Welding – Principles and Applications

Welding – Principles and Applications
اسم المؤلف
Larry Jeffus
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29 مايو 2021
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Welding – Principles and Applications
Seventh Edition
Larry Jeffus
Preface Xii
Features of the Text .xv
Acknowledgments .xvii
About the Author Xix
Index of Experiments and
Practices .xxi
Section 1
Introduction
Chapter 1 Introduction to Welding
Introduction 4
Welding Defined .5
Uses of Welding 6
Welding and Cutting Processes 8
Oxyacetylene Welding, Brazing, and Cutting .10
Thermal Cutting Processes 11
Occupational Opportunities in Welding 13
Training for Welding Occupations .14
Experiments and Practices 15
Welding Video Series 17
Metric Units 17
Summary .19
Welding at the Bottom of the World 20
Review .22
Chapter 2 Safety in Welding
Introduction 24
Burn Classification 24
Face, Eye, and Ear Protection .26
Respiratory Protection 28
Ventilation 31
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) 32
General Work Clothing 32
Special Protective Clothing .33
Handling and Storing Cylinders .34
Fire Protection 35
Equipment Maintenance .37
Work Area .38
Hand Tools .38
Electrical Safety .40
Electrical Safety Systems .40
Voltage Warnings .42
Extension Cords .42
Safety Rules for Portable Electric Tools 43
Metal Cutting Machines .45
Material Handling .46
Ladder Safety 47
Summary .48
Heads Up on Safety: Use Proper Head
and Eye Protection .49
Review .50
SECTION 2
SHIELDED METAL ARC
WELDING
Chapter 3 Shielded Metal Arc Equipment,
Setup, and Operation
Introduction 55
Welding Current .55
Electrical Measurement .56
SMA Welding Arc Temperature and Heat 56
Types of Welding Power .57
Open Circuit Voltage 58
Operating Voltage .59
Arc Blow .59
Types of Power Sources 60
Generator- and Alternator-Type Welders .63
Converting AC to DC .65
Duty Cycle 65
Welder Accessories .66
Equipment Setup 68
Summary .69
Experienced Welders Make a Difficult
Offshore Weld Run Smoothly 70
Review .71
Chapter 4 Shielded Metal Arc Welding
of Plate
Introduction 73
Effect of Too High or Too Low Current Settings .75
Electrode Size and Heat 76
Arc Length 77
Electrode Angle .78
Electrode Manipulation 80
Positioning of the Welder and the Plate .82
Practice Welds 82
Stringer Beads .83
Square Butt Joint .86
Edge Weld .89
Contents
ivContents v
Outside Corner Joint 93
Lap Joint .96
Tee Joint 99
Summary .102
Keeping Shipshape through Underwater
Welding 102
Review .105
Chapter 5 Shielded Metal Arc Welding
of Pipe
Introduction 106
Pipe and Tubing 107
Preparation and Fit-Up .111
Practice Welds 112
1G Horizontal Rolled Position 116
2G Vertical Fixed Position 120
5G Horizontal Fixed Position .122
6G 45° Inclined Position .123
Summary .125
Orbital Welding Helps NASA’s X-34
Rocket Soar 125
Review .127
Chapter 6 Advanced Shielded Metal Arc
Welding
Introduction 129
Root Pass .129
Hot Pass 134
Filler Pass 136
Cover Pass .138
Plate Preparation .139
Preparing Specimens for Testing 141
Restarting a Weld Bead .142
Preheating and Postheating 144
Poor Fit-Up .152
Summary .154
Artists Honored at International Institute
of Welding (IIW) Assembly .155
Review .157
SECTION 3
CUTTING AND GOUGING
Chapter 7 Flame Cutting
Introduction 161
Metals Cut by the Oxyfuel Process .161
Eye Protection for Flame Cutting .162
Cutting Torches 162
Cutting Tips 163
Oxyfuel Cutting, Setup, and Operation 169
Hand Cutting 171
Layout .174
Selecting the Correct Tip and Setting
the Pressure 175
The Chemistry of a Cut 176
The Physics of a Cut .177
Plate Cutting .179
Cutting Table 180
Torch Guides 180
Distortion 182
Cutting Applications .183
Pipe Cutting 184
Summary .187
Oxygen Cutting 188
Review .189
Chapter 8 Plasma Arc Cutting
Introduction 190
Plasma .192
Plasma Torch 192
Power and Gas Cables 194
Power Requirements .196
Compressed Air 196
Heat Input .197
Distortion 197
Applications 198
Machine Cutting .203
Manual Cutting .205
Safety .205
Straight Cuts .206
Plasma Arc Gouging .209
Cutting Round Stock 210
Summary .210
Weld Shop Keeps U.S. Coast Guard Ready 211
Review .213
Chapter 9 Related Cutting Processes
Introduction 214
Laser Beam Cutting (LBC) and Laser
Beam Drilling (LBD) 215
Lasers 215
Applications 217
Air Carbon Arc Cutting 219
Manual Torch Design .220
Application .221
Safety .222
U-Grooves .223
Oxygen Lance Cutting 226
Applications 227
Safety .227
Water Jet Cutting 227
Applications 227
Arc Cutting Electrodes .227
Applications 229
Summary .229
Lasers: The New Wave in Ship Construction .230
Review .231vi Contents
SECTION 4
GAS SHIELDED WELDING
Chapter 10 Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment,
Setup, and Operation
Introduction 234
Weld Metal Transfer Methods 236
Short-Circuiting Transfer GMAW-S .236
Globular Transfer .238
Axial Spray Metal Transfer .238
Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer 239
Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer Current Cycle 240
Shielding Gases for Spray or Pulsed-Spray
Transfer 243
Buried-Arc Transfer 243
GMAW Filler Metal Specifications .244
Wire Melting and Deposition Rates 244
Welding Power Supplies .244
Speed of the Wire Electrode .245
Power Supplies for Short-Circuiting
Transfer 246
Molten Weld Pool Control .247
Power Settings 249
Weave Pattern .249
Travel Speed 249
Electrode Extension 249
Gun Angle .250
Equipment 252
Power Source 253
Electrode (Wire) Feed Unit 253
GMA Spot Welding .257
Summary .259
Simple Steps to Achieving Better Gas Metal
Arc Welding .259
Review .261
Chapter 11 Gas Metal Arc Welding
Introduction 262
Setup .263
Gas Density and Flow Rates .268
Wire-Feed Speed .268
Arc-Voltage and Amperage Characteristics 270
Electrode Extension 271
Welding Gun Angle 273
Effect of Shielding Gas on Welding 274
Practices 276
Metal Preparation .277
Flat Position, 1G and 1F Positions .277
Vertical Up 3G and 3F Positions 281
Vertical Down 3G and 3F Positions .283
Horizontal 2G and 2F Positions .284
Overhead 4G and 4F Positions .286
Globular Metal Transfer, 1G Position 288
Axial Spray 291
Summary .292
Aluminum Ferries Rely on Inverter
Technology .293
Review .295
Chapter 12 Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment,
Setup, and Operation
Introduction 296
Principles of Operation .297
Equipment 299
Advantages 300
Limitations 301
FCAW Electrodes .301
FCA Welding Electrode Flux .304
Shielding Gas 308
Welding Techniques .308
Troubleshooting FCA Welding 314
Summary .315
Ultrasonic Plastic Welding Basics .315
Review .317
Chapter 13 Flux Cored Arc Welding
Introduction 318
Practices 319
Flat-Position Welds 322
Square-Groove Welds .322
V-Groove and Bevel-Groove Welds 326
Fillet Welds .331
Vertical Welds .336
Horizontal Welds 341
Overhead-Position Welds .347
Thin-Gauge Welding 350
Plug Welds 356
Summary .358
Welding Lends Architectural Flair
to Airport Expansion 358
Review .360
Chapter 14 Other Constant-Potential
Welding Processes
Introduction 361
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) .362
Weld Travel 362
Electrode Feed 362
Contact Tip .362
Electrode .363
Flux .364
Advantages of SAW .364
Disadvantages of SAW 365
Arc Starting .365
Weld Backing 365
Handheld SAW .366
Experiments 366
Electroslag Welding (ESW) 367
Electrogas Welding (EGW) 369Contents vii
Summary .370
High-Performance Steel Increasingly Used
for Bridge Building .370
Review .372
Chapter 15 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Equipment, Setup, Operation,
and Filler Metals
Introduction 374
Tungsten .374
Types of Tungsten Electrodes .376
Shaping the Tungsten .377
GTA Welding Equipment .380
Types of Welding Current 384
Shielding Gases .386
Preflow and Postflow .388
Shielding Gas Flow Rate 388
Remote Controls .389
Summary .393
Welding a Pathway to the Stars 394
Review .396
Chapter 16 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
of Plate
Introduction 398
Torch Angle 399
Filler Rod Manipulation .399
Tungsten Contamination 401
Current Setting .401
Experiments 402
Gas Flow .403
Practice Welds 404
Summary .425
The Great Master’s Horse Returns Home
after 500 Years 425
Review .428
Chapter 17 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
of Pipe
Introduction 429
Practices 430
Joint Preparation .430
Root .431
Backing Gas 433
Filler Metal 434
Cup Walking .436
Practice Welds 438
Hot Pass 440
Filler Pass 444
Cover Pass .445
Summary .450
Hot Tap Weld Prevents Offshore Piping
System from Shutting Down 451
Review .453
SECTION 5
RELATED PROCESSES
Chapter 18 Shop Math and Weld Cost
Introduction 456
Shop Math .457
Types of Numbers .457
General Math Rules 457
Equations and Formulas .458
Mixed Units 460
Adding and Subtracting Mixed Units .460
Fractions .462
Finding the Fraction’s Common
Denominator 462
Reducing Fractions .463
Multiplying and Dividing Fractions .463
Converting Numbers 463
Converting Fractions to Decimals 463
Converting Decimals to Fractions 464
Conversion Charts 465
Measuring .465
Welding Costs .465
Cost Estimation 466
Joint Design 466
Weld Metal Cost 469
Cost of Electrodes, Wires, Gases,
and Flux .469
Deposition Efficiency 470
Deposition Rate .471
Deposition Data Tables .471
Operating Factor .474
Other Useful Formulas .476
Summary .477
Metal Cored Welding Wire Comes through
on Heavy Weldments .478
Review .479
Chapter 19 Reading Technical Drawings
Introduction 481
Mechanical Drawings 482
Lines .482
Types of Drawings 485
Special Views 485
Dimensioning .487
Drawing Scale .488
Reading Mechanical Drawings 489
Sketching 490
Erasers and Erasing .493
Graph Paper 494
Computers and Drawings .496
Summary .499
Resistance Seam Welding Benefits
Stainless Application 499
Review .500viii Contents
Chapter 20 Welding Joint Design
and Welding Symbols
Introduction 502
Weld Joint Design .503
Welding Process .505
Edge Preparation .505
Joint Dimensions 505
Metal Thickness 505
Metal Type 507
Welding Position 507
Code or Standards Requirements .508
Welder Skill 509
Acceptable Cost 509
Welding Symbols 509
Indicating Types of Welds 510
Weld Location .510
Location Significance of Arrow .512
Fillet Welds .512
Plug Welds 513
Spot Welds 513
Seam Welds .514
Groove Welds .514
Backing .515
Flanged Welds 516
Nondestructive Testing Symbols 516
Summary .519
Extending the Life of Resistance Welding
Electrodes .519
Review .521
Chapter 21 Fabricating Techniques
and Practices
Introduction 522
Fabrication 523
Safety .523
Parts and Pieces 524
Layout .525
Nesting 530
Kerf Space .531
Material Shapes .535
Bill of Materials Form .535
Overall Tolerance 535
Assembly .537
Assembly Tools .539
Fitting .541
Tack Welds .543
Welding 544
Finishing .545
Summary .546
Welder Certification: Many Thrusts, Few Agree .546
Review .548
Chapter 22 Welding Codes and Standards
Introduction 550
Codes, Standards, Procedures,
and Specifications .551
Welding Procedure Qualification .552
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) 552
Qualifying the Welding Procedure Specification 552
Qualifying and Certifying .552
General Information .555
Summary .564
Resistance Seam Welding Benefits
Stainless Steel Application .565
Review .566
Chapter 23 Testing and Inspection of Welds
Introduction 567
Quality Control (QC) .568
Discontinuities and Defects 568
Porosity .568
Inclusions 570
Inadequate Joint Penetration 570
Incomplete Fusion 571
Arc Strikes .572
Overlap .572
Undercut .573
Crater Cracks 573
Underfill 573
Plate-Generated Problems .573
Lamination 574
Delamination 574
Lamellar Tears 574
Destructive Testing (DT) 575
Tensile Testing 575
Fatigue Testing .576
Shearing Strength of Welds 577
Welded Butt Joints 577
Fillet Weld Break Test 581
Testing by Etching 582
Impact Testing 582
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) .583
Visual Inspection (VT) .583
Penetrant Inspection (PT) 583
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT) .584
Radiographic Inspection (RT) 585
Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) .590
Leak Checking 591
Eddy Current Inspection (ET) 591
Hardness Testing 591
Summary .592
Development of Titanium Inspection
Tools Based on Weld Color 592
Review .595
Chapter 24 Welder Certification
Introduction 596
Qualified and Certified Welders .597
Welder Performance Qualification .597
Welder Certification .597
AWS Entry-Level Welder Qualification
and Welder Certification 597Contents ix
Practical Knowledge .597
Welder Qualification and Certification Test
Instructions for Practices .598
Preparing Specimens for Testing 599
Restarting a Weld Bead .600
Summary .635
Liberty Ships of World War II 636
Review .637
SECTION 6
RELATED PROCESSES
AND TECHNOLOGY
Chapter 25 Welding Metallurgy
Introduction 641
Heat, Temperature, and Energy 641
Heat .641
Temperature .642
Mechanical Properties of Metal 643
Hardness .643
Brittleness .643
Ductility 643
Toughness .643
Strength .644
Other Mechanical Concepts .644
Structure of Matter 645
Crystalline Structures of Metal .645
Phase Diagrams .646
Lead-Tin Phase Diagram .646
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram .647
Strengthening Mechanisms .650
Solid-Solution Hardening .651
Precipitation Hardening 651
Mechanical Mixtures of Phases .652
Quench, Temper, and Anneal .652
Martensitic Reactions 654
Cold Work 656
Grain Size Control 656
Heat Treatments Associated with Welding .656
Preheat 656
Stress Relief, Process Annealing .657
Annealing 658
Normalizing 658
Thermal Effects Caused by Arc Welding 658
Gases in Welding 660
Hydrogen 661
Nitrogen 661
Oxygen 661
Carbon Dioxide 661
Metallurgical Defects 662
Cold Cracking .662
Hot Cracking 662
Carbide Precipitation 663
Summary .664
Shot Peening and Heat Treatment
Reduce Stress 664
Review .666
Chapter 26 Weldability of Metals
Introduction 668
Steel Classification and Identification 671
SAE and AISI Classification Systems .671
Unified Numbering System (UNS) .671
Carbon and Alloy Steels 671
Low Carbon Also Called Mild Steel 671
Medium Carbon Steel 673
High Carbon Steel .673
Tool Steel 674
High Manganese Steel .674
Low Alloy, High Tensile Strength Steels .674
Stainless Steels 674
Chromium-Molybdenum Steel .676
