Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook – Powerplant – Volume 2

Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook – Powerplant – Volume 2
اسم المؤلف
U.S. Department of Transportation
التاريخ
14 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
188
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Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook – Powerplant – Volume 2
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
Flight Standards Service
Volume Contents
Volume 1
Preface .v
Acknowledgments vii
Table of Contents ix
Chapter 1
Aircraft Engines .1-1
Chapter 2
Engine Fuel and Fuel Metering Systems .2-1
Chapter 3
Induction and Exhaust Systems 3-1
Chapter 4
Engine Ignition and Electrical Systems 4-1
Chapter 5
Engine Starting Systems 5-1
Volume 2
Chapter 6
Lubrication and Cooling Systems .6-1
Chapter 7 Propellers
.7-1
Chapter 8
Engine Removal and Replacement 8-1
Chapter 9
Engine Fire Protection Systems 9-1
Chapter 10
Engine Maintenance and Operation 10-1
Chapter 11
Light-Sport Aircraft Engines 11-1
Index
Breather pressurizing system .6-30
Breather subsystems .6-31
Brinelling .10-3
Burning 10-3
Burnishing 10-3
Burr 10-3
C
Carburetor adjustment and checks .11-25
Carburetor air temperature (CAT) indicator 10-22
Carburetor synchronization 11-17
Centrifugal force 7-4
Centrifugal twisting force . 7-4,7-9
Centrifugal twisting moment .7-9
Chafing .10-3
Changing oil .6-17
Assembly of and installation of oil filters 6-19
Draining oil 6-17
Oil and filter change and screen cleaning .6-18
Oil filter removal canister type housing .6-18
Oil filter/screen content inspection .6-18
Troubleshooting oil systems .6-19
Charging the propeller air dome 7-27
Checking alignment .10-11
Checking and adjusting propeller blade angles .7-23
Checking takeoff thrust 10-58
Checking the carburetor actuation .11-20
Checking the friction torque in free rotation 11-22
Checking the propeller gearbox .11-22
Checks and adjustments after engine runup and
operation 8-14
Chipping .10-3
Cleaning .10-6
Cleaning propeller blades 7-27
Cleaning the oil tank 11-21
Clearances 10-55
Cloud point .6-3
Cold cylinder check .10-44
Combination splash and pressure lubrication 6-5
Combustion process .10-30
Combustion section inspection 10-49
A
Abrasion .10-3
Accessory zone cooling .6-40
Aerodynamic factors 7-5
Aerodynamic twisting force .7-9
Aeromax aviation 100 (IFB) aircraft engine 11-12
Afterfiring 10-32
Airflow controls .6-11
Air oil coolers 6-28
Air pressure against the propeller piston .7-9
Aluminium propeller inspection 7-21
Ambient conditions 10-59
Analyzer safety precautions .10-62
Anti-icing systems .7-18
APU fire detection and extinguishing system 9-18
APU fire warning .9-18
Fire bottle discharge .9-18
Augmentors 6-34
Authorized personnel that meet FAA regulations .11-4
Autofeathering system .7-20
B
Backfiring .10-31
Baffles 6-33
Balancing procedure 7-26
Basic engine operating principles 10-30
Blade angle 7-3,7-5
Blade tracking 7-22
Boeing 777 aircraft fire detection and extinguishing
system 9-14
Boeing 777 fire extinguisher system 9-15
Fire extinguisher containers 9-15
Continuous fault monitoring 9-14
Engine fire operation 9-18
Engine fire switches 9-15
Fire detection 9-14
Nacelle temperature . 9-14
Overheat detection 9-14
Single/dual loop operation 9-14
Squib .9-15
System test 9-14I-2
Components .9-2
Composite propeller inspection .7-21
Compression 10-32
Connecting rods .10-5
Constant-speed feathering propeller 7-15
Constant-speed propellers 7-14
