AutoCAd 2016 3D Modeling

AutoCAd 2016 3D Modeling
اسم المؤلف
Munir M. Hamad
التاريخ
8 يونيو 2024
المشاهدات
101
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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AutoCAd 2016 3D Modeling
Munir M. Hamad
Autodesk™ Approved Instructor
CONTENTSvi • Contents
1.4.6 Look Command 12
1.4.7 Up/Down Command 12
1.4.8 Walk Command 12
1.5 Visual Styles 12
Practice 1-2: Orbit, Steering Wheel, and Visual Styles 15
1.6 What Is the User Coordinate System (UCS)? 16
1.7 Creating a New UCS by Manipulating the UCS Icon 16
1.8 Creating a New UCS Using UCS Command 19
1.8.1 3-Point Option 20
1.8.2 Origin Option 20
1.8.3 X / Y / Z Options 20
1.8.4 Named Option 21
1.8.5 The Rest of the Options 23
1.8.6 UCS Icon 25
1.9 DUCS Command 26
1.10 Two Facts About UCS and DUCS 27
Practice 1-3: User Coordinate System 28
Chapter Review 30
Chapter Review Answers 31
Chapter 2: Creating Solids 33
2.1 Introduction to Solids 33
2.2 Creating Solids Using Basic Shapes 34
2.2.1 Box Command 34
2.2.2 Cylinder Command 35
2.2.3 Cone Command 36
2.2.4 Sphere Command 36
2.2.5 Pyramid Command 37
2.2.6 Wedge Command 37
2.2.7 Torus Command 38Contents • vii
2.3 Editing Basic Solid Shapes Using Grips 39
2.4 Editing Basic Solid Shapes Using Quick Properties
and Properties 42
2.5 3D Object Snap 43
Practice 2-1: Basic Solid Shapes and 3D Object Snap 46
2.6 Using Boolean Functions 47
2.6.1 Union Command 47
2.6.2 Subtract Command 47
2.6.3 Intersect Command 48
2.6.4 Solid History 48
2.7 Using the Presspull Command 50
Practice 2-2: Boolean Functions and Presspull 53
2.8 Subobjects and Gizmo 55
2.8.1 Culling 56
2.8.2 Selection Cycling 57
2.8.3 Selecting Using Preset Views 58
2.8.4 Using Gizmo 59
Practice 2-3: Subobjects and Gizmo 62
Project 2-1-M: Mechanical Project Using Metric Units 63
Project 2-1-I: Mechanical Project Using Imperial Units 64
Project 2-2-M: Architectural Project Using Metric Units 65
Project 2-2-I: Architectural Project Using Imperial Units 69
Project 2-3-M: Mechanical Project Using Metric Units 74
Project 2-3-I: Mechanical Project Using Imperial Units 75
Chapter Review 77
Chapter Review Answers 79
Chapter 3: Creating Meshes 81
3.1 What Are Meshes? 81
3.2 Mesh Basic Shapes 82viii • Contents
3.3 Manipulating Meshes Using Subobjects and Gizmo 83
3.4 Increase/Decrease Mesh Smoothness 84
Practice 3-1: Mesh Basic Objects, Subobjects, and Gizmo 85
3.5 Converting 2D Objects to Meshes 87
3.5.1 Revolved Surface Command 87
3.5.2 Edge Surface Command 88
3.5.3 Ruled Surface Command 89
3.5.4 Tabulated Surface Command 90
Practice 3-2: Converting 2D Objects to Meshes 91
3.6 Converting, Refining, and Creasing 92
3.6.1 Converting Legacy Surfaces or Solids to Meshes 92
3.6.2 Refining Meshes 94
3.6.3 Add or Remove Crease 95
Practice 3-3: Converting, Refining, and Creasing 96
3.7 Mesh Editing Commands 98
3.7.1 Split Mesh Face 98
3.7.2 Extrude Face 99
3.7.3 Merge Faces 100
3.7.4 Closing a Hole in a Mesh 100
3.7.5 Collapse a Face or Edge 101
3.7.6 Spin Triangular Face 102
Practice 3-4: Mesh Editing Commands 103
Project 3-1-M: Project Using Metric Units 105
Project 3-1-I: Project Using Imperial Units 108
Chapter Review 112
Chapter Review Answers 114
Chapter 4: Creating Surfaces 115
4.1 Introduction to Surfaces 115
4.2 Creating Planar Surface and Network Surface 116Contents • ix
4.2.1 Planar Surface 116
4.2.2 Network Surface 117
Practice 4-1: Creating Planar and Network Surfaces 119
4.3 Using Blend, Patch, and Offset Commands 120
4.3.1 Blend Command 120
4.3.2 Patch Command 122
4.3.3 Offset Command 123
Practice 4-2: Blend, Patch, and Offset Commands 125
4.4 How to Edit Surfaces 126
4.4.1 Fillet Command 126
4.4.2 Trim Command 127
4.4.3 Untrim Command 129
4.4.4 Extend Command 130
4.4.5 Sculpt Command 131
4.4.6 Editing Surfaces Using the Grips 131
Practice 4-3: How to Edit Surfaces 134
Practice 4-4: Fillet and Grips Editing 136
4.5 Project Geometry 137
4.5.1 Using Project to UCS 137
4.5.2 Using Project to View 138
4.5.3 Using Project to 2 Points 138
Practice 4-5: Project Geometry 140
4.6 Creating NURBS Surfaces 141
Practice 4-6: NURBS Creation and Editing 150
Chapter Review 153
Chapter Review Answers 155
Chapter 5: Creating Complex Solids and Surfaces 157
5.1 Introduction 157