Cast Iron .676
Practice Welding Cast Iron .677
Nonferrous Metals 681
Copper and Copper Alloys .681
Aluminum Weldability .681
Titanium .682
Magnesium 682
Repair Welding .682
Summary .685
Welding Offers Answers about New
Chrome-Moly Steel 686
Review .688
Chapter 27 Filler Metal Selection
Introduction 689
Manufacturers’ Electrode Information 690
Understanding the Electrode Data 690
Data Resulting from Mechanical Tests .690
Data Resulting from Chemical Analysis .691
Carbon Equivalent (CE) .691
SMAW Operating Information .691
Core Wire .692
Functions of the Flux Covering 692
Filler Metal Selection 693
Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrode Selection 693
AWS Filler Metal Classifications 696
Carbon Steel 696
Carbon and Low Alloy Steel–Covered
Electrodes .696
Wire-Type Steel Filler Metals .699
Solid Wire .699
Tubular Wire 700
Stainless Steel Electrodes 701
Nonferrous Electrodes 704
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 704
Aluminum-Covered Arc Welding Electrodes .704
Aluminum Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes .704
Special-purpose Filler Metals 704x Contents
Surface and Buildup Electrode Classification .705
Magnesium Alloys 706
Hydrogen Embrittlement 706
Summary .707
Filler Metal Made Easy .707
Review .709
Chapter 28 Welding Automation
and Robotics
Introduction 710
Manual Joining Process 711
Semiautomatic Joining Processes 712
Machine Joining Processes .713
Automatic Joining Processes .713
Automated Joining 713
Industrial Robots 714
Robot Programming 715
System Planning 717
Future Automation .723
Summary .723
Improving Productivity with Robotic Welding 723
Review .726
Chapter 29 Other Welding Processes
Introduction 727
Resistance Welding (RW) .728
Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) .728
Seam Welding (RSEW) .730
High-Frequency Resistance Seam
Welding (RSEW-HF) .731
Resistance Projection Welding (RPW) .731
Flash Welding (FW) .732
Upset Welding (UW) 732
Percussion Welding (PEW) 733
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) 733
Electron Beam Welding Gun 733
Electron Beam Seam Tracking 734
Ultrasonic Welding (USW) .734
Ultrasonic Welding Applications 735
Inertia Welding Process 735
Inertia Weld Bond Characteristics 737
Advantages of the Process .738
Laser Beam Welding (LBW) .738
Laser Welding Advantages and Disadvantages .739
Laser Beam 739
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) Process 739
Stud Welding (SW) .740
Thermal Spraying (THSP) 740
Thermal Spraying Equipment .740
Thermospray (Powder) Process 741
Plasma Spraying Process .742
Cold Welding (CW) .743
Thermite Welding (TW) .743
Hardfacing 745
Selection of Hardfacing Metals .745
Hardfacing Welding Processes 746
Quality of Surfacing Deposit .747
Hardfacing Electrodes .747
Shielded Metal Arc Method 748
Hardfacing with Gas Shielded Arc 748
Carbon Arc Method 748
Summary .749
Computer Numeric Controlled Plasma—
A Cut above the Rest 750
Review .753
SECTION 7
OXYFUEL
Chapter 30 Oxyfuel Welding and Cutting
Equipment, Setup, and Operation
Introduction 756
Pressure Regulators 757
Regulator Operation .757
Regulator Gauges 758
Regulator Safety Pressure Release Device .759
Cylinder and Regulator Fittings .760
Regulator Safety Precautions 761
Regulator Care and Use 762
Welding and Cutting Torches: Design
and Service .763
Mixing the Gases 763
Torch Care and Use 764
Welding and Heating Torch Tips .765
Torch Tip Care and Use 766
Backfires 766
Flashbacks 766
Reverse Flow and Flashback Valves .767
Care of the Reverse Flow Valve
and Flashback Arrestor 768
Hoses and Fittings 768
Hose Care and Use 768
Types of Flames 769
Leak Detection 770
Manifold Systems 775
Manifold Operation 776
Summary .777
Worcester Technical High School Welds
on Snowflakes 778
Review .781
Chapter 31 Oxyfuel Gases and Filler Metals
Introduction 782
Oxyfuel Flame 783
Characteristics of the Fuel-Gas Flame 783
Fuel Gases .783
Flame Rate of Burning 785
Acetylene (C2H2) 786
Liquefied Fuel Gases .788
Methylacetylene-Propadiene (MPS) .788
MAPP 790Contents xi
Propane and Natural Gas 791
Hydrogen 792
Filler Metals 794
Ferrous Metals 795
Mild Steel 795
Cast Iron .795
Summary .796
Welding with the Right Shielding Gas .796
Review .797
Chapter 32 Oxyacetylene Welding
Introduction 798
Mild Steel Welds .799
Factors Affecting the Weld .799
Characteristics of the Weld 800
Flat Position Welding .807
Outside Corner Joint 807
Butt Joint .808
Lap Joint .810
Tee Joint 812
Out-of-Position Welding 813
Vertical Welds .813
Butt Joint .815
Lap Joint .817
Tee Joint 817
Horizontal Welds 818
Horizontal Stringer Bead .818
Butt Joint .819
Lap Joint .819
Tee Joint 819
Overhead Welds 819
Stringer Bead .819
Mild Steel Pipe and Tubing 820
Horizontal Rolled Position 1G 820
Horizontal Fixed Position 5G .823
Vertical Fixed Position 2G 824
45° Fixed Position 6G .825
Thin-Wall Tubing .826
Summary .827
Confined Space Monitors: Tough Choices
for Tight Spots 827
Review .829
Chapter 33 Soldering, Brazing,
and Braze Welding
Introduction 830
Advantages of Soldering and Brazing .831
Physical Properties of the Joint .832
Shear Strength .832
Ductility 832
Fatigue Resistance .832
Corrosion Resistance 833
Fluxes .834
Flux .834
Fluxing Action 835
Soldering and Brazing Methods 835
Method Grouping .835
Torch Soldering and Brazing 835
Furnace Soldering and Brazing .837
Induction Soldering and Brazing 837
Dip Soldering and Brazing 838
Resistance Soldering and Brazing .838
Special Methods 839
Filler Metals 839
Types of Filler Metals .839
Soldering Alloys 840
Brazing Alloys .841
Joint Design 843
Joint Spacing .843
Brazing Practices .845
Surface Buildup and Hole Fill Practices .851
Silver Brazing Pracitces .853
Soldering Practices 856
Summary .859
Greater Lowell Tech Welding Students
Restore Historic Statue .859
Review .863
Appendix
I. Student Welding Report .865
II. Conversion of Decimal Inches to
Millimeters and Fractional Inches to
Decimal Inches and Millimeters .866
III. Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary
(Standard) Units and Metric
Units (SI) 867
IV. Abbreviations and Symbols 869
V. Metric Conversion Approximations .870
VI. Pressure Conversion .870
VII. Welding Codes and Specifications .871
VIII. Welding Associations
and Organizations 872
Glossary 874
Index .925A
AAR. See Association of American Railroads
AASHTO. See Association of American of State Highway
and Transportation Officials
Abbreviations, 19t
Abrasives, 227
Absolute pressure, 759
AC. See Alternating current
Acetone, 35, 786
Acetylene (C2H2), 786–788, 786f–788f, 787t
cylinders, 35, 36f
for flame cutting, 161t
Acicular structure, needle-like, 654, 654f
Adjustable wrench, 38, 38f
Advanced shielded metal arc welding, 128–156.
See also Shielded metal arc welding
cover pass in, 138–139, 138f–139f
filler pass in, 136–138, 137f–138f
hot pass in, 134–136, 135f–136f
introduction to, 129
plate preparation in, 139, 140f, 141, 141f
poor fit-up in, 152–154, 153f
postheating in, 144, 152
preheating, 144, 144t
preparing specimens for testing in, 141–142, 141f–142f
restarting a weld bead in, 142–144, 143f–144f, 600–601,
600f–601f
root pass in, 129–134, 129f–134f, 134t
Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), 551
AIA. See Aerospace Industries Association
Air carbon arc cutting (CAC-A), 11, 219, 219f, 220t
applications of, 221–222, 222f–223f
electrodes in, 220–221, 221f
equipment and, 223
gouging in, 222, 222f
safety in, 222–223
washing in, 222, 223f
Air Conditioning National Contractors Association, 547
Air-cooled welding guns, 299–300, 300f
Air Force, 478–479
Airports, 358–359
Air supply, 221
AISI. See American Iron and Steel Institute
Al-2, 704
Al-43, 704
Allen, Jim, 103–104
Allotropic metal, 647
Allotropic transformation, 660
Alloying elements, 304, 698t
Alloys. See also specific alloys
not specified EWG electrode, 377
steels, 670t, 671–674
low, 674
All-position welding, 301
Alphabet of lines, 482, 484t, 485f
Alternate bend test, 580
Alternating current (AC), 57, 58f
Alternators, 63–64, 64f
Aluminum, 220t, 405–406, 405f, 670t, 691
filler metal for, 405t
filler metal selection with, 704, 705t
weldability of, 681–682
Aluminum bare welding rods and electrodes, 704
Aluminum-covered arc welding electrodes, 704
Aluminum-silicon, 843
American Bureau of Shipping, 103, 141, 568t
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 370
classification system of, 671, 672t
American Museum of Natural History, 394–396
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 47, 551
American Petroleum Institute (API), 551, 568t
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way
Association (AREMA), 551
American Society for Testing and Materials, 568t
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 141, 568t
ASME Section IX, 551, 555
American Water Works Association (AWWA), 551
American Welding Society (AWS), 5, 129, 141, 259, 568t
AWS A5.01-93 document of, 707–708
AWS A5.32, 796–797
AWS D1.1, 551, 555
filler metal selection classifications of, 696, 697t
welder certification levels of, 15
Ammonium persulphate, 582
Amperage, 244, 336–337
of current, 56
in plasma arc cutting, 196
range, 75, 75f, 77, 337
Annealing, 652, 658, 658f
ANSI. See American National Standards Institute
Antarctica, 20–21
API. See American Petroleum Institute
API Standard 1104, 551
Apollo-5, 478, 519
Ar. See Argon
Arc blow, 59, 59f–60f
Arc cutting, 192
Arc cutting electrodes, 227, 228, 228f
Arc length, 77–78, 77f–78f
Arc plasma, 192
Arc stabilizers, 304
Arc starting methods, 365, 365f
Arc strikes, 572, 572f
Arc-voltage and amperage characteristics,
GMAW, 270–271, 271t
Arc welding, 746–747
thermal effects of, 658–660, 659f–660f
Index
925AREMA. See American Railway Engineering
and Maintenance-of-Way Association
Argon (Ar), 202t, 235, 243, 247, 249, 275t
conserving, 389
in GTAW, 387, 387f
Arm protection, 34, 34f
Arrows, 484, 484t
weld joint design and location significance of, 512
Artists, 155–156
AS-203 mission, 478
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASME Section IX, 551, 555
Assembly, 522
fabrication and, 537–539, 537f–539f
tools for, 539–541, 540f–541f
Association of American of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO), 551
Association of American Railroads (AAR), 551
Atmospheric pressure, 759
Atomic hydrogen, 706
Atoms, 783
Austenite, 650
AutoCAD LT, 496, 496f–498f, 497–498
Automated joining, 12
welding automation and robotics and, 713
Automatic joining, 12
welding automation and robotics and, 713, 715f
Automation and robotics. See Welding automation and robotics
AWS. See American Welding Society
AWS A5.01-93 document, 707–708
AWS A5.32, 796–797
AWS D1.1, 551, 555
AWWA. See American Water Works Association
Axial spray metal transfer, 238–239, 238f–239f, 239t,
291–292, 291f–292f, 291t
Axial spray transfer, 236
B
B, 696
Backfires, 766, 785
Back gouging, 139, 141, 141f
Backhand welding, 251–252, 251f–252f
Backing, 515–516, 516f
Backing gas, 433–434, 434f
Band saws, 46
Barbour Boat Works, 636
Bar clamps, 540, 540f
Base platform, 725
BCC. See Body-centered cubic
Bender Shipbuilding and Repair, 231
Bevel-groove welds, 326–328, 326f–328f
Beveling, 182–183
Bill of materials, 482, 484f
fabrication and, 535, 535f
Bird nesting, 264–265, 264f
Blohm & Voss, 230
Blowback, 184
Body-centered cubic (BCC), 647
Body protection, 33–34, 33f
Boeing, 519–520
Bonded fluxes, 364
Bourdon tube, 759
Braze buildup, 851
Braze welding, 831, 831f. See also Soldering and brazing
Brazing, 830, 845. See also Soldering and brazing
Brazing alloys, 841–842, 841t
Break lines, 484, 484t
Bridges, 370–372
Brinell hardness tester, 591, 591f
British Welding Institute, 568t
Brittleness, 643
Bronze, 220t
Bureau Veritas, 103–104
Buried-arc transfer, 243, 243f
Burns
first-degree, 24, 24f
light causing, 25–26
safety and, 24–26
second-degree, 24–25, 25f
third-degree, 25, 25f
Burnthrough, 134, 801
Butt joint, 503, 503f. See also Square butt joint
flat, 808
OAW and, 808–810, 808f–810f, 815–817, 816f, 819
with root opening, 153–154, 153f
testing welded, 577–580, 578f–581f
C C2
H2. See Acetylene
Cable, David, 686–687
Cables, 40
power and gas, 194, 195f, 196, 196f
welding, 66, 67t
CAC-A. See Air carbon arc cutting
CAD. See Computer-aided design
Cadmium, 30
Cadmium-silver alloy, 841
Cadmium-zinc alloy, 841, 841t
Calibration, 828
CAM. See Computer-aided manufacturing
Cam-lock clamps, 540, 540f
Capillary action, 831
Carbide precipitation, 663–664, 663f
Carbon, 299, 691
steel, 671–674
high, 673–674, 673f
low, 671–672
medium, 673
plain, 671
Carbon arc method, 748
Carbon content, 648
Carbon dioxide, 243, 249, 259–260, 661–662
Carbon dioxide extinguisher, 37
Carbon electrode, 221
Carbon equivalent (CE), 691, 691f
Carbonizing, 783
Carbon steel, 220t, 670t
preheating, 669t
Cars, 6
Casavoy, Kevin, 779–780
Cast, 265, 267, 303–304
Cast iron, 220t. See also Practices, cast iron
filler rods, 795
malleable, 676
types of, 676
weldability of metals and, 676–681, 677f–680f, 677t–678t
Cavalier drawing, 485
CC. See Constant current
C-clamps, 539, 540f
CE. See Carbon equivalent
926 IndexCellulose-based fluxes, 83
Cementite, 650
Centerlines, 484, 484t
Cerium tungsten EWCe-2 electrode, 377
Cernigoj, Marjan, 156, 156f
Certification. See Welder certification
Certified welders, 596. See also Welder certification
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI), 13
Charpy impact, 103, 582–583
Charpy V-notch, 690
Chemical analysis data, 691
Chemistry, 126
of a cut, 176, 177f
Chestnut Run Laboratories of Combustion Engineering, 686–687
Chicago Ornamental Iron Co. (COI), 395
Chill plate, 76, 407
Chromium, 691
Chromium carbides, 675
Chromium-molybdenum steel, 676, 686–687
Circular weave pattern, 81, 81f
Clamps, 539–540, 540f–541f
Cleaning action, 385
Clear Fork River Bridge, 370
Clothing
general work, 32–33, 32f–33f
special protective, 33–34, 33f–34f
CNC. See Computer numeric control
Coalescence, 5
Coast Guard, U.S., 211–212
Coated electrodes, 471, 473–474
Code requirements/standards, 508–509.
