Design and Manufacture of Plastic Components for Multifunctionality

Design and Manufacture of Plastic Components for Multifunctionality
اسم المؤلف
Vannessa Goodship , Bethany Middleton , Ruth Cherrington
التاريخ
3 ديسمبر 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Design and Manufacture of Plastic Components for Multifunctionality
Structural Composites, Injection Molding, and 3D Printing
Vannessa Goodship
Bethany Middleton
Ruth Cherrington
1 Introduction to Multifunctionality and Manufacture
2 Materials and Deposition Processes for Multifunctionality
3 Composites: Manufacture and Application
4 Injection Molding of Thermoplastics
5 Multifunctionality in Additive Manufacturing
6 Future Outlook
Index
A
Abrasion, 54
Acetic acid, 21
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
123, 176
carbon fiber-filled, 187
drying guide for, 119
in FDM/FFF filaments, 177
mold temperature settings, 135
Additive manufacturing (AM) process,
171
applications, 185
direct manufacturing, 186
medical parts, 188
prototypes, 185
rapid tooling, 188
background/terminology, 172
flow diagram, 173, 174
intellectual property, 175
magic bullet, 173
manufacturing and engineering, 171
and materials, 175
extrusion processes (FDM/FFF),
176
improving surface finish, 177
laminated object manufacturing
(LOM), 184–185
material jetting, 183–184
photocuring (SLA), 181–182
powder bed fusion, 179
explosive/flammable, 181
postprocessing, 180
powder binding (3D printing), 178
postprocessing, 179
support removal, 176
multifunctionality, 191
barriers, 198
economic opportunity, 196
electrical conductivity, 193
electrostatic charge, 195
environmental impact, 197
environmental issues, 198
impact of, 196
intellectual property, 199
logistics and supply chain, 196
market-ready, 192
material supply and compatibility,
199
self-assembly, 194
society, 197
software and file formats, 200
stiffness/flexibility, 192
thermochromic effects, 194
time to market, 197
Additives, 118
manufacturing process flow, 174
plastic additives and usages, 120
within polymer alter injection
molding, 120
Adhesion, 10, 14, 43, 58, 93, 121, 123,
164, 176
Aerospace
with carbon fiber systems, 62
polymer matrix composites
applications, 83
and wind energy sectors, 81
Agglomerates, 2
Agglomeration, of nanoparticles, 32
Aluminum, 20, 30
Aluminum matrix (AlSiC), 30
Aluminum nitride, 31
Amorphous/crystalline structures, 113210 Index
Amorphous materials, 113
AM technology. See Additive
manufacturing (AM) process
Ancillary equipment, 135
dryers, 135
robot, 136
Aniline black, 21
Anisotropic fillers, 24
Antimicrobial
effect, of silver, 31
materials, 31
nanoparticles, in packaging
applications, 31
properties, 2
Aramid fibers, 59
Assembly, 3, 15, 90, 106, 183
environmental impact, 198
self, 194
time, 187
Autoclaving, 73–74
Automated cutter, 73
Automation, 3, 88, 157
initiatives as Factory 4.0, 169
and internet of things, 157
B
Bactericidal effect, 31
Barium ferrite, 35
Basalt fibers, 59
Beryllium oxide/beryllium matrix, 31
Big area additive manufacturing
(BAAM) process, 187–188
Bio-based polymers, 107
Biodegradation, 107
Biomaterials, 1
Bioresins, 90
Blow molding, 8, 9
coextrusion, 9
extrusion, 5, 9
injection, 5, 11
stretch, 12
Boron fibers, 59
Boron nitride, 31
Bulk molding compound (BMC), 61, 80
C
Carbon-based fillers, 25–29
Carbon-based materials, 25
Carbon emissions, 15
Carbon fibers, 58–59, 123
Carbon nanostructures, 40
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 2, 25
as a functional filler, 28
incorporated into products, 2
potential, 28
structures, 7
types of, 28
Cast extrusion, 8
Caustic baths, 176
Cellular ceramics, 37
Ceramic additives, 31
Ceramic-based superconducting
magnets, 38
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs),
38
Ceramics, 19
advanced, 37
smart, 38
technology, 37
tiles, 37
C-glass (chemical or corrosion) fibers,
58
Chopped strand mat (CSM), 61
Chromium iron, 35
CIJ systems, 43
CNTs. See Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
Cobalt, 35
Cobalt iron, 35
G-Code, 176
Coextrusion blow molding, 9
