Advancements in Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain Technology, and IoT in Higher Education

Advancements in Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain Technology, and IoT in Higher Education
اسم المؤلف
Subhendu Kumar Pani, Kamalakanta Muduli, Sujoy Kumar Jana, Srikanth Bathula, Golam Sarwar Khan
التاريخ
5 أكتوبر 2023
المشاهدات
218
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Advancements in Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain Technology, and IoT in Higher Education
Mitigating the Impact of COVID-19
Edited by Subhendu Kumar Pani, PhD Kamalakanta Muduli, PhD
Sujoy Kumar Jana, PhD Srikanth Bathula, PhD Golam Sarwar Khan, PhD
AAP Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
CONTENTSxiv Contents

  1. Securing Data of Online Learners Using Blockchain Technology 181
    Monika Akkaraboina, Sriya Reddy Kodari, Akhilesh Barve, and
    Kamalakanta Muduli
  2. Tracing the Evolution of Blockchain and Its Implications to
    Higher Education 203
    Anthony Vaz, Akalpita Tendulkar, and Sellappan Palaniappan
    PART III: IoT 227
  3. Challenges and Opportunities of Using IoT in Engineering
    Education: The African Perspective 229
    V. P. Kommula, J. Uziak, M. T. Oladiran, and Z. Tjiparuro
  4. IoT Technologies and Their Applications in Higher Education 261
    Rania T. O. Aljondob, Nadejhda H. M. Nofal, Shaligram Pokharel, and
    Mohammed Arselene Ayari
  5. COVID‑19 and Use of Advanced Technology in the Education:
    Opportunities and Constraints in Brahmaputra Valley, Assam .281
    Amrit Borah and Niranjan Bhattacharjee
    Index .305
    INDEX
    A
    Abstraction ability, 70
    Academic, 85, 229
    endeavors, 219
    proliferation, 297
    research tracking, 86
    standards, 90
    Academician, 297
    Accreditation Board for Engineering and
    Technology (ABET), 246, 252
    Adaptivity, 94
    Administration, 24, 63, 88, 248
    Administrative
    institutional programs, 20
    responsibilities, 18
    Administrators, 14, 18, 32, 57, 142, 199,
    204, 215, 216, 267, 269, 273, 275
    Admissions query resolution chatbot, 21
    Adolescent students learning divisions, 36
    Advanced
    personalized learning, 58
    technology, 10, 17, 24
    Algorithm, 6, 8, 16, 34, 48, 71, 73–75, 137,
    140, 141, 143, 152–154, 165, 166, 168,
    170, 175, 176, 190, 241
    association rule algorithm, 73
    colony clustering algorithm, 73
    cooperative concern algorithm, 73
    mathematical algorithm, 170
    Amazon, 35
    Amelioration, 70
    American Psychology Association (APA),
    40, 49
    Analysis of educational activity (AIEd), 30,
    57
    Analytical abilities, 31
    Anticipation, 94
    Appraisal plans, 173
    Arbitrary speculating, 46
    Aristotle tutor, 58
    Arithmetic information, 36
    Artificial
    education software, 39
    intelligence (AI), 1, 3–15, 17–24, 27–39,
    43, 44, 48, 49, 53–61, 64, 67–77,
    83–88, 90, 91, 95–103, 105, 106,
    108–118, 120–124, 127, 130, 131, 137,
    153, 159, 181, 203, 208, 229, 234, 245,
    261, 263, 277, 281
    acquisition, 7
    adaptive groups formation, 9
    advantages and disadvantages, 6, 7
    assessment, 10
    assisted navigation system, 87
    based digital model and technologies,
    37, 86
    deep integration, 68
    degree programs, 23
    driven programs, 72
    experts, 19
    frameworks, 20, 38
    importance, 109
    in education (AIED), 30, 117
    information visualization, 9
    intelligence tutoring systems, 9
    intelligent content production and
    tutoring systems, 9, 35
    internet lessons, 9
    learner and learning environments, 36, 37
    learning content updates, 9
    modeling, 28
    personalize learning, 9
    research, 7, 8, 23
    science, 4
    smart content, 35
    teaching, 32
    techniques, 6, 91, 96
    technologies, 110
    tools, 86, 123, 124
    tutors, 34
    neural network (ANN), 4, 74
    Artificiality, 3306 Index
    Assessment, 20, 28, 39–41, 90, 96, 106,
    115, 118, 126, 129, 184, 216, 230,
    245–247, 250–252, 268
    Atomicity consistency isolation durability
    (ACID), 142, 143, 156
    Auditing, 213, 214, 216, 223
    Augmented
    reality (AR), 23, 88, 90, 238, 240, 261
    virtual reality (AVR), 240
    Authentic problem solving, 45
    Automated
    lesson readings, 9
    testing, 12
    Automatic
    programming, 14
    temperature control, 90
