability, dielectric properties, fire and chemical
resistance, and friction. Decomposes above 204°C (400°F),
releasing toxic products. Processed by molding, extrusion, and
powder coating. Used in chemical apparatus liners, pipes, containers, bearings, films, coatings, and cables. Also called FEP.
fluoro rubber See fluoroeLastomers.
fluoroelastomers Fluorine-containing synthetic rubber with good
chemical and heat resistance. Used in underhood applicationssuch as fuel lines, oil and coolant seals, and fuel pumps, and as
a flow additive for polyolefins. Also called fluoro rubber.
nuoroplastics Seefluoropolymers.
nuoropolymers Polymers prepared from unsaturated fluorine-containing hydrocarbons. Have good chemical resistance, weatherability, thermal stability, antiadhesive properties and low friction
and flammability, but low creep resistance and strength and poor
processibility. The properties vary with the fluorine content.
Processed by extrusion and molding. Used as liners in chemical
apparatus, in bearings, films, coatings, and containers. Also called
fluoroplastics.
nuorosilicones Polymers with chains of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms and trifluoropropyl pendant groups. Most are rubbers.
FMQ See methylfluorosilicones.
fracture mechanics A method of fracture analysis that can determine
the stress required to induce fracture instability in a structure
containing a crack of known size and shape. Also called linear
elastic fracture mechanics.
furnace black The most common type of carbon black made by
burning vaporized heavy oil fractions in a furnace with 50% of
the air required for complete combustion. It comes in high abrasion, fast extrusion, high modulus, general purpose, semireinforcing, conducting, high elongation, reinforcing and fastextruding grades among others. Furnace black is widely used as
a filler and pigment in rubbers and plastics. It reinforces,
increases the resistance to UV light and reduces static charging.
G
gas black See channel black.
general purpose polystyrene General purpose polystyrene is an
amorphous thermoplastic prepared by homopolymerization of
styrene. It has good tensile and flexural strengths, high light
transmission and adequate resistance to water, detergents and
inorganic chemicals. It is attached by hydrocarbons and has a
relatively low impact resistance. Processed by injection molding and foam extrusion. Used to manufacture containers, health
care items such as pipettes, kitchen and bathroom housewares,
stereo and camera parts and foam sheets for food packaging.
Also called crystal polystyrene.
glass bead Glass beads range in size from 5 to 5000 um, but normally are about 30 um in diameter. They improve the flexural modulus, abrasion resistance, compressive strength, mold flow, and
corrosion resistance of plastics; reduce mold shrinkage and
cycle time. The beads are made from various kinds of glass
including A type and borosilicate and can be surface modified
with silane coupling agents to improve adhesion to the polymer
matrix. Used in housewares, machine parts, bearings, molds,
and auto parts.
glass filler Glass fillers are a widely used family of fillers in the form
of beads, hollow spheres, flakes, or milled particles. They
increase dimensional stability, chemical resistance, moisture
resistance, and thermal stability of plastics.
177
glass transition temperature (Tg) The temperature at which an
amorphous polymer (or the amorphous regions in a partially crystalline polymer) changes from a hard and relatively brittle condition to a viscous or rubbery condition. In this temperature region,
many physical properties, such as hardness, britlleness, thermal
expansion, and specific heat, undergo significant, rapid changes.
Note: In dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), the peak of the
loss modulus is conventionally identified as the glass transition
temperature, even though the DMA plot clearly shows that the
transition is a process that spans a temperature range.
H
hard clays Sedimentary rocks composed mainly of fine clay minerai material without natural plasticity, or any compacted or
indurated clay.
HDPE See high density polyethylene.