Coextrusion material structure, 11
Coinjection technologies, 12
Commercially available magnets, 35
Commutation temperature, 24
Composite laminate, 56
Composite market, 60, 80
applications, 82–87
aerospace, 83
automotive, 84–85Index 211
construction and infrastructure, 85
defence, 86–87
energy generation, 85
marine, 83
sport and leisure, 86
global and European, 80–81
UK, 81–82
Composite properties, 77
bulk properties, 77–79
off-axis crimp in woven fabrics, 79
Compostability, 107
Compression molding, 5, 71–72
Computer aided design (CAD)
software, 173, 189
design mobile apps, 197
packages, 200
Conductive polymers, 3, 20, 21, 40
composites, 23, 24
Constituent materials, 60
Continuous fiber composites, 56, 61
Cooling channels, 134
Cooling time, 134
Copper, 20, 30
Crystalline structures, 113
Crystallization, 120
D
Data capture device, 3
Degree of conductivity, 20
Deposition techniques, 39
Diamond/copper–silver alloy, 30
Digital design software, 175
Direct digital manufacturing (DDM),
185
Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS),
179
Disruptive manufacturing routes, 207
Doctor blading, 40
Dopants, 20, 21
Drop-on-demand technology, 44
Dry fabrics, 64
Drying guide, for indicative materials,
119
Dual-shape materials, 35
E
Electronic products, 3
E-glass (electrical) fibers, 58
Elastomer, 107–109
commercial, 109
Elastomeric silicones, 23
Electrical conductivity, 19, 20
of polymers, 28
Electrical damage, 20
Electrical discharge machining
(EDM), 180
Electrical material system, 23
Electrical properties, of PP-CNT, 29
Electrical resistance, 28, 135
Electroless plating, 30
Electromagnetic interference
shielding, 3
Electromagnetic shielding, 20
Electron beam melting (EBM), 179
Electronic industry, 159
conductive polymers, 159
search for alternative materials,
159
WEEE directive, 159
Electrons transfer, 25
Electro-spinning process, 38, 39
Electrostatic charges, 20
Electrostatic discharge, 20
Energy efficiency, 127, 158, 160, 163,
164
Energy harvesting, 3, 94
Energy storage, 3
Engine valves, for motorsport, 180
Extrinsically conductive polymers,
22–23
Extrusion, 7, 76
-based processes, 5
blow molding, 9, 10
single screw, 5
twin screw, 5
F
FDM printers, 192
Ferrimagnetic, 35212 Index
Ferrite, 35
Fiber architecture, 56, 57
Fiber composites, 19
Fiber–matrix interface, 78
Fiber orientation, 78
Fiber reinforced polymers or plastics
(FRPs), 55
Fiber reinforced thermoplastics
(FRTPs), 55
Fiber:resin ratios, 64
Filament winding, 77
Filler material, 25
Film blowing, 7, 8
Film-forming processes, 38
Finishing, 3
Flexural modulus, 23
Foams, 19
Formic acid, 21
Fountain flow, 117–118
produce stratified temperature flow
channel, 117
Free electrons, 20
Fused deposition modeling (FDM),
171
low-cost FDM machines, 197
TPE filaments, 192
Fused-filament fabrication
(FFF), 171
G
GFR epoxy composites, 93
Glass fibers, 22, 58, 61
fabrics, 61
Glass mat reinforced thermoplastic
(GMT), 61
Glass transition temperature, 114
Graft copolymerization, of pyrrole, 21
Graphite fibers, 31
H
Hand lay-up, 66–67
Hard ferrites, 35
Heat transfer, 120
High-conductivity materials, 20
High density polyethylene (HDPE),
23, 25, 103, 111
applications, 111
High elongation (HE) fibers, 88
Hybrid fabrics, 62
Hybrid process routes, 3
Hydraulic injection molding machine,
124
control unit, 124
machine base, 124
Hygroscopic materials, 135
I
IMD. See In-mold decoration (IMD)
IML. See In-mold labeling (IML)
Indium tin oxide (ITO), 21
Industry 4.0 strategy, 157
Inflation station, 11
Infrared radiation, 135
Injection blow molding, 11, 13
Injection molding, 3, 5, 12, 23, 75
terminology, 124–126
tool, 11, 191
Injection molding industry, 160
barriers to multifunctionality,
164–168
heat transfer and cooling
complexity, 165
machine design (screw
processing), 164
materials, 164
tooling costs, 165
comparing injection molding against
competing multifunctional
processing techniques,
165–168
cost/finance, 160
environmental impacts, 160–161
life cycle analysis, 162
recycling, 161
legislation factors, 160
society
competing factors in