Constant speed unit (CSU) .7-32
Containers 9-9
Continuity check of aircraft EGT circuit .10-64
Continuous-loop detector systems .9-5
Automatic self-interrogation 9-7
Combination fire and overheat warning .9-6
Dual-loop systems 9-7
Fault indication .9-7
Fenwall continuous-loop system 9-5
Fire detection control unit (fire detection card) 9-7
Kidde continuous-loop system .9-5
Sensing element 9-5
Support tube-mounted sensing elements 9-7
System test 9-6
Temperature trend indication .9-6
Cooling system .11-7
Rotax 447 UL SCDI .11-5
Rotax 582 UL DCDI 11-5
Corrosion 10-3
Cowl flaps 6-34
Cowling 6-33
Crack 10-3
Crankshaft . 10-5,10-11
Cut 10-3
Cylindar removal .10-42
Cylinder assembly reconditioning .10-12
Cylinder baffle and deflector system inspection 6-38
Cylinder barrel .10-8
Cylinder bases 6-35
Cylinder compression tests 10-40
Cylinder grinding and honing 10-18
Cylinder head .10-5
Temperature indicator 10-24
Cylinder installation .10-43
Cylinder replacement .10-42
Cylinder temperature indicating systems .6-38
D
Daily maintenance checks 11-22
Decarbonizing 10-6
Solution 10-7
Degreasing .10-6
Deicing systems .7-18
Brush block 7-19
Timer or cycling unit 7-19
Cycling timers 7-20
Deice boot .7-19
Dent 10-4
Deoiler 6-28
Depreservation of an engine 8-5
Detonation 10-30
Differential pressure tester .10-40
Dimensional inspection 10-8
Direct drive VW engines .11-13
Disassembly .10-2
Discharge indicators .9-9
Discharge valves 9-9
Disconnection of engine controls .8-8
Disconnection of lines 8-9
Dome assembly 7-36
Draining the engine 8-7
Dry sump lubrication system operation .6-12
Dry sump oil systems .6-5
Dual capacitor discharge ignition (DCDI) .11-4
Dye penetrant inspection 10-7
Dynamic balancing 7-25
E
Eddy current inspection .10-7
EGT circuit error 10-66
Electrical disconnects .8-7
Electric system 11-6,11-8
Engine and engine compartment inspection 11-24
Engine checks 10-58
Engine cooling systems 6-33
Engine cowling 6-36
Engine cylinder cooling fin inspection 6-37
Engine fire detection systems .9-2
Engine fire extinguishing system .9-8
Engine general requirements 11-1
Engine inspection charts 11-26
Engine installation .8-15
Engine instruments 10-21,10-25
Engine lubrication 6-1
Engine mounts .8-23
Mounts for reciprocating engines .8-23
Mounts for turbofan engines 8-24
Turbine vibration isolation engine mounts .8-24
Engine oil pressure indicator .10-58
Engine oil temperature indicator 10-58
Engine operational problems .8-3
Engine or component lifespan exceeded 8-2
Engine preservation .11-24
Engine preservation and return to service 8-25
Engine pressure ratio indicator 10-56
Engine ratings 10-55I-3
Engine shipping containers 8-27
Engine shutdown 10-59
Engine speed varies with flight attitude
(airspeed) 7-30
Engine starting .10-26
Engine stopping .10-29
Engine testing of reciprocating engines .10-20
Engine thermocouples out of calibration .10-66
Engine troubleshooting 10-36
Engine warm-up .10-26
Erosion .10-4
Exhaust gas temperature indicating systems 6-39
Exhaust gas temperature indicator (EGT) 10-56
Exhaust section 10-55
Exhaust system .11-25
F
Factors affecting engine operation .10-32
Failure to feather or feathers slowly 7-30
Feathering 7-16
Operation 7-37
Fire detection system maintenance 9-10
Fire detection system troubleshooting .9-12
Fire extinguisher system maintenance practices 9-13
Fire extinguishing agents .9-8
Fire switch 9-10
Fire zones .9-7
Fixed-pitch wooden propellers 7-12
Flaking .10-4
Flash point and fire point .6-3
Fretting .10-4
