A Textbook of Production Technology

A Textbook of Production Technology
اسم المؤلف
Dr. P.C. SHARMA
التاريخ
7 أبريل 2022
المشاهدات
377
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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A Textbook of Production Technology
(Manufacturing Processes)
Dr. P.C. SHARMA
B.Sc. Engg. (Mech.) (Hons.)
M.Sc. Engg. (Mech.) (Distinction)
Ph.D. (I.I.T. Delhi)
LMISME, MISTE
Ex. Principal, SUSCET,
Tangori (Mohali), Punjab
Formerly from
Punjab Engineering College,
Chandigarh
CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION 1–10
    1.1. Introduction 1
    1.2. Classification of Manufacturing Processes 1
    1.3. Various Kinds of Production 3
    1.4. Computers in Manufacturing 3
    1.5. Selection of a Manufacturing Process 4
    PROBLEMS 10
  2. ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND HEAT TREATMENT 11–72
    2.1. Engineering Materials 11
    2.2. General Material Property Definitions 11
    2.3. The Iron – Carbon Phase Diagram 12
    2.4. Heat Treatment Definitions 19
    2.5. Ferrous Metals 21
    2.6. Heat Treatment of Steels 32
    2.7. Hardenability 44
    2.8. Designation of Steel (Indian Standard) 47
    2.9. Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys 49
    PROBLEMS 68
  3. THE CASTING PROCESS 73–211
    3.1. General 73
    3.2. Sand -Mould Casting 74
    3.3. Patterns 84
    3.4. Moulding Materials 93
    3.5. Cores 103
    3.6. Gates and Risers 111
    3.7. Sand Casting Defects 131
    3.8. Design of Castings 135
    3.9. Miscellaneous Casting Processes 139
    3.10. Cleaning and Finishing of Castings 174
    3.11. Inspection and Testing of Castings 176
    3.12. Repairing and Salvaging Defective Castings 180
    3.13. Choice of Casting Method 181
    3.14. Comparison of Casting Process with Other Processes 182
    3.15. Cupola 182
    3.16. Some More Casting Processes 191
    3.17. Foundry furnaces 195
    3.18. Pouring and Handling equipment 200
    PROBLEMS 202
  4. MECHANICAL WORKING OF METALS 212–321
    4.1. General 212
    (v)4.2. Rolling 221
    4.3. Forging 235
    4.4. Extrusion 265
    4.5. Pipe and Tube Manufacturing 272
    4.6. Hot Drawing and Cupping 275
    4.7. Drawing of Wire, Rod and Tube 278
    4.8. Sheet Metal Working or Press Working of Sheet Metals 284
    4.9. Hobbing, Riveting and Staking 313
    4.10. Shot Peening 313
    4.11. Characteristics of Metal Forming Processes 318
    PROBLEMS 318
  5. THE WELDING PROCESS 322–404
    5.1. General 322
    5.2. Gas Welding 329
    5.3. Electric Arc Welding 339
    5.4. Resistance Welding 363
    5.5. Miscellaneous Welding Processes 369
    5.6. Liquid-Solid-State Bonding 378
    5.7. Weldability 384
    5.8. Testing and Inspection of Welded Joints 387
    5.9. Welding Cost 392
    5.10. Design Aspects 394
    5.11. Hard Facing of Metals 397
    5.12. Characteristics of Welding Processes 398
    PROBLEMS 400
  6. THE MACHINING PROCESS 405–426
    6.1. General 405
    6.2. The Mechanics of Chip Formation 405
    6.3. Single Point Cutting Tool 405
    6.4. Methods of Machining 413
    6.5. Types of Chips 413
    6.6. Principal Elements of Metal Machining 415
    6.7. Thermal aspects of chip formation 419
    6.8. Tool Wear and Tool Life 422
    6.9. Machineability 424
    PROBLEMS 426
  7. CUTTING TOOL MATERIALS AND CUTTING FLUIDS 427–444
    7.1. General 427
    7.2 Cutting Tool Materials 428
    7.3. Cutting Fluids 437
    PROBLEMS 442
  8. MACHINE TOOLS 445–564
    8.0. General 445
    (vi)8.1. Lathe Machines 449
    PROBLEMS 472
    8.2. Shapers, Planers and Slotters 473
    PROBLEMS 487
    8.3. Drilling Machines 487
    PROBLEMS 499
    8.4. Reaming 499
    PROBLEMS 502
    8.5. Boring 502
    PROBLEMS 508
    8.6. Milling 508
    PROBLEMS 530