multifunction, 163Index 213
energy efficiency, 162
lack of adequate information,
163–164
Injection molding machine, 104, 123
clamping unit, 127
injection unit, 126
purpose of, 123
Inkjet technologies, 43
continuous (CIJ), 43
drop-on-demand, 44
In-mold decoration (IMD), 144, 145
In-mold labeling (IML), 9, 144, 145
creating touch screen displays, 15
Insulating materials, 20, 117
Insulator, 25
Integrated metal/plastic injection
molding (IMKS), 29
Osram LED manufactured by, 30
Intellectual property (IP) protection,
199
Internet of things, 3
Intrinsically conductive polymers, 21
Intrinsically self-healing polymer
(ISHP) matrices, 93
Intrinsic material properties, 120
Iron, 20, 33, 34
oxides, 35
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 182
K
Kinect motion tracking camera
system, 200
L
Laminated object manufacturing
(LOM), 184
disadvantages of, 185
postprocessing, 185
Laminates, 19
composite, limitation of, 57
diagram, 57
material, 56
structures, 56
micrograph, 62
Lamination, 5, 12, 14
Lasers, 30
Legislative drivers, in the European
Union, 96
Light-emitting devices (LEDs), 30
Liquid silicone rubber (LSR), 110
Long fibers, 56, 60
processed using injection molding,
61
Low density polyethylene (LDPE),
103
Low elongation (LE) fibers, 88
Low volume composites, 5
manufacture, 14
M
Magnetic materials, 19, 32–34
Magnetism, 135
Manufacturing multifunctional
systems
future perspective, 205–207
Material appearance, 113
Material jetting, 183
postprocessing, 184
Melt flow index (MFI), 114
Melting points, indication of, 114
Melt mixing techniques, 23
Metal fibers, 23
Metallic colloids, 40
Metallic filled polymer composite, 25
Metallic fillers, 23, 24
Metal matrix composites (MMC), 94
Metal–polymer composite
conductivity of, 24
Methane sulfonic acid, 21
Microchips, 30
MIT logo, 194
Mobile phone, 15, 197
protective case, 193
RFI shielding in, 31
Mold cooling, 131
cooling system for injection molding
tool, 133
quadruple effect, 133214 Index
Molding process, 54. See also
Thermoplastic injection
molding
advantages of incorporating
multifunctionality, 162
capital investment, 75
chemical reaction occurred during, 55
LSR vulcanized in, 110
multicomponent injection, 3
technical design and simulation, 128
Mold temperature settings, 135
Multiaxial fabrics, 62, 65
Multifunctional design, options, 206
Multifunctional materials, 1, 19
Multifunctional plastic design, 207
Multifunctional structures (MFS), 205
Multi jet fusion technology, 200
Multijet modeling (MJM), 183
Multimaterial moldings, 3
MWNT/PP composite materials, 29
N
Nanoclays platelets, 2
Nanomaterials, 1
incorporated into products, 2
Nanotubes, 28
Natural fibers, 57, 59
hybrids, 89
Neodymium (NdFeB) magnets, 35
Nickel, 35
Ninjaflex TPE filament, 193
Noncrimp fabrics, 62
Nonextrusion-based processes, 12
Nonlinear positive temperature
coefficient (PTC) effect, 24
Nonpolymeric composite materials, 30
Nonwoven matrix material, 66
Nylon 6/6, 23
Nylon layer, 10
O
Objet Connex MJM machine, 191
Open Customer Engagement Program,
200
Out of autoclave (OoA) process, 74
Overmolding, 104–105
P
Packaging, 158–159
Packing-factor (F), 24
value, 24, 25
Painting, 3
Partially polymerized material, 54
Particle material, 23
Particle size, 28
Passenger aircraft, complex air ducts,
186
Percolation theory, 23
Percolation threshold, 28
Phosphorous iron, 35
Photocopier, 172
3D Photocopying, 195
Photocuring (SLA), 181–182
postprocessing, 182
Photogenerated catalysis, 32
Piezoelectric crystal, 44
Piezoelectric printers, 44
Piezo-resistive exPAN carbon
filament, 92
Plastic extrusion processes, 2
Plastic processing processes, 5
Plastic processing routes, 4
PMCs. See Polymer matrix composites
(PMCs)
Polyacetylene, 21
Polyamides (PA), 29, 54
Polyaniline, 21
Polybutylene (PBT), 25
dispersion of multiwalled CNTs in, 28
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), 23
Polycarbonates, 23
Polyetherimide (PEI), 176
Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
(PEDOT), 21
Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