5.2 3D Polyline as a Path 158x • Contents
5.3 Helix as a Path 158
5.3.1 Axis Endpoint Option 159
5.3.2 Turns Option 160
5.3.3 Turn Height Option 160
5.3.4 Editing Helix Using Grips 160
Practice 5-1: Drawing 3D Polyline and Helix 162
5.4 Using Extrude Command 163
5.4.1 Create an Extrusion Using Height 164
5.4.2 Create an Extrusion Using Direction 164
5.4.3 Create an Extrusion Using Path 164
5.4.4 Create an Extrusion Using Taper Angle 166
Practice 5-2: Using Extrude Command 167
5.5 Using Loft Command 168
5.5.1 Lofting Using Guides 170
5.5.2 Lofting Using Path 170
5.5.3 Lofting Using Cross Sections Only 171
Practice 5-3: Using Loft Command 173
5.6 Using Revolve Command 174
Practice 5-4: Using Revolve Command 176
5.7 Using Sweep Command 177
5.7.1 Alignment Option 178
5.7.2 Base Point Option 179
5.7.3 Scale Option 180
5.7.4 Twist Option 180
Practice 5-5: Using Sweep Command 181
5.8 Editing Solid and Surfaces Using the
Four Commands 182
5.8.1 Using Grips 182
5.8.2 Using Quick Properties 183
5.8.3 Using Properties 184
5.9 DELOBJ System Variable 184Contents • xi
Project 5-1-M: Project Using Metric Units 185
Project 5-1-I: Project Using Imperial Units 188
Chapter Review 192
Chapter Review Answers 193
Chapter 6: Solid Editing Commands 195
6.1 Introduction 195
6.2 Extruding Solid Faces 196
6.3 Tapering Solid Faces 197
Practice 6-1: Extruding and Tapering Solid Faces 199
6.4 Moving Solid Faces 200
6.5 Copying Solid Faces 201
Practice 6-2: Moving and Copying Solid Faces 202
6.6 Offsetting Solid Faces 203
6.7 Deleting Solid Faces 204
Practice 6-3: Offsetting and Deleting Solid Faces 205
6.8 Rotating Solid Faces 206
6.9 Coloring Solid Faces 207
Practice 6-4: Rotating and Coloring Solid Faces 209
6.10 Extracting Solid Edges 210
6.11 Extract Isolines 210
6.12 Imprinting Solids 212
6.13 Coloring Solid Edges 212
6.14 Copying Solid Edges 213
6.15 Offsetting Solid Edges 214
Practice 6-5: All Solid Edges Functions 216
6.16 Separating Solids 217xii • Contents
6.17 Shelling Solids 218
Practice 6-6: Separating and Shelling Solid 219
6.18 Finding Interference Between Solids 220
Practice 6-7: Finding Interference Between Solids 222
Chapter Review 224
Chapter Review Answers 225
Chapter 7: 3D Modifying Commands 227
7.1 3D Move, 3D Rotate, and 3D Scale and Subobjects and Gizmo 227
7.1.1 3D Move Command 228
7.1.2 3D Rotate Command 228
7.1.3 3D Scale Command 229
7.2 Mirroring in 3D 229
7.2.1 XY, YZ, and ZX Options 230
7.2.2 3 Points Option 230
7.2.3 Last Option 230
7.2.4 Object, Z-axis, View Options 230
Practice 7-1: Mirroring in 3D 231
7.3 Arraying in 3D 232
Practice 7-2: Arraying in 3D 234
7.4 Aligning Objects in 3D 235
7.5 Filleting Solid Edges 236
7.5.1 Chain Option 237
7.5.2 Loop Option 237
7.6 Chamfering Solid Edges 238
Practice 7-3: Aligning, Filleting, and Chamfering 240
Project 7-1-M: Project Using Metric Units 242
Project 7-1-I: Project Using Imperial Units 247Contents • xiii
Chapter Review 253
Chapter Review Answers 254
Chapter 8: Converting and Sectioning 255
8.1 Introduction to Converting 3D Objects 255
8.2 Converting 2D and 3D Objects to Solids 256
8.2.1 Thicken Command 256
8.2.2 Convert to Solid Command 256
8.3 Converting 2D and 3D Objects to Surfaces 259
8.3.1 Convert to Surface Command 259
8.3.2 Explode Command 260
8.4 Conversion Between Objects—Conclusion 261
Practice 8-1: Converting Objects 262
8.5 Introduction to Sectioning in 3D 263
8.6 Sectioning Using the Slice Command 263
Practice 8-2: Slicing Objects 264
8.7 Sectioning Using the Section Plane Command 265
8.7.1 Select a Face Method 265
8.7.2 Draw Section Option 265
8.7.3 Orthographic Option 266
8.7.4 Type Option 267
8.7.5 Section Plane Type Options 267
8.7.6 Section Plane Grips 268
8.7.7 Adding Jog to an Existing Section Plane 269
8.7.8 Live Section Command 271
8.7.9 Generate Section Command 273
Practice 8-3: Using Section Plane Command 277
8.8 Sectioning Using the Flatshot Command 278
Practice 8-4: Using the Flatshot Command 280xiv • Contents
Chapter Review 282
Chapter Review Answers 283
Chapter 9: Printing in 3D and 3D DWF 285
9.1 Named Views and 3D 285
9.2 3D and Viewport Creation 288
Practice 9-1: View and Viewport with 3D 291
9.3 Model Documentation—Introduction 293
9.4 Model Documentation—Create Base View 293
9.5 Model Documentation—Create Projected View 295
9.6 Model Documentation—Create Section View 297
9.7 Model Documentation—Section View Style 300
9.7.1 Identifier and Arrows Tab 302
9.7.2 Cutting Plane Tab 303
9.7.3 View Label Tab 304
9.7.4 Hatch Tab 304
9.8 Model Documentation—Create Detail View 305
9.9 Model Documentation—Detail View Style 306
9.9.1 Identifier Tab 307
9.9.2 Detail Boundary Tab 308
9.9.3 View Label Tab 309
9.10 Model Documentation—Editing View 309
9.11 Model Documentation—Editing Components 311
9.12 Model Documentation—Updating Views 312
9.13 Model Documentation—Drafting Standards 314
9.14 Model Documentation—Annotation Monitor 315
Practice 9-2: Model Documentation 317
9.15 3D DWF Creation and Viewing 319
9.15.1 3D DWF Command 319
9.15.2 Batch Plot Command 320Contents • xv
9.15.3 Move and Rotate Commands 323
9.15.4 Sectioning 324
9.15.5 Taking a Snapshot 325
Practice 9-3: Producing and Viewing 3D DWF 327
Chapter Review 329
Chapter Review Answers 330
Chapter 10: Cameras and Lights 331
10.1 Introduction 331
10.2 How to Create a Camera 331
10.3 How to Control a Camera 333
10.3.1 Camera Preview Dialog Box 333
10.3.2 Grips 334
10.3.3 Front and Back Clipping Planes 335
10.3.4 Camera Display and Camera Tool Palette 336
Practice 10-1: Creating and Controlling Cameras 337
10.4 Introducing Lights 338
10.5 Inserting Point Light 339
10.5.1 Name 339
10.5.2 Intensity Factor 340
10.5.3 Status 340
10.5.4 Photometry 340
10.5.5 Shadow 341
10.5.6 Attenuation 341
10.5.7 Filter Color 342
10.5.8 Exit 342
10.5.9 Target Point Light 342
10.6 Inserting Spot Light 342
10.6.1 Hotspot Option 343
10.6.2 Falloff Option 344xvi • Contents
10.7 Inserting Distant Light 344
10.8 Dealing with Sunlight 345
10.9 Inserting Web Light 347
10.9.1 Web Option 348
10.10 Editing Lights 350
10.11 Dealing with Premade Lights 351
10.12 What Is “Lights in Model”? 351
Practice 10-2: Creating and Controlling Lights 354
Chapter Review 356
Chapter Review Answers 357
Chapter 11: Material, Rendering, Visual Style, and Animation 359
11.1 Introducing Materials in AutoCAD 359
11.2 Material Browser 360
11.3 Methods to Assign Material to Objects and Faces 361
11.3.1 Using Drag-and-Drop 362
11.3.2 After Selecting an Object, Right-Click Material 362
11.3.3 Using Attach by Layer Command 362
11.3.4 Removing Assigned Materials 363
11.4 Material Mapping 364
11.4.1 Planar Mapping 364
11.4.2 Box Mapping 366
11.4.3 Cylindrical and Spherical Mapping 367
11.4.4 Copying and Resetting Mapping 367
Practice 11-1: Dealing with Materials 368
11.5 Create New Material Library and Category 370Contents • xvii
11.6 Create Your Own Material 371
11.6.1 Reflectivity 375
11.6.2 Transparency 375
11.6.3 Cutouts 376
11.6.4 Self-Illumination 376
11.6.5 Bump 376
11.6.6 Tint 376
Practice 11-2: Creating Your Own Material 378
11.7 Render in AutoCAD 380
11.7.1 Render Preset 382
11.7.2 Render Duration 383
11.7.3 Lights and Materials 383
11.8 Render Environment and Exposure 384
11.8.1 Environment 384
11.8.2 Exposure 386
11.8.3 Render Window 386
Practice 11-3: Dealing with Rendering 387
11.9 What Visual Style Is and How to Create It? 388
11.9.1 Face Settings 390
11.9.2 Lighting 391
11.9.3 Environment Settings 392
11.9.4 Edge Settings 392
Practice 11-4: Creating Visual Styles 395
11.10 Animation 396
Practice 11-5: Creating Animation 398
Chapter Review 400
Chapter Review Answers 401
Index 403
A
Add Crease command, 95
adding jog to existing section plane, 269–271
Alignment option, 178–179
American lighting units, 338
animation, 396–397
annotation monitor, 315–316
apex point, 334
Appearance panel, 295
array in 3D, 232–233
Arrows Tab, 302–303
Attach by Layer command,
362–363
attenuation, 341–342
Autodesk Library, 370
Axis Endpoint option, 159
B
back clipping planes, 335–336
Base Point option, 179
Batch Plot command, 320–323
Blend command, 120–122
Body command, 196
Boolean functions
Intersect command, 48
solid history, 48–49
Subtract command, 47
Union command, 47
Box command, 34–35
box grip, 39
box mapping, 366–367
bump, 376
C
camera
control of, 333–336
creation of, 331–333
Camera Display, 336
Camera Preview dialog box, 333
Camera Tool Palette, 336
Center command, 11
Chain option, 237
chamfer solid edges, 238–239
Close Hole Mesh command, 100–101