See also Welding codes and standards
Codes, 551. See also Welding codes and standards
COI. See Chicago Ornamental Iron Co.
Coils, 303
Cold cracking, 662, 662f
Cold lap testing, 572–573, 572f
Cold welding (CW), 743, 743f
Cold work, 656
Collet, 375
Colors
temperature and, 642–643, 643f
weld
importance of, 592–594
tools for inspecting, 594
Columbium, 691
Combination symbol, 517
Combination welding and cutting torch, 763, 763f
Combustible materials, 206
Combustion, 784
primary, 784, 784f
rate of, 785, 785t
secondary, 784, 784f
Combustion engineering, 686–687
Common Arc, 547
Common denominator, 462, 462t
Compressed air, 196–197
Compressive strength, 644
Computer-aided design (CAD), 490, 710
AutoCAD LT, 496, 496f–498f, 497–498
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 15, 711
Computer numeric control (CNC), 750–752
Computers, drawings and, 496, 496f–498f, 497–498
Concave root surface, 112, 433
Conduit liner, 267, 320
Confined space monitors, 827–829
Constant current (CC), 57. 58f
Constant voltage (CV), 57, 58f
Construction Research Laboratory, 395
Consumable inserts, 435, 435f
Contact tip, 362
Contact tube, 265, 265f, 321
Contamination, tungsten, 401, 401f
Contour marker, 534, 534f
Control wire, 196
Conversion approximations, 17t
Conversion charts, 463t, 465
Copper, 670t, 691
alloys, 681
weldability of, 681
Copper alloy A5.7, 843
Copper alloys, 843
Copper-phosphorus-silver alloy, 842
Copper-zinc alloy, 842
Core wire, 692
Corley, Jared, 3
Corrosion resistance, 833–834
Corrosion tests, 452
Costs, 465–466. See also Formulas; Practices, welding costs
acceptable, 509, 509f
of electrodes, 469–470, 470t
estimating, 466
of filler metal, 466
of fillet welds, 468–469, 468f
finishing, 466
of flux, 469–470, 470t
of gases, 469–470, 470t
introduction to, 456–457
joint design and, 466–469, 466f–468f
labor, 466, 476, 476t
material, 466
metal and, 469, 469f, 469t
operating factor for, 474–476, 475f–476f, 475t–476t
overhead, 466, 476, 476t
of power, 476
process, 466
scrap, 466
of wires, 469–470, 470t
Coupling distance, 172
Cover bead, 138–139
Cover pass, 116, 116f, 327, 327f
in advanced shielded metal arc welding, 138–139, 138f–139f
GTAW of pipe and, 445–450, 445f–450f
Cranes, 46–47, 47f
Crater cracks, 573, 573f–574f
Creep, 761
Critical welds, 326
Crumpler, Michael, 233
Crystal lattices, 645
Crystalline structures, of metal, 645–646, 645f–646f, 645t
Cup, 194
Cup walking
GTAW of pipe and, 436–438, 437f–438f
setup for, 437–438, 437f
technique for, 438, 438f–439f
Current
amperage of, 56
electrical, 244
GTAW setting, 401, 401t
measurement of, 56
plate welding settings for, 75, 75f, 75t
pulsed-arc metal transfer and cycle of, 240–242, 241f
Index 927Current (Continued)
SMAW and, 55–56
transition, 238–239, 239f
types of, 57, 57f
GTAW, 384–386, 385f–386f
voltage of, 56
wattage of, 56, 56f
Curves, 495, 495f
Custom fabrication, 525, 525f
Cut-a-ways, 487
Cutoff machines, 46
Cutting and gouging
flame cutting, 160–189
machine cutting, 203–204, 203f–204f
manual cutting, 205
plasma arc cutting, 190–212
related cutting processes, 214–231
Cutting gas assist, 217, 217t
Cutting lever, 163, 163f
Cutting plane lines, 484, 484t
Cutting processes, 8–10, 214–231. See also Cutting
and gouging; Practices, cutting processes
arc cutting electrodes, 227, 228, 228f
CAC-A, 219, 219f, 220t
introduction to, 214
laser beam cutting, 215–219
laser beam drilling, 215, 217–218
laser equipment, 219
manual torch design, 220–221, 220f–221f
oxygen lance cutting, 226–227, 226f
thermal, 11–12
water jet cutting, 227, 228f
Cutting speed, 177–178, 178f, 198, 198f
Cutting table, 180
Cutting tips, 164–167, 165f–169f, 165t–167t
Cutting torches, 763
CV. See Constant voltage
CW. See Cold welding
CWI. See Certified Welding Inspector
Cycle time, 714
Cylinder pressure, 759
fittings for, 760–761, 760f–761f
Cylinders
acetylene, 35, 36f
safety with handling and storing, 34–35, 34f–35f
with valve protection caps, 35
D
Dakota Creek, 293–294
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 425–426, 482
DCEN. See Direct-current electrode negative
DCEP. See Direct-current electrode positive
DCRP. See Direct-current reverse polarity
DCSP. See Direct-current straight polarity
Decimal fractions, 457, 458f
Defects. See also Testing/inspection of welds
RT and, 585–590, 585f–590f
testing and, 568–574, 569f–575f, 569t
in welding metallurgy, 662–664, 662f–663f
Delamination, 574
in water jet cutting, 227, 228f
Delta IV, 478–479, 519–520
Denominator, 457
common, 462, 462t
Dent, Charles, 425
Deoxidizers, 300–301, 304, 304t
Department of Defense Military Specification (MIL), 551
Department of Energy, U.S., 686–687
Deposition
data tables, 471–473, 471t–473t
efficiency, 470, 470f
rate, 471, 471t–473t
Destructive testing (DT), 575–583, 575f–583f, 576t
Detail view, 487
Det Norske Veritas, 103
Diaphragm, 757
DiBari, Danelle, 53
Dimensioning, 456
for drawings, 487–488
Dimension lines, 484, 484t
Dip soldering and brazing, 838, 838f
Direct casting, 5, 5f
Direct-current electrode negative (DCEN), 57, 57f,
384–386
Direct-current electrode positive (DCEP), 57, 58f,
384–386
Direct-current reverse polarity (DCRP), 57
Direct-current straight polarity (DCSP), 57
Discontinuities, 568–574, 569f–575f, 569t
Distortion
in flame cutting, 182–183, 182f–183f
in plasma arc cutting, 197, 197f–198f
Drag, 174, 174f
Drag lines, 177
Drawings. See also Practices, drawing
cavalier, 485
computers and, 496, 496f–498f, 497–498
dimensioning for, 487–488
erasers/erasing for, 493–494, 494f
graph paper for, 494–495, 494f–495f
introduction to, 481–482
isometric, 485
lines and, 482, 484t, 485f
mechanical, 482–490
reading, 489–490, 490t
phase diagrams and, 646–650
pictorial, 485, 487f
reading technical, 481–500
scale and, 488–489, 489f
set of, 482, 483f
sketching for, 490–493, 490f–494f
special views for, 485, 487, 487f–488f
types of, 485, 486f–487f
Drills, 44–45
Dross, 203
Drums, 303
Dry chemical extinguisher, 37
DT. See Destructive testing
Dual shield electrode, 308
Ductility, 643, 832
Duty cycle, 65–66, 66f
E
E, 696
E70T-1, 701
E70T-2, 701
E70T-4, 701
E71T-1, 701
E71T-2, 701
E71T-4, 701
E71T-7, 701
E308-15, 701
928 IndexE308-16, 701
E308L-15, 701
E309-15, 701
E309-16, 701
E309Cb-15, 701, 704
E309Cb-16, 701, 704
E310-15, 701, 704
E310-16, 701, 704
E310Mo-15, 701, 704
E310Mo-16, 701, 704
E316-15, 704
E316-16, 704
E3116L-15, 704
E6010 electrode, 697, 698f
E6011 electrode, 697, 698f
E6012 electrode, 698, 698f
E6013 electrode, 698, 698f
E6014 electrode, 698–699, 699f
E7016 electrode, 699, 699f
E7018 electrode, 699, 699f
E7024 electrode, 77, 699, 699f
Earmuffs, 28, 29f
Earplugs, 28, 29f
Ear protection, 28
EBW. See Electron beam welding
EC, 696
ECoCr-C, 706
ECuAl, 705
Eddy current inspection (ET), 591
Edge joints, 89–93, 89f–92f, 503, 503f
Edge preparation, 505
EELV. See Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle
EFeMn-A, 706
EGW. See Electrogas welding
Elasticity, 644–645, 644f
Elastic limit, 832
Electrical current, 244
Electrical ground, 40
Electrical potential, 244
Electrical resistance, 40, 732
Electrical safety, 40, 41f
systems for, 40, 42f
Electrical shock, 205
Electrode conduit, 256, 256f
Electrode feed, 300, 362
Electrode (wire) feed unit, 253–257, 253f–254f
Electrodes, 363, 363f, 697–699, 698f–699f
aluminum bare welding rods and, 704
aluminum-covered arc welding, 704
angle, 78–80, 78f
leading angle, 78–79, 78f–79f
trailing angle, 79–80, 79f–80f
arc cutting, 227, 228, 228f
CAC-A and, 220–221, 221f
carbon, 221
classification of, 363, 697t
coated, 471, 473–474
costs of, 469–470, 470t
dual shield, 308
extension, 249–250, 250f
FCAW and, 312, 312f
GMAW and, 271–273, 272f, 272t–273t
FCAW, 301–304
care of, 307
cast and helix, 303–304, 303f–304f
manufacturing methods for, 301–303, 302f–303f, 303t
hardfacing, 747–748, 747f–748f
holders, 67, 68f
manipulation of, 80–82, 81f–82f
manufacturers’ information on, 690–691, 691f
data from chemical analysis, 691
data from mechanical tests, 690
understanding, 690
nonferrous, 704, 705t
in pipe welding, 126
plate welding, seize and heat of, 76, 76f
for plate welding practice welds, 83
self-shielding, 308
SMAW filler metal selection and selection of, 693–694,
694f, 695t
speed of wire, 245–246, 246t
stainless steel, 701, 702t–703t, 704
strip, 363
surface and buildup classification of, 705–706
tungsten types of, 376–377, 376t, 377f
Electrode setback, 194
Electrode tip, 194
Electrogas welding (EGW), 369, 369f
introduction to, 361
Electron beam welding (EBW), 733
gun for, 733–734, 733f–734f
seam tracking in, 734, 734f
Electrons, 55, 55f
Electroslag welding (ESW), 367–368, 368f
advantages and disadvantages of, 368
introduction to, 361
Elongation, 690
Energy, 641
Energy Research and Development Administration, U.S., 686–687
Engineers, welding, 13–14
ENi, 704–705
Entry-level welders, 596–597
Equal-pressure torches, 163
Equations, 458–460, 459f
Equipment. See also Welding automation and robotics
CAC-A, 223
FCAW, 296–317
GMAW, 11f, 252–257, 252f–257f
GTAW, 10f, 374–396
for industrial robots, 718–721, 719f–722f
for laser beams, 219
maintenance of, 37–38
OFC, 11f
oxyfuel welding and cutting, 756–780
plasma arc cutting, 12f
for respiratory protection, 29–30, 30f
SMAW, 9f, 55–71
setting up, 68–69, 69f
THSP, 740–741, 740f–741f
for ultrasonic plastic welding, 315–316
ER, 696
ER70S-2 filler wire, 700
ER70S-3 filler wire, 700
ER70S-6 filler wire, 700
ER308, 701
ER308L, 701
ER309, 701
ER309L, 701
ER316, 704
ER316L, 704
ER316L-Si, 704
ER1100, 704
ER4043, 704
ER5356, 704
Index 929ER AZ61A, 706
ER AZ62A, 706
ER5556, 704
Erasers/erasing, 493–494, 494f
ESW. See Electroslag welding
ET. See Eddy current inspection
Etching testing, 582
Eutectic composition, 647, 840
Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV), 478–479, 519–520
EW, 696
Excessive root reinforcement, 433
Exhaust pickups, 31, 31f
Exothermic gases, 217
Experiments, 15, 17. See also Practices
burn rate, 785–786, 785f–786f
hot pass to repair poor weld bead, 136, 136f
identifying metal using spark test, 683–685, 683f–685f, 685t
line resistance, 759
oxyfuel flames, 793–794, 793f–794f
repairing root pass using hot pass, 441
SAW, 366–367, 367f
Experiments, flame cutting
effect of flame, speed and pressure
on hand cut, 178
on machine cut, 178, 179f
minimizing distortion, 182, 183f
observing heat produced during a cut, 177
Experiments, gas metal arc welding
effect of shielding gas changes, 274–275, 275t–276t
electrode extension, 272–273, 272t–273t
of plate
setting gas flow, 403–404, 403f, 404t
setting welding current, 402, 402f
setting current, 270–271, 271t
setting gas flow rate, 269–270, 270f
setting wire-feed speed, 269
welding gun angle, 274, 274f
Experiments, gas tungsten arc welding
grinding tungsten to desired shape, 378, 378f
melting tungsten end shape, 380, 380f
removing contaminated tungsten end by breaking, 379, 379f
setting up a GTAW, 390–392, 390f–392f, 391t
striking an arc, 392–393, 392f–393f
Experiments, oxyacetylene welding
5G position, 824
effect of changing angle on molten weld pool, 821, 821f
effect of torch angle and torch height changes, 803–805, 804f
flame effect on metal, 801–802, 801f–802f
stops and starts, 822
stringer bead, 1G position, 821–822, 822f
Experiments, shielded metal arc welding
amperage
calculating, 62, 62f, 62t
estimating, 61–62, 61f
effect of amperage changes on weld bead, 76, 76f
effect of changing arc length on weld, 78
effect of electrode angle on weld, 80, 80f
excessive heat, 76–77
striking the arc, 73–74, 74f
Experiments, soldering and brazing
fluxing action, 844, 844f
paste range, 839–840, 839f
tinning or phase temperature, 844–845, 845f
uniform heating, 844
Experiments, welding metallurgy
crystal formation, 652
effect of quenching and tempering on metal
properties, 653–654, 653f–654f, 653t
latent and sensible heat, 642, 642f
temper colors, 642–643, 643f
Extension cords, 42–43, 42t, 43f
Extension lines, 484, 484t
Eye protection, 26, 27t, 28, 49–50
in CAC-A, 223
for flame cutting, 162
F
F, 696
F3 E6010 electrodes, 83
F3 E6011 electrodes, 83
F2 E6012 electrodes, 83
F2 E6013 electrodes, 83
F4 E7016 electrodes, 83
F4 E7018 electrodes, 83
Fabrication, 522–548. See also Practices, fabrication