polystyrene sulfonate, 20
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 11,
29, 111Index 215
Polylactic acid (PLA), 176
Polymer-based structural composite
materials, 3
Polymer chains, at rest and in shear,
116
Polymer composite, 25
Polymeric-based application
solutions, 20
Polymerization, 54
Polymer materials, 31
classification, 106
commercial elastomer designations,
109
defined, 54
elastomers, 108
functional classes, 31
materials and applications, 108
silicone-based elastomers, 110
as substrates, 121
adhesion- or not adhesion, 121
thermosets, 108
Polymer matrix composites (PMCs),
24, 53, 54
classification, 63
continuous (primary) phase, 53
dispersed (secondary) phase, 53
mechanical properties of typical
fibers used in, 60
multifunctionality
advantages, 97
barriers to, 95
environmental impacts, 96–97
financial impact, 95
political impact, 95
social impacts, 97
defined, 1
disadvantages, 98
processing methods. See Processing
methods, for PMCs
research trends in, 87, 91–92
“bucky syntactic foam,” 94
EMI-shielding, 95
encapsulated resin/accelerator,
93–94
green and biocomposites, 89–90
hybrid composites, 88–89
joining, 90
piezoelectric/electroactive
systems, 94
raw material and processing, 87–88
recycling, 91
sensing, 92
Polymer types, relative to injection
molding, 111
additives and their effects, 118
amorphous and semicrystalline
structures, 112
amorphous materials, 113
characteristics, 111–112
common plastic additives, 120
comparator thermal conductivity
values, 117
drying guide for some indicative
materials, 119
fountain flow, 117
generic processing window, 113
indication of melting points and
glass transitions, 114
influence of branching on
polyethylene properties, 115
material appearance, 113
polymer chains, at rest and in shear,
116
thermal and thermal stability, 114
water absorbing (hygroscopic
materials), 118
Poly(m-xylene adipamide) (MXD6),
23, 25
Polyphenylene oxides, 23
Polyphenylene sulphides, 23
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSF), 176
Polypropylene (PP), 54, 60, 103, 111
influence of branching properties,
115
Polypyrrole, 21
-coated fabrics, 21
-paint injection molded composites, 21
soluble, 21216 Index
Polypyrrole–polyvinylchloride
injection molded composites,
21
Polystyrene (PS), 111
Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS), 21
Polyurethane sheet, 36
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), 107
Porous structures, 19
Powder bed fusion, 179
explosive/flammable, 181
postprocessing, 180
Powder binding (3D printing),
178
postprocessing, 179
Powder binding systems, 182
Pre-impregnated fabric, 62
Prepreg fabric, 65
3D Printing, 4, 5, 178
4D Printing, 191, 194, 198
Processing methods, for
PMCs, 66
autoclaving, 73–74
automated cutting and AFP, 73
compression molding, 71–72
extrusion, 76
filament winding, 77
hand lay-up, 66–67
injection molding, 75
out of autoclave (OoA), 74
pultrusion, 76–77
resin infusion, 69–70
resin transfer molding (RTM),
70–71
spray lay-up, 67–68
stamp forming, 72
vacuum bagging, 68–69
Process variations
assisted molding, 141
coinjection molding, 142
foam molding, 141
microinjection molding, 140
PTC effect, 25
Pultrusion, 76–77
Pyrrole black, 21
Q
Quartz glass fiber, 58
R
Random fiber orientation, 61
Rapid prototyping (RP), 172
to just-in-time, 185
Rapid tooling, 188
Reactive processes, 66
Recycling systems, 206
Reinforced reactive injection molding
(RRIM), 75
Reinforcement phase, 55
RepRap, 171
Resin infusion, 69–70
Resin injection molding (RIM), 66, 75
Resin transfer molding (RTM), 66,
70–71
Resistive heating, 135
RFID tags, 196
RFI shielding, 31
R-glass fibers, 58
RIM. See Resin injection molding
(RIM)
Robots, in injection molding industry,
136
Roll-to-roll (RTR) processing, 39
Roto-molding, 5, 13
RTM. See Resin transfer molding (RTM)
S
Screen printing, 40, 41
Selective laser melting (SLM), 179
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 171,
178, 179
Self-reinforced polymers/plastics
(SRPs), 60
Self-reinforcing fibers, 57
Semiconductors, 20, 21
Sensing polymers, 45