HDT See heat deflection temperature.
heat denection point See heat deflection temperature.
heat denection temperature The temperature at which a material
specimen (standard bar) is deflected by a certain degree under
specified load. At this temperature, a material achieves a specific modulus which is defined by the applied stress and the sample geometry. Also called heat distortion temperature, heat distortion point, heat deflection point, deflection temperature under
load, DTUL, tensile heat distortion temperature, HDT. See also
ISO 75.
heat distortion point See heat deflection temperature.
heat distortion temperature See heat deflection temperature.
high density polyethylene A linear polyethylene with density 0.94-
0.97 g/cm3 Has good toughness at low temperatures, chemical
resistance, and dielectric properties and high softening temperature, but poor weatherability. Processed by extrusion, blow and
injection molding, and powder coating. Used in houseware, containers, food packaging, liners, cable insulation, pipes, bottles,
and toys. Also called HDPE.
high impact polystyrene See impact polystyrene.
high molecular weight low density polyethylene Thermoplastic
with improved abrasion and stress crack resistance and impact
strength, but poor processibility and reduced tensile strength.
Also called HMWLDPE.
HIPS See impact polystyrene.
HMWLDPE See high molecular weight low density polyethylene.
I
ignition resistant chemical additives See flame retardant.
impact energy The energy required to break a specimen, equal to the
difference between the energy in the striking member of the178
impact apparatus at the instant of impact and the energy remaining after complete fracture of the specimen. Also called impact
strength. See also ASTM D256, ASTM D3763.
impact polystyrene Impact polystyrene is a thermoplastic produced
by polymerizing styrene dissolved in butadiene rubber. Impact
polystyrene has good dimensional stability, high rigidity and
good low temperature impact strength, but poor barrier properties, grease resistance and heat resistance. Processed by extrusion, injection molding, thermoforming and structural foam
molding. Used in food packaging, kitchen housewares, toys,
small appliances, personal care items and audio products. Also
called IPS, high impact polystyrene, HIPS, impact PS.
impact property tests Names and designations of the methods for
impact testing of materials. Also called impact tests. See also
impact toughness.
impact PS See impact polystyrene.
impact strength See impact energy.
impact tests See impact property tests.
impact toughness Property of a material indicating its ability to
absorb energy of a high-speed impact by plastic deformation
rather than crack or fracture. See also impact property tests.
intermittent maximum service temperature Maximum temperature at which a material can perform reliably in a short-term
application.
ionomers Thermoplastics containing a relatively small amount of
pendant ionized acid groups. Have good flexibility and impact
strength in a wide temperature range, puncture and chemical
resistance, adhesion, and dielectric properties, but poor weatherability, fire resistance, and thermal stability. Processed by injection, blow and rotational molding, blown film extrusion, and
extrusion coating. Used in food packaging, auto bumpers, sporting goods, and foam sheets.
IPS See impact polystyrene.
ISO 2039·2 An International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
standard test method for determination of indentation hardness
of plastics by Rockwell tester using Rockwell M, L, and R hardness scales. The hardness number is derived from the net
increase in the depth of impression as the load on a ball indenter is increased from a fixed minor load (98.07 N) to a major
load and then returned to the minor load. This number consists
of the number of scale divisions (each corresponding to 0.002
rom vertical movement of the indentor) and scale symbol.
Rockwell scale vary depending on the diameter of the indentor
and the major load. For example, scale R corresponds to the ball
diameter 12.7 rom and major load 588.4 N. Also called ISO 2039-8.
ISO 2039·8 See ISO 2039-2.
ISO 75 An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard test method for determination of heat deflection temperature (HDT) and deflection temperature under load (DTUL).
HDT is a relative measure of a material’s ability to perform for
a short time at elevated temperatures while supporting a load.
The test measures the effect of temperature on stiffness: a standard test specimen is given a defined surface stress and the temperature is raised at a uniform rate. Alternate test methods for
HDT and DTUL are DIN 53461 and ASTM D648.
In both ISO and ASTM standards, a loaded test bar is placed in
a silicone oil filled heating bath. The surface stress on the specimen is either: low – for ASTM and ISO both 0.45 MPa; high –
for ASTM 1.82 MPa and for ISO 1.80 MPa. The force is allowed
to act for 5 minutes; this waiting period may be omitted when testing materials that show no appreciable creep during the inital 5
minutes. After 5 minutes the original bath temperature of 23°C is
raised at a uniform rate of 2°C/minute.