assembly and, 537–539, 537f–539f
tools for, 539–541, 540f–541f
bill of materials and, 535, 535f
custom, 525, 525f
finishing for, 545–546
fitting and, 541–543, 541f–542f
introduction to, 522
kerf space for, 531–534, 532f–534f
layout for, 525–527, 526f–529f
material shapes and, 535, 535f
nesting and, 530, 531f–532f, 532t
parts and pieces for, 524–525, 524f–525f
process of, 523, 523f
safety for, 523–524, 523f
tack welds and, 544–545, 544f–545f
tolerance and, 535–537, 535f–537f
welding and, 544–545, 545f
Face bends, acceptance criteria for, 141–142, 599–600,
599f–600f
Face-centered cubic (FCC), 647
Face protection, 26, 27t, 28
Fatigue failures, 832
Fatigue resistance, 832, 833f
Fatigue testing, 576–577, 577f
Faying surface, 505
FCAW. See Flux cored arc welding
FCC. See Face-centered cubic
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), 370
Feed rollers, 265, 321–322, 322f
Ferries, 293–294
Ferrite, 648–649
Ferritic stainless steel, 675
Ferrous filler metals, 795
FHWA. See Federal Highway Administration
Fiberglass, 130f
Figure-8 weave pattern, 81f–82f, 82
Filler metals, 689
for aluminum, 405t
conserving, 405
cost of, 466
ferrous, 795
GMAW specifications for, 244
GTAW of pipe and, 434–436, 435f–436f
oxyfuel gases and, 782–797
with oxyfuel gas torch, 794–795
for soldering and brazing, 838–843, 839f–840f, 841t
930 Indexspecial purpose, 704–705
for stainless steel, 405t
Filler metal selection, 689–708
aluminum and aluminum alloys in, 704, 705t
aluminum bare welding rods and electrodes for, 704
aluminum-covered arc welding electrodes and, 704
AWS A5.01-93 document for, 707–708
AWS classifications for, 696, 697t
carbon steel and, 696–699
CE and, 691, 691f
flux covering functions and, 692, 692f–693f
guidelines for, 707–708
hydrogen embrittlement and, 706, 706f
introduction to, 689–690
manufacturers’ information on electrodes for, 690–691, 691f
data from chemical analysis, 691
data from mechanical tests, 690
understanding, 690
nonferrous electrodes and, 704, 705t
SMAW and
electrode selection in, 693–694, 694f, 695t
operating information for, 691–692, 692f
solid wire and, 699–700, 701f
special purpose filler metals in, 704–705
stainless steel electrodes and, 701, 702t–703t, 704
surface and buildup electrode classification for, 705–706
tubular wires and, 700–701, 700f–701f
Filler pass, 114–116, 115f, 327, 327f
in advanced shielded metal arc welding, 136–138, 137f–138f
GTAW of pipe and, 444, 444f
Filler rod manipulation, 399–401, 400f
Fillet welds, 331–336, 331f–336f, 508, 508f–509f
break test for, 581, 582f
costs of, 468–469, 468f
weld joint design and, 512–513, 512f–513f
Fincantieri, 230
Finishing costs, 466
Fire extinguishers
location of, 37, 37f
types of, 36–37, 36f–37f
use of, 37, 38f
Fire protection, 35–37, 36f–37f
Fire watch, 36
Fischel, Walter, 20–21
Fitting
fabrication and, 541–543, 541f–542f
oxyfuel welding equipment, setup, operation
and, 768–769, 769f
for pressure regulator and cylinder pressure, 760–761, 760f–761f
Fit-up
in pipe welding, 111–112, 111f–113f
poor, 152–154, 153f
Fixed inclined pipe position, 123–125, 123f–124f
Fixtures, 540–541, 541f, 725
Flame cutting, 14, 160–189. See also Experiments,
flame cutting; Practices, flame cutting
applications of, 183–184, 184f–186f
chemistry of a cut in, 176, 177f
cutting table in, 180
cutting tips for, 164–167, 165f–169f, 165t–167t
cutting torches for, 162–163, 162f–165f
distortion in, 182–183, 182f–183f
eye protection for, 162
fuel gases used for, 161t
hand cutting and, 171–174, 171f–174f
introduction to, 161
layout in, 174–175, 174f–175f
manufacturer comparisons for, 164–165, 165t
metals cut by OFC and, 161
oxyfuel cutting, setup and operation for, 169–170, 169f–171f
physics of a cut in, 177–179, 177f–180f
pipe cutting and, 184, 186–187, 186f–187f
plate cutting and, 179–180, 180f
pressure setting for, 175, 175t, 176f
tip size for, 175, 175t
Flames
burning rates of, 785, 785t
fuel gas, 783
neutral, 790
oxidizing, 787
oxyacetylene hand torch adjustments for, 171f
oxyfuel, 783
oxyhydrogen, 792
parts of, 787, 787f
types of, 769–770
Flanged welds, 516, 517f
Flashback arrestor, 768, 768f
Flashbacks, 785
oxyfuel welding equipment, setup, operation and, 766–767
Flash glasses, 26
Flash welding (FW), 732, 732f
Flat butt joint, 808
Flat-position welds, 322, 323f, 323t
Flat Type 409 stainless steel blanks, 565–566
Flowmeter, for GTAW, 384, 384f
Flow rates, 268
Flow welding, 6, 6f
Flux(es), 304–307, 304f–306f, 305t–306t
bonded, 364
cellulose-based, 83
classification of, 364, 364f
conditioning, 371–372
costs of, 469–470, 470t
covering, 692, 692f–693f
fluxing action, 835
fused, 364
general, 834–835, 834f–835f
granular, 362
handling of, 371–372
lime-based, 305
mechanically mixed, 364
mineral-based, 83
rutile-based, 83, 305
soldering and brazing and, 834–835, 834f–835f
storage of, 364
types of, 364
welding characteristics of, 305t
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW), 8, 10, 318–359. See also Practices,
flux cored arc welding; Ultrasonic plastic welding
advantages of, 300–301, 301f
electrode extension and, 312, 312f
electrode feed and, 300
electrodes, 301–304
care of, 307
cast and helix, 303–304, 303f–304f
manufacturing methods for, 301–303, 302f–303f, 303t
equipment, setup and operation for, 296–317
fillet welds and, 331–336, 331f–336f
flat-position welds for, 322, 323f, 323t
flux, 304–307, 304f–306f, 305t–306t
hardfacing method with, 748
horizontal welds for, 341, 342f–346f, 343–347
Index 931Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) (Continued)
introduction to, 296–297, 297f, 318–319, 319f
limitations of, 301
overhead-position welds for, 347–350, 347f–350f
plug welds for, 356–357, 356f–357f
porosity in, 312–314, 313f–314f
power supply for, 299
principles of operation for, 297–299, 298f–299f
shielding gas and, 308, 308f
smoke extraction nozzles and, 297, 298f
square-groove welds for, 322–324, 324f–325f
thin-gauge welding for, 350–356, 350f–354f, 351t
troubleshooting for, 314, 314t
vertical welds for, 336–341, 337f–340f, 342f
V-groove and bevel-groove welds, 326–328, 326f–328f
welding guns for, 299–300, 300f
welding techniques for, 308–314
forehand/perpendicular/backhand, 309–311, 310f–311f
gun angle, 308–309, 309f
metal transfer modes, 311–312, 311f–312f
Flux-cored steel electrode identification, 306–307, 306f, 306t
Flux cored wires, 474
Fluxing action, 835
Fluxing agents, 304
Foam extinguisher, 37
Foot protection, 34
Forced ventilation, 31–32, 31f
Forehand welding, 251–252, 251f
Forge welding, 5
Formulas, 458–460, 459f, 476–477
Fought, Joseph, 358
Fought & Co., 358–359
Fractions, 457, 458f, 462, 462f
common denominator for, 462, 462t
decimal, 457, 458f
decimals converted from, 463–464, 464f
decimals converted to, 464–465
multiplying and dividing, 463, 463t
reducing, 463
Franklin, Benjamin, 536
Free-bend test, 580, 581f
Fuel-gases, 783–785, 784f, 784t
flame, 783
liquefied, 788, 789t, 790f
Full face shield, 26
Fumes, 205
in CAC-A, 223
sources of, 30–31, 31f
Furnace soldering and brazing, 837, 837f
Fused fluxes, 364
Fusion welding, 5
incomplete, 432, 432f–433f
testing and, 571–572, 571f–572f
FW. See Flash welding
G
Gas coverage, 399
Gas density and flow rates, 268
Gases, 205. See also MAPP gas; Natural gas; Propane
costs of, 469–470, 470t
exothermic, 217
GMAW, metals compared to, 248t
GTAW of plate, flow of, 403–404, 403f, 404t
inert, 374
ionized, 192
MPS, 166, 788
oxyfuel, 782–797
for plasma arc cutting, 201–202, 202f, 202t
renewable, 249
torches and mixing, 763–764, 764f
in welding, 660–662, 661f
Gas hoses, 194, 196
Gas laser, 217, 217f
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 9–10, 211, 262–294.
See also Experiments, gas metal arc welding;
Practices, gas metal arc welding
arc-voltage and amperage characteristics for, 270–271, 271t
electrode extension and, 271–273, 272f, 272t–273t
equipment, setup, and operation of, 234–260
equipment for, 11f, 252–257, 252f–257f
filler metal specifications for, 244
flat position, 1G and 1F positions for, 277–280, 277t, 278f–281f
gas density and flow rates for, 268
gases compared to metals in, 248t
globular metal transfer, 1G position for, 288–291, 288f–290f
hardfacing method with, 748
horizontal 2G and 2F positions for, 284–286, 285f
hydrogen’s effects in, 260
introduction to, 234–236, 235f–236f, 262–263
metal preparation for, 277, 277f
metal transfer methods for, 236–243
axial spray, 238–239, 238f–239f, 239t, 291–292,
291f–292f, 291t
globular transfer, 238, 238f
pulsed-arc, 239–243, 240f–241f
short-circuiting transfer, 236–238, 237f
short-circuiting transfer power supplies, 246–247, 246f, 247t
molten weld pool control in, 247–252
overhead 4G and 4F positions for, 286–288, 286f–288f
penetration improvement for, 259–260
performing processes of, 235t
setup for, 263–267, 263f–267f
shielding gases and gas mixtures for, 275t–276t
shielding gases effecting, 274–275, 275t–276t
shielding gas flow rate in, 260
solid wire efficiency for, 473t, 474, 474t
spot welding in, 257–258, 258f
training for, 260
vertical down 3G and 3F positions for, 283–284, 284f
vertical up 3G and 3F positions for, 281–283, 282f
weave patterns for, 249
welding gun angle for, 273–274, 273f–274f
welding power supplies for, 244–245, 245f
wire melting and deposition rates in, 244
Gas shielded welding
FCAW, 318–359
equipment, setup and operation for, 296–317
GMAW, 262–294
equipment, setup, and operation of, 234–260
GTAW
equipment, setup, operation, and filler metals for, 374–396
of pipe, 429–452
of plate, 398–427
other welding processes, 361–372
Gas tungsten arc (GTA), 211
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 8–9. See also Experiments, gas
tungsten arc welding; Practices, gas tungsten arc welding
certification; Practices, gas tungsten arc welding of pipe;
Practices, gas tungsten arc welding of plate
application of, 425–427
Ar in, 387, 387f
932 Indexcurrent types for, 384–386, 385f–386f
equipment, setup, operation and filler metals
for, 374–396
equipment for, 10f
flowmeter for, 384, 384f
hardfacing method with, 748
helium in, 387
hoses for, 380–383, 382f–383f
hot start in, 388, 388f
hydrogen in, 387–388
introduction to, 374
nitrogen in, 388
nozzles for, 383–384, 383t
of pipe, 429–452
backing gas and, 433–434, 434f
cover pass and, 445–450, 445f–450f
cup walking and, 436–438, 437f–438f
filler metal and, 434–436, 435f–436f
filler pass and, 444, 444f
hot pass for, 440–443, 441f–443f
introduction to, 429, 430f
joint preparation for, 430–431, 430f–432f
root and, 431–433, 432f–433f
of plate, 398–427
current setting for, 401, 401t
filler rod manipulation for, 399–401, 400f
gas flow for, 403–404, 403f, 404t
introduction to, 398–399
metal preparation for, 406
practice welds for, 404–424
torch angle in, 399, 399f
tungsten contamination in, 401, 401f
postflow in, 388, 388f, 388t
preflow in, 388, 388f
remote controls for, 389–392, 389f–392f, 391t
shielding gases for, 386–388, 387f–388f
torches for, 380, 381f–382f
tungsten for, 374–376, 375f–376f
breaking and remelting, 378–379, 379f
chemical cleaning and pointing of, 379–380, 380f
electrode types, 376–377, 376t, 377f
pointing and remelting, 480
shaping, 377–380, 378f–380f
Gauge pressure, 759
General work clothing, 32–33, 32f–33f
Generators, 63–64, 64f
Germanischer Lloyd, 103
GFCI. See Ground-fault circuit interpreter
Gilden, Joe, 294
Glasses, safety, 26, 26f, 27t, 28
Globular transfer, 238, 238f
Gloves, 33, 33f
GMAW. See Gas metal arc welding
Goebel, Doyle, 751–752
Goggles
for eye protection with flame cutting, 162
safety glasses, 26, 26f, 27t, 28
Gold, 843
Gouging, 222, 222f. See also Cutting and gouging
Grain refinement, 656
Grain size control, 656
Granular fluxing, 362
Grapes, 433
Graphite, 221
Graph paper, 494–495, 494f–495f
Greater Lowell Technical High School, 859–862
Greer, Brian, 479, 520
Grinders, 44, 44f, 377–378, 378f
Grinding stone, 44, 44f, 377
Groove welds, 508, 508f–509f
costs of, 467–468, 468f
weld joint design and, 514–515, 515f–516f
Ground-fault circuit interpreter (GFCI), 42
GTA. See Gas tungsten arc
GTAW. See Gas tungsten arc welding
Guided-bend, 141
testing, 578–580, 579f–580f
procedure for, 580, 580f
Gun angle, 250–252, 251f–252f, 308–309, 309f.