Collapse Edge command, 101–102
Collapse Face command, 101–102
Color command
solid edges, 212–213
solid faces, 207–208
Color selection, 390
Cone command, 36
cone grip, 39
Constraint option, 60–61
Continuous Orbit command, 9–10
Control Show, 392
conversion between objects, 261
Convert to Solid command, 256–259
Convert to Surface command,
259–260
Copy command
INDEX404 • Index
solid edges, 213–214
solid faces, 201
copy mapping, 367
Create Base View, 293–295
Create Detail View, 305–306
Create Projected View, 295–296
Create Section View, 297–300
cross sections, lofting using, 171–172
culling, Subobjects, 56–57
curvature analysis, 149
cutouts controls, 376
Cutting Plane Tab, 303
Cylinder command, 35–36
cylinder grip, 39
cylindrical mapping, 367
D
default offset direction, 124
Default view, 295
Delete command, 204
DELOBJ system variable, 184
Detail Boundary Tab, 308
Detail View Style, 306–309
Distance option, 239
distance values, 239
distant light, insert, 344–345
Down command, 12
draft analysis, 149
drafting standards, 314–315
drag-and-drop methods, 362
Draw Section option, 265–266
DUCS command, 26–27
UCS and, 27
E
Edge command, 196
Edge Modifiers control, 393
edge settings, visual style, 392–394
Edge surface command, 88–89
Editing command, meshes, 98–102
editing components, 311–312
editing helix, using grips, 160–161
editing lights, 350
editing view, model documentation, 309–311
edit surfaces, 126–133
commands
Extend, 130
Fillet, 126–127
Sculpt, 131
Trim, 127–129
Untrim, 129
using grips, 131–133
environment controls, 384–385
environment settings, visual style, 392
Exit option, 342
Explode command, 260–261
exposure controls, 386
Extend command, 130
extend mode, 130
Extract command, 210
Extract Isolines command, 210–211
Extrude command
creating extrusion using
direction, 164
height, 164
path, 164–165
taper angle, 166
solid faces, 196–197
using, 163–166
Extrude Mesh Face command, 99
F
face method, 265
Face option, 24
faces
materials methods of,
361–363
solid, 201, 207–208
face settings, visual style,
390–391
Face Style selection, 390
Falloff option, 344
Field-of-View (FOV), 332
Fillet command, 126–127
fillet solid edges, 236–238
filter color, 342
Flatshot command, 278–279
FOV. See Field-of-View
Free Orbit command, 8–9
front clipping planes, 335–336Index • 405
G
Generate Section command, 273–276
generic lighting units, 338
Gizmo, 55–56, 59–61, 227–229
manipulation of meshes using, 83
grips, 334
editing helix using, 160–161
edit surfaces using, 131–133
solid shapes using, editing, 39–42
solid using, 182–183
H
Hatch Tab, 304–305
helix
button, 158
as path, 158–161
Axis Endpoint option, 159
editing helix using grips, 160–161
Turn Height option, 160
Turns option, 160
Highlight intensity, 391
Hotspot option, 343
I
identifier tab, 302–303, 307–308
Imprint command, 212
Incremental Elevation, 233
intensity factor, 340
interfere in solid, 220–221
international lighting units, 338
Intersect command, 48
Intersection Edges control, 393
L
Last option, 230
legacy solids/surfaces, conversion of meshes,
92–93
Lighting quality selection, 390
lighting settings, visual style, 391
lights
in model, definition of, 351–353
overview, 338–339
render in AutoCAD, 383–384
Live Section command, 271–273
Loft command, solid tab, 168–172
lofting using cross sections, 171–172
lofting using guides, 170
lofting using path, 170
Look command, 12
Loop option, 237–238
M
Material Browser, 360–361
material library, and category, creation of,
370–371
material mapping, 364–367
materials
creation of, 371–377
render in AutoCAD, 383–384
using in AutoCAD, 359
Merge Faces command, 100
meshes, 81
basic shapes of, 82–83
conversion of 2D objects, 87–90
Edge Surface command, 88–89
Revolved Surface command, 87–88
Ruled Surface command, 89
Tabulated Surface command, 90
converting, refining, and creasing, 92–95
Editing commands, 98–102
Close Hole, 100–101
Collapse Face or Edges, 101–102
Extrude Face, 99
Merge Faces, 100
Spin Triangular Face, 102
Split Mesh Face, 98–99
levels of, 84
refine, 94
using Subobjects and Gizmo, manipulation,
83
model documentation
annotation monitor, 315–316
Create Base View, 293–295
Create Detail View, 305–306
Create Projected View, 295–296
Create Section View, 297–300
Detail View Style, 306–309
