Welding Processes Handbook

Welding Processes Handbook
اسم المؤلف
Klas Weman
التاريخ
17 أغسطس 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Welding Processes Handbook
Klas Weman
Contents
Preface . ix
ARC WELDING.AN OVERVIEW 1
History of welding 1
Terminology 3
Distortion 7
The welding arc . 8
Shielding gases . 12
Power sources . 13
GAS WELDING 26
Equipment 26
TIG WELDING . 31
A description of the method .31
Equipment 31
Consumables . 35
PLASMA WELDING . 37
A description of the method .37
Equipment 39
Gases for plasma welding 40
The advantages of the plasma method 40
MIGIMAG WELDING . 41
Equipment 41
Setting of welding parameters . 44
Consumables . 47
Weld quality .60
METAL ARC WELDING WITH COATED ELECTRODES 63
Description of the method 63
Equipment 63
Electrodes 64
Weld defects 67
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING .68
Description . 68
Equipment 69
Filler material 71
The effect of the welding parameters . 73
Productivity improvements . 75
Joint preparation 77
Risks of weld defects .77
PRESSURE WELDING METHODS .80
Resistance welding 80
Friction welding 86
High-frequency welding 89
Ultrasonic welding 89
Explosion welding 90
Magnetic pulse welding 91
Cold pressure welding 92
Diffusion welding 92
OTHER METHODS OF WELDING 93
Electroslag welding . 93
Electrogas welding . 94
Stud welding . 94
Laser welding . 95
Electron beam welding . 99
Thermite welding 101
CUTTING METHODS 102
Thermal cutting 102
Water jet cutting . 105
Thermal gouging 106
SURFACE CLADDING METHODS . 108
Cladding to provide a corrosion-resistant layer 108
Hardfacing 108
Thermal spraying . 110
MECHANISATION AND ROBOT WELDING 114
Narrow-gap welding 114
Arc welding using robots 116
Mechanised TIG welding 120
Quality requirements for mechanised welding .122
SOLDERING AND BRAZING 124
General 124
Soft soldering 127
Brazing . 129
THE WELDABILITY OF STEEL 132
Carbon steels .132
High-strength and extra high-strength steels . 136
Austenitic steels . 139
DESIGN OF WELDED COMPONENTS 148
Introduction 148
Symbolic representation of welds on drawings 148
Welding classes . 151
Residual stresses in welds. weld distortions 152
Strength considerations of welded joints 163
Analysis of statically loaded welded joints 163
Welded structures subjected to fatigue loads 166
References . 170
16 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT .171
Quality requirements for welding (EN 729) 172
Welding coordination (EN 719) 173
Specification and approval of welding procedures (EN 288) 175
Approval testing of welders (EN 287) . 180
Non-destructive testing 182
17 WELDING COSTS 184
Welding cost calculations . 184
Some welding cost concepts 184
Cost calculation 186
Mechanisation. automation. robot welding
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