Friction .6-2
Rolling friction .6-2
Wiping friction .6-2
Fuel control unit (FCU) .7-33
Fuel-flow indicator .10-57
Fuel flow meter 10-23
Fuel metering .10-32
Fuel nozzle and support assemblies .10-51
Fuel oil coolers .6-28
Fuel/oil mixing procedure 11-6
Fuel pressure and oil pressure check .10-28
Fuel pressure indicator .10-22
Fuel system . 11-6,11-7
Functional check of aircraft EGT circuit .10-64
Functions of engine oil .6-2
G
Galling 10-4
General maintenance practices for the light-sport
Jabiru engines .11-24
General maintenance practices on light-sport
Rotax engines .11-16
General overhaul procedures .10-2
General procedures for engine removal and
installation 8-3
Gouging 10-4
Governor mechanism .7-10
Governor system operation 7-12
Great plains aircraft volkswagen (VW)
conversions 11-15
Grooving 10-4
Ground check .10-27
Ground operation engine fire .10-58
H
Hamilton standard hydromatic propellers 7-34
Hartzell constant-speed 7-14
Head bolts 11-25
HKS 700T engine 11-10
Hoisting and mounting the engine for installation .8-10
Connections and adjustments .8-11
Hoisting the engine 8-10
Hub .7-29
Assembly 7-36
Hunting and surging .7-30
Hydraulic lock 10-26
Hydromatic propeller .7-35
Feathering installation 7-37
I
Ice control systems .7-18
Idle mixture 10-34
Idle speed adjustment .11-20
Idle speed and idle mixture checks 10-29
Inclusion .10-4
Induction manifold .10-34
Inspecting the magnetic plug .11-21
Inspection and depreservation of accessories 8-5
Inspection and repair of combustion chambers .10-51
Inspection and replacement of powerplant
external units and systems .8-6
Inspection of stored engines .8-28
Inspection process 10-3
Installation of turbofan engines .8-19
Completing the installation 8-19
Installation with cable hoist 8-19
Installation with dolly .8-19
J
Jabiru 2200 aircraft engine .11-12
Jabiru light-sport engines .11-10I-4
L
Large springs 7-9
Leak testing 10-18
Light-sport aircraft engines 11-4
Lock-pitch solenoid valve 7-33
Lubrication system .11-6, 11-7, 11-20, 11-25
Breather systems (vents) 6-26
Check valve 6-27
Instrumentation .6-26
Maintenance practices 6-14
Requirements 6-5
Thermostatic bypass valves 6-27
Lycoming 0-233 series light-sport aircraft
engine .11-16
M
Magnetic chip detectors .6-28
Magnetic particle inspection 10-8
Maintenance schedule procedures and
maintenance checklist 11-17
Manifold pressure indicator .10-23
Marking materials for combustion section parts 10-50
Mechanical failures 9-2
Metal fixed-pitch propellers .7-14
Metal particles in the oil 8-3
Metal propeller inspection .7-21
Tachometer inspection .7-21
N
Nick 10-4
Nonfeathering 7-14
O
Oil change 11-21
Oil cooler 6-10,6-16
Oil cooler flow control valve .6-10
Oil filters 6-8
Bypass valve .6-7
Canister housing filter 6-8
Check valve 6-7
Cuno oil filter .6-8
Spin-on filters .6-8
Oil injection lubrication of Rotax 503 UL DCDE,
582 UL DCDI, and 582 UL DCDI .11-6
Oil jets 6-26
Oil level check .11-20
Oil pressure gauge 6-9
Dual-type oil pressure gauge 6-9
Oil pressure indicator .10-23
Oil pressure regulating valve 6-8,6-25
Oil pressure relief valve 6-17,6-25
Oil pump . 6-7,6-23
Gear-type oil pump .6-23
Gerotor pump .6-24
Oil tank .6-22
Oil tanks 6-5,6-14
Oil temperature bulbs .6-16
Oil temperature indicator 6-10,10-23
One or more inoperative thermocouples in engine
parallel harness .10-66
On-speed condition 7-10
Operational effect of valve clearance 10-34
Opposed light-sport, experimental, and certified
engines .11-7
Optical fire detection systems 9-4