    Automating management, 86
    Automation, 53, 88, 95, 99, 153, 172, 206
    Autonomy measures, 42
    B
    Bar code, 94
    Bayesian knowledge inference, 90
    Beacon, 110, 111
    Bicycles, 90
    Big data, 23, 68, 73–76, 263
    analysis, 73
    bolsters, 74
    platform, 76
    research, 75
    Binary thoughts, 41
    Bitcoin, 139–141, 144, 145, 155, 159, 160,
    164–167, 174–176, 205–208, 219, 249
    currency, 141
    network, 164, 175
    Bitfinex, 141
    Bitshares, 165
    Blackboard, 29, 49, 235, 247, 249, 250, 254,
    267
    Blending, 42
    Block, 91, 138, 139, 142, 144, 145, 155,
    162, 164–166, 169, 170, 181, 187, 189,
    197, 199, 205, 212, 216
    intervals, 165
    size, 165
    Blockchain, 3, 27, 53, 57, 61, 83, 86, 91,
    95, 99, 102, 103, 105, 112, 135, 137–143,
    145–156, 159–177, 181, 183, 187–191,
    197–200, 203–206, 208, 209, 211–223,
    229, 261, 281, 249
    automating recognition, 86
    consortium blockchain, 166
    cost, 150
    history, 205
    implementation, 152
    integrating blockchains, 149
    network, 138, 141, 160, 162, 166, 170,
    175, 176, 187, 188, 215
    private blockchains, 139, 165, 189
    social transformation strategy and
    management, 149
    taxonomy study, 165
    technical challenges, 175
    technology, 91, 137–139, 143, 146, 147,
    155, 159–162, 164, 166–173, 181, 183,
    187, 198, 203–205, 217, 219
    applications, 172
    attacks, 143
    challenges, 173
    consensus algorithm, 164
    features, 169
    implementation, 189
    practical implication, 171
    working, 162
    Bluetooth, 93, 232
    Botswana International University of Science
    and Technology (BIUST), 249, 252
    Brahmaputra valley, 281, 282, 284–286,
    290, 297, 298, 300
    Brain research, 40
    Bring your own device (BYOD), 55
    Building information modeling (BIM), 276
    Business actors, 20
    Byzantine generals, 164
    C
    Campus assistant, 21
    Capable entertainer, 42, 43
    Carbon footprint, 88, 90
    Career services, 21
    Carnegie lea, 33, 49
    Casper consensus mechanism, 141
    Central database, 88
    Chat rooms, 109, 247
    Chatbots, 13, 55, 101
    Cipher, 143Index 307
    Classroom
    learning, 44, 100, 114, 119
    setting, 38, 107, 270
    teaching, 69
    Clearinghouse, 30
    Closed-circuit television (CCTV), 87, 90, 95
    Cloud computing, 54, 145
    Coaching, 13, 18, 23, 24, 34, 36, 38
    Co-curricular activities, 89
    Coding, 23
    Cognitive
    science, 68
    skills, 55
    Cognizance ability, 70
    Collaboration, 8, 31, 36, 42, 65, 96, 99, 107,
    168, 215, 217, 221, 223, 230, 237, 241,
    244, 247, 254, 275
    Collaborative
    digital reference services, 95
    learning, 91
    research work, 14
    work environment, 87, 91
    Commercial transactions, 105
    Communication
    ability, 31
    breakdown, 130
    Complex
    domain network, 98
    individual capacity, 40
    Compound annual growth rate (CAGR),
    184, 200
    Computational
    framework, 75
    load, 142
    Computer
    aided instructions (CAIs) and learning
    (CAL), 5, 60, 77, 286, 301
    application (CA), 53, 112, 137, 159, 246
    assisted tutoring, 20
    based intelligence, 5, 18, 24
    science, 3, 22, 48, 67, 68, 110, 137, 237,
    245
    vision (CV), 15, 88, 90, 96, 102, 112, 149
    Computerization, 35
    Conceptual standards, 43
    Connection mistakes, 46
    Consensus, 139, 162, 166, 170
    Constructive technology, 58
    Constructivist instructional techniques, 20
    Content
    technologies, 33, 35, 49
    writing, 98
    Conventional
    business, 160, 216
    classroom, 28
    companies, 213
    cycles, 29
    databases, 176
    evaluation levels, 34
    face-to-face education, 96
    framework, 31
    Coronavirus (CoVs), 53, 54, 56, 57, 64, 66,
    83, 84, 86, 99, 100, 102, 103, 182, 184,
    253, 282, 301
    crisis, 57
    disease-19 (COVID-19), 3, 27, 28, 53, 54,
    59, 65–67, 83, 96, 105, 106, 110–116,
    121, 123, 124, 126, 129, 131, 137, 146,
    150, 152, 154, 155, 159, 181, 184, 187,
    195, 203, 204, 214, 229, 230, 236, 240,
    244, 249, 253–255, 261, 263, 267, 270,
    271, 281, 282, 284–289, 295, 297, 298,
    300, 301
    pandemic situation, 53, 56, 57
    Cost-effective, 191, 251, 270, 276
    Council tax, 111
    Course
    management, 18
    pointers, 13
    Coursera, 22, 27, 28
    Creativity plans, 65
    Critical
