An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers

An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers
اسم المؤلف
Seeram Ramakrishna, Kazutoshi Fujihara, Wee-Eong Teo.Teik-Cheng Lim & Zuwei Ma
التاريخ
2 يونيو 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers
Seeram Ramakrishna, Kazutoshi Fujihara, Wee-Eong Teo.Teik-Cheng Lim & Zuwei Ma
National University of Singapore
Contents
Foreword v
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Preface of Nanofibers 1
1.2. Nanotechnology and Nanofibers 3
1.3. Various Ways to Make Nanofibers 7
1.3.1. Drawing 10
1.3.2. Template Synthesis 12
1.3.3. Phase Separation 13
1.3.4. Self-Assembly 15
1.3.5. Electrospinning 15
1.4. Scope of This Book 18
2. Basics Relevant to Electrospinning 22
2.1. Material Classes 23
2.1.1. Polymers 23
2.1.1.1. Fundamental Classification of Polymer 24
2.1.1.2. Polymer Crystallinity 24
2.1.1.3. Polymer Molecular Weight 26
2.1.1.4. Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) 27
2.1.1.5. Synthetic Polymer 37
2.1.1.6. Natural Polymer 39
2.1.1.7. Copolymer and Polymer Blends 41
2.1.1.8. Electrospun Polymer Fiber 42
2.1.2. Composites 48
2.1.2.1 Composite Reinforcement 49
2.1.2.2 Polymer-Matrix Composite 50
2.1.3 Ceramics 51
2.1.3.1. Crystalline Structure 52
2.1.3.2. Amorphous Structure 53
2.1.3.3. Ceramic Biomaterials 54
2.1.3.4. Nanostructured Ceramics 55
2.1.3.5. Carbon 60
viiviii An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers
2.2. Solution Property 63
2.2.1. Surface Tension 63
2.2.1.1. Effect of Temperature on Surface Tensi on 65
2.2.1.2. Surface Tension of Solvent Mixtures 65
2.2.2. Polymer Solubility 66
2.2.2.1. Effect of Polymer Structure on Solubility 66
2.2.2.2. Gibbs Free Energy 67
2.2.3. Viscosity 69
2.2.3.1. Solvent Effect on Intrinsic Viscosity 71
2.2.3.2. Temperature on Intrinsic Viscosity 72
2.2.3.3. Viscometry 73
2.2.4. Volatility (Evaporation) of Solution 78
2.2.5. Conductivity of Solution 80
2.3. Electrostatics 81
2.3.1. Electric Field 82
2.3.2. Potential Difference and Electric Field Representations 83
2.3.3. Surface Charge of Insulator 84
2.3.4. Field Ionization 85
2.4. Conclusions 86
3. Electrospinning Process 90
3.1. Polymer Solution Parameters 91
3.1.1. Molecular Weight and Solution Viscosity 91
3.1.2. Surface Tension 96
3.1.3. Solution Conductivity 98
3.1.4. Dielectric Effect of Solvent 101
3.2. Processing Conditions 103
3.2.1. Voltage 103
3.2.2. Feedrate 106
3.2.3. Temperature 108
3.2.4. Effect of Collector 108
3.2.5. Diameter of Pipette Orifice / Needle I l l
3.2.6. Distance Between Tip and Collector 112
3.3. Ambient Parameters 113
3.3.1. Humidity 114
3.3.2. Type of Atmosphere 116
3.3.3. Pressure 116
3.4. Melt-Electrospinning 117
3.5. Creation of Different Nanofibers 117
3.5.1. Porous Nanofibers 118
3.5.2. Flattened or Ribbon-Like Fibers 122
3.5.3. Branched Fibers 125Contents ix
3.5.4. Helical Fibers 126
3.5.5. Hollow Nanofibers 127
3.5.6. Fiber With Different Compositions 130
3.6. Uniformity and Productivity of Nanofiber Webs 130
3.6.1. Jet Stability 131
3.6.2. Multiple-Spinning Setup 132
3.7. Mixed Electrospun Fiber Mesh 133
3.8. Patterning 135
3.8.1. Cylinder Collector 135
3.8.2. A Knife Edge Disk 138
3.8.3. An Auxiliary Electrode/Electrical Field 139
3.8.4. Parallel Conducting Collector 142
3.9. Fiber Yarn and Textile 145
3.9.1. Hybrid Fiber Yarns 146
3.9.2. Electrospun Fiber Yarn 147
3.9.3. Twisted Fiber Yarn 148
3.10. Variations to Electrospinning 149
3.10.1. Scanning Tip Electrospinning Source 150
3.10.2. Nanofiber Interconnections Between Microscale Features.. 151
3.10.3. Mass Production Through Needleless Electrospinning 152
3.11. Conclusions 154
4. Modeling of the Electrospinning Process 155
4.0. Nomenclature 155
4.1. Introduction 157
4.2. Preliminaries 158
4.3. Assumptions 161
4.3.1. Jet Representation 161
4.3.2. Modeling Viscoelastic Behavior 162
4.3.3. Coordinate System 167
4.3.4. Liquid Incompressibility 168
4.4. Conservation Relations 168
4.4.1. Conservation of Mass 168