See also Welding guns
Guns. See Welding guns
H
Hafnium, 220t
Hall, David, 212
Hammers, 39–40
Hand cutting, 171–174, 171f–174f
Hand protection, 33, 33f
Hand tools, 38–40, 38f–39f
Hardfacing, 745–748
carbon arc method of, 748
electrodes for, 747–748, 747f–748f
metal selection for, 745–746
processes of, 746–747, 746f
quality of surfacing deposit in, 747
SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW methods of, 748
Hardness, 643
precipitation hardening, 651
solid-solution hardening, 651, 651f
tests, 452, 591, 591f
Hard slag, 178
Hayden Planetarium, 394–396
HAZ. See Heat-affected zone
Hazards, 827
Head protection, 49
Heat. See also Temperature
of electrodes in plate welding, 76, 76f
excessive, 76–77
input, 197, 197t
in liquefied fuel-gases, 788
SMAW and, 56–57, 56f
welding metallurgy and, 641–642, 641f–642f
Heat-affected zone (HAZ), 71, 197, 212, 260, 658–660,
659f–660f, 691, 691f
Heat sink, 805
Heat treatments, 656–657
Heilbrunn Cosmic Pathway, 394
Helium, 243, 249
in GTAW, 387
Helix, 303–304
Helmets, 26, 28f
Henry, J.F., 686–687
Hidden lines, 482, 484t
High carbon steel, 673–674, 673f
High-frequency alternating current, 199
High-frequency resistance seam welding (RSEW-HF), 731
High manganese steel, 674, 674f
High-performance steel (HPS), 370–372
High-speed cutting tip, 164–165, 165f
Hippodrome’s Cultural Park, 427
Hoists, 46, 46f
Index 933Holes
filling, 851–853, 851f–853f
size of, 170
Homestead, Peter, 425–427
Horizontal fixed pipe position, 122–123, 122f–123f
Horizontal rolled pipe position, 116–120, 116f–120f
Horizontal stringer bead, 818, 818f
Horizontal welds, 341, 342f–346f, 343–347
OAW and, 818
Horns, 316
Hoses, 38
for GTAW, 380–383, 382f–383f
oxyfuel welding equipment, setup, operation, 768–769, 769f
Hot cracking, 662–663, 662f
Hot pass, 114
in advanced shielded metal arc welding, 134–136, 135f–136f
GTAW of pipe and, 440–443, 441f–443f
Hot start, in GTAW, 388, 388f
Hot surfaces, 184–185, 185f
HPS. See High-performance steel
HPS 70W, 370–372
Hydrocarbons, 783
Hydrochloric acid, 582
Hydrogen, 661
atomic, 706
for flame cutting, 161t
GMAW, effects of, 260
in GTAW, 387–388
molecular, 706
Hydrogen embrittlement, 706, 706f
I
Icicles, 114
IIW. See International Institute of Welding
Il Cavallo, 425–427
Impact testing, 582–583, 583f
IN, 696
Inclusions, 570, 570f
Incomplete fusion, 432, 432f–433f
testing and, 571–572, 571f–572f
Induction
resistance heating v., 686–687
soldering and brazing, 837–838, 838f
Industrial robots, 714–722. See also Welding automation
and robotics
equipment selection for, 718–721, 719f–722f
parts design for, 717–718, 717f–718f
present and future needs for, 717
programming of, 715–716, 717f
safety and, 721–722, 723f, 725
system planning for, 717–722, 718f–722f
Industrial Safety Equipment Association (ISEA), 49
Inert gas, 374
Inertia welding
advantages of, 738
characteristics of, 737–738, 737f–738f, 737t
process of, 735–736, 736f–737f
Infrared light, 25–26
Injector chamber, 763
Inner cone, 787, 787f
Integrated Support Command (ISC), 211–212
International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental,
and Reinforcing Iron Workers, 547
International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, 547
International Institute of Welding (IIW), 155
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 230
International Training Institute (ITI), 547
Interpass cold lap, 571
Interpass temperature, 152
Inverter, 63, 63f
Ionized gas, 192
Iron-carbon phase diagram, 647–650, 648f–650f, 648t
Ironworkers Welder Certification Program of North America, 547
Irregular shapes, 495, 495f
ISC. See Integrated Support Command
ISEA. See Industrial Safety Equipment Association
ISO. See International Organization for Standardization
Isometric drawing, 485
ITI. See International Training Institute
J
J-groove, 224–225, 224f
Jobs. See Occupational opportunities
Joining processes, 12
Joint design. See Weld joint design
Joint preparation testing, 570–571, 571f
Joints. See also Butt joint; Lap joint; Outside corner joint; Practices;
Square butt joint; Tee joint; Weld joint design
dimensions of, 505, 505f
GTAW preparation of, 430–431, 430f–432f
physical properties of, 832–834, 832f–833f
types of, 126, 503, 503f
welding costs and design of, 466–469, 466f–468f
Jones, Jay, 755
Joules, 197
J weave pattern, 81, 81f, 120
K
Kassabulan, John, 778
Kennedy Space Center, 478–479
Kerf, 199–201, 200f–202f, 201t
fabrication and, 531–534, 532f–534f
Keyhole, 131, 131f, 134, 826, 826f
Kindling point, 176
Kindling temperature, 801
Kirschman, Rick, 293–294
Kovac, Aleksander, 155f, 156
L
Labor cost, 466, 476, 476t
Lack of sidewall fusion, 571
Ladder safety, 47–48, 47t, 48f
Lamellar tears, 574, 575f
Lamination, 574, 574f
Land, 111
Lanthanum tungsten EWLa-1 electrode, 377
Lap joint, 96–99, 96f–99f, 331, 503, 503f
OAW and, 810–812, 810f–812f, 817, 819, 819f
Lap protection, 34
Laser beam cutting (LBC), 215–219
Laser beam drilling (LBD), 215, 218
Laser beams, 739, 739f
benefits of, 215
cutting, 215–219
drilling, 215, 217–218
equipment for, 219
gas laser, 217, 217f
in ship construction, 230–231
934 Indexsolid state laser, 216–217
types of, 216–217, 216f–217f
YAG laser, 216, 216f
Laser beam welds (LBW), 217–218, 219f, 738, 738f
advantages and disadvantages of, 739
Laser cutting system 6-kW CO2, 231
Layout, 174–175, 174f–175f
for fabrication, 525–527, 526f–529f
LBC. See Laser beam cutting
LBD. See Laser beam drilling
LBW. See Laser beam welds
Leaders, 484, 484t
Leading angle, 78–79, 78f–79f
Leads, 66–67
Lead-tin phase diagram, 646–647, 647f
Leak-detecting solution, 761, 762f
Leaks
checking, 591
detecting, 770
Leg protection, 34
Liberty Ships, 636–637
Lifting, 46, 46f
Light, 205
in CAC-A, 223
monochromatic, 215, 215f
Lime-based fluxes, 305
Linear electrode feed system, 254
Line burner, 163, 164f–165f
Lines, 482–484, 484t, 485f
Liquefied fuel-gases, 788, 789t, 790f
MAPP gas, 788, 790f
MPS gas, 788
pressure of, 788, 789t
temperature and heat in, 788
Liquid phase, 646
Liquid-solid phase, 646, 830
Ljubljana, Slovenia, 155–156
Lloyds Register of Shipping, 103
Locking pliers, 540, 540f
Low alloy gas welding rods, 795
Low alloy steels, 674
Low carbon steel, 671–672
Lower transformation temperature, 648
Low-fuming alloys, 842
M
Machine cutting, 203–204, 203f–204f
Machine cutting torch, 163, 164f–165f
Machine joining, 12
welding automation and robotics and, 713,
714f–715f
Magnesium
alloys, 220t, 670t, 706
weldability of, 682
Magnetic flux lines, 59, 59f
Magnetic particle inspection (MT), 584–585, 585f
Malleable cast iron, 676
Manganese, 691
Manifold system, 775–777, 776f–777f
Mannings USA, 686
MANTECH, 231
Manual cutting, 205
Manual joining, 12
welding automation and robotics and, 711, 711f–712f, 712t
Manufacturers’ information on electrodes, 690–691, 691f
MAPP gas, 788, 790–791, 790f–791f, 792t
for flame cutting, 161t
Martensite, 654–655, 654f–656f
Martensitic reactions, 654–655, 654f–656f
Martensitic stainless steel, 675
Martin Creek Bridge, 371
Material cost, 466
Material handling, 46–47, 46f
Material safety data sheets (MSDSs), 32, 173
Material shapes, 527, 528f
fabrication and, 535, 535f
Math. See Shop math
Mathematical operations, sequence of, 459
Matter, structure of, 645–646, 645f–646f, 645t
McDaniel, Fred, 479, 520
McNulty, A.J., 395
Measuring, 465, 465f
Mechanical drawings, 482–490
reading, 489–490, 490t
Mechanically mixed fluxes, 364
Mechanical mixtures of phases, 652, 652f
Mechanical testing, 568
data from, 691
Medium carbon steel, 673
Merchant Marine Act of 1936, 636
Metal cored steel electrode identification, 307
Metal cored welding wire, 478–479, 519–520
Metal cutting machines, 45–46, 45f
Metal fatigue, 664
Metal fracture, 664
Metal inert gas welding, 259. See also Gas metal arc welding
Metallurgy, 641. See also Welding metallurgy
Metal preparation, for GMAW, 277, 277f
Metals, 198. See also Weldability of metals
allotropic, 647
CAC-A procedures for cutting, 220t
crystalline structures of, 645–646, 645f–646f, 645t
GMAW, gases compared to, 248t
GTAW of plate, preparation of, 406
hardfacing and selection of, 745–746
mechanical properties of, 643–645, 646f, 677t
nonferrous, 681–682
OFC process cutting, 161
sprayed
applying, 742
welding costs of, 469, 469f, 469t
weld joint design and
thickness of, 505–507, 506f–507f
type of, 507
Metal transfer
axial spray, 238–239, 238f–239f, 239t, 291–292,
291f–292f, 291t
FCAW welding techniques and mode of, 311–312,
311f–312f
globular transfer, 238, 238f
in GMAW, 236–243
pulsed-arc, 239–240, 240f
advantages and disadvantages of, 242–243
current cycle in, 240–242, 241f
short-circuiting transfer, 236–238, 237f
power supplies for, 246–247, 246f, 247t
Met-Con, Inc., 478–479, 520
Methylacetylene-propadiene (MPS), 166, 788
Metric units (SI), 17, 17t–19t, 456, 457t
Meyer Werft, 230–231
Miami Diver, 102–104
Index 935MIL. See Department of Defense Military Specification
Mild steel
low alloy gas welding rods and, 795
low carbon and, 404–405, 404f, 404t
OAW and, 799–801, 799f–800f, 820, 821f
Miller, Paul, 395
Miller, Vic, 212
Miller Electric Manufacturing Inc., 686
Mineral-based fluxes, 83
Minimum tensile strength, 690
Mixed units, 457, 460
adding and subtracting, 460–462, 460f–462f, 461t
Mixing chamber, 763
Moisture, 205
Molecular hydrogen, 706
Molecules, 783
Molten weld pool, 131, 800, 800f
control, 247–252
Molybdenum, 691
Monitors, confined space, 827–829
Monochromatic light, 215, 215f
Movable coil/core, 62, 63f
MPS. See Methylacetylene-propadiene
MSDSs. See Material safety data sheets
MT. See Magnetic particle inspection
Multiple-coil machine, 61, 61f
Multiple pass weld, 129
Multiple-spot welders, 729–730, 729f–730f
N
NASA, 125–127, 478–479, 519–520. See also Space Shuttle
National Association of Construction Boilermaker Employees, 547
National Bureau of Standards, 162
National Geographic, 425
National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), 687
Natural gas, 791–792
for flame cutting, 161t
Natural ventilation, 31, 31f
Navy, U.S., 231, 370
Navy Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH), 231
NDT. See Nondestructive testing
Needle-like acicular structure, 654, 654f
Nesting, 527
fabrication and, 530, 531f–532f, 532t
Neutral flame, 790
Newport News Shipbuilding Company, 636
Nick-break test, 577–578, 578f
Nickel, 220t, 670t, 691
Nickel alloys, 220t
A5.14, 843
Nitric acid, 582
Nitrogen, 202t, 249, 661
in GTAW, 388
Noise, 205
in CAC-A, 223
Nondestructive testing (NDT), 516–517, 517f–518f,
517t, 568, 583–591, 584f–591f
Nonferrous electrodes, 704, 705t
Nonferrous metals, 681–682
Norfolk Southern Corporation, 547
Normalizing, 658, 658f
Nozzles
for GTAW, 383–384, 383t
insulator, 194
tip, 194, 194f
NRIM. See National Research Institute for Metals
Numerator, 457
Numerical control oxygen cutting machine, 14f
O
OAW. See Oxyacetylene welding
Object lines, 482
O’Brien, Michael V., 778–780
OC. See Oxygen cutting
Occupational opportunities
skills for, 16t
training for, 14–15
welding job classifications for, 13–14
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 24, 49, 827
Odense Lindo Steel, 230
OFC. See Oxyfuel gas cutting
Offshore piping system, 451–452
OFW. See Oxyfuel gas welding
Ohm’s law, 56f, 196, 196f
Oil refineries, 107, 107f
Open circuit voltage, 58–59, 58f
Operating factor, 474–476, 475f–476f, 475t–476t
Operating voltage, 58f, 59
Operator check out, 206
Operator interface, 725
Optical pyrometer, 783
Orbital Sciences Corp., 125–126
Orifice, 170
Orthographic projections, 485. See also Mechanical drawings
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Outer envelope, 787, 787f
Out-of-position welding, 813–815
Outside corner joint, 93–95, 93f–96f, 503, 503f
OAW and, 807–808, 807f–808f
Overhead costs, 466, 476, 476t
Overhead-position welds, 347–350, 347f–350f
Overhead weld, 819
Overlap, 818
testing, 572–573, 572f
Overwelding, 125
Oxide layer, 401
Oxidizing flame, 787
Oxyacetylene hand torch, 162, 162f
flame adjustments for, 171f
Oxyacetylene welding (OAW), 10, 798–829. See also Experiments,
oxyacetylene welding; Practices, oxyacetylene welding
1G position in, 820–823, 821f–823f
2G position in, 824–825, 825f
5G position in, 823–824, 823f–824f
6G position in, 825–826, 825f–826f
butt joint and, 808–810, 808f–810f, 815–817, 816f, 819
confined space monitors and, 827–829
horizontal stringer bead in, 818, 818f
horizontal welds in, 818
introduction to, 798, 799f
lap joint in, 810–812, 810f–812f, 817, 819, 819f
mild steel pipe and tubing in, 820, 821f
mild steel welds in, 799–801, 799f–800f
out-of-position welding in, 813–815
outside corner joint in, 807–808, 807f–808f
overhead weld in, 819
stringer bead and, 819–820, 820f
tee joint in, 812–813, 813f–814f, 817–818, 817f, 819
thin-wall tubing in, 826, 826f
vertical welds in, 813–815, 814f
936 IndexOxyfuel. See also Practices, oxyfuel welding and cutting
equipment, setup, and operation
gases and filler metals, 782–797
OAW, 10, 798–829
soldering, brazing, and braze welding, 830–862
welding and cutting equipment, setup, operation
for, 756–780
Oxyfuel brazing (TB), 8, 10
Oxyfuel flame, 783
Oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC), 10–11
equipment for, 11f
metals cut by, 161
Oxyfuel gas torch, 763
filler metal and, 794–795
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW), 8
Oxyfuel welding, 746, 746f
Oxyfuel welding equipment, setup, operation, 756–780
backfires and, 766
flame types in, 769–770
flashback arrestor and, 768, 768f
flashbacks and, 766–767
hoses and fittings in, 768–769, 769f
introduction to, 756–757
leak detection and, 770
manifold system for, 775–777, 776f–777f
pressure regulators for, 757–762, 757f–762f, 759t
reverse flow valve and, 767–768, 767f
welding and cutting torches design and service for, 763–765,
763f–765f
welding and heating tips for, 765–766, 765f–766f, 765t
Oxygen, 275t, 661
Oxygen cutting (OC), 188–189
Oxygen lance cutting, 226–227, 226f
applications of, 227
safety with, 227
Oxyhydrogen, 792
Oxyhydrogen flame, 792
P
P91 steel, 686–687
PAPRs. See Powered air-purifying respirators
Part shape, 527
Paste range, 839–840, 839f
PAW. See Plasma arc welding
Pawloski, Stephan, 639
Pearlite, 649–650, 650f
Penetrant inspection (PT), 583–584, 584f
Penetration, 799
Peppa, Horst, 395–396
Percussion welding (PEW), 733, 733f
Perpendicular welding, 251–252, 251f
Personal protective equipment (PPE), 49
Peters, Kevin, 102–104
PEW. See Percussion welding
Phantom lines, 484, 484t
Phase diagrams, 646–650
iron-carbon, 647–650, 648f–650f, 648t
lead-tin, 646–647, 647f
Phases, 830
Phosphorus, 691
Physics of a cut, 177–179, 177f–180f
Piccolo tube, 788, 789f
Pick and place robots, 710
Pictorial drawings, 485, 487f
Pilot arc, 199
Pinch effect, 246
Pipe clamps, 540
Pipe cutting, 184, 186–187, 186f–187f
Pipe welding, 106–127. See also Practices, pipe welding
advantages of, 108, 110–111
long-lasting, 110
maintenance, 110
smooth flow, 110, 110f
strength, 110, 110f
weight, 111, 111f
electrodes in, 126
GTAW and, 429–452
high-pressure, 107
introduction of, 106–107
joint types in, 126
low-pressure, 107
material chemistry in, 126
material weldability in, 126
medium-pressure, 107
positions in
1G horizontal rolled position, 116–120, 116f–120f,
508, 509f
2G vertical fixed position, 120–122, 120f–121f,
508, 509f
5G horizontal fixed position, 122–123, 122f–123f,
508, 509f
6G 45° inclined position, 123–125, 123f–124f,
508, 509f
practice welds for, 112–116, 113f–116f
preparation and fit-up in, 111–112, 111f–113f
shielding/purge gas in, 126
tubing and, 107–111, 108f–111f, 126
weld standards for, 113–114
Pixels, 496
Plain carbon steels, 671
Plasma, 192
Plasma arc, 192
Plasma arc cutting, 11–12, 190–212. See also Practices,
plasma arc cutting
applications for, 198–203, 198f–202f, 201t–202t
arc plasma and, 192
compressed air and, 196–197
distortion in, 197, 197f–198f
equipment for, 12f
gases for, 201–202, 202f, 202t
heat input and, 197, 197t
introduction to, 190–191, 191f
kerf in, 199–201, 200f–202f, 201t
machine cutting for, 203–204, 203f–204f
manual cutting for, 205
plasma and, 192
plasma arc gouging and, 209, 209f
plasma torch in, 192–194, 192f–195f
power and gas cables in, 194, 195f, 196
power requirements in, 196, 196f
safety for, 205–206
starting methods for, 199
straight cuts in, 206, 206f
Plasma arc gouging, 209, 209f. See also Cutting and gouging
Plasma arc welding (PAW), 739–740, 739f
PlasmaCAM, 750–752
Plasma spraying, 742–743, 742f
Plasma torch, 192–194, 192f–195f
Plate
cutting, 179–180, 180f
GTAW of, 398–427