    abilities, 44
    reflection, 114, 118, 119
    thinking, 5, 28, 31, 32, 39–45, 77, 244
    abilities, 41, 43
    capacities, 41
    model development, 39
    skills, 31
    Criticism, 35, 36, 38, 194, 197
    Cross-disciplinary skills, 19
    Cross-platform data sharing, 137
    Crypto coins, 138
    Cryptocurrency, 144, 155, 160, 162, 164,
    169, 173, 188, 203, 205–209, 212–214,
    219, 249
    adoption, 208308 Index
    Cryptography, 164, 168, 176, 190, 220
    Curriculum, 12–14, 28, 30, 31, 48, 49, 55,
    65, 71, 149, 185, 216, 217, 219, 220, 230,
    245, 252, 275, 288
    design, 230
    practices, 30, 31
    Customized learning material, 35
    Cyberattacks, 143
    Cybersecurity, 152
    D
    Data
    accessibility, 115, 122
    acquisition, 204, 231
    analytics, 86, 91, 99, 103
    connectivity, 122
    driven AI and projects, 10, 19, 29
    humongous volume, 74
    interpretation, 14
    management, 92, 173, 219, 221
    mining (DM), 13, 60, 90, 96
    plans, 122
    profiles, 21
    representation, 5
    tampering, 170
    visualization, 21
    Decentralization, 169, 207
    Decision-making, 7, 45, 64, 77, 100, 170, 173
    Deduction abilities, 44
    Deep learning (DL), 5, 6, 19, 68, 70, 73, 74,
    90, 97, 99, 101–103, 271
    Degree
    level learners, 29
    management, 172
    Delegated proof of stake (DPOS), 165
    Democratic curriculum design, 55
    Demographics, 55, 71
    Derrick campus, 105, 115, 128
    Diagnostic tool, 15
    Digital
    accounting, 203, 205, 206, 213, 216, 221
    agreement, 172
    assets, 160, 169
    assistance, 7
    blockchain-based virtual identity, 151
    campus, 230, 248
    currency, 145, 159, 166, 205, 207, 208
    data, 143, 150, 240
    dimensions, 64
    documents, 148
    environment, 151
    facilitators, 23
    handshake, 152, 154
    human mentors, 23
    interfaces, 9
    knowledge sharing infrastructure, 287
    learning, 31
    library gate, 95
    on-off variables, 5
    platform, 28, 29, 66, 67, 286
    podium, 87
    resources, 84, 100, 101, 233, 287
    security, 152
    signature, 146, 152, 164, 190
    solutions, 100
    teachers, 55, 57
    technological change, 95
    technologies, 32, 99, 102
    tools, 87, 93
    transactions, 152
    transcripts, 159, 219
    translations, 33
    wearables sensors, 89
    world, 55, 63, 141, 160, 300
    xerox machine, 95
    Digitalization, 1, 135, 192, 199
    Diksha, 287
    Distance
    learners, 72
    learning, 55, 70, 72, 77, 108, 217, 240,
    249, 265, 296
    Distributed
    apps (DApps), 211–213, 223
    consensus, 160
    ledger technology (DLT), 203, 205, 206,
    213, 220, 223
    Do it yourself (DIY), 240
    Domain
    knowledge, 16
    module, 12, 13
    Double-spending attacks, 175
    Dropbox, 113
    Dynamic
    classroom learning experience, 44
    design, 10
    learning system, 54, 65Index 309
    Dyscalculia, 38
    Dyslexia, 38
    Dystopian state, 299
    E
    e-books, 95, 288, 289
    e-certificates, 174
    e-certification, 176
    e-commerce, 146
    Economic
    recovery, 131
    rewards, 20
    Edge computing, 96
    e-document delivery services, 95
    Educating
    1.0, 63
    2.0, 63
    3.0, 63
    4.0 (E4.0), 54–56, 62–65, 77
    abilities, 44
    AI systems, 17
    industry, 28, 29
    sector, 6, 34, 53, 54, 56, 66, 74, 75, 102,
    137, 154, 156, 159–161, 167–171, 173,
    176, 203–205, 215, 217, 238, 263, 273,
    277, 282, 295
    artificial intelligence (AI), 9
    system, 5, 11, 15, 24, 32, 34, 38, 49, 54,
    56, 58, 66–68, 71, 72, 74, 76, 89, 91,
    93, 95, 99, 103, 108–111, 113, 116,
    119, 121, 123–125, 129, 131, 159, 160,
    167, 182, 184, 217, 264–266, 274, 275,
    288, 290, 300
    AI interactive model, 10
    intelligent interactive system, 12, 14
    Educational
    apps, 122
    artificial intelligence (EAI), 68
    complex, 88
    courses (EC), 17, 60
    curriculum, 6
    era, 49
    frameworks, 20
    industry, 28
    institutions (EI), 17, 18, 21, 29, 53, 60,
    92, 167–169, 172, 184, 240, 281, 283,
    289, 295, 298
    organization, 94
    programs, 35, 39, 43, 235, 236
    projects, 22
    records, 167, 168, 173
    responsibilities, 18
    sector, 27, 49, 76, 88, 172, 282, 285, 298,
    300
    services, 182
    settings, 9, 243
    skills, 18
    software, 22
    system, 7, 20, 30, 87, 167, 172, 177, 237
    Educators organizational tasks assistance, 18