    8.7. Grinding Operation 531
    PROBLEMS 552
    8.8. Broaching Machines 553
    PROBLEMS 557
    8.9. Sawing Machines 557
    PROBLEMS 563
  9. UNCONVENTIONAL MANUFACTURING METHODS 565–600
    9.1. General 565
    9.2. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) 568
    9.3. Electro-chemical Machining (ECM) 573
    9.4. Electrolytic Grinding or
    Electro-chemical Grinding (ECG) 576
    9.5. Chemical Milling 579
    9.6. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) 581
    9.7. Use of High Energy Densities for Machining 583
    9.8. High Energy Rate Forming (HERF, HVF) 586
    9.9. Some other Non-traditional Machining Methods (NTMM) 594
    PROBLEMS 598
  10. POWDER METALLURGY 601–625
    10.1. Introduction 601
    10.2. Advantages and Limitations of P/M 601
    10.3. Manufacture of Metal Powders 603
    10.4. Mixing and Blending 609
    10.5. Compacting (Briquetting) 609
    10.6. Sintering 614
    10.7. Secondary Operations 615
    10.8. Recent Trends in Powder Metallurgy 619
    10.9. Properties of Powder Metallurgy Parts 621
    10.10. Applications of P/M Parts 621
    10.11. Designing the P/M Parts for Production 622
    10.12. Comparison of Powder Metallurgy with Other Processes 623
    PROBLEMS 623
    (vii)11. PROCESSING OF PLASTICS 626–649
    11.1. General 626
    11.2. Polymers 626
    11.3. Polymerization 626
    11.4. Additions to Polymers 627
    11.5. Plastics 628
    11.6. Processing of Thermoplastic Plastics 630
    11.7. Processing of Thermosetting Plastics 633
    11.8. Casting of Plastics 634
    11.9. Machining of Plastics 635
    11.10. Other Processing Methods for Plastics 636
    11.11. Welding of Plastics 638
    11.12. Design of Plastic Parts 641
    11.13. Basic Principles of Design of Moulds for Plastic Parts 644
    PROBLEMS 648
  11. SPECIAL PROCESSING METHODS 650–674
    12.1. Hot Machining 650
    12.2. Unit Heads 651
    12.3. Plastic Tooling 652
    12.4. Electro – Forming 653
    12.5. Surface Cleaning and Surface Treatments 655
    12.6. Adhesive Bonds 666
    12.7. Surface Coatings for Tooling 669
    12.8. Fine Blanking 671
    12.9. Counter-blanking 672
    12.10. Nosing 673
    PROBLEMS 673
  12. CERAMIC MATERIALS AND THEIR PROCESSING 675–687
    13.1. General 675
    13.2. Classification of Ceramics 675
    13.3. Properties of Ceramics 676
    13.4. Processing of Ceramics 677
    13.5. Product Applications 679
    13.6. Enamels 681
    13.7. Glass 681
    13.8. Design Considerations of Ceramic Products 686
    PROBLEMS 687
  13. COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND THEIR PROCESSING 688–702
    14.1. General 688
    14.2. Types of Composite Materials 688
    14.3. Production of Composite Structures 696
    14.4. Machining, Cutting and Joining of Composites 700
    PROBLEMS 701
  14. TRACER CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLS 703–712
    15.1. General 703
    (viii)15.2. Mechanical Copying Machines 704
    15.3. Hydraulic Tracing Devices 706
    15.4. Electric Tracing Systems 711
    15.5. Automatic Tracing 712
    PROBLEMS 712
  15. NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLS 713–726
    16.1. General 713
    16.2. Working of NC Machine Tools 714
    16.3. Classification of NC Machines 716
    16.4. Programming for NC Machines 718
    16.5. Methods of Listing the Co-ordinates of Points in NC System 720
    16.6. Applications of NC Machines 720
    16.7. Advantages and Disadvantages of NC Machines 721
    16.8. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) and Direct Numerical Control (DNC) 722
    16.9. Machining Centre 724
    16.10. Adaptive Control 725
    PROBLEMS 725
  16. SURFACE FINISHING PROCESSES 727–739
    17.1 Introduction 727
    17.2 Surface Finishing Processes 729
    17.2.1. Diamond Turning and Boring 729
    17.2.2. Grinding 729
    17.2.3. Lapping 730
    17.2.4. Honing 732
    17.2.5. Buffing 734
    17.2.6. Barrel Tumbling 734
    17.2.7. Barrel Rolling 735
    17.2.8. Super Finishing 736
    17.2.9. Burnishing 736
    17.2.10. Powder Coating 737
    17.2.11. Polishing 738
    PROBLEMS 739
    APPENDIX–I 740–745
    APPENDIX–II : Machining Variables and Related Relations 746–758
    APPENDIX–III 759–810
    Problems from Competitive Examinations & Question Papers (GATE, IES, IAS)
    APPENDIX–IV: Additional Material 811–827
    INDEX 828–833
    NDEX
    828
    A
    Abrasives, 531
    – Coated, 546
    Abrasive Machining 551
    Abrasive Jet Machining, AJM, 594
    Additives, 95
    Adhesive Bonds, 666
    Aging, 21
    Agglomerated materials, 689
    Aluminium and its alloys, 50
    Anti-friction alloys, 58
    Anisotropy, 11
    Annealing, 20
    Angle of Repose, 82
    Austenitic Steel, 29
    B
    Barrel Tumbling 734
    Barrel rolling 735
    Bars and Gaggers, 80
    Babbit Metals, 59
    Bainite, 35
    Bell metal, 56
    Bending, 304
    Binders, 94
    Bonding materials, 533
    Boring, 502
    Boring Machines, 502
    Boring Mills, 469
    Boring Tools 507
    Brass, 54
    Brazing, 379
    – Methods, 381
    – Filler Metals, 380
    Brittleness, 11
    Broaching Machines, 553
    – Types of, 554
    – Drive, 556
    – Size of, 556
    – Advantages, 557
    – Limitations, 557
    Bronze, 55
    – Phosphor, 56
    – Silicon, 56
    – Manganese, 56
    – Aluminium, 56
    – Beryllium, 57
    Buffing 734
    Burnishing 736
    C
    Case Hardening, 20, 38
    Cast Iron, 21
    – Alloy, 23
    – Chilled, 23
    – Ductile, 23
    – Effect of alloying elements on, 24
    – Gray, 21
    – Heat treatment of, 25
    – Malleable, 22
    – Meehanite, 24
    – White, 22
    Casting Process, 73, 820
    – Advantages, 73
    – Applications, 73
    – Classification of, 74
    – General, 73
    Cast Steels, 32
    Casting Yield, 820
    Cemented Carbides, 68
    Centreless grinding, 541
    Ceramic Mould casting, 172
    Centrifugal Casting, 163
    Centrifuge Casting, 165
    Ceramic material and their processing, 675
    Chaplets, 110
    Cheek, 81
    Chemical Milling, CHM, 579
    Chemical Vapour Deposition, CVD, 670
    Choice of Casting Methods, 181
    Cleaning and Finishing of Castings, 174
    Classification of Manufacturing Processes, 1
    Coining, 312
    CIP 613Index 829
    Cold Shortness, 12
    Cold Welding, 180
    Cold Working, 12, 214
    Composite materials and their processing, 688
    Computers in Manufacturing, 3
    Continuous Casting, 173
    Continuous extrusion, 270
    Copper and its alloys, 54
    Cores, 103
    – Finishing and Coating of, 109
    – Types of, 109
    Core Baking, 105
    Core-box, 104
    Core Dryer, 105
    Core Manufacture, 104
    Counter Blanking, 672
    Critical Points, 13
    Cutting Fluids, 437, 820, 821
    Cutting Tool Materials, 427
    – Plain Carbon Steel, 428
    – Alloy Tool Steels, 429
    – H.S.S. 429
    – Non Ferrous Cast alloys, 431
    – Cemented Carbides, 432
    – Ceramics, 435
    – Cermets, 435
    – Diamonds, 436
    – Cubic Boron Nitride, 436
    – UCON, 436
    – Sialon, 437
    – Coronite 437
    Cutting Die, 291, 293
    Cupola, 182
    Cyaniding, 20, 42
    Cylindrical grinding, 539
    D
    Damping Capacity, 12
    Deep Drawing, 301
    Deep Hole Drilling, 497
    Design of Castings, 135
    Designation of Steel, 47
    Designation of Cutting Tools, 407
    – ASA, 407
    – ORS, 411
    Diffusion Annealing, 33
    Diffusion Coatings, 671
    Diffusion Welding, 374
    Dividing Heads, 521
    – Types of, 521
    Die–Casting, 139
    – Product Applications, 140
    – Limitations of, 141
    – Machines, 141
    – Hot Chamber, 143
    – Cold Chamber, 144
    – Design of, 146
    – Design of Dies for, 148
    – Die Materials, 152
    – Recent Trends in, 156
    Directional Solidification, 117
    Drilling Machines, 487, 491
    Drilling Tools, 488
    – Core drills, 490
    Ductility, 11
    Dynapak Machine 593
    E
    EBW, 375
    Eff-set method, 192
    Elasticity, 11
    Elastic Recovery, 284
    Electric Arc Welding, 339
    – Power Sources, 340
    – Electrodes, 343
    – Types of, 348
    – Carbon, Arc, 349
    – SMAW, 349
    – FCAW, 352
    – GTAW (TIG), 352
    – GMAW (MIG), 353
    – MAG, 355
    – SAW, 356
    – Atomic Hydrogen, 357
    – ESW, 357830 A Textbook of Production Technology
    – EGW, 358
    – PAW, 358
    – Stud, 359
    Electric Arc Cutting, 361
    Electron Beam Machining, 583
    Electro-Chemical Deburring, 579
    Electro-Chemical Honing, 578
    Electro-Chemical Grinding, 576
    Electro-Chemical Machining, 573
    Electro-Discharge Grinding, 572
    Electro-Discharge Machining, 568
    – Wire Cut, 571
    – PMEDM, 600
    Electro-Forming, 653
    Electro-magnetic Casting, 194
    Electrolytic Polishing, 658
    Embossing, 312
    Embrittlement, 12
    Enamels, 681
    Engineering Materials, 11
    Extrusion, 265
    – Hot, 265
    – Direct, 265
    – Indirect, 266
    – Ratio, 267
    – Machines for, 267
    – Cold, 267
    – Continuous, 270
    – Side, 270
    – Advantages of, 269
    – Helical 271
    – Explosive 272
    – Drawbacks of, 269
    Explosive Welding, 373
    F
    Ferritic Steel, 31
    Fine Blanking, 671
    Filament Winding 698
    Flame Hardening, 21, 39
    Flaskless Moulding process, 193
    Flow-off, 125
    Flow Turning, 311
    Flow Welding, 373
    Forging, 235
    – Basic Operations, 237
    – Processes, 238
    – Hammers, 238
    – Open Die, 241
    – Closed Die, 242
    – Drop, 243
    – Press, 245
    – Machine (Upset), 248
    – Roll, 251
    – Rotary, 252
    – Trimming and Straightening of, 252
    – Defects in, 254
    – Cleaning and finishing of, 255
    – Metallurgy of, 256
    – Heat Treatment of, 256
    – Cold, 258
    – New Trends in, 259
    Forgeability, 253
    Forge Welding, 369
    Friction Welding, 370
    Full annealing, 20
    Full Mould Casting, 172
    Foundry furnaces 195
    G
    Gates, 115, 126
    Gating System, 112
    Gatorizing, 263
    German Silver, 62
    Graphite Mould Casting, 191
    Glass, 681
    Grain growth, 128
    Grinding, 53
    Greeep-feed, 815
    Grinding Machines, 539
    Grinding Ratio, 539
    Grinding Wheels, 534
    – Dressing and Truing of, 538
    Gun Metal, 56Index 831
    H
    Hardness, 12
    Hard facing of Metals, 397
    Hardening and Tempering of Steels, 34
    Hand Moulding Process, 78
    Hastealloy, 63
    Heat Treatment of Steels, 32
    Helical extrusion, 271
    Hydrogen embrittlement, 12
    High Energy Rate Forming, HERF, 586
    – Explosive Forming, 586
    – Electro-Hydraulic Forming, 589
    – Electro-Magnetic Forming, 590
    High Velocity Forming, HVF, 591
    – Petro-forging, 592
    – Dynapak, 593
    Hot Die forging, 260
    Hot drawing and Cupping, 275
    Hobbing, 313
    Homogeneity, 11
    Honing 732
    Hot Isostatic Pressing, HIP, 264, 619
    Hot Machining, 650
    Hot Working 12, 217
    Hydro-Mechanical forming, 308
    Hydrostatic Wire extrusion, 281
    High Speed Grinding 551
    I
    Inconel, 62
    Incoloy, 62
    Induction Hardening, 21
    Induction Welding, 369
    Incremental Forging, 264
    Invar, 62
    Ion Beam Machining, IBM, 597
    Inspection and Testing of Castings, 176
    Ion Plantation, 671
    Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram, 12
    Isothermal Annealing, 33
    Isothermal Forging, 260
    Isotropy, 11
    J
    Jig Borer, 506
    Jiggering, 678
    K
    Kevlar, 702
    Killed Steel, 32
    K–Monel, 62
    Kyon 444
    L
    Lapping 730
    Laminates, 698
    Laser Beam Machining, 584
    Laser Beam Welding, 376
    Lathe Machines, 449
    – Engine Lathe, 450
    – Lathe Operations, 449
    – Turret Lathes, 467
    – Tracer Lathes, 468
    – Vertical Turret Lathes, 468
    – High Production Lathes, 469
    – Gap lathe, 469
    Lederburitic Steel, 29
    Liquid forging, 262
    Liquid-Solid State bonding, 378
    Lost Wax Method, 166
    M
    Machineability, 12, 424
    Machine Moulding, 81
    Machining Process, 405
    Machine Tools, 445
    – Classification of, 445, 821
    Magnesium and its alloys, 53
    Malleability, 12
    Martensite, 19, 35
    Martensitic Steel, 31
    MAPP gas welding, 337
    Measurement of temperature in cutting Zone
    420
    Mercast Process, 170
    Mechanical working of metals, 212
    – Advantages, 212832 A Textbook of Production Technology
    – Classification, 214
    Mechanics of Chip Formation, 405
    Metal Spinning, 309
    Metallization, 180
    Metal Injection Moulding, 621
    Methods of Indexing, 522
    – Direct, 522
    – Simple, 522
    – Compound, 523
    – Differential, 524
    Monel Metal, 62
    Moulding Sand, Properties 98
    Moulding Materials, 93
    Mould Surface Coatings, 96
    Milling, 508
    – of Helical grooves, 815
    – Cam, 817
    – Thread, 818
    Milling Machines, 509
    – Types of, 510
    Milling Cutters, 513
    – Types of, 513
    Milling Operations, 518
    N
    Nickle and its alloys, 60
    Nickle Maraging Steels 72
    Nichrome, 62
    Nimonics, 62
    Normalising, 20
    Nitriding, 21, 41
    Nosing, 673
    Nucleation, 128
    Numerically controlled machine tools 713
    O
    Oblique Cutting, 413
    Orthogonal Cutting, 413
    Orbital Forging, 263
    Oxy-acetylene flame cutting, 338
    P
    Patterns, 84
    – Materials, 85
    – Finishing of, 87
    – Allowances, 87
    – Types of, 89
    – Colour Scheme for, 92
    Physical Vapour Deposition, PVD, 671
    Permanent Mould Casting, 157
    Pearlitic Steel, 128
    Petro-Forging, 592
    Pig Iron, 21
    Pilgering process, 277
    Pipe and Tube Manufacture, 272
    Planers, 481
    – Principal parts of, 481
    – Types of, 483
    – Size of, 484
    – Drive, 484
    Planing and Shaping Tools, 485
    Plaster Mould Casting, 171
    Plasticity, 11
    Plasma Arc Machining, 585
    Plastic Tooling, 652
    Pouring Basin, 114
    Polishing, 738
    Powder Forging, 261
    Powder Metallurgy, 601
    – Basic Steps of, 601
    – Advantages and limitations, 601
    – Metal Powders, 603
    – Metal Powder Characteristics, 606
    – Pre-alloyed and Pre-coated powders, 608
    – Mixing and Blending, 609
    – Compacting, 609
    – Sintering, 614
    – Presintering, 615
    – Secondary Operations, 615
    – Recent trends in, 619
    – Properties of P/M parts, 621
    – Applications of P/M Parts 621
    – Design of P/M parts, 622
    Pouring and Handling Equipment 200
    Precision Investment Casting, 166
    Presses, 286
    Press Operations, 284
    Press Selection, 290
    Press Brake, 306Index 833
    Press Working Dies, 291
    – Cutting, 291, 293
    – Forming, 294
    – Simple, 294
    – Compound, 294
    – Combination, 294
    – Progressive, 295
    – Transfer, 295
    – Multiple, 295
    Principal elements of metal machining, 415
    Pressure gas welding, PGW, 337
    Process annealing, 20, 33
    Processing of Plastics, 626, 821
    – Polymers, 626
    – Polymerisation, 626
    – Additives to Polymers, 627
    – Plastics, 628
    – Types of Plastics, 628
    – Properties of Plastics, 629
    – Injection Moulding, 630
    – Extrusion, 631
    – Sheet Forming Process, 632
    – Compression Moulding, 633
    – Transfer Moulding, 633
    – Casting of Plastics, 634
    – Machining of Plastics, 635
    – Calendering, 636
    – Rotational Moulding, 637
    – Blow Moulding, 637
    – RIM, 637
    – Welding, 638
    – Design of Plastic parts, 641
    Powder Coating 737
    Pultrusion, 698
    Q
    Quenching, 20
    R
    Radial Drilling Machine, 495
    Reaming, 499
    Red Shortness, 12
    Redrawing, 302
    Refractories, 679
    Refractory Metals, 63
    Resistance Welding, 363
    – RSW, 363
    – RSEW, 366
    – RPW, 366
    – Butt, 367
    – Upset Welding, 367
    – Flash Butt, 368
    – Percussion Butt, 368
    Repairing of Castings, 179
    Rimmed Steel, 33
    Risers, 116
    Riveting, 313
    Rod drawing, 278
    Roll forming, 274, 307
    Rolling, 221
    – Mechanism of, 223
    – Mills, 224
    – Ring, 230
    – Cold, 231
    Rolling Millcontrol 231
    Rolling defects 232
    RTM, 697
    Rubber-Hydroform Process, 308
    Rubber-Press forming, 307
    Runners, 114
    S
    Sand, 93
    – Types of, 93
    – Properties of, 98
    – Testing of, 100
    Sand Casting Defects, 131
    Sand Mould Casting, 74
    – Types of, 75
    – Comparison of, 77
    Sawing Machines, 557
    Semi-Centrifugal Casting, 165
    Semi-Killed Steel, 32
    Selection of a manufacturing process, 4
    Semi-Steel, 32
    Sheet metal working, 284
    Shell Moulding, 168
    Shot Peening, 313
    Shapers, 473
    – Types of, 473834 A Textbook of Production Technology
    – Horizontal, 474
    – Drive of, 476
    – Size, 479
    – Advantages of, 479
    – Vertical, 479
    Side extrusion, 270
    Single point cutting tool, 405
    Soldering, 383
    Soldiers, 81
    Sorbite, 35
    Slotters, 480
    – Types of, 480
    – Size of, 480
    – Drive of, 480
    Slush Casting, 161
    Snap flask moulding process, 193
    Special Grinding Machines, 544
    Spheroidizing, 34
    Sprue, 114
    Sprue base, 114
    Stack Moulding, 93
    Staking, 313
    Steels, 26
    Stiffness, 12
    Stellite, 64
    Stress relieving, 20
    Stretch forming, 309
    Super-Plastic Forging, 264
    Surface Coatings, 669
    Surface Cleaning and Surface Treatment, 655
    Surface Grinding, 544
    Super Finishing, 733
    T
    Tandem Wire Drawing, 281
    Tempering, 44
    Testing and Inspection of Welded Joints, 387
    Thermal Aspects of Chip Formation, 419
    Thermit Welding, 376
    Titanium alloys, 63
    Toughness, 12
    Tool Life, 422
    Tool Wear, 422
    Tool Designation, 411
    Troostite, 35
    Tube Drawing, 282
    Tube Manufacture, 272
    Tracer Controlled Machine Tools, 703–712
    Types of Chips, 413
    U
    Ultra-Sonic Cleaning, 657
    Ultra-Sonic Machining, 581
    Ultra-Sonic Welding, 372
    Unit Heads, 651
    Unconventional Machining Methods, 565–600
    – Classification of, 566
    – Process Selection, 566
    – Limitations of, 567
    V
    Vacuum Casting of Metals, 192
    Vacuum moulding process, 191
    Vacuum Shielded Welding of Metals, 360
    Vertical Shapers, 479
    Vittalium, 63
    W
    Warm Forging, 260
    Water Jet Machining, 596
    Welding Cost, 392
    Welding Defects, 387
    Weldability, 384
    Welding Metallurgy, 389
    Welding Process, 322
    – Applications, 322
    – Advantages, 322
    – Classification, 323
    – Types of Weld Joints, 324
    – Types of Welds, 325
    – Edge Preparation, 325
    – Welding Positions, 327
    – Cleaning the Joint and Fluxing, 328
    – Gas Welding, 329
    – Electric Arc, 339
    – Design aspects,394
    Welding of Plastics, 638
    Wire Drawing, 279
    Wrought Iron, 25
    Z
    Zinc and its Alloys

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