Index 937Plate welding, 73–104
arc length in, 77–78, 77f–78f
current settings for, 75, 75f, 75t
electrode angle in, 78–80, 78f
leading angle, 78–79, 78f–79f
trailing angle, 79–80, 79f–80f
electrode manipulation in, 80–82, 81f–82f
electrode size and heat in, 76, 76f
positions in, 508, 508f–509f
practice welds in, 82–83
electrodes for, 83
stringer beads and, 83–85, 83f–85f
welder and plate positioning in, 82, 82f
Plug welds, 356–357, 356f–357f
weld joint design and, 513, 513f
Pogorevc, Lojze, 156, 156f
Poisonous metal fumes, 198
Polshek, James Stewart, 394
Polshek Partnership Architects, 394
Porosity testing, 568–569, 569f–570f
Portable electronic tools, safety rules for, 43–45, 44f
Portable welders, 64–65, 64f, 65t
Positioners, 725
Postflow, in GTAW, 388, 388f, 388t
Postheating, 144, 152. See also Temperature
Postweld heat treatment (PWHT), 687
Power
checking, 828
cost of, 476
requirements, 196, 196f
settings, 249
sources of, 60–61, 60f–61f, 221, 253, 253f
types of, 57, 58f
Power cable, 194, 196f
Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs), 30, 30f
Power supplies
for FCAW, 299
for GMAW, 244–245, 245f
Power switch, 193
PPE. See Personal protective equipment
PQR. See Procedure Qualification Record
Practices, 15, 17. See also Experiments
cover bead in all positions, 138–139
multiple pass filler weld on V-joint in all positions,
137, 137f–138f
using E7018 electrodes, 137–138
multiple pass filler weld on V-joint in all positions,
137–138, 137f–138f
open root weld on plate using step technique
in all positions, 133–134, 134f, 134t
poor fit-up, 153–154, 153f
root pass
on plate with backing strip in all positions,
131–132, 132f
on plate with open root in all positions, 132–133, 133f
single V-groove open root butt joint
with decreasing root opening, 153–154
with increasing root opening, 153, 153f
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), 144–151, 145f–147f,
149f–150f, 152f
Practices, cast iron
arc welding a cast iron break
with preheating or postheating, 677–679, 678f–679f
without preheating or postheating, 679, 679f
arc welding a cast iron crack
without preheating or postheating, 679–680, 679f–680f
braze welding a cast iron crack
with preheating or postheating, 680–681
gas welding a cast iron break
with preheating or postheating, 680
Practices, certification
FCAW
gas shielded, 619–621, 619f, 620t, 621f
self-shielded, 621–623, 622f–623f, 622t
GMAW
short-circuit metal transfer, 608–609, 608f, 609t, 610f,
613–615, 613f, 614t, 615f
spray transfer, 610–612, 611f–612f, 611t, 616–618,
616f–618f, 617t
GTAW
on aluminum, 630–632, 631f–632f, 631t
on plain carbon steel, 624–626, 625f–626f, 625t
on stainless steel, 627–629, 628f–629f, 628t
limited thickness welder performance qualification test
plate without backing, 605–607, 606f–607f, 606t
SMAW workmanship sample and welder qualification test plate
for limited thickness horizontal and vertical
positions with E7018 electrodes, 601–605, 602f,
603t, 604f–605f
welder and welder operator qualification test record, 633–635,
633f–634f, 634t–635t
Practices, cutting processes
air carbon arc back gouging in flat position, 225, 225f
air carbon arc edge J-groove in flat position, 224–225, 224f
air carbon arc straight U-groove in flat position, 223–224, 224f
air carbon arc weld removal in flat position, 225–226, 226f
Practices, drawing
sketching
a block, 492, 492f–493f
a candlestick holder, 492–493, 494f
circles and arcs, 491–492, 491f
curves and irregular shapes, 495, 495f
straight lines, 490–491, 491f
Practices, fabrication
allowing space for kerf, 531–534, 532f–534f
bill of materials, 530, 532t
laying out circles, arcs, and curves, 527, 529, 531f
laying out square, rectangular and triangular parts, 527,
529f–530f
nesting layout, 530, 532f
Practices, flame cutting
beveling a plate, 182–183
cleaning a cutting tip, 169–170, 170f
cutting out internal and external shapes, 184, 185f–186f
flame cutting holes, 181–182
flat straight cut
in sheet metal, 181, 181f
in thick plate, 181
in thin plate, 181
lighting torch, 170, 171f
overhead straight cut, 183
setting gas pressures, 175, 176f
setting up a cutting torch, 169, 169f
square cut on pipe
1G position, 184, 186–187
2G position, 187, 187f
5G position, 187
vertical straight cut, 183
Practices, flux cored arc welding, 319
butt joint 1G, 324, 325f, 328, 328f–330f, 330t, 351, 351f, 351t
100% to be tested, 324, 325f, 326, 329, 329f, 331–333,
331f–333f, 351–352, 352f
938 Indexbutt joint 2G, 345–346, 345f–346f, 355
100% to be tested, 345–347, 355
butt joint 3G, 337–339, 338f
100% to be tested, 337–340, 338f–340f, 354
butt joint 4G, 347–348, 347f–348f, 355
100% to be tested, 347–349, 355
butt joint at 45° vertical up angle, 339
certification
gas shielded, 619–621, 619f, 620t, 621f
self-shielded, 621–623, 622f–623f, 622t
equipment setup, 319–321, 320f–321f
fillet weld joint
at 45° vertical up angle, 340–341, 340f
lap joint and tee joint 1F, 333, 334f, 352
100% to be tested, 333, 335f, 352–354, 353f–354f
lap joint and tee joint 2F, 341, 342f, 343, 343f, 354
100% to be tested, 343–344, 355
lap joint and tee joint 3F, 341, 354
100% to be tested, 341, 354
lap joint and tee joint 4F, 349, 349f–350f, 355
100% to be tested, 349, 356
plug weld, 356–357, 357f
stringer beads
at 45° horizontal angle, 344, 344f
flat position, 322, 323f, 323t
tee joint 1F, 336
100% to be tested, 336, 336f
tee joint 2F, 344
100% to be tested, 344
tee joint 3F, 341
100% to be tested, 341, 342f
tee joint 4F, 350
100% to be tested, 350
threading wire, 321–322, 321f–323f
Practices, gas metal arc welding, 276–277
butt joint, 288, 289f–290f, 290
with 100% penetration, 290
to be tested, 290
butt joint, lap joint, and tee joint
in flat position, 279–281
in horizontal position, 285
in overhead position, 287
using axial spray method, 292, 292f
in vertical down position, 284
in vertical up position, 283
butt joint and tee joint, 292
in horizontal position, 285–286
in overhead position, 287–288, 288f
in vertical down position, 284
certification
short-circuit metal transfer, 608–609, 608f, 609t,
610f, 613–615, 613f, 614t, 615f
spray transfer, 610–612, 611f–612f, 611t, 616–618,
616f–618f, 617t
equipment setup, 263–265, 263f–266f
horizontal stringer bead at 45° angle, 284–285, 285f
stringer beads, 288, 288f–289f
1G position, 291–292, 291f, 291t
at a 45° vertical down angle, 283–284, 284f
at a 45° vertical up angle, 281–282, 282f
in horizontal position, 285
overhead position, 286–287, 286f–287f
short-circuiting metal transfer method in flat
position, 277–278, 277t, 278f
in vertical down position, 284
in vertical up position, 282–283
tee joint and lap joint
in 2F position, 291
in IF position, 291, 291f
threading GMAW wire, 265–267, 266f–267f
Practices, gas tungsten arc welding certification
on aluminum, 630–632, 631f–632f, 631t
on plain carbon steel, 624–626, 625f–626f, 625t
on stainless steel, 627–629, 628f–629f, 628t
Practices, gas tungsten arc welding of pipe, 430
cover pass (1G position), 445, 445f
filler pass (1G position), 444, 444f
root pass, horizontal rolled position (1G), 439–440, 439f–440f
single V-butt joint
2G position, 448–449, 449f
5G position, 447–448, 447f–448f
6G position, 450, 450f
single V-groove pipe weld, 1G position, to be tested,
446, 446f
stringer bead
on fixed pipe at 45° inclined angle (6G position),
449, 449f
horizontal fixed position (5G), 446–447
horizontal rolled position (1G), 441–443, 441f–443f
vertical fixed position (2G), 448, 448f
tack welding pipe, 435–436, 435f–437f
weave and lace beads, horizontal rolled position (1G),
443, 443f
Practices, gas tungsten arc welding of plate, 404–424
butt joint, 1G position
100% penetration, to be tested using mild steel,
stainless steel, aluminum, 412, 412f
with minimum distortion, using mild steel,
stainless steel, aluminum, 412–413, 412f–413f
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 411, 411f–412f
butt joint, 2G position
with 100% penetration, to be tested using mild steel, stainless
steel, aluminum, 422
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 421
butt joint, 3G position
with 100% penetration, to be tested using mild steel, stainless
steel, aluminum, 418
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 418
butt joint, 4G position
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 424
butt joint at 45° vertical angle
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 417–418
flat position using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 408–409, 408t–409t, 409f–410f
lap joint, 1F position
to be tested using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 413–414, 414f–415f
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 413, 413f
lap joint, 2F position
with 100% root penetration, to be tested using mild steel,
stainless steel, aluminum, 423
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 422, 422f
lap joint, 3F position
with 100% root penetration, to be tested using mild steel,
stainless steel, aluminum, 420
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 419, 420f
lap joint, 4F position
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 424
lap joint at 45° vertical angle
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 418–419, 419f
outside corner joint, 1G position, using mild steel,
stainless steel, aluminum, 410–411, 410f–411f
Index 939Practices, gas tungsten arc welding of plate (Continued)
stringer beads
2G position, using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 421
3G position using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 417, 418f
4G position, using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 423–424, 424f
at 45° reclining angle using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 421, 422f
at 45° vertical angle using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 417, 417f
flat position on aluminum, 407–408
flat position on mild steel, 406, 407f
flat position on stainless steel, 407
tee joint, 1F position
to be tested using mild steel, stainless steel,
aluminum, 416–417, 416f–417f
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 414,
415f–416f
tee joint, 2F position
with 100% root penetration, to be tested using
mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 423
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 423, 423f
tee joint, 3F position
with 100% penetration, to be tested using mild steel,
stainless steel, aluminum, 421
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 421
tee joint, 4F position
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 424
tee joint at 45° vertical angle
using mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, 420–421, 421f
Practices, oxyacetylene welding
beading, 805–806, 805f–806f
butt joint
1G position, 823, 823f
2G position, 825
5G position, 824, 824f
6G position, 826
at 45° angle, 815–816, 816f
with 100% penetration, 809
flat position, 808–809, 809f
horizontal position, 819
with minimum distortion, 810, 810f
overhead position, 820
vertical position, 816
vertical position, with 100% penetration, 816–817, 816f
horizontal stringer bead
at 45° angle, 818, 818f
lap joint
at 45° angle, 817
flat position, 811–812, 811f–812f
horizontal position, 819, 819f
overhead position, 820
vertical position, 817
outside corner joint, flat position, 807–808, 807f–808f
pushing a molten weld pool, 803, 803f
stringer bead
1G position, 822–823, 823f
2G position, 825, 825f
5G position, 824
6G position, 826, 826f
at 45°angle, 815, 815f
flat position, 806–807, 806f–807f
horizontal position, 818
overhead position, 820, 820f
vertical position, 815
tee joint
at 45° angle, 817–818, 817f
flat position, 813, 813f–814f
horizontal position, 819
overhead position, 820
vertical position, 818
Practices, oxyfuel welding and cutting equipment,
setup, and operation
setting up an oxyfuel torch set, 770–772, 770f–772f
shutting off and disassembling oxyfuel welding equipment, 775
turning on and testing a torch, 772–774, 773f–774f
Practices, pipe welding, 112–116, 113f–116f
beading, 1G position, 116–118, 117f
butt joint
1G position, 118–120, 118f–120f
2G position, 120–122, 121f
5G position, 123
6G position, 124–125. 124f
stringer bead
2G position, 120, 121f
5G position, 122–123, 123f
6G position, 124
Practices, plasma arc cutting
beveling of a plate, 208, 208f
cutting round stock, 210, 210f
flat, straight cuts
in thick plate, 206
in thin plate, 206, 207f
flat cutting holes, 208, 208f
U-grooving of a plate, 209–210, 209f
Practices, shielded metal arc welding
amperages
calculating, 62, 63f
estimating, 62, 62f
certification
SMAW workmanship sample and welder qualification
test plate for limited thickness horizontal and vertical
positions with E7018 electrodes, 601–605, 602f,
603t, 604f–605f
determining welding lead sizes, 66–67
edge joints
in flat position, 90, 90f
in horizontal position, 91–92, 91f
in overhead position, 92–93, 92f
in vertical down position, 90, 91f
in vertical up position, 91, 91f
outside corner joint
in flat position, 93
in horizontal position, 94–95, 95f
in overhead position, 95, 95f–96f
in vertical down position, 93, 94f
in vertical up position, 94, 94f
reading duty cycle chart, 65–66, 66f
repairing electrode holders, 67–68
safety, 73
square butt weld
horizontal, 89
vertical, 88, 88f–89f
stringer beads
in flat position, 84
horizontal, 85, 85f
in vertical up position, 84, 84f–85f
tee joint
in flat position, 100–101, 100f
in horizontal position, 101, 101f
in overhead position, 101
in vertical position, 101, 101f
940 Indexwelded lap joint
in flat position, 96–97, 97f–98f
in horizontal position, 98, 98f
in overhead position, 98–99, 99f
in vertical position, 98
welded square butt joint, 86, 87f–88f, 88
welds, 82–83
Practices, soldering and brazing
brazed butt joint, 846–847
with 100% penetration, 847, 847f
brazed lap joint, 847–848, 848f
with 100% penetration, 848–849, 848f
thin to thick metal, 849–850, 849f–850f
brazed stringer bead, 845–846, 846f
brazed tee joint, 847
thin to thick metal, 849, 849f
braze welded butt joint
thick metal, 850, 850f
braze welded tee joint
thick metal, 851, 851f
braze welding to fill hole, 851, 851f
flat surface buildup, 851–852, 852f
round surface buildup, 852–853, 852f–853f
silver brazing copper pipe
2G vertical down position, 853–854, 853f–854f
2G vertical up position, 855–856, 855f
5G horizontal fixed position, 855, 855f
soldered copper pipe
1G position, 857, 858f
2G vertical down position, 856–857, 857f–858f
4G vertical up position, 857
soldered lap joint, 856, 856f
soldered tee joint, 856
soldering aluminum to copper, 857–859, 858f–859f
Practices, welding codes and standards
procedure qualification record, 562–563, 564f
writing a welding procedure specification, 555–562,
556f–561f, 560t, 562t–563t
Practices, welding costs
finding groove volume, 468, 468f
finding weld weight of filler metal, 469, 469f
Prasad, Nirmal, 724
Precipitation hardening, 651
Preflow, in GTAW, 388, 388f
Preheating, 144, 144t. See also Temperature
carbon steel, 669t
flame, 166, 167f
holes, 166, 167t, 177
welding metallurgy and, 656–657, 657f, 657t
Pressure range, 108, 109f, 178
Pressure regulators, 757–762, 757f–762f, 759t
care and use of, 762, 762f
fittings for, 760–761, 760f–761f
operation of, 757–758, 757f–758f
regulator gauges for, 578–759, 579t, 759f
safety precautions for, 761–762, 762f
safety release valve or safety disc for, 759–760, 760f
Primary combustion, 784, 784f
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR), 552, 554f,
562–563, 564f, 796
Process cost, 466
Productivity improvement with welding automation
and robotics, 723–725
Project routing information, 482
Propane, 791–792
for flame cutting, 161t
Propylene, 161t
Protective zone, 399
Proulx, Rick, 479, 520
PT. See Penetrant inspection
Pull-type feed system, 254
Pulsed-arc metal transfer, 239–240, 240f
advantages and disadvantages of, 242–243
current cycle in, 240–242, 241f
Pulsed-spray transfer, 243
Punches, 45–46
Pure tungsten, EWP electrode, 376
Push-pull–type feed system, 254, 256f
Push-type feed system, 253–254, 255f
PWHT. See Postweld heat treatment
Q
QC. See Quality control
Qualification. See Welder certification
Quality control (QC), 568. See also Testing/inspection of welds
Quality of surfacing deposit, 747
Quenching, 652, 653f
R
R, 696
Radiographic inspection (RT), 585–590, 585f–590f
Ratheon, 519–520
RAV. See Rising arc voltage
RB, 696
Recrystallization temperature, 656
Rectifiers, 65, 65f
Reels, 303
Refractory alloys, 670t
Regulator gauges, 578–759, 579t, 759f.