    academic discipline, 22
    AI and digital skills, 19
    gaining environments knowledge, 23
    student support, 21
    e-governance, 249
    e-journals, 95
    e-knowledge universe, 53, 55
    e-lab challenges, 250
    e-learners, 184
    e-learning, 10, 61, 84, 85, 87, 181–187,
    189–200, 229, 230, 233, 235, 238, 251,
    255, 282, 288
    communication improvement, 186
    flexibility, 186
    platforms, 10, 183, 186, 187, 189, 192,
    197–199
    opportunities, 195
    strength, 193
    threats, 196
    weakness, 194
    prediction hype curve, 61
    self-paced learning, 185
    upskilling, 186
    Electronic
    board services, 95
    coaching, 10
    device, 115, 121, 123
    medium, 287
    product code (EPC), 232, 255
    technology, 108
    tool, 123
    Elementary education, 28
    e-library, 94
    e-mail, 3, 27, 53, 83, 137, 147, 159, 181,
    203, 229, 261, 281
    Emotion detection, 102310 Index
    Emotional health, 88
    Employability skills, 55
    Energetic classroom experience, 44
    Energy-saving alternative, 165
    Engineering Council of South Africa
    (ECSA), 246, 252
    Engineering
    education, 229, 230, 233–236, 239–248,
    253–255
    programs, 229, 230, 233, 244, 247, 271
    teaching, 239
    internet of things (IoT)
    e‑Pathshala, 288
    Epistemology, 40
    e-portfolios, 171
    Equilibrium, 298
    e-reading materials, 55
    e-resources, 95, 234, 288
    Ether (Eth), 205, 212, 213
    Ethereum, 173, 205, 207–209, 211–213, 223
    blockchain, 209, 211–213
    virtual machine (EVM), 211, 212, 223
    European credit transfer and accumulation
    system (ECTS), 169, 172, 177
    Evaluation methods, 102
    Exam-training device, 9
    Expert programs, 4
    F
    Face recognition, 33, 96
    Face-to-face
    classes, 28
    classroom delivery, 123
    information delivery, 113
    interaction, 117, 119
    learning, 271
    mode, 113, 131
    Facial recognition system, 102
    Facility and resource management, 90
    Field
    participation, 106
    training, 297
    Fifth generation (5G), 54, 113, 217
    Fiji, 105, 106, 112–114, 121, 122, 131
    Islands, 105, 106, 114, 121, 122
    National University (FNU), 105, 106,
    108, 110, 112–114, 123, 124, 126,
    129–131
    Moodle, 126, 131
    Financial
    assistance, 21
    services, 214
    transactional frauds, 56
    transactions, 163, 206, 207
    First-line interplay, 18
    Formative methodology, 40
    Framework, 5–7, 10–12, 28, 30, 32, 35–40,
    46, 58, 90, 91, 138, 167, 169, 181, 182,
    186, 187, 190, 197, 198, 200, 220, 230,
    239, 245, 248
    Fraudulent network, 144
    Fruitful critical mastermind, 41
    Fuzzy information, 70
    G
    Gamification, 35, 239
    General education (GE), 244
    Generally accepted accounting principles
    (GAAP), 213
    Geofencing, 89
    Geographic information system (GIS), 105,
    130, 295
    Gesture recognition technology, 23
    Global
    classrooms, 12, 55
    education sector, 55
    market, 160
    positioning system (GPS), 92, 232, 268,
    269
    valuation, 141, 155
    Globalization 4.0, 64
    Golden digital touch, 54
    Google
    classroom, 59
    co-lab, 9
    doc, 183
    Meet, 29, 49, 59, 254
    Playstore, 288
    trends, 59
    Grade point average (GPA), 21, 44
    Grammar, 12, 69, 114
    Graphical processing units (GPUs), 58
    Green
    ecosystem, 87
    library building, 94Index 311
    H
    Hadoop, 75, 76
    MapReduce, 75
    Hardware-software facilities, 84
    Hassle fixing, 14
    Healthy learning atmosphere, 10
    Herbal language comprehension, 14
    Herculean task goals, 64
    Higher education, 3, 4, 17, 19–21, 24, 27,
    53, 68, 83, 105, 108, 110, 111, 116, 120,
    122, 123, 125, 131, 137, 156, 159–162,
    168, 169, 172, 173, 176, 177, 181, 196,
    203, 215, 221, 229, 230, 237, 238, 246,
    261, 281, 287, 289
    industry, 123, 131
    institutions (HEI), 21, 86, 168, 172
    Hijack, 145
    Human
    computer
    interaction, 75
    interfaces, 77
    intellect measurements, 29
    intelligence (HI), 3, 5, 31, 49, 56, 64, 109
    learning, 71
    resources, 296
    Humanoid characters, 37
    Human-to-human connection, 48
    Humiliation, 38
    Hype cure and cycle, 61
    Hyper-personalization, 10
    Hypo-propositions, 45
    I
    Identity (ID), 111, 137, 151–153, 168, 171,
    207, 214, 219, 232, 234
    Image recognition, 69, 70