Principle of operation .9-4
Optimizing engine running 11-20
Other disconnections 8-9
Overspeed condition 7-10
P
Peening .10-4
Personnel authorized to perform inspection and
maintenance on light-sport engines .11-2
Pistons . 10-5,10-13
Piston pins 10-5, 10-13
Piston repairs 10-18
Pitting .10-4
Pneumatic synchronization 11-18
Pneumatic thermal fire detection .9-5
Pour point .6-3
Power check .10-28
Powerplant vibration 7-22
Pratt and Whittney PT6 Hartzell Propeller System .7-32
Pre-flight checks .11-23
Pre-ignition 10-31
Pre-oiling 10-26
Preparation of engine for ground and flight
testing .8-13
Fuel system bleeding 8-13
Pre-oiling 8-13
Preparation of engines for installation .8-3
Preparing the engine for removal .8-7
Preservation and depreservation of gas turbine
engines .8-28
Preservation and storage of engines .8-24
Corrosion-preventive compounds 8-25
Heavy compound 8-25
Light mixture 8-25
Corrosion-preventive materials 8-24
Dehydrating . 8-25I-5
Silica gel .8-25
Pressure and scavenge oil screens 6-16
Pressure indication .9-9
Pressure subsystem 6-30
Pressure system 6-29
Propeller aerodynamic process 7-2
Propeller auxiliary systems 7-18
Propeller balancing 7-24
Propeller blade .7-3
Flyweights 7-9
Propeller check .8-14
Propeller controls and instruments .7-6
System 7-31
Propeller governor .7-9
Oil on the propeller piston side 7-9
Propeller inspection and maintenance .7-20
Propeller location .7-6
Pusher propellers 7-6
Tractor propeller .7-6
Propeller overhaul 7-28
Propeller pitch 7-3
Check 10-28
Propellers 7-1,7-2,7-6
Constant-speed propellers 7-8
Controllable-pitch propeller .7-7
Feathering propellers 7-8
Fixed-pitch propeller 7-6
Ground-adjustable propeller .7-7
Lubrication .7-28
Principles 7-2
Removal and installation 7-26
Reverse-pitch propellers .7-9
Test club propeller 7-7
Troubleshooting .7-30
Vibration .7-22
Propellers used on general aviation aircraft .7-12
Propeller synchronization and synchrophasing .7-20
Prop reassembly .7-29
Q
QECA buildup method for changing of engines 8-4
R
Reassembly 10-20
Receiving inspection 10-2
Reciprocating engine cooling systems .6-33
Maintenance .6-35
Reciprocating engine lubrication systems .6-5
Reciprocating engine operation .10-25
Reciprocating engine overhaul 10-1
Major overhaul and major repairs 10-2
Top overhaul .10-2
Reciprocating helicopter engine and QECA 8-23
Installation, rigging, and adjustment of
helicopter QECA 8-23
Removal of helicopter QECA 8-23
Testing the engine installation 8-23
Reduction gear assembly .7-31
Refacing valve seats .10-13
Removal and installation of an opposed-type
engine .8-14
Engine removal .8-14
Removal of reciprocating engines .8-2
Removing hard carbon .10-6
Removing the engine .8-9
Repair and replacement 10-12
Requirements and characteristics of reciprocating
engine lubricants 6-2
Resistance and insulation check .10-65
Resistance of circuit out of tolerance .10-66
Revmaster R-2300 engine 11-13
Rigging, inspections, and adjustments .8-20
Adjusting the fuel control .8-21
Rigging power controls 8-20
Rotax 447 UL SCDI .11-4
Rotax 503 UL DCDI 11-4
Rotax 503 UL DCDI 11-5
Rotax 582 UL DCDI 11-5
Rotax 912/914 11-7
S
Scavenger subsystem .6-31
Scavenge system 6-29
Scoring .10-4
Scratches 10-4
Sender 11-25
Servicing propellers .7-27
Setting the propeller governor .7-40
Shorts to ground/shorts between leads .10-66
Single capacitor discharge ignition (SCDI) .11-4
Spark plugs .11-25
Specific gravity 6-4
Spectrometric oil analysis engine inspection
program 8-3