The deflection of the test bar is continuously observed: the temperature at which the deflection reaches 0.32 mm (ISO) or 0.25
mm (ASTM), is reproted as ‘deflection temperature under load’
or ‘heat deflection temperature. Although not mentioned in
either test standard, it has become common practice to use the
acronym DTUL for ASTM values and HDT for ISO values.
Depending upon the applied surface stress, the letters A or 8 are
added to HDT: HDT/A for a load of 1.80 MPa; HDT/B for a
load of 0.45 MPa.
isophthalate polyester An unsaturated polyester based on isophthalic
acid.
Izod See Izod impact energy.
Izod impact See Izod impact energy.
Izod impact energy The energy required to break a specimen equal
to the difference between the energy in the striking member of
the Izod-type impact apparatus at the instant of impact and the
energy remaining after complete fracture of the specimen. Also
called Izod impact, Izod impact strength, Izod.
Izod impact strength See Izod impact energy.
J J
See joule.
joule A unit of energy in SI system that is equal to the work done
when the point of application of a force of one newton (N) is displaced through distance of one meter (m) in the direction of the
force. The dimension of joule is N m. Also called J.
K
kinetic coefficient of friction The ratio of tangential force, which is
required to sustain motion without acceleration of one surface
with respect to another, to the normal force, which presses the
two surfaces together. Also called coefficient of friction, coefficient of friction, kinetic.
L
LCP See liquid crystal polymers.
LDPE See low density polyethylene.
linear expansion coefficient The change in specimen length resulting from a specified change in temperature per specimen length
at a reference temperature per said change in temperature.
linear low density polyethylene Linear polyethylenes with density
0.91-0.94 glcm3 Has better tensile, tear, and impact strength
and crack resistance properties, but poorer haze and gloss than
branched low-density polyethylene. Processed by extrusion at
increased pressure and higher melt temperatures compared to
branched low-density polyethylene, and by molding. Used to
manufacture film, sheet, pipe, electrical insulation, liners, bags
and food wraps. Also called LLDPE, LLDPE resin.
linear polyethylenes Linear polyethylenes are polyolefins with linear carbon chains. They are prepared by copolymerization of
ethylene with small amounts of higher alfa-olefins such as 1-
butene. Linear polyethylenes are stiff, tough and have good
resistance to environmental cracking and low temperatures.
Processed by extrusion and molding. Used to manufacture film,
bags, containers, liners, profiles and pipe.
liquid crystal polymers Thermoplastic aromatic copolyesters with
highly ordered structure. Have good tensile and flexural properties at high temperatures, chemical, radiation and fire resistance,
and weatherability. Processed by sintering and injection molding. Used to substitute ceramics and metals in electrical components, electronics, chemical apparatus, and aerospace and auto
parts. Also called LCP.
LLDPE See linear low density polyethylene.
LLDPE resin See linear low density polyethylene.
loss modulus In a dynamic experiment, that portion of the stressstrain response which is out of phase with the applies stress. The
loss modulus is related to that portion of the polymer structure
that undergoes viscous flow when a load is applied. Note: Loss
modulus versus temperature curves are commonly reported in
dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests.
low density polyethylene A branched-chain thermoplastic with density 0.91-0.94 g/cm3. Has good impact strength, flexibility,
transparency, chemical resistance, dielectric properties, and low
water permeability and brittleness temperature, but poor heat,
stress cracking and fire resistance and weatherability. Processed
by extrusion coating, injection and blow molding, and film
extrusion. Can be crosslinked. Used in packaging and shrink
films, toys, bottle caps, cable insulation, and coatings. Also
called LDPE.
M
macroscopic properties See thermodynamic properties.
mechanical loss Loss in energy, dissipated as heat, that result when
a material is subjected to an oscillatory load or displacement.
mechanical properties Properties describing the reaction of physical
systems to stress and strain.
melamine resins Thermosetting resins prepared by condensation of
formaldehyde with melamine. Have good hardness, scratch and
fire resistance, clarity, colorability, rigidity, dielectric properties,
and tensile strength, but poor impact strength. Molding grades
are filled. Processed by compression, transfer, and injection
179
molding, impregnation, and coating. Used in cosmetic containers, appliances, tableware, electrical insulators, furniture laminates, adhesives, and coatings.
melt index The amount, in grams, of a thermoplastic polymer which
can be forced through an orifice of 0.0825′ in. diameter when
subjected to a force of 2160 gf in JO min at 190 C.
melt strength Denotes the viscous flow of a polymer melt under tensile stress.
melt viscosity Intrinsic viscosity of a molten plastic material as determined in a capillary rheometer.
melt volume index The volume of plastic extruded in 10 min at a
given load on a specified die.
methyltluorosilicones Silicone rubbers containing pendant fluorine
and methyl groups. Have good chemical and heat resistance.
Used in gasoline lines, gaskets, and seals. Also called FMQ.
methylphenylsilicones Silicone rubbers containing pendant phenyl
and methyl groups. Have good resistance to heat, oxidation, and
radiation, and compatibility with plastics.
methylsilicone Silicone rubbers containing pendant methyl groups.
Have good heat and oxidation resistance. Used in electrical insulation and coatings. Also called MQ.
methylvinyltluorosilicone Silicone rubbers contammg pendant
vinyl, methyl, and fluorine groups. Can be additionally
crosslinked via vinyl groups. Have good resistance to petroleum
products at elevated temperatures.
methylvinylsilicone Silicone rubbers containing pendant methyl and
vinyl groups. Can be additionally crosslinked via vinyl groups.
Vulcanized to high degrees of crosslinking. Used in sealants,
adhesives, coatings, cables, gaskets, tubing, and electrical tape.
mica Mica is a crystalline platy filler made by wet or dry grinding of
muscovite or phlogopite, minerals consisting mainly of aluminum and potassium orthosilicates, or by chemical reaction
between potassium fluorosilicate and alumina. Used as a filler in
thermosetting resins to impart good dielectric properties and
heat resistance, and in thermoplastics such as polyolefins to
improve dimensional stability, heat resistance, and mechanical
strength. Mica fillers also reduce vapor permeability and increase
wear resistance. Mica fillers having increased flake size or platiness increase flexural modulus, strength, heat deflection temperature, and moisture resistance. Surface modified grades of mica
are available for specialty applications.
micron A unit of length equal to IE-06 meter. Its symbol is Greek
small letter mU(fJ) or mum.
microtensile specimen A small specimen as specified in ASTM
D1708 for determining tensile properties of plastics. It has maximum thickness 3.2 mm and minimum length 38.1 mm. Tensile
properties determined with this specimen include yield strength,
tensile strength, tensile strength at break and elongation at break.
migration A mass-transfer process in which the matter moves from
one place to another usually in a slow and spontaneous fashion.
In plastics and coatings, migration of pigments, fillers, plasticizers and other ingredients via diffusion or floating to the surface
or through interface to other materials results in various defects
called blooming, chalking, bronzing, flooding, bleeding, etc.180
mineral filler Mineral fillers are a large subclass of inorganic fillers
comprised of ground rocks or natural or refined minerals. Some
fillers, so-called commodity minerals, are relatively inexpensive
and are used mostly as extenders. A good example of these is
ground limestone. Other fillers, so-called specialty minerals, are
usually reinf50% styrene having good transparency, toughness, and
processibility. Processed by extrusion, injection and blow molding, and thermoforming. Used in film wraps, disposable packaging, medical devices, toys, display racks, and office supplies.
styrene maleic anhydride copolymer Thermoplastic copolymer of
styrene with maleic anhydride having good thermal stability and
adhesion, but decreased chemical and light resistance. Processed
by injection and foam molding and extrusion. Used in auto parts,
appliances, door panels, pumps, and business machines. Also
caIled SMA.
styrene maleic anhydride copolymer PBT aIloy Thermoplastic
alloy of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer and polybutylene
terephthalate having improved dimensional stability and tensile
strength. Processed by injection molding. Also called SMA PTB
alloy.styrene plastics See styrenic resins.
styrene polymers See styrenic resins.
styrene resins See styrenic resins.
styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer See styrene acrylonitrile copolymer.
styrenic resins Styrenic resins are thermoplastics prepared by freeradical polymerization of styrene alone or with other unsaturated monomers. The properties of styrenic resins vary widely with
molecular structure, attaining the high performance level of
engineering plastics. Processed by blow and injection molding,
extrusion, thermoforming, film techniques and structural foam
molding. Used heavily for the manufacture of automotive parts,
household goods, packaging, films, tools, containers and pipes.