    Immune system, 76, 282
    Immutability, 166, 170
    Impartus, 29
    Implications, 167, 198, 218
    badges, 219
    file storage, 220
    governance, 220
    lessons and courses, 220
    libraries, 221
    publishing, 221
    student records, 218
    transcripts and certificates, 219
    Improved relational abilities, 44
    Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), 22, 23
    Industrial revolution 4 (IR4), 32, 49, 55
    Inferred limitations, 47
    Inferring, 94
    Information
    communication technology (ICT), 8, 90,
    124, 130, 131, 233, 235, 236, 246–248,
    284–286, 289, 290, 295–301
    driven AI, 5, 44
    immutability, 166
    mining, 15
    states, 39
    technology (IT), 4, 5, 22, 53, 56, 83, 112,
    237, 251
    Infrastructural quality, 230
    Initial coin offering (ICO), 207, 223
    Innovation capacity, 93
    Innovative
    concepts, 85
    solutions, 100
    teaching methods, 92
    technological solutions, 108, 127
    technology, 68, 169
    thinking, 12
    Institute of Chartered Accountants in
    England and Wales (ICAEW), 206
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 59, 61
    Institutional programs, 20
    Instructor-student interaction, 16
    Intellectual
    advancements, 216, 223
    fitness problems, 21
    frameworks, 4
    Intelligent
    campus (iCampus), 238
    computer, 9
    correction, 69
    evaluation, 73
    guidance, 73
    interactive system, 16
    learning, 70, 74
    lighting system, 92
    machines, 5
    recognition, 73
    sensors, 87
    system, 6, 9, 13, 29312 Index
    teaching systems, 90, 96
    tutoring systems (ITS), 4, 9, 35, 55, 105
    203
    universities, 28
    Interactive
    conversations, 14
    learning, 66, 87, 95, 233, 266
    model, 11
    Interdisciplinary machine, 6
    Internal revenue service (IRS), 213
    International
    disaster, 66
    network, 95
    Telecommunications Union (ITU), 265
    Internet, 11, 20, 54, 63, 84, 87, 93, 95, 103,
    108, 112, 113, 122, 124, 126, 128–130,
    137–139, 145–147, 150, 154–156, 163,
    172, 182–184, 186, 194, 195, 198, 200,
    229–232, 234–236, 238, 242, 244, 247,
    250, 251, 253–255, 261, 262, 265, 277,
    282–284, 287, 290–292, 294–297, 299
    of things (IoT), 3, 11, 27, 53, 57, 83, 89,
    95, 103, 105, 137, 159, 167, 181, 183,
    200, 203, 227, 229–250, 252–255,
    261–277, 281
    adoption, 263, 265, 273
    assessment challenges, 246
    benefits, 267
    challenges, 269, 277
    engineering curriculum and courses,
    244
    infrastructure, 230, 231, 254
    perspectives, 277
    technologies, 89, 230, 231, 233, 234,
    237, 239, 240, 269
    penetration, 282, 284, 294
    protocol (IP), 145, 151, 156, 232, 242
    service provider (ISP), 145
    subscribers, 293–295
    Interpersonal
    interaction, 68
    natures, 41
    Introduction translator, 33
    J
    Jacking, 145
    time jacking, 145
    K
    , Key drivers, 56
    Kingdom’s data, 75
    Knowledge
    accumulation, 43
    delivery, 262
    inference system, 90
    space theory, 39
    L
    Language translation, 101, 238
    Large
    information ecosystem, 95
    scale projects, 4
    Latency, 175
    Learner
    centric model, 54
    oriented approach, 57
    Learning
    achievement, 32
    activities, 14, 71, 90, 159, 168, 176, 215,
    223
    adaptive learning, 90, 96, 101, 177
    analysis, 90
    analytics, 55, 77, 90, 96, 101, 275
    arena, 27, 107
    behaviors, 73, 94, 102
    blended learning, 70, 105, 109, 113–117,
    119–121, 131, 204, 239, 240
    boundaries, 49
    capacity, 9, 43
    commonwealth, 109
    concepts, 68
    creative learning, 14
    culture, 107
    data, 91, 189
    device learning, 22
    disabilities, 13, 38
    dreambox learning, 39
    effective learning, 113, 114, 275
    environment, 36, 55, 72, 77, 95, 108, 237,
    248, 254, 266, 267, 273–275
    experience, 10, 23, 28, 63, 75, 85, 86, 109
    experimental learning, 94, 242
    external classroom learning, 93
    gaps, 34
    handicaps, 38Index 313
    inabilities, 38
    inquiry-based learning, 14
    management system (LMS), 29, 49, 93,
    103, 235, 247, 273
    method, 12, 31
    mode, 39, 116
    objectives, 29, 194
    opportunities, 68
    outcomes, 14, 32, 90, 96, 118–120, 123,
    170, 172, 173, 241, 246, 268, 270
    plans, 49, 65
    platforms, 181–184, 186, 187, 189, 190,
    192, 195–200