See also Pressure regulators
Remote controls, for GTAW, 389–392, 389f–392f, 391t
Repair welding, 682–685, 683f–685f
Reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator, 714
Residual stress
welding metallurgy and
from grinding, 665
high temperature reducing, 665
shot peening for reducing, 665
from welding process, 664–665
Resistance heating, 686–687
Resistance projection welding (RPW), 731, 731f
Resistance soldering and brazing, 838–839
Resistance spot welding (RSW), 728–730, 728f–730f
Resistance welding (RW), 5, 499–500, 565–566, 728
Respiratory protection
equipment for, 29–30, 30f
fume sources, 30–31, 31f
safety and, 28–31
training for, 29
vapor sources and, 31
Reverse flow valve
care of, 768
oxyfuel welding equipment, setup, operation,
and, 767–768, 767f
RG, 696
Rieke, Kassandra, 455
Rina, 103
Rising arc voltage (RAV), 57
Robotics. See Industrial robots; Welding automation
and robotics
Rockwell hardness tester, 591, 591f
Roller coasters, 7f
Index 941Rollins, Ken R., 547
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 636
Root
concave root surface, 433
contamination, 433, 433f
excessive reinforcement of, 433
GTAW and, 431–433, 432f–433f
penetration, 431
reinforcement, 431–432, 432f
Root bends, acceptance criteria for, 141–142, 599–600, 599f–600f
Root face, 111, 323, 324f
Root gap, 111
Root pass, 114, 326–327, 326f–327f
in advanced shielded metal arc welding, 129–134,
129f–134f, 134t
Root suck back, 112
Root surface, concave, 112
Root weld, 114, 114f
Roper, Nathiel, 211–212
Rose Center for Earth and Space, 394–396
Rotated view, 487, 488f
Rounding, 465
RPW. See Resistance projection welding
RSEW. See Seam welding
RSEW-HF. See High-frequency resistance seam welding
RSW. See Resistance spot welding
RT. See Radiographic inspection
Rutile-based fluxes, 83, 305
RW. See Resistance welding
S
SAE. See Society of Automotive Engineers
Safety
burns and, 24–26
in CAC-A, 222–223
cylinder handling and storing for, 34–35, 34f–35f
ear protection and, 28
electrical, 40, 41f
systems for, 40, 42f
equipment maintenance and, 37–38
extension cords and, 42–43, 42t, 43f
eye protection and, 26, 27t, 28, 49–50
for fabrication, 523–524, 523f
face protection and, 26, 27t, 28
fire protection and, 35–37, 36f–37f
general work clothing for, 32–33, 32f–33f
hand tools, 38–40, 38f–39f
head protection and, 49
industrial robots and, 721–722, 723f, 725
ladders and, 47–48, 47t, 48f
material handling and, 46–47, 46f
metal cutting machines and, 45–46, 45f
MSDSs and, 32
oxygen lance cutting and, 227
for plasma arc cutting, 205–206
portable electronic tools rules for, 43–45, 44f
pressure regulators and, 761–762, 762f
respiratory protection and, 28–31
special protective clothing for, 33–34, 33f–34f
ventilation and, 29, 31–32, 31f
voltage warnings for, 42
welding and, 23–50
work area and, 38, 38f
Safety disc, 759–760, 760f
Safety glasses, 26, 26f, 27t, 28
Safety release valve, 759–760, 760f
SARs. See Supplied-air respirators
Saturn-1, 519
SAW. See Submerged arc welding
Scale, for drawings, 488–489, 489f
Scales of the Universe, 394–395
SCBA. See Self-contained breathing apparatus
Scrap cost, 466
Scrap metal, 73
Sculpture, 7f, 425–427
Sealey, M.D., 687
Seam welding (RSEW), 730, 730f–731f
Seam welds, 514, 515f
Seawater injection, 451–452
Secondary combustion, 784, 784f
Section lines, 484, 484t
Section view, 485, 487, 487f
Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), 29–30
Self-shielding electrode, 308
Semiautomatic joining, 12, 712–713, 712f–713f, 713t
Sensors, 827–828
Sequence of mathematical operations, 459
Set of drawings, 482, 483f
Shears, 45–46, 45f
Shear strength, 577, 577f–578f, 644, 832, 833f
Sheet Metal Workers International Association, 547
Sheffield, Bill, 519–520
Shelf, 813–814
Sherwood, Steve, 499, 565
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 8. See also Advanced shielded
metal arc welding; Experiments, shielded metal arc welding; Practices, shielded metal arc welding
advanced, 128–156
alternators and, 63–64, 64f
arc blow and, 59, 59f–60f
cables for, 66, 67t
current and, 55–56
duty cycle and, 65–66, 66f
edge joints in, 89–93, 89f–92f
electrode holders, 67, 68f
equipment for, 9f, 55–71
setting up, 68–69, 69f
filler metal selection and
electrode selection in, 693–694, 694f, 695t
operating information for, 691–692, 692f
generators and, 63–64, 64f
hardfacing method with, 748
heat of, 56–57, 56f
introduction to, 55, 55f, 73
lap joint in, 96–99, 96f–99f
offshore, 70–71
open circuit voltage and, 58–59, 58f
operating voltage and, 58f, 59
outside corner joint in, 93–95, 93f–96f
of pipe, 106–127
of plate, 73–104
power sources for, 60–61, 60f–61f
power types for, 57, 58f
rectifiers for, 65, 65f
square butt joint in, 86, 86f–87f
tee joint, 99–101, 99f–101f
temperature of, 56–57
work clamps for, 68, 68f–69f
Shielding gases for spray, 243, 247, 249, 304–305, 305f, 308, 308f
flow rate of, 260, 388–389, 389f, 389t
for GTAW, 386–388, 387f–388f
942 IndexShips, 6, 7f, 211–212, 293–294
laser beams in construction of, 230–231
Liberty Ships, 636–637
Shop math
conversion charts for, 463t, 465
equations and formulas for, 458–460, 459f
fractions for, 457, 458f, 462, 462f
common denominator and, 462, 462t
decimals converted from, 463–464, 464f
decimals converted to, 464–465
multiplying and dividing, 463, 463t
reducing, 463
introduction to, 456–457
measuring for, 465, 465f
mixed units for, 457, 460
adding and subtracting, 460–462, 460f–462f, 461t
numbers for
converting, 463–465
types of, 457
rules for, 457–458, 459t
Short-circuiting transfer, 236–238, 237f
power supplies for, 246–247, 246f, 247t
Shot-peened welds, 665–666
Shot peening
residual stress reduced with, 665
single-peened vs. dual-peened, 665–666
Siamese hose, 768
Sidewall fusion, lack of, 571
Silicon, 691
Silver, 843
Silver brazing, 842, 853–856, 853f–855f
Silver-copper alloy, 842
SI units, 17, 17t–19t
Sketching, 490–493, 490f–494f
SkillsUSA, 15
SkillsUSA Olympics, 15
Slag, 10, 134–135, 299, 299f, 570
angling aside, 179, 180f
composition of, 114
hard, 178
soft, 178
Slag formers, 304, 304f
Slope, 246–247
Slovenia, 155–156
SMAW. See Shielded metal arc welding
Smetana, Lawrence C., 395–396
Smoke extraction nozzles, 297, 298f
Soapstone, 174
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 552
classification system of, 671, 672t
Soft slag, 178
Soldering alloys, 840–841, 840f, 840t
Soldering and brazing, 830–862. See also Experiments, soldering
and brazing; Practices, soldering and brazing
advantages of, 831–832, 832f
building up surfaces and filling holes for, 851–853, 851f–853f
dip, 838, 838f
filler metals for, 838–843, 839f–840f, 841t
fluxes and, 834–835, 834f–835f
furnace, 837, 837f
induction, 837–838, 838f
introduction to, 830–831, 831f
joints physical properties for, 832–834, 832f–833f
methods of, 835–839, 836f–839f
resistance, 838–839
silver brazing in, 842, 853–856, 853f–855f
soldering practices, 856–859, 856f–859f
for statue restoration, 859–862
torches, 835–837, 836f–837f
weld joint design for, 834t, 843–844, 844f
Solid phase, 646
Solid-solution hardening, 651, 651f
Solid-solution phase, 646
Solid solutions, 646
Solid state lasers, 216–217
Solid wire
filler metal selection and, 699–700, 700f
GMAW, efficiency of, 473t, 474, 474t
SAW, efficiency of, 474
Space Launch Complex 37, 519–520
Space Shuttle, 6, 6f, 8f, 125–127, 478–479, 519–520
Spark gas oscillator, 386
Spark lighter, 774, 775f
Sparks, 184, 205–206
in CAC-A, 222–223
Spark test, 683–685, 683f–685f, 685t
Special protective clothing, 33–34, 33f–34f
Special-purpose filler metals, 704–705
Specialty clamps, 540, 541f
Special views, for drawings, 485, 487, 487f–488f
Specifications, 482, 551. See also Welding codes
and standards
Spheroidized microstructure, 655
Spool drag, 267
Spool gun, 255, 256f
Spools, 302–303
Spot welding, 257–258, 258f
machines for, 728–729, 729f
resistance, 728–730, 728f–730f
weld joint design and, 513–514, 514f
Square butt joint, 86, 86f–87f
Square butt weld, 88–89, 88f–89f
Square-groove welds, 322–324, 324f–325f
Stack cutting, 202
Stainless steel, 220t, 670t
electrodes, 701, 702t–703t, 704
ferritic, 675
filler metal for, 405t
martensitic, 675
setup and manipulation of, 405, 405t
weldability of metals and, 674–675, 675t, 676f
Staircases, 7f
Standards, 551. See also Welding codes and standards
Standoff distance, 198–199, 199f, 200f
Statue restoration, 859–862
Steel. See also Stainless steel
alloy, 671–674
low, 674
carbon, 671–674
high, 673–674, 673f
low, 671–672
medium, 673
plain, 671
chromium-molybdenum, 676, 686–687
classification of, 671, 672t
high manganese, 674, 674f
mild
low alloy gas welding rods and, 795
low carbon and, 404–405, 404f, 404t
OAW and, 799–801, 799f–800f, 820, 821f
tool, 674
Steel classification, 671, 672t
Index 943Steel electrode identification, 306–307, 306f
Step-down transformer, 60, 60f
Stickout, 249–250, 250f
Stopar, Rudi, 156, 156f
Straight cuts, 206, 206f
Straight step weave pattern, 81–82, 81f–82f
Strength, 643. See also Shear strength
Welding metallurgy and mechanisms for, 650–658
Stress, 644, 644f. See also Residual stress
relief, 657–658
Stress point, 432
Stringer beads, 83–85, 83f–85f, 327, 327f
horizontal, 818, 818f
OAW and, 819–820, 820f
Strip electrodes, 363
Stud welding (SW), 740
Submerged arc welding (SAW), 362, 362f, 371
advantages of, 364–365
disadvantages of, 365
experiments for, 366–367, 367f
handheld, 366, 366f
introduction to, 361
solid wire efficiency for, 474
Sulfur, 691
Sunshine Sign Co., 779
Supplied-air respirators (SARs), 29–30
Surface contamination, in CAC-A, 223
Surface tension, 401, 401f
SW. See Stud welding
Swain, R.A., 686–687
Symbols, 19t
Synchronized waveform, 215
Synergic systems, 240
T
Tables
for cutting, 180
water, 203–204, 204f
Tack welders, 13, 13f
Tack welds, 544–545, 544f–545f
Tallix Foundry, 425–427
Tap-type transformer, 61, 61f
TB. See Oxyfuel brazing; Torch brazing
TEA-21. See Transportation Equity Act for 21st Century
Tee joint, 99–101, 99f–101f, 331, 503, 503f
OAW and, 812–813, 813f–814f, 817–818, 817f, 819
Temperature
color and, 642–643, 643f
interpass, 152
kindling, 801
in liquefied fuel-gases, 788
lower transformation, 648
recrystallization, 656
residual stress reduced by high, 665
SMAW and, 56–57
upper transformation, 650
welding metallurgy and, 642–643, 642f–643f
Tempering, 653–654, 653f–654f, 653t
Tensile
strength, 643, 832, 833t
minimum, 690
testing, 575–576, 575f–576f, 576t
Testing/inspection of welds, 567–594.