Also called styrene resins, styrene polymers, styrene plastics.
styrenic thermoplastic elastomers Linear or branched copolymers
containing polystyrene end blocks and elastomer (e.g., isoprene
rubber) middle blocks. Have a wide range of hardnesses, tensile
strength, and elongation, and good low-temperature flexibility,
dielectric properties, and hydrolytic stability. Processed by
injection and blow molding and extrusion. Used in coatings,
sealants, impact modifiers, shoe soles, medical devices, tubing,
electrical insulation, and auto parts. Also called TES.
syndiotactic A polymer molecule in which pendant groups and atoms
attached to the main chain are arranged in a symmetrical and
recurring fashion relative to it in a single plane.
T
talc Talc is a filler made by dry or wet grinding of mineral magnesium silicate. Talc improves stiffness, dimensional stability,
flexural modulus, creep resistance, flow, surface smoothness,
moisture resistance, tensile strength, and wear resistance of plastics. It also increases heat deflection temperature and decreases
vapor permeability. Can be used as a film antiblock agent. Used
mainly in polypropylene but also in thermoplastic and unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins at low levels. Surface-modified
grades are available.
tan delta Mathematically expressed as the loss modulus divided by
the storage modulus, the tangent of the phase angle between an
applied stress and the strain response in a dynamic experiment.
Note: Tan delta versus temperature curves are commonly reported in dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests.
temperature Property which determines the direction of heat flow
between objects. Note: The heat flows from the object with
higher temperature to that with lower.
tensile elongation The increase in distance between 2 gage marks that
result from stressing the specimen in tension to fracture. Usually
elongation is expressed as a percentage of the original gage
length. Note: Elongation is affected by specimen geometry
(length, width, thickness of gage section and adjacent regions)
and test procedure, such as alignment and speed of pulling. See
also elongation.
tensile heat distortion temperature See heat deflection temperature.
187
tensile impact energy Kinetic energy dissipated on break of a specimen in a tensile impact test. In the test, one end of the specimen
is attached to a swinging pendulum while another is gripped in
a crosshead that travels with pendulum. The specimen is ruptured by tensile stress as the crosshead strikes an anvil and is
arrested.
tensile properties Properties describing the reaction of physical systems to tensile stress and strain. See also tensile property tests.
tensile property tests Names and designations of the methods for tensile testing of materials. Also called tensile tests. See also tensile
properties.
tensile strain The relative length deformation exhibited by a specimen in tension. See also elongation.
tensile strength The maximum tensile stress that a specimen can sustain in a test carried to failure. Note: The maximum stress can be
measured at or after the failure or reached before the fracture,
depending on the viscoelastic behavior of the material. Also called
tensile ultimate strength, ultimate tensile strength, UTS, tensile
strength at break, ultimate tensile stress. See also ASTM D638.
tensile strength at break The maximum load per original minimum
cross-sectional area of the plastic specimen in tension within the
gage length when the maximum load corresponds to the break
point. Note: For plastics- when the maximum load corresponds
to the yield point, this property is called tensile strength at yield.
See also tensile strength.
tensile stress The stress is perpendicular and directed to the opposite
plane on which the forces act.
tensile strength at yield The maximum load per original minimum
cross-sectional area of the plastic specimen in tension within the
gage length, when the maximum load corresponds to the yield
point. Note: When maximum load corresponds to the break
point, this property is called tensile strength at break.
tensile tests See tensile property tests.
tensile ultimate strength The maximum tensile stress subjected to
the test specimen during the tensile test. The value can be identical with the tensile stress at break.
tensile yield point The first engineering stress in a tensile test, in
which stresses and strains are determined for a material that
exhibits the phenomenon of discontinuous yielding, at which an
increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. For materials that do not exhibit a yield point, yield strength serves the
same purpose as yield point.
tensile yield strength The engineering stress determined at the intersection of the tensile stress-strain curve with a line drawn in the
diagram with a slope equal to the modulus of elasticity, and offset by the specified strain. The percent offset (0.2% is the most
common in USA) must be stated for values to be meaningful.
terephthalate polyester Thermoset unsaturated polymer of terephthalic anhydride.
TES See styrenic thermoplastic elastomers.
test methods Names and designations of material test methods. Also
called testing methods188
test variables Terms related to the testing of materials such as test
method names.
testing methods See test methods.
tetranuoroethylene propylene copolymer Thermosetting elastomeric polymer of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene having
good chemical and heat resistance and flexibility. Used in auto
parts.
thermal expansion Expanding of physical matter (solid body, liquid,
gas) as a result of heating.
thermal expansion coefficient The change in volume per unit volume
resulting from a change in temperature of the material. The mean
coefficient of thermal expansion is commonly referenced to room
temperature.
thermal properties Properties related to the effects of heat on physical systems such as materials and heat transport. The effects of
heat include the effects on structure, geometry, performance,
aging, stress-strain behavior, etc.
thermal stability The resistance of a physical system, such as a material, to decomposition, deterioration of properties or any type of
degradation in storage under specified conditions.
thermodynamic properties A quantity that is either an attribute of
the entire system or is a function of position, which is continuous and does not vary rapidly over microscopic distances,
except possibi lity for abrupt changes at boundaries between
phases of the system. Also called macroscopic properties.
thermoplastic Thermoplastics are resin or plastic compounds which,
after final processing, are capable of being repeatedly softened
by heating and hardened by cooling by means of physical
changes. There is a large number of thermoplastic polymers
belonging to various classes such as polyolefins and
polyamides.
thermoplastic polyesters A class of polyesters that can be repeatedly made soft and pliable on heating and hard (flexible or rigid)
on subsequent cooling.
thermoplastic polyurethanes A class of polyurethanes including
rigid and elastomeric polymers that can be repeatedly made soft
and pliable on heating and hard (flexible or rigid) on subsequent
cooling. Also called thermoplastic urethanes, TPUR, TPU.
thermoplastic urethanes See thermoplastic polyurethanes.
thermoset Thermosets are resin and plastic compounds which, after
final processing, are substantially infusible and insoluble.
During processing, thermosets undergo a chemical reaction that
results in the formation of a three dimensional covalent bond.
Thermosets are often liquids at some stage in their manufacture
or processing and are cured by heat, oxidation, radiation, or
other means often in the presence of curing agents and catalysts.
Curing proceeds via polymerization and/or cross- linking. Cured
thermosets cannot be resoftened by heat. There is a large number of thermosetting polymers belonging to various classes such
as alkyd, epoxy and phenolic resins.
thermosetting elastomer A large class of polymers that can be
stretched at room temperature to at least twice their original
length and, after having been stretched and the stress removed,
return with force to approximately their original length in a short
time. To attain this elastic property the rubbers must be
crosslinked or vulcanized, usually by heating in the presence of
various crosslinking agents and catalysts. There are natural and
synthetic rubbers. The most important synthetic rubber families
are olefinic rubbers, dienic rubbers (nitrile, butadiene, neoprene), silicone rubbers, and urethane rubbers. Used often as
impact modifiers/fillers in plastics.
toughness Property of a material indicating its ability to absorb energy by plastic deformation rather than crack or fracture.
TPO See olefinic thermoplastic elastomers.
TPU See thermoplastic polyurethanes.
TPUR See thermoplastic polyurethanes.
transition A structural relaxation in a material brought on by the onset
of molecular motion. It is accompanied by a sudden decline in the
elastic properties of the material and a momentary increase in the
loss properties. The most important of these transitions is the glass
transition.
transition point See phase transition point.
transition temperature See phase transition point.
u
UHMWPE See ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene.
ultimate elongation See elongation.
ultimate tensile strength See tensile strength.
ultimate tensile stress See tensile strength.
ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene Thermoplastic linear
polymer of ethylene with molecular weight in the millions. Has
good wear and chemical resistance, toughness, and antifriction
properties, but poor processibility. Processed by compression
molding and ram extrusion. Used in bearings, gears, and sliding
surfaces. Also called UHMWPE.
units See units o/measurement.
units of measurement Systematic and non-systematic units for
measuring physical quantities, including metric and US
pound-inch systems. Also called units.
urea resins Thermosetting polymers of formaldehyde and urea having good clarity, colorability, scratch, fire, and solvent resistance, rigidity, dielectric properties, and tensile strength, but
decreased impact strength and chemical, heat, and moisture
resistance. Must be filled for molding. Processed by compression and injection molding, impregnation, and coating. Used in
cosmetic containers, housings, tableware, electrical insulators,
countertop laminates, adhesives, and coatings.
urethane polymers See polyurethanes.
urethane resins See polyurethanes.urethane thermoplastic elastomers Block polyether or polyester
polyurethanes containing soft and hard segments. Have good
tensile strength, elongation, adhesion, and a broad hardness and
service temperature ranges, but decreased moisture resistance
and processibility. Processed by extrusion, injection molding,
film blowing, and coating. Used in tubing, packaging film,
adhesives, medical devices, conveyor belts, auto parts, and cable
jackets. Also called TPU.
urethanes See polyurethanes.
UTS See tensile strength.
v
Vicat softening point The temperature at which a flat-ended needle
of prescribed geometry (typically with a cross sectional area of
I square millimeter) will penetrate a thermoplastic specimen to
a certain depth (usually I mm) under a specified load using a
uniform rate of temperature rise. Note: Vicat softening point is
determined according to ASTM 01525 test for thermoplastics
such as polyethylene which have no definite melting point. Also
called Vicat softening temperature.
Vicat softening temperature See Vicat softening point.
vinyl ester resins Thermosetting acrylated epoxy resins containing
styrene reactive diluent. Cured by catalyzed polymerization of
vinyl groups and crosslinking of hydroxy groups at room or elevated temperatures. Have good chemical, solvent, and heat resistance, toughness, and flexibility, but shrink during cure.
Processed by filament winding, transfer molding, pultrusion,
coating, and lamination. Used in structural composites, coatings,
sheet molding compounds, and chemical apparatus.
vinyl resins Thermoplastics polymers of vinyl compounds such as
vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate. Have good weatherability, barrier properties, and flexibility, but decreased solvent and heat
resistance. Processed by molding, extrusion, and coating. Used
in films and packaging.
vinyl thermoplastic elastomers Vinyl resin alloys having good fire
and aging resistance, flexibility, dielectric properties, and toughness. Processed by extrusion. Used in cable jackets and wire
insulation.
vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene copolymer
Thermoplastic polymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene having good antistick, dielectric, and antifriction
properties and chemical and heat resistance, but decreased
mechanical strength and creep resistance and poor processibility. Processed by molding, extrusion, and coating. Used in chemical apparatus, containers, films, and coatings.
vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene tetrafluoroethylene terpolymer Thermosetting elastomeric polymer of vinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropylene, and tetrafluoroethylene having good
chemical and heat resistance and flexibility. Used in auto parts.
viscoelasticity The dual response of a material under an applied load
where part of the material returns to its original shape when the
load is removed while the other part undergoes permanent deformation.
189
viscosity The internal resistance to flow exhibited by a fluid, the ratio
of shearing stress to rate of shear. A viscosity of one poise is
equal to a force of one dyne/square centimeter that causes two
parallel liquid surfaces one square centimeter in area and one
centimeter apart to move past one another at a velocity of one
crn/second.
vulcanizate Rubber that had been irreversibly transformed from predominantly plastic to predominantly elastic material by vulcanization (chemical curing or crosslinking) using heat, vulcanization agents, accelerants, etc.
vulcanizate crosslinks Chemical bonds formed between polymeric
chains in rubber as a result of vulcanization.
w
warpage See warping.
warping Dimensional distortion or deviation from the intended shape
of a plastic or rubber article as a result of nonuniform internal
stress, e.g., caused by uneven heat shrinkage. Also called
warpage.
water swell Expansion of material volume as a result of water absorption.

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