Sensors, 3, 45
S-glass fibers, 58
Shape memory, 19
effect, 35Index 217
Shape memory polymers (SMP), 35
application of, 37
polyurethane, 36
to produce wings that reconfigure or
“morph,” 36
thermomechanical, 36
behavior for, 36
Shape memory polyurethanes
(SMPUs), 36
Shear forces, 116
Sheet
and film extrusion, 6
and film production, 5
molding compound, 61
Silicon, 20
Silicon carbide, 30
Silicone-based elastomers, 110
Silicone moldings, 110
Silicon iron, 35
Silicon semiconductors, 31
Silver, 20, 31
as antimicrobial materials, 31
fillers, 25
nanoparticles, 2, 25, 31
remote control with, 32
powder, 23
Single and twin screw extrusion, 5–6
Sintered aluminum, 35
SLA. See Stereolithography (SLA)
SLM. See Selective laser melting
(SLM)
SLS. See Selective laser sintering
(SLS)
Smart materials, 1
SMP. See Shape memory polymers
(SMP)
SMPUs. See Shape memory
polyurethanes (SMPUs)
Sodium hydroxide, 176
Soft ferrites, 35
Solubility, 21
Solvents, 21, 64, 177
barrier, 10
Spin-coating process, 38
for largescale, high-volume
manufacture, reasons for, 38–39
principle of, 39
Spray lay-up, 67–68
Stamp forming, 72
Static charge, 20
Static energy, 21
Static-free environment, 20
Stereolithography (SLA), 171, 173,
178, 181
Stiffness, 23
Stitched fabrics, 62
Strati AM car, 187
Stretch blow molding, 12
Structural reactive injection molding
(SRIM), 75
Sulfuric acid, 21
Surface-to-volume ratio, 31
T
Tensile modulus, 29
Tensile properties, 23
Thermal conductivity, 19
values, 117
Thermal diffusivity, 133
Thermal expansion, 24, 25
coefficients, 31
Thermal inkjet printers, 44
Thermally conductive materials, 30
Thermoforming, 5, 12
Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), 109
filament, 193
-like materials, 183
Thermoplastic injection molding
cyclic process, 137
mold techniques, and multishot
techniques, 142
combine more than one material, 143
biinjection methods, 150–153
decoration, 144–145
FreeFormer machine, 154–156
hybrid processing systems, 154
in-mold electronics (IME),
148–150218 Index
in-mold labeling (IML), 145–147
in-mold paint films, 147
in-mold textiles (IMT), 148
in-mold veneers, 148
multishot options, 153–154
robotic direct repositioning in
mold, 154
through a nozzle process/separate
injection points into tool, 143
process variations
assisted molding, 141
coinjection molding, 142
foam molding, 141
microinjection molding, 140
variable parameters, 138
machine base control, 139
product design, 140
wall thickness/projected area, 138
Thermoplastic matrix, 61
Thermoplastic polymer materials, 30,
54, 107
applications, 111
degradation, 116
molecular chains in, 54
properties, 54
semicrystalline, 54
Thermoplastic pre-pregs, 63
Thermoplastic resins, 23
Thermoplastics. See Thermoplastic
polymer materials
Thermoplastic UD tapes, 63
Thermosets, 55, 107, 108
materials and applications, 108
molding temperature profile, 122
polymer, 54
use in conjunction with
thermoplastics, 122
Three-dimensional (3D) fiber reinforcements, for composite, 57
Tie layers, 8, 10
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32
photocatalytic activity, 32
as transparent, self-cleaning coating
on glass, 32
Tooling process, 128
overview of, 132
slide mold, 130
stripper mold, 129
three-plate mold, 130
two-plate mold, 128
Touch-screen displays, 15, 16
TPE. See Thermoplastic elastomer
(TPE)
Transmission devices, 3
Transparent silica (glass) fibers, 37
Twin-screw extrusion, 23
U
UK Landfill Tax, 96
Unidirectional (UD) fabrics, 56, 61,
79, 82
UV curable polymers, 183
UV emitting LEDs, 182
UV laser, 182
UV light, 183
UV tool sterilizer, 182
V
VAC bag, 69
Vacuum-assisted transfer molding
(VARTM), 70, 93
Vacuum bagging, 68–69
Vacuum bag only (VBO), 74
Vacuum deposition, 40
Vacuum dryers, 136
Viscosities, 41, 114, 115
W
Waste electrical and electronic
equipment (WEEE) directive
states, 96
Water absorbing (hygroscopic
materials), 118
Water-soluble polyelectrolyte, 21
Wet polymers, 118
X
Xbox 360 console, in camera system,
200
Thermoplastic injection molding (cont.)
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