See also Welder certification; Weld test
corrosion, 452
discontinuities and defects, 568–574, 569f–575f, 569t
arc strikes, 572, 572f
crater cracks, 573, 573f–574f
delamination, 574
inadequate joint preparation, 570–571, 571f
inclusions, 570, 570f
incomplete fusion, 571–572, 571f–572f
lamellar tears, 574, 575f
lamination, 574, 574f
overlap, 572–573, 572f
plate-generated problems, 573–574
porosity testing, 568–569, 569f–570f
undercut, 573, 573f
underfill, 573, 574f
DT, 575–583, 575f–583f, 576t
alternate bend test, 580
etching testing, 582
fatigue testing, 576–577, 577f
fillet weld break test, 581, 582f
free-bend test, 580, 581f
guided-bend test, 578–580, 579f–580f
impact testing, 582–583, 583f
nick-break test, 577–578, 578f
shearing strength of welds, 577, 577f–578f
tensile testing, 575–576, 575f–576f, 576t
welded butt joints, 577–580, 578f–581f
hardness, 452
introduction to, 567
mechanical testing, 568
data from, 691
NDT, 516–517, 517f–518f, 517t, 568, 583–591, 584f–591f
ET, 591
hardness tests, 452, 591, 591f
leak checking, 591
MT, 584–585, 585f
PT, 583–584, 584f
RT, 585–590, 585f–590f
UT, 590–591, 590f
VT, 583
QC, 568
Thermal cutting processes, 11–12
Thermal effects of arc welding, 658–660, 659f–660f
Thermal spraying (THSP), 740, 740f
equipment for, 740–741, 740f–741f
powder process for, 741–742
sprayed metal applications in, 742
thermospray gun for, 741–742, 741f
torch spraying and, 742, 742f
Thermite welding (TW), 743–745, 743f–745f
Thermospray gun, 741–742, 741f
Thin-gauge welding, 350–356, 350f–354f, 351t
Thin-wall tubing, 826, 826f
Thoriated tungsten EWTh-1 and EWTh-2 electrodes, 376–377, 377f
THSP. See Thermal spraying
Time, 648
Time-temperature-transformation charts (TTT), 656
Tin-antimony alloy, 841
Tin-lead alloy, 840–841, 841t
Tips
cleaners, 166, 166t
cleaning, 185
cutting, 164–167, 165f–169f, 165t–167t
pressure and size selection of, 175, 175t
Titanium, 220t, 670t
inspection tools for, 592–594
weldability of, 682
944 IndexTitle box, 482
Tolerances, 463–464, 464t, 527, 568.
See also Testing/inspection of welds
fabrication and overall, 535–537, 535f–537f
Tool steel, 674
Torch body, 192–193, 192f
Torch brazing (TB), 8, 10
Torches
angle, 799, 800f
care and use of, 764–765, 765f
combination welding and cutting, 763, 763f
cutting, 162–163, 162f–165f, 763
equal-pressure, 163
gas mixing for, 763–764, 764f
for GTAW, 380, 381f–382f
GTAW of plate and angle for, 399, 399f
guides, 180–181, 180f–181f
machine cutting, 163, 164f–165f
manipulation of, 800, 800f
manual design of, 220–221, 220f–221f
oxyacetylene hand, 162, 162f
flame adjustments for, 171f
oxyfuel gas, 763
filler metal and, 794–795
oxyfuel welding and cutting design and service
for, 763–765, 763f–765f
parts of, 193–194, 193f–194f
plasma, 192–194, 192f–195f
soldering and brazing, 835–837, 836f–837f
tip care and use for, 766, 766f
tip size of, 799
turning on and testing, 772–774, 773f–774f
Torch head, 193, 193f
Torch spraying, 742, 742f
Torsional strength, 644
Toughness, 643
Trailing angle, 79–80, 79f–80f
Trailing edge, 814, 814f
Training. See Welder certification
Transformation range, 648
Transformers
step-down, 60, 60f
tap-type, 61, 61f
Transition current, 238–239, 239f
Transportation Equity Act for 21st Century
(TEA-21), 371
Travel speed, 249, 311
TTT. See Time-temperature-transformation charts
Tubing, 107–111, 108f–111f, 126
OAW and mild steel, 820, 821f
thin-wall, 826, 826f
water, 196
Tubular wires, 700–701, 700f–701f
Tungsten. See also Gas tungsten arc welding
contamination of, 401, 401f
for GTAW, 374–376, 375f–376f
breaking and remelting, 378–379, 379f
chemical cleaning and pointing of, 379–380, 380f
electrode types, 376–377, 376t, 377f
pointing and remelting, 480
shaping, 377–380, 378f–380f
TW. See Thermite welding
T weave pattern, 81, 81f
Twisted wire, 363, 363f
Two-stage regulators, 758, 758f
Type A fire extinguishers, 36, 36f
Type B fire extinguishers, 36, 36f
Type C fire extinguishers, 36, 36f
Type D fire extinguishers, 37, 37f
U
U-grooving, 223–224, 224f
of plate, 209–210, 209f
UL. See Underwriters Laboratories
Ultimate strength, 644
Ultrasonic inspection (UT), 590–591, 590f
Ultrasonic plastic welding
applications of, 317
equipment for, 315–316
horns in, 316
joint design in, 316
part features in, 316–317
part size in, 316
principles of operation for, 315
Ultrasonic welding (UW), 734–735, 735f
applications of, 735, 735f
Ultraviolet light, 25–26
Undercut, 573, 573f, 818
Underfill, 573, 574f
Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 47
Unified numbering system (UNS), 671
Uniform product code (UPC), 215, 215f
Unit cell, 645
United Association Pipefitters’ Welder Certification
Program, 547–548
UNS. See Unified numbering system
UPC. See Uniform product code
Upper transformation temperature, 650
Upset welding (UW), 732–733, 732f
UT. See Ultrasonic inspection
UW. See Ultrasonic welding; Upset welding
V
Valve packing, 765, 765f
Valve protection caps, 35
Vapors, 31
Vaughan, Mike, 159
Vector lines, 496
Ventilation, 29, 31–32, 31f
Venturi, 163
Versa 4 work cell, 724
Vertical fixed pipe position, 120–122,
120f–121f
Vertical welds, 336–341, 337f–340f, 342f
OAW and, 813–815, 814f
V-groove welds, 326–328, 326f–328f
Visible light, 25–26
Visual inspection (VT), 583
VOCs. See Volatile organic compounds
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 546
Voltage, 244, 336–337
of current, 56
open circuit, 58–59, 58f
operating, 58f, 59
in plasma arc cutting, 196, 196f
range, 337
warnings for, 40, 41f
Volt-ampere curve, 246
Vosper-Thornycroft, 230
VT. See Visual inspection
Index 945W
Wagon tracks, 135, 135f
Waist protection, 34
Waldhauser, Robert, 358–359
Walker Manufacturing, 499, 565
Warning labels, 40, 41f
Washing, in CAC-A, 222, 223f
Waste material disposal, 32
Water-cooled dams, 367, 368f
Water-cooled welding gun, 299–300, 300f
Water jet cutting, 227, 228f
Water shroud, 194
Water tables, 203–204, 204f
Water tubing, 196
Wattage
of current, 56, 56f
in plasma arc cutting, 196, 196f
Weave beads, 327, 327f
Weave patterns, 80–82, 81f–82f
GMAW, 249
Weldability of metals, 668–687
aluminum and, 681–682
carbon and alloy steels and, 671–674
cast iron and, 676–681, 677f–680f, 677t–678t
chromium-molybdenum steel and, 676, 686–687
copper and copper alloys in, 681
definition of, 668
high manganese steel and, 674, 674f
introduction to, 668–669, 669f, 669t–670t
low alloy steel and, 674
magnesium and, 682
nonferrous metals and, 681–682
repair welding and, 683–685, 683f–685f, 685t
stainless steel and, 674–675, 675t, 676f
steel classification and identification for, 671, 672t
titanium and, 682
tool steel and, 674
Weld-backing, 365–366, 366f
Weld bead, restarting, 142–144, 143f–144f, 600–601, 600f–601f
Weld color
importance of, 592–594
tools for inspecting, 594
Weld crater, 800
Welded lap joint, 96–99, 96f–99f
Welder and welder operator qualification test record (WQR),
633–635, 633f–634f, 634t–635t
Welder certification, 13, 596–637. See also Occupational
opportunities; Practices, certification
AWS levels for, 15
entry-level welder qualification, 597
complications of, 546–548
introduction to, 596–597
practical knowledge for, 597–598
practice instructions for, 598, 598f
practices for, 601–635
preparing specimens for testing and, 599–600, 599f–600f
restarting weld bead for, 600–601, 600f–601f
WQR, 633–635, 633f–634f, 634t–635t
Welder fitters, 13
Welder performance qualification, 597
Welders
job classifications for, 13–14
plate welding, positioning of plate and, 82, 82f
skills for, 16t
skills of, 509
Weld groove, 139, 140f
Welding
advanced shielded metal arc, 128–156
all-position, 301
artists in, 155–156
attitude for success in, 3
backhand, 251–252, 251f–252f
cables for, 66, 67t
definition of, 5–6
fabrication and, 544–545, 545f
flux classifications and characteristics of, 305t
forehand, 251–252, 251f
gases in, 660–662, 661f
history of, 4–5, 155–156
introduction to, 4–21
joining process selection for, 12
occupational opportunities in, 13–14
out-of-position, 813–815
parameters, 351t
perpendicular, 251–252, 251f
of pipe, 106–127
of plate, 73–104
positions, 507–508, 508f–509f
processes of, 8–10, 9t
joint design and, 505
repair, 683–685, 683f–685f, 685t
safety and, 23–50
spot, 257–258, 258f
training for, 14–15
uphill/downhill, 122
uses of, 6, 6f–7f, 8
video series for, 17, 17f
wet, 102–104
wire, 235
Welding automation and robotics, 710–725
automated joining and, 713
automatic joining and, 713, 715f
future automation in, 723
improving productivity with, 723–725
industrial robots and, 714–722
equipment selection for, 718–721, 719f–722f
parts design for, 717–718, 717f–718f
present and future needs for, 717
programming of, 715–716, 717f
safety and, 721–722, 723f, 725
system planning for, 717–722, 718f–722f
introduction to, 710–711
machine joining and, 713, 714f–715f
manual joining and, 711, 711f–712f, 712t
semiautomatic joining and, 712–713, 712f–713f, 713t
Welding codes and standards, 550–566. See also Practices, welding
codes and standards; Welding Procedure Specification
general information for, 555–563, 556f–561f, 560t,
562t–563t, 564f
introduction to, 550
organizations publishing, 551–552
Welding costs. See Costs
Welding curtains, 25–26, 25f
Welding engineers, 13–14
Welding guns, 256–257, 256f–257f
air-cooled, 299–300, 300f
EBW, 733–734, 733f–734f
for FCAW, 299–300, 300f
GMAW, angle of, 273–274, 273f–274f
water-cooled, 299–300, 300f
Welding helmets, 26, 28f
Welding helpers, 13
Welding inspectors, 13
946 IndexWelding leads, 66–67
Welding metallurgy, 641–666.
See also Experiments, welding metallurgy
annealing and, 652, 658, 658f
cold work and, 656
defects in, 662–664, 662f–663f
energy and, 641
gases in welding and, 660–662, 661f
grain size control and, 656
heat and, 641–642, 641f–642f
heat treatments associated with, 656–657
introduction to, 641
martensitic reactions and, 654–655, 654f–656f
mechanical mixtures of phases in, 652, 652f
metal fatigue and fracture in, 664
normalizing and, 658, 658f
phase diagrams and, 646–650
preheating and, 656–657, 657f, 657t
quenching and, 652, 653f
residual stress and
from grinding, 665
high temperature reducing, 665
shot peening for reducing, 665
from welding process, 664–665
strengthening mechanisms and, 650–658
structure of matter and, 645–646, 645f–646f, 645t
temperature and, 642–643, 642f–643f
tempering and, 653–654, 653f–654f, 653t
thermal effects caused by arc welding in, 658–660, 659f–660f
Welding operators, 13
Welding power supplies, 244–245, 245f
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS), 83, 144–151, 145f–147f,
149f–150f, 152f, 601–635, 796
general information for writing, 555–563, 556f–561f,
560t, 562t–563t, 564f
qualifying, 552
process of certifying and, 552, 553f–554f
Welding salespersons, 13
Welding Schedule, 552
Welding shop owners, 13
Welding shop supervisors, 13
Welding symbols, 509, 510f
Welding techniques, for FCAW, 308–314
forehand/perpendicular/backhand, 309–311, 310f–311f
gun angle, 308–309, 309f
metal transfer modes, 311–312, 311f–312f
Welding unions, 547–548
Weld joint, 504
Weld joint design, 502–520
acceptable cost for, 509, 509f
arrow in
location significance of, 512
backing for, 515–516, 516f
code requirements/standards for, 508–509
edge preparation and, 505
fillet welds and, 512–513, 512f–513f
flanged welds and, 516, 517f
forces on, 504, 504f
groove welds and, 514–515, 515f–516f
introduction to, 502
joint dimensions and, 505, 505f
metals and
thickness of, 505–507, 506f–507f
type of, 507
NDT for, 516–517, 517f–518f, 517t
plug welds and, 513, 513f
seam welds and, 514, 515f
soldering and brazing and, 834t, 843–844, 844f
spot welding and, 513–514, 514f
welder skill for, 509
welding positions and, 507–508, 508f–509f
welding process and, 505
welding symbols and, 509, 510f
welds location and, 510–512, 510f–511f
Weldments, 523
Welds
definition of, 5
location of, 510–512, 510f–511f
mild steel, 799–801, 799f–800f
overhead, 819
types of, 510, 510f
Weld specimen, 141–142, 141f–142f
Weld test, 596
Weld travel, 362, 363f
Wet welding, 102–104
classification of, 103
propulsion system in, 104
training in, 103
Whole numbers, 457
Wind, 260
Wire electrode speed, 245–246, 246t
Wire-feed speed, 267–269, 269t, 322
Wire melting and deposition rates, 244
Wire reel, 323f
Wires
costs of, 469–470, 470t
flux cored
efficiency of, 474
GMAW solid
efficiency of, 473t, 474, 474t
metal cored welding, 478–479, 519–520
SAW solid
efficiency of, 474
solid, 473t–474t, 474, 699–700, 700f
tubular, 700–701, 700f–701f
Worcester Technical High School, 778–780
Work area, 38, 38f
Work cell, 718, 718f
Work clamps, 68, 68f–69f
Working pressure, 758
WPS. See Welding Procedure Specification
WQR. See Welder and welder operator qualification test record
Wrench, adjustable, 38, 38f
X
X-34 reusable launch vehicle, 125–127
X-axis, 714
Y
YAG laser, 216, 216f
Y-axis, 714
Yeager, Chuck, 125
Yield point, 690
Yield strength, 644
Z
Z-axis, 714
Zigzag weave pattern, 81f–82f, 82
Zinc, 30
Zirconium, 220t
Zirconium tungsten EWZr electrode, 377
Index 947
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