    practice, 13, 127
    proficiency, 72
    quality, 13
    sector, 75
    spectrum, 107
    stages, 35
    standards, 35
    support materials, 234
    Ledger, 162, 176
    Legislators, 204, 215
    Legitimate thinking, 41
    Lesson plans, 65
    Library
    building, 94
    management system, 94
    marketing, 95
    website, 94
    Life-long learning platform, 12
    Linux development community, 20
    Local area network (LAN), 232
    Lockdown, 54, 110, 115–118, 120–124,
    126, 128, 147, 195, 283, 295
    Logical cycle abilities, 45
    Long-haul memory maintenance, 39
    M
    Machine
    and DL algorithm, 73
    intelligence (MI), 263, 277
    learning (ML), 5, 8, 21, 44, 57, 68, 73,
    90, 91, 96–99, 101, 103, 109, 110, 234
    mastering, 14
    Manmade disasters, 53
    Manodarpan, 287, 288
    Mapping, 55
    MapReduce, 75, 76
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    (MIT), 64, 171, 251, 254
    Massive open online courses (MOOC), 22,
    24, 94
    Medical
    diagnosis, 56
    teaching, 69
    Mental cycles, 40
    Messenger, 113, 130
    Meta data IR software, 94
    Metacognition, 40, 41
    Metric standards, 149
    Microloans, 21
    Microsoft Team (MS Team), 29, 33, 49, 59
    Minimal peer supervision, 31
    Mobile learning, 54, 61, 63, 77, 236, 248
    Modderfontein Smart City Initiative, 249
    Modernization, 71, 72, 95
    Momentum, 19, 34, 182
    Monetary development, 8
    Mongo DB, 76
    Moodle, 29, 49, 113, 115, 126, 128–130,
    235, 247
    Multi-languages education, 217
    Multimedia, 87, 92, 193, 231, 234, 238, 253
    N
    Nation one digital platform, 287
    National
    Repository of Open Educational
    Resources (NROER), 287, 288
    Research Foundation, 23
    Statistical Organization (NSO), 285, 290,
    291
    Natural
    language
    comprehension, 15
    processing (NLP), 6, 15, 68, 69, 73, 77,
    90, 97–99, 101–103
    master entertainer, 42
    Near-field communication (NFC), 92, 232,
    266
    Network
    exploration and optimization 4 java
    (Neo4j), 142, 143
    statistics, 145314 Index
    topological points, 139
    topology, 160
    Neural
    nets, 60
    network, 4, 5, 15, 73, 92, 96
    Neuromorphic computing, 19
    Neurons, 5, 139
    Nextex learning, 35
    Non-blockchain mythology, 149
    Non-coaching responsibilities, 18
    Non-concurrent study model, 11
    Non-conventional energy, 88, 90
    Non-digital hardware architectures, 19
    Non-financial
    applications, 161
    areas, 160
    sector, 167
    Non-intellectual states, 40
    Nonverbal
    correspondence, 37
    cues, 23
    Normal logical machines, 5
    O
    Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), 251
    Omnipresent, 54
    Online
    databases, 54
    education, 65, 96, 182, 196, 288
    educational institutes, 96
    exam, 102
    learners, 137, 139, 193
    learning, 28, 34, 35, 55, 65, 67, 109, 112,
    114, 119–121, 123, 147, 156, 168, 181,
    182, 184, 185, 189, 190, 194, 196, 198,
    199, 204, 238, 241, 243, 271
    platform, 35, 189
    sites, 28
    platform, 28, 131
    Open
    communication, 117, 118
    educational tools, 13
    online courses, 22
    source communities and mechanism, 20,
    142
    Operational computational models, 56
    Organic neural networks, 4, 5
    P
    Pandemic, 28, 29, 32, 34, 49, 53, 56, 57,
    64–67, 76, 83, 84, 86, 88, 96, 99, 100,
    103, 105, 110, 113, 123, 130, 131, 148,
    150, 156, 181, 182, 184, 195, 204, 234,
    236, 237, 240, 244, 249, 253, 254, 261,
    263, 282, 283, 285–287, 292, 295, 297,
    298, 300
    positive and negative impacts, 66, 67
    Part-time employment, 131
    Pattern recognition approaches, 15
    Payment gateways, 203, 206, 207
    Pedagogic model system, 4
    Pedagogical
    methods, 22
    models, 9
    module, 12, 13
    principles, 68, 76
    system, 75
    tools, 94
    Pedagogy, 13, 14, 20, 24, 53, 55, 64, 66, 70,
    71, 230, 238, 239, 245
    Peer learning, 77, 270
    Performance monitoring, 86
    Personal
    computer (PC), 37, 121, 184, 194, 197,
    199, 212, 223, 236
    digital assistant (PDA), 236, 239
    Personalization, 32, 83, 95
    Personalized
    experience, 85
    intelligent teaching, 90, 96
    learning, 9, 22, 58, 68, 70, 71, 75, 96, 101
    experience, 58
    plan, 57
    space, 68, 71
    Phishing, 144, 145, 151
    Physical
    classrooms, 54, 100
    science, 297, 298
    Physiological responses, 92
    Plagiarism, 94, 98, 195
    Planning, 14, 62, 64, 97, 197, 221, 254, 272,
    292
    Policymakers, 30, 91
    Positive ramifications, 76
    Potential peers reviewers, 99
    Power of work, 164Index 315
    PowerPoint, 147, 235, 267
    Practical thinking skills, 31
    Pradhan Mantri eVIDYA (PM e-VIDYA),
    287, 301
    Predictive analytics, 21, 98, 101
    Pre-medical degree, 21
    Primary economic activity, 290
    Problem-solving, 7, 12, 15, 16, 28, 31, 32,
    44–48, 109
    agent, 48
    approaches, 28
    exercises, 44
    model, 44
    system, 31
    techniques, 15, 46, 48
    Profiling, 20
    Project-based learning (PBL), 234, 239, 242
    Proof of,
    stake (PoS), 165, 177
    work (PoW), 164, 165, 167
    Pseudonymous applications, 151
    Psychological
    cycles, 40
    health, 89
    propensity, 41
    requirements, 36
    Public
    blockchain networks, 139
    key cryptography, 174
    Publication terms, 59–61
    Python, 9
    Q
    Quality
    standards, 173
    training, 8
    Quantitative problem, 47
    Quick response (QR), 211, 223, 232, 268,
    286, 287
    R
    Radio frequency (RF), 92, 103, 232, 266, 268
    identification (RFID), 89, 92, 94, 103,
    232, 252, 268
    Rainwater harvesting, 88, 90
    Rajiv Gandhi Computer Literacy Program
    (RGCLP), 286
    Rational thinking, 5
    Real-life adventures, 107
    Real-time
    analysis, 96
    application, 151
    engagement, 89
    problems, 10
    Real-world problems, 56, 71
    Reasoning, 6, 14, 15, 29, 31, 40, 43, 46, 68,
    70, 94
    Record book, 160
    Recycling, 88, 90
    Reflecting, 31, 42
    Remote learners, 74
    Renewable energy installation, 90
    Research
    database, 61
    implication, 106
    trend analysis, 59
    Residential programs, 58
    Resource
    allocation, 91
    sharing, 91
    Ripple, 165, 207
    cryptocurrency (XRP), 141, 156
    Risk evaluation, 21
    Robots, 8, 55, 58, 68, 112
    Rot memory, 64
    Routing, 144, 145
    Rural
    areas, 126, 282–285, 292, 299
    communities, 129
    S
    Scholar, 4, 10, 21–23, 43
    School of Building and Civil Engineering
    (SBCE), 105, 106, 114, 125, 128, 130
    Schooling, 19, 71, 75, 76, 195, 196, 199, 222
    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), 29, 245
    ScienceDirect, 61, 264
    Secondary education, 28, 286
    Securities Commission (SC), 37, 209, 223
    Security, 89, 90, 102, 137, 139, 142, 144,
    146–148, 151, 152, 156, 167, 170, 175,
    176, 181–183, 186, 187, 189, 197–200,
    216, 220, 223, 234, 238, 246, 248, 254,
    263, 268, 272316 Index
    Self-adaptive environment, 68
    Self-assessing environment, 70
    Self-authoritative tool, 40, 41
    Self-guideline, 40
    Self-improve identity, 153
    Self-learning, 31, 68, 198
    Self-paced learning, 101, 184, 192
    Semantic
    blockchain technology, 153
    concept, 154
    recognition, 72
    Sensing, 94, 105, 295
    Sensor
    based lighting systems and reporting, 88
    89
    network, 87
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS
    282, 283
    Short message service (SMS), 94, 247
    Small private online courses (SPOC), 94
    Smart
    assistants, 18
    buildings, 10, 249, 276
    campus, 21, 84, 87–91, 110, 230, 255
    smart classroom, 87, 92
    smart energy, 88, 249
    smart health, 87, 88
    smart hostel, 88
    smart office, 87, 88
    smart transport, 87
    card, 94
    cities, 249
    content, 9, 35
    contracts, 188, 189, 203, 205, 206,
    209–217, 220–222
    devices, 93, 128, 131, 231, 252, 272
    education, 92
    smart governance, 95
    smart library, 94, 95
    smart pedagogy, 94
    smart teaching, 93
    guidance, 33
    hardware and software systems, 85
    laundry, 88
    learning, 23, 93, 176, 230, 236, 248
    library, 94, 95
    services, 95
    staff, 95
    lighting, 90
    medical facilities, 88
    parking, 90, 267
    readers, 95
    research, 84, 96–98
    content, 97
    context, 98
    process, 97
    schools, 96
    smoke sensor, 88
    transportation systems, 249
    universities, 39, 49, 83–85, 87, 100, 103,
    238, 248
    , users, 95
    water system management, 88
    Social
    ), connections, 44
    development, 44
    distancing, 28, 66, 99, 112, 195
    interactions, 23
    media, 54, 68, 94, 146, 151, 267, 272
    networking service (SNS), 236