4.4.2. Conservation of Momentum 170
4.4.3. Conservation of Charge 172
4.5. Consideration of Forces 173
4.6. Instability 174
4.7. Results 179
4.8. Future Trends and Challenges 188
4.8.1. Jet Flow With Particles 189
4.8.2. Core-Shell Flow 189
4.8.3. Field-Assisted Flow 190x An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers
4.8.4. Multi-Jet Flow 190
4.8.5. Gas-Assisted Flow 190
4.9. Conclusions 191
5. Characterization 192
5.1. Morphology 193
5.1.1. Fiber Diameter 193
5.1.2. Pore Size and Porosity 199
5.1.3. Surface Contact Angle Measurement 206
5.1.4. Others 209
5.2. Molecular Structure 210
5.2.1. Crystalline Structure 210
5.2.2. Organic Group Detection 225
5.2.3. Others 229
5.3 Mechanical Property 234
5.3.1. Single Nanofiber 234
5.3.2. Nanofiber Yarn 240
5.3.3. Nanofiber Membrane 241
5.4. Conclusions 245
6. Functionalization of Polymer Nanofibers 247
6.1. Polymer Surface Modification 247
6.1.1. Introduction 247
6.1.2. Physical Coating or Blending 248
6.1.3. Graft Copolymerization 250
6.1.3.1. Radiation-Induced Graft Copolymerization 251
6.1.3.2. Plasma-Induced Graft Copolymerization 253
6.1.3.3. Oxidization-Induced Graft Copolymerization 255
6.1.4. Plasma Treatment and Chemical Vapor Deposition 256
6.1.5. Chemical Treatment 257
6.2. Functionalization of Nanofibers for Different Applications 261
6.2.1. Introduction 261
6.2.2. Functionalization of Nanofibers for Affinity Membrane
Application 261
6.2.3. Functionalization of Nanofiber for Tissue Engineering
Scaffold Application 266
6.2.4. Functionalization of Nanofibers for Sensor Application 269
6.2.5. Functionalization of Nanofiber for Protective Cloth
Application 271
6.2.6. Functionalization of Nanofibers for Other Applications 273
6.3. Conclusions 274
7. Potential Applications 275
7.1. Introduction 275
7.2. Affinity Membranes 279Contents xi
7.3. Drug Release 285
7.4. Tissue Scaffolds 291
7.5. Wound Dressing 307
7.6. Filter Media 309
7.7. Chemical and Biological Protective Clothing 311
7.8. Energy and Electrical Application 320
7.9. Sensors 326
7.10. Composite Reinforcement 333
7.11. Conclusions 339
Appendix A Glossary of Terms 341
Appendix B Useful Websites on Electrospinning and Nanofibers 350
Bibliography 352
Index 381
Index
affinity-membrane,20,247,258,261,264, ligand/ligate, 261,262,264,265,268,274,
265,274, 277,279-282 277,279,280,284,330
amorphous, 24,25,27,38,53,60,221,223
Maxwell fluid, 165
biodegradable, modeling, 6,19,157,160-162,167,172,
38,42,45,46,194,195,261,292,293, 173,179,188, 190,191
298 300-302 304 307 molecular weight, 26,38,66-68,70,79,
80,87,91,96,117,122,124,203,211,
chemical vapor deposition, 20,127, 219,222,223,225,279,327
128 248 256 257 morphology, 23,54,55,63,66,69,86,90,
coalescence’ 114 91,98,100-104,111,113,114,117,
conservation relations, 168 124,135,154, 192,193, 209,245,253,
contact angle, 20,205,206,208 261 .267,269, 274,275,293,298,
copolymers, 37,41,42,232,292,298 305,324
crystallinity, 25,66,67,105,210-217,
219,220,222, 223,225,248 nanofiber membrane, 21,133,193,194,
205,211,213,228,241,244,265,283,
electric field
155,160,173,174,190,191,297 nanofiber mesh,
extracellular matrix, 40,45,293,294,299 21,131,132,139,247,261,264-266,
extrusion, 13,131,199,206 268,271
nanofiber web,
glass transition temperature
nanotechnology, 2-6,316
hydrophobic, 41,65,192,206, 208, necking, 25
232,249,328 node, 161,174,176,177,183,184,191
instability, 7,11,19,95,98,101,104,106, perturbation,
191 248 plasma treatment
381382 An Introduction to Electrospinning andNanofibers
porosity, surfactant, 98,101,249
tissue engineering
relative permittivity, 88 tissue engineering scaffold, 6,259,266,
relaxation time, 27,78,89,249 267,274
transconductance, 62
spherulite, 25,26
substrate, 3,61,151,199,203,206,255, viscoelasticity, 77
257,280,296,301,302,307,310 viscosity, 11,17,18,26,43,44,63,66,69-
surface modification
surface tension, 17,18,63-65,79,80,86, volatility
كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net

The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً