Additive Manufacturing of Metals – The Technology, Materials, Design and Production

Additive Manufacturing of Metals – The Technology, Materials, Design and Production
اسم المؤلف
Li Yang , Keng Hsu , Brian Baughman , Donald Godfrey , Francisco Medina , Mamballykalathil Menon , Soeren Wiener
التاريخ
27 يناير 2024
المشاهدات
222
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Additive Manufacturing of Metals – The Technology, Materials, Design and Production
Li Yang , Keng Hsu , Brian Baughman , Donald Godfrey , Francisco Medina , Mamballykalathil Menon , Soeren Wiener
Contents
1 Introduction to Additive Manufacturing . 1
1.1 Brief History of AM Development 1
1.2 Distinctions and Benefits of Additive Manufacturing 5
1.3 Additive Manufacturing Technologies . 6
1.3.1 Material Extrusion . 6
1.3.2 Vat Polymerization 15
1.3.3 Material Jetting . 17
1.3.4 Metal Additive Manufacturing Overview . 18
1.3.5 Sheet Lamination . 19
1.3.6 Powder Bed Fusion 21
1.3.7 Binder Jetting 22
1.3.8 Directed Energy Deposition . 23
1.4 Developmental Additive Manufacturing Technologies . 24
1.4.1 Continuous Liquid Interface Production 24
1.4.2 Directed Acoustic Energy Metal Filament Modeling . 26
References 29
2 Additive Manufacturing Process Chain 33
2.1 Generation of Computer-Aided Design Model of Design . 33
2.2 Conversion of CAD Model into AM Machine Acceptable
Format . 34
2.3 CAD Model Preparation 35
2.3.1 STL File Preparation . 37
2.3.2 Support Generation 37
2.3.3 Build File Preparation 37
2.4 Machine Setup . 39
2.5 Build Removal . 41
2.6 Post-processing . 42
v3 Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Design
Considerations for Additive Manufacturing 45
3.1 Introduction . 45
3.2 Specimen Manufacturing . 46
3.3 Design Considerations . 46
3.4 Grain Size . 47
3.5 Tensile Properties . 48
3.6 Fatigue Properties . 52
3.7 Creep 56
3.8 Fracture Tolerance 56
3.9 Influence of Dispersoids 57
3.10 Electron Beam Technology 58
3.11 Conclusions . 60
References 61
4 Electron Beam Technology 63
4.1 Additive Manufacturing 63
4.1.1 Powder Bed Fusion 63
4.1.2 Electron Beam Melting . 64
4.1.3 Materials 66
4.1.4 Powder Metallurgy Requirements for EBM . 67
4.2 Powder Manufacturing . 68
4.2.1 Gas Atomization 68
4.2.2 Induction Plasma Atomization 69
4.2.3 Armstrong Process 69
4.2.4 Hydride-Dehydride 71
4.3 Powder Characterization 72
4.4 Parameter Development 73
4.5 Build Setup and Process 76
References 77
5 Design for Additive Manufacturing . 81
5.1 Overview . 81
5.2 Material Considerations 83
5.3 General Design Consideration for AM . 88
5.4 Support Structure Designs 97
5.5 Design Consideration for Powder Bed Fusion Metal AM . 103
5.6 Design for Lightweight Structures 120
5.6.1 Geometric Design for Lightweight Structures 122
5.6.2 Material/Process Design for Lightweight Structures . 147
References 152
vi Contents6 The Additive Manufacturing Supply Chain 161
6.1 Production Components Using Metals Powder
Bed Fusion 161
6.1.1 Overview of Current State . 161
6.1.2 Steps Toward a Production Process 163
6.1.3 Future Considerations of Metals Additive
Manufacturing of Production Parts 163
6.2 Logistics Changes as a Result of 3D Printing 164
6.2.1 Examples of Additive Manufacturing Transforming
the Supply Chain . 165
6.3 The Next 20 Years—Where the Metal 3D Printing Supply
Base Is Headed . 166
6.3.1 From the Perspective of Components
and Production . 166
6.3.2 From the Perspective of Logistics . 166
References 16

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