Welding – Skills, Processes and Practices for Entry-Level Welders

Welding – Skills, Processes and Practices for Entry-Level Welders
اسم المؤلف
Larry Jeffus, Lawrence Bower
التاريخ
26 يونيو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Welding – Skills, Processes and Practices for Entry-Level Welders
Book 2
• Gas Metal Arc Welding
• Flux Cored Arc Welding
First Edition
Larry Jeffus, Lawrence Bower
Brief Contents
Preface . viii
AWS Acknowledgment . xi
Acknowledgments . xii
About the Authors . xiii
Chapter 1 Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment,
Setup, and Operation . 1
Chapter 2 Gas Metal Arc Welding . 55
Chapter 3 Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment,
Setup, and Operation . 113
Chapter 4 Flux Cored Arc Welding . 143
Appendix 197
Glossary . 199
Index
Contents
Preface . viii
AWS Acknowledgment xi
Acknowledgments xii
About the Authors xiii
Chapter 1 Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment, Setup,
and Operation 1
Introduction 2
Metal Transfer 4
Axial Spray Metal Transfer 5
Globular Transfer 7
Pulsed-Spray Transfer: GMAW-P 7
Shielding Gases for Spray or
Pulsed-spray Transfer 9
Buried-arc Transfer . 9
Short-circuiting Transfer: GMAW-S . 11
Filler Metal Specifications 13
Filler Metal Selection . 14
Stainless Steel Electrodes 15
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys . 15
Aluminum Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes 20
Wire Melting and Deposition Rates 20
Welding Power Supplies . 21
Speed of the Wire Electrode 23
Power Supplies for Short-circuiting Transfer . 23
Inductance 25
Molten Weld Pool Control 25
Shielding Gas 26
Power Settings . 29
Gun Manipulation . 30
Travel Speed . 30
Electrode Extension 30
Gun Angle 31
Equipment 33
Power Source 34
Electrode (Wire) Feed Unit . 37
Push-type Feed System . 37
vPull-type Feed System 38
Push-pull-type Feed System 39
Linear Electrode Feed System . 39
Spool Gun 40
Electrode Conduit . 41
Welding Gun 41
Spot Welding 42
Face, Eye, and Ear Protection . 44
Face and Eye Protection . 44
Ear Protection 48
General Work Clothing 49
Special Protective Clothing . 51
Hand Protection 51
Body Protection 52
Waist and Lap Protection 52
Arm Protection . 52
Leg and Foot Protection . 52
Chapter 2 Gas Metal Arc Welding . 55
Introduction . 56
Setup 57
Gas Density and Flow Rates 65
Arc-voltage and Amperage Characteristics . 68
Electrode Extension 70
Welding Gun Angle 73
Effect of Shielding Gas on Welding 74
Practices 77
Metal Preparation . 78
Flat Position, 1G and 1F Positions 79
Vertical Up 3G and 3F Positions . 84
Vertical Down 3G and 3F Positions . 86
Horizontal 2G and 2F Positions 89
Overhead 4G and 4F Positions . 91
Axial Spray Transfer . 94
Chapter 3 Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment,
Setup, and Operation 113
Introduction 114
Principles of Operation . 114
Equipment . 117
Power Supply . 117
Guns . 117
Smoke Extraction Nozzles . 119
Electrode Feed 119
vi CONTENTSAdvantages . 119
High Deposition Rate 119
Minimum Electrode Waste 119
Narrow Groove Angle . 120
Minimum Precleaning . 120
All-position Welding 120
Flexibility 120
High Quality 120
Excellent Control . 121
Limitations . 121
Electrodes 121
Methods of Manufacturing 121
Electrode Cast and Helix . 124
Flux 125
Flux Cored Steel Electrode Identification 128
Metal Cored Steel Electrode Identification . 130
Care of Flux Core Electrodes . 130
Shielding Gas . 131
Welding Techniques . 132
Gun Angle . 132
Forehand/Perpendicular/Backhand Techniques 134
Travel Speed 136
Mode of Metal Transfer 137
Electrode Extension . 138
Porosity . 138
Chapter 4 Flux Cored Arc Welding .143
Introduction 144
Practices . 145
Flat-position Welds . 151
Square-groove Welds 152
V-Groove and Bevel-Groove Welds . 154
Root Pass 155
Filler Pass . 156
Cover Pass . 157
Fillet Welds . 160
Vertical Welds . 164
Horizontal Welds . 170
Overhead-position Welds . 175
Thin-gauge Welding . 180
Appendix 197
Glossary
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