drafting standards, 314–315
editing components, 311–312406 • Index
Editing View, 309–311
overview of, 293
Section View Style, 300–305
Updating Views, 312–314
monochrome color, 391
Move command, 323–324
solid faces, 200
Move Gizmo, 59–60
N
Named option, 21–22
name, point light, 339
network surfaces, 117–118
NURBS surface, 115
creation of, 141–149
O
Object options, 24, 230
objects
conversion between, 261
materials methods of, 361–363
3D
align, 235
convert to, 255
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
2D
conversion of, 87–90
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
Occluded Edges control, 393
Offset command, 123–124
solid edges, 214–215
solid faces, 203
opacity, 391
Orbiting command, 8, 11
in AutoCAD, 8–10
Origin option, 20
Orthographic option, 266
OSNAP, 27, 332
P
Pan command, 11
Patch command, 122–123
path
3D Polyline as a, 158
helix as a, 158–161
photometric lights, 339, 351
Photometric Web, 349
photometry, 340–341
planar mapping, 364–366
planar surface, 116–117
point light, insert, 339–342
Points option, 230
Polyline Edit command, 158
premade lights, 351
Preset views
AutoCAD, 2–4
Subobjects, 58–59
Presspull command, 50–52
Previous option, 24–25
procedural surfaces, 115
project geometry, 137–139
2 points, 138–139
UCS, 137
view, 138
Properties command, editing solid shapes using,
42–43
Properties palette, 184
for light, 349
Pyramid command, 37
pyramid grip, 40
Q
Quick Properties, 183–184
Quick Properties command, 42–43
R
Rebuild command, 142
refine mesh, 94
reflectivity properties, 375
Remove Crease command, 95
Remove Materials command, 363
Render command, 380
render duration, 383
render environment, and exposure, 384–386
Render in AutoCAD, 380–384
Render Preset, 382
render window, 386
reset mapping, 367Index • 407
Revolve command, 174–175
Revolved Surface command, 87–88
Rewind command, 11
Right-Click Material, 362
Rotate command, 323–324
solid faces, 206–207
Rotate Gizmo, 60, 61
Ruled Surface command, 89
S
scale Gizmo, 60, 61
Scale option, 180
Sculpt command, 131
Sectioning command, 324–325
Section Plane command, 265–276
add jog to existing section plane, 269–271
face method, 265
Generate Section command, 273–276
Live Section command, 271–273
Orthographic option, 266
Section option, 265–266
section plane grips, 268–269
Section Plane Type options, 267–268
Type option, 267
section plane grips, 268–269
Section Plane Type options, 267–268
Section View Style, 300–305
selection cycling, Subobjects, 57–58
self-illumination, 376
Separate command, 217
shadow, 341
Shadow display, 391
shapes, meshes, 82–83
Shell command, 218
Silhouette Edges control, 393
Sky effect, 346
Slice command, 263
snapshot, 325–326
solid edges
Color command, 212–213
Copy command, 213–214
Extract command, 210
Offset command, 214–215
Solid Editing command, overview of, 195–196
solid faces
Color command, 207–208
Copy command, 201
Delete command, 204
Extrude command, 196–197
Move command, 200
Offset command, 203
Rotate command, 206–207
Taper command, 197–198
solids
convert 2D and 3D objects to, 256–259
DELOBJ system variable, 184
editing shapes using
grips, 39–42
Quick Properties and Properties, 42–43
Extract Isolines command, 210–211
Extrude command, 163–166
finding interfere in, 220–221
grips, 182–183
helix as a path, 158–161
history of, 48–49
Imprint command, 212
Loft command, 168–172
overview of, 33, 157–158
properties, 184
quick properties, 183–184
Revolve command, 174–175
Separate command, 217
Shell command, 218
Subobjects and Gizmo, 55–61
Sweep command, 177–180
3D Object Snap, 43–45
3D Polyline as path, 158
using basic shapes, 34–38
using Boolean functions, 47–49
using Presspull command, 50–52
Sphere command, 36–37
sphere grip, 40
spherical mapping, 367
Spin Triangular Face, 102
Split Mesh Face, 98–99
spot light, insert, 342–344
Steering Wheel, 10–12
stretch mode, 130
Subobjects, 55–56, 227–229
culling, 56–57408 • Index
manipulation of meshes using, 83
Preset views, 58–59
selection cycling, 57–58
Subtract command, 47
sunlight effect in 3D model, 345–347
surface. See solids
surfaces
align, 235
in AutoCAD, 92
Blend, Patch, and Offset commands, 120–124
convert 2D and 3D objects to, 259–261
convert to, 255
edit surfaces, 126–133
NURBS surface, 141–149
overview of, 115–116