    networks, 94, 113
    science, 297
    Socio-economic fronts, 283
    Software
    engineering, 5, 245
    libraries, 58
    Solitary
    academic plan, 10
    meeting, 46
    Sony global education, 148
    Sorting, 14
    Sound budget, 94
    Speech recognition ability, 70
    Stakeholder, 76, 77, 87, 88, 90, 217, 253,
    273, 289, 299
    engagement, 57
    Standard
    classroom setting, 38
    operating procedures, 215
    Standardization, 68, 74, 204, 217, 274
    Stockholders, 7
    Strength weakness opportunity threat
    (SWOT), 184, 191, 192, 198–200
    analysis, 191, 192, 198–200
    Student
    academic performance prediction, 94Index 317
    assessments, 173
    behavior, 21
    capability evaluation records, 168
    financial affordability, 122
    learning
    ability, 49
    experience, 114
    research methodology and findings,
    114, 115
    Substance administrations, 35
    Superior learning interfaces, 9
    Supervision, 14, 145
    Supreme amateur, 42
    Sustainable
    development, 171
    growth, 182
    Swayam, 288, 289, 301
    Sybil, 144–146
    Synthetic intelligence, 12, 21, 24
    T
    Teacher-learning experience, 124
    survey analysis and discussion, 127
    Teaching
    annual refreshers program in teaching
    (ARPIT), 296
    learning (TL), 58, 63, 297–300
    evaluation (TLE), 53, 55, 56, 58, 64,
    76, 77, 84, 92, 176, 297, 298
    module, 24
    TechCrunch, 149
    Technical
    education training and system, 4, 12
    framework, 58
    Techno-driven learning, 63
    Technological
    advancement, 34
    era, 106
    innovation, 14, 24, 262, 265
    revolution, 146
    Technology
    based education, 108, 113
    drive, 55
    driven teaching-learning–evaluation, 54
    growth, 61
    Techno-savvy, 63
    Telecommunication, 95
    Tertiary
    education, 205, 216, 238
    institutions, 204, 234, 250, 253
    Times of India (TOI), 283
    Traditional
    classrooms, 71, 109
    educational system, 34
    investigation method, 298
    learning, 30, 48, 184
    experience, 30
    methodology, 48
    manual systems, 216
    Traffic pattern monitoring, 90
    Transaction, 138–140, 147, 148, 150, 152,
    160, 162, 164–166, 170, 175, 187, 188,
    190, 208, 213, 215, 216, 219
    per second (tps), 175
    Transparent integration, 167
    Trust, identity, privacy, protection, safety,
    and security (TIPPSS), 234
    U
    Ubiquitous learning, 236
    U-learning, 236
    Ultra-modern system learning, 19
    Unequivocal presentation, 43
    Unique node list (UNL), 165
    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and
    Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 57
    United States (US), 58, 75, 141, 207, 213,
    234, 251
    United States Dollar (USD), 141, 144
    United States of America (USA), 110, 111,
    131, 149
    University
    admissions officials, 19
    curricula, 31
    curriculum design, 28
    Southern California (USC), 37
    User interface module, 16
    V
    Valuable problem‑solving strategy, 45
    Velocity, 76
    Viber, 113, 126, 130
    Video conferencing, 35, 268318 Index
    Virtual
    accounts, 145
    assistant, 68, 111
    characters, 37
    classrooms, 57, 126, 230, 255
    communication, 111
    conditions, 37
    environments, 92
    facilitators, 36
    labs, 96, 248
    learning, 129, 195, 240
    mentor, 13
    network, 139
    patients, 70
    personalized assistants, 96
    platforms, 108, 130
    reality (VR), 21, 49, 54, 55, 68, 72, 77,
    90, 107, 240
    space, 70
    study hall, 11
    teaching platforms, 127
    training, 124, 130
    world, 49, 281, 283
    Vision, 5, 14, 32, 57, 155, 287
    Visual contact, 270
    Voice recognition, 70
    Volatile-uncertain-complex-ambiguous
    (VUCA), 53
    W
    Water harvesting, 90
    Web-based learning stage, 39
    Webcasts, 109
    Webex, 29, 254
    Website, 171
    analysis, 151
    WhatsApp, 113, 126
    Wide area network (WAN), 232
    Wireless
    fidelity (Wi-Fi), 89, 94, 124, 129, 131,
    232, 268
    sensor networks (WSN), 232
    technology, 93
    Wood’s problem-solving model, 46
    World Health Organization (WHO), 282
    World wide web (WWW), 205
    X
    Xplore research database, 59
    Y
    YouTube, 126, 287
    Z
    Zerocash, 160
    Zoom, 29, 59, 112, 115, 117–119, 121, 123,
    126, 130, 254, 295

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