Spectrometric oil analysis program .6-21
Parts per million (PPM) 6-21
Stain .10-4
Static balancing 7-24
Structural inspection 10-7
Sudden reduction in speed .8-2
Sudden stoppage 8-2
Surge protection valves 6-10I-6
Swivel outlet fitting 6-22
Synchrophasing system 7-31
T
Tachometer . 10-56,11-25
Check 10-65
Indicator 10-24
Teledyne Continental 0-200 engine .11-16
Test cell requirements 10-21
Thermal discharge indicator (red disk) 9-10
Thermal switch system 9-2
Thermocouple 9-3
Systems .9-3
Torquemeter .10-25
Turboprop engines 10-56
Troubleshooting aircraft tachometer system 10-66
Troubleshooting and abnormal operation 11-23
Exceeding of maximum admissible cylinder
head temperature 11-24
Exceeding of maximum admissible exhaust
gas temperature .11-24
Exceeding the maximum admissible engine
speed .11-24
Engine keeps running with ignition OFF 11-24
Knocking under load .11-24
Troubleshooting EGT system 10-66
Troubleshooting turbine engines 10-60
Turbine blade inspection 10-51
Turbine blade replacement procedure 10-52
Turbine disk inspection 10-51
Turbine engine analyzer uses .10-62
Turbine engine calibration and testing .10-60
Turbine engine condition monitoring programs 8-3
Turbine engine cooling 6-39
Turbine engine ground fire protection .9-9
Turbine engine instruments 10-56
Turbine engine insulation blankets 6-41
Turbine engine lubricants 6-19
Bulk stability 6-20
Cleanliness .6-19
Compatibility 6-20
Load-carrying ability 6-19
Seal wear 6-20
Vapor phase deposits 6-19
Turbine engine lubrication systems .6-21
Turbine engine maintenance 10-46
Blending and replacement 10-49
Causes of blade damage .10-46
Compressor section 10-46
Inspection and cleaning 10-46
Turbine engine oil system maintenance .6-32
Turbine engine operation .10-58
Turbine engine powerplant removal and
installation 8-16
Install apu powerplant 8-16
Removal and replacement of an auxiliary power
unit (APU) 8-16
Turbine engine wet-sump lubrication system 6-31
Reservoir 6-32
Magnetic drain plug 6-32
Provision .6-32
Sight gauge .6-32
Vent or breather 6-32
Turbine lubrication system components 6-22
Turbine nozzle inlet guide vane inspection .10-54
Turbine oil filters 6-24
Turbine oil health and safety precautions 6-20
Turbocharger and control system .11-10
Turbofan powerplant QECA removal 8-18
Removal of QECA accessories 8-19
Turbo-propeller assembly 7-31
Turboprop engines and propeller control systems .7-30
Turboprop operation 10-60
Troubleshooting procedures for turboprop
engines 10-60
Turboprop powerplant removal and installation 8-22
Two-cycle engine .11-4
Two cylinder rotax engine .11-4
Two-stroke engines 11-5
Two-way check valve 9-9
Typical dry-sump pressure regulated turbine
lubrication system 6-28
Typical dry-sump variable pressure lubrication
system 6-30
U
Ultrasonic Inspection .10-8
Pulse-Echo 10-8
Resonance .10-8
Through Transmission 10-8
Underspeed Condition .7-10
Unfeathering 7-17
Operation 7-39
Universal Propeller Protractor .7-23
Upsetting 10-4
V
Valves . 10-10,10-13
Blow-by 10-40
Lapping .10-18
Reconditioning .10-16
Springs . 10-10,10-13I-7
Train .10-5
Viscosity 6-3
Index .6-3
Visual inspection 10-3
W
Warning systems . 9-10,10-25
Wear metals and additives .6-21
Aluminum .6-21
Chromium .6-21
Copper 6-21
Iron .6-21
Lead 6-21
Molybdenum 6-21
Nickel .6-21
Phosphorous .6-21
Silver 6-21
Tin 6-21
Titanium .6-21
Wet-sump lubrication system operation 6-14
Wood propeller inspection .7-21
X
X-ray 10-8
Y
Yellow disk discharge indicator .9-10

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