planar and network, 116–118
project geometry, 137–139
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
Sweep command, using, 177–180
Alignment option, 178–179
Base Point option, 179
Scale option, 180
Twist option, 180
T
Tabulated Surface command, 90
Taper command, solid faces, 197–198
Target Point Light, 342
Thicken command, 256
3D
array, 232–233
creation, 288–290
named views and, 285–288
section in, 263
and viewport creation, 288–290
3D DWF command, 319–320
3D DWF creation, and viewing, 319–326
3D environment
AutoCAD orbiting, 8–10
DUCS command, 26–27
model in, 2–6
recognization of, 1–2
Steering Wheel, 10–12
User Coordinate System (UCS), 16, 19–26
and DUCS, 27
icon, 16–19
visual styles, 12–14
3D mirror, 229–230
3D Modify command, 227
align 3D objects, 235
array in 3D, 232–233
chamfer solid edges, 238–239
fillet solid edges, 236–238
mirror in 3D, 229–230
3D Move command, 228
3D Rotate command, 228
3D Scale command, 229
3D Move command, 227–229
3D objects. See surfaces
3D Object Snap, 43–45
3D Polyline as a path, 158
3D Rotate command, 227–229
3D Scale command, 227–229
3-Point option, 20
tint material, 376–377
Torus command, 38
torus grips, 41
transparency properties, 375
Trim command, 127–129
Turn Height option, 160
Turns option, 160
Twist option, 180
2D objects
conversion of, 87–90
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
2D orthographic views, 3
2 points, using project geometry to,
138–139
Type option, 267
U
UCS. See User Coordinate System
Union command, 47
Untrim command, 129
Up command, 12
Update views, 312–314
User Coordinate System (UCS), 5, 16
command, 19–26Index • 409
and DUCS, 27
icon, manipulation, 16–19
using project geometry to, 137
V
ViewCube, AutoCAD, 4–6
View Label Tab, 304, 309
View option, 23, 230
viewport creation, 288–290
views, using project geometry to, 138
visual styles, 12–14
overview and creation of, 388–394
W
Walk command, 12
WCS. See World Coordinate System
web light, insert, 347–349
Web option, 348–349
Wedge command, 37–38
wedge grip, 40
World Coordinate System (WCS), 5
World option, 23
X
X option, UCS, 20–21
XY options, 230
Y
Y option, UCS, 20–21
YZ options, 230
Z
Z-Axis option, 230
Z-Axis Vector option, 23
Zebra analysis, 148
Zoom command, 11
Z option, UCS, 20–21
ZX options, 230404 • Index
solid edges, 213–214
solid faces, 201
copy mapping, 367
Create Base View, 293–295
Create Detail View, 305–306
Create Projected View, 295–296
Create Section View, 297–300
cross sections, lofting using, 171–172
culling, Subobjects, 56–57
curvature analysis, 149
cutouts controls, 376
Cutting Plane Tab, 303
Cylinder command, 35–36
cylinder grip, 39
cylindrical mapping, 367
D
default offset direction, 124
Default view, 295
Delete command, 204
DELOBJ system variable, 184
Detail Boundary Tab, 308
Detail View Style, 306–309
Distance option, 239
distance values, 239
distant light, insert, 344–345
Down command, 12
draft analysis, 149
drafting standards, 314–315
drag-and-drop methods, 362
Draw Section option, 265–266
DUCS command, 26–27
UCS and, 27
E
Edge command, 196
Edge Modifiers control, 393
edge settings, visual style, 392–394
Edge surface command, 88–89
Editing command, meshes, 98–102
editing components, 311–312
editing helix, using grips, 160–161
editing lights, 350
editing view, model documentation, 309–311
edit surfaces, 126–133
commands
Extend, 130
Fillet, 126–127
Sculpt, 131
Trim, 127–129
Untrim, 129
using grips, 131–133
environment controls, 384–385
environment settings, visual style, 392
Exit option, 342
Explode command, 260–261
exposure controls, 386
Extend command, 130
extend mode, 130
Extract command, 210
Extract Isolines command, 210–211
Extrude command
creating extrusion using
direction, 164
height, 164
path, 164–165
taper angle, 166
solid faces, 196–197
using, 163–166
Extrude Mesh Face command, 99
F
face method, 265
Face option, 24
faces
materials methods of,
361–363
solid, 201, 207–208
face settings, visual style,
390–391
Face Style selection, 390
Falloff option, 344
Field-of-View (FOV), 332
Fillet command, 126–127
fillet solid edges, 236–238
filter color, 342
Flatshot command, 278–279
FOV. See Field-of-View
Free Orbit command, 8–9
front clipping planes, 335–336Index • 405
G
Generate Section command, 273–276
generic lighting units, 338
Gizmo, 55–56, 59–61, 227–229
manipulation of meshes using, 83
grips, 334
editing helix using, 160–161
edit surfaces using, 131–133
solid shapes using, editing, 39–42
solid using, 182–183
H
Hatch Tab, 304–305
helix
button, 158
as path, 158–161
Axis Endpoint option, 159
editing helix using grips, 160–161
Turn Height option, 160
Turns option, 160
Highlight intensity, 391
Hotspot option, 343
I
identifier tab, 302–303, 307–308
Imprint command, 212
Incremental Elevation, 233
intensity factor, 340
interfere in solid, 220–221
international lighting units, 338
Intersect command, 48
Intersection Edges control, 393
L
Last option, 230
legacy solids/surfaces, conversion of meshes,
92–93
Lighting quality selection, 390
lighting settings, visual style, 391
lights
in model, definition of, 351–353
overview, 338–339
render in AutoCAD, 383–384
Live Section command, 271–273
Loft command, solid tab, 168–172
lofting using cross sections, 171–172
lofting using guides, 170
lofting using path, 170
Look command, 12
Loop option, 237–238
M
Material Browser, 360–361
material library, and category, creation of,
370–371
material mapping, 364–367
materials
creation of, 371–377
render in AutoCAD, 383–384
using in AutoCAD, 359
Merge Faces command, 100
meshes, 81
basic shapes of, 82–83
conversion of 2D objects, 87–90
Edge Surface command, 88–89
Revolved Surface command, 87–88
Ruled Surface command, 89
Tabulated Surface command, 90
converting, refining, and creasing, 92–95
Editing commands, 98–102
Close Hole, 100–101
Collapse Face or Edges, 101–102
Extrude Face, 99
Merge Faces, 100
Spin Triangular Face, 102
Split Mesh Face, 98–99
levels of, 84
refine, 94
using Subobjects and Gizmo, manipulation,
83
model documentation
annotation monitor, 315–316
Create Base View, 293–295
Create Detail View, 305–306
Create Projected View, 295–296
Create Section View, 297–300
Detail View Style, 306–309
drafting standards, 314–315
editing components, 311–312406 • Index
Editing View, 309–311
overview of, 293
Section View Style, 300–305
Updating Views, 312–314
monochrome color, 391
Move command, 323–324
solid faces, 200
Move Gizmo, 59–60
N
Named option, 21–22
name, point light, 339
network surfaces, 117–118
NURBS surface, 115
creation of, 141–149
O
Object options, 24, 230
objects
conversion between, 261
materials methods of, 361–363
3D
align, 235
convert to, 255
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
2D
conversion of, 87–90
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
Occluded Edges control, 393
Offset command, 123–124
solid edges, 214–215
solid faces, 203
opacity, 391
Orbiting command, 8, 11
in AutoCAD, 8–10
Origin option, 20
Orthographic option, 266
OSNAP, 27, 332
P
Pan command, 11
Patch command, 122–123
path
3D Polyline as a, 158
helix as a, 158–161
photometric lights, 339, 351
Photometric Web, 349
photometry, 340–341
planar mapping, 364–366
planar surface, 116–117
point light, insert, 339–342
Points option, 230
Polyline Edit command, 158
premade lights, 351
Preset views
AutoCAD, 2–4
Subobjects, 58–59
Presspull command, 50–52
Previous option, 24–25
procedural surfaces, 115
project geometry, 137–139
2 points, 138–139
UCS, 137
view, 138
Properties command, editing solid shapes using,
42–43
Properties palette, 184
for light, 349
Pyramid command, 37
pyramid grip, 40
Q
Quick Properties, 183–184
Quick Properties command, 42–43
R
Rebuild command, 142
refine mesh, 94
reflectivity properties, 375
Remove Crease command, 95
Remove Materials command, 363
Render command, 380
render duration, 383
render environment, and exposure, 384–386
Render in AutoCAD, 380–384
Render Preset, 382
render window, 386
reset mapping, 367Index • 407
Revolve command, 174–175
Revolved Surface command, 87–88
Rewind command, 11
Right-Click Material, 362
Rotate command, 323–324
solid faces, 206–207
Rotate Gizmo, 60, 61
Ruled Surface command, 89
S
scale Gizmo, 60, 61
Scale option, 180
Sculpt command, 131
Sectioning command, 324–325
Section Plane command, 265–276
add jog to existing section plane, 269–271
face method, 265
Generate Section command, 273–276
Live Section command, 271–273
Orthographic option, 266
Section option, 265–266
section plane grips, 268–269
Section Plane Type options, 267–268
Type option, 267
section plane grips, 268–269
Section Plane Type options, 267–268
Section View Style, 300–305
selection cycling, Subobjects, 57–58
self-illumination, 376
Separate command, 217
shadow, 341
Shadow display, 391
shapes, meshes, 82–83
Shell command, 218
Silhouette Edges control, 393
Sky effect, 346
Slice command, 263
snapshot, 325–326
solid edges
Color command, 212–213
Copy command, 213–214
Extract command, 210
Offset command, 214–215
Solid Editing command, overview of, 195–196
solid faces
Color command, 207–208
Copy command, 201
Delete command, 204
Extrude command, 196–197
Move command, 200
Offset command, 203
Rotate command, 206–207
Taper command, 197–198
solids
convert 2D and 3D objects to, 256–259
DELOBJ system variable, 184
editing shapes using
grips, 39–42
Quick Properties and Properties, 42–43
Extract Isolines command, 210–211
Extrude command, 163–166
finding interfere in, 220–221
grips, 182–183
helix as a path, 158–161
history of, 48–49
Imprint command, 212
Loft command, 168–172
overview of, 33, 157–158
properties, 184
quick properties, 183–184
Revolve command, 174–175
Separate command, 217
Shell command, 218
Subobjects and Gizmo, 55–61
Sweep command, 177–180
3D Object Snap, 43–45
3D Polyline as path, 158
using basic shapes, 34–38
using Boolean functions, 47–49
using Presspull command, 50–52
Sphere command, 36–37
sphere grip, 40
spherical mapping, 367
Spin Triangular Face, 102
Split Mesh Face, 98–99
spot light, insert, 342–344
Steering Wheel, 10–12
stretch mode, 130
Subobjects, 55–56, 227–229
culling, 56–57408 • Index
manipulation of meshes using, 83
Preset views, 58–59
selection cycling, 57–58
Subtract command, 47
sunlight effect in 3D model, 345–347
surface. See solids
surfaces
align, 235
in AutoCAD, 92
Blend, Patch, and Offset commands, 120–124
convert 2D and 3D objects to, 259–261
convert to, 255
edit surfaces, 126–133
NURBS surface, 141–149
overview of, 115–116
planar and network, 116–118
project geometry, 137–139
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
Sweep command, using, 177–180
Alignment option, 178–179
Base Point option, 179
Scale option, 180
Twist option, 180
T
Tabulated Surface command, 90
Taper command, solid faces, 197–198
Target Point Light, 342
Thicken command, 256
3D
array, 232–233
creation, 288–290
named views and, 285–288
section in, 263
and viewport creation, 288–290
3D DWF command, 319–320
3D DWF creation, and viewing, 319–326
3D environment
AutoCAD orbiting, 8–10
DUCS command, 26–27
model in, 2–6
recognization of, 1–2
Steering Wheel, 10–12
User Coordinate System (UCS), 16, 19–26
and DUCS, 27
icon, 16–19
visual styles, 12–14
3D mirror, 229–230
3D Modify command, 227
align 3D objects, 235
array in 3D, 232–233
chamfer solid edges, 238–239
fillet solid edges, 236–238
mirror in 3D, 229–230
3D Move command, 228
3D Rotate command, 228
3D Scale command, 229
3D Move command, 227–229
3D objects. See surfaces
3D Object Snap, 43–45
3D Polyline as a path, 158
3D Rotate command, 227–229
3D Scale command, 227–229
3-Point option, 20
tint material, 376–377
Torus command, 38
torus grips, 41
transparency properties, 375
Trim command, 127–129
Turn Height option, 160
Turns option, 160
Twist option, 180
2D objects
conversion of, 87–90
to solids, convert, 256–259
to surfaces, convert, 259–261
2D orthographic views, 3
2 points, using project geometry to,
138–139
Type option, 267
U
UCS. See User Coordinate System
Union command, 47
Untrim command, 129
Up command, 12
Update views, 312–314
User Coordinate System (UCS), 5, 16
command, 19–26Index • 409
and DUCS, 27
icon, manipulation, 16–19
using project geometry to, 137
V
ViewCube, AutoCAD, 4–6
View Label Tab, 304, 309
View option, 23, 230
viewport creation, 288–290
views, using project geometry to, 138
visual styles, 12–14
overview and creation of, 388–394
W
Walk command, 12
WCS. See World Coordinate System
web light, insert, 347–349
Web option, 348–349
Wedge command, 37–38
wedge grip, 40
World Coordinate System (WCS), 5
World option, 23
X
X option, UCS, 20–21
XY options, 230
Y
Y option, UCS, 20–21
YZ options, 230
Z
Z-Axis option, 230
Z-Axis Vector option, 23
Zebra analysis, 148
Zoom command, 11
Z option, UCS, 20–21
ZX options, 230

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