Welding Machine Control Modification To Reduce Process Cycle Time

Welding Machine Control Modification To Reduce Process Cycle Time
اسم المؤلف
Students
التاريخ
2 يونيو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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مشروع تخرج بعنوان
Welding Machine Control Modification To Reduce Process Cycle Time
Graduate Project
Workgroup
Said Mahmoud Mohmed
Yasser Ahmed sayed
Mohamed Shaban Abas
Sameh Eid Ibrahem
Supervisor
Dr / Mohamed Fawzy Aly
Fayoum University
Faculty of Engineering
Industrial Engineering Department
Contents Page No
Chapter 1 :Exhaust System ( 10 – 23 )
1.1 Over view about the company 11
1.1.1 Company Department 11
1.1.2 Company Production Line 12
1.2 What is exhaust system? 13
1.2.1 Importance of Exhaust System 14
1.2.2 Components of the exhaust system 14
1.2.2.1 Exhaust Manifold 15
1.2.2.2 Engine Pipe 16
1.2.2.3 Catalytic Converter 17
1.2.2.4 Resonator 19
1.2.2.5 Front Muffler 20
1.2.2.6 Intermediate Pipe 20
1.2.2.7 Rear Muffler 20
1.2.2.8 Tail Pipe 21
1.2.2.9 Extractors 21
1.2.2.10 Exhaust brackets 23
Chapter 2 : Problem Definition ( 24 – 57 )
2.1 Problem definition 25
2.1.1 Why we selected this machine 25
2.1.2 Manual welding 25
2.1.3 Automatic welding 26
2.2 Over view about ( GMAW ) 27
2.2.1 History of GMAW 27
2.2.2 Types of GMAW 28
2.2.3 GMAW Equipments Setup 29
2.2.4 Modes of GMAW transfer 29
2.3 Short Circuit Transfer 30
2.4 Globular Transfer 32
2.5 Spray Transfer 33
2.6 Pulsed-Spray Transfer 34
2.7 GMAW Variables 35
2.7.1 Voltage 39
2.7.2 Indication 44
2.7.3 Travel Speed 47
2.7.4 Electrode Extension (STICKOUT) 50
2.7.5 GMAW Torches 51
2.7.6 Advantages of GMAW 52
2.7.7 Disadvantages of GMAW 53
2.7.8 Conclusion 57
Chapter 3 : Our Project Hardware ( 58 – 68 )
3.1 Description for machine parts 59
3.2 Introduction 60
3.2.1 First part : Electric hardware 60
3.2.1.1 Main motor 60
3.2.1.2 AC driver 61
3.2.1.3 Thermal switch 63
3.2.1.4 Contactor 63
3.2.1.5 Relays 64
3.2.1.6 Bush button switch 65
3.2.1.7 Sensor 65
3.2.1.8 Solenoid valve. 66
3.2.1.9 Mechanical timer 67
3.2.2 Second part : Mechanical system 68
3.2.2.1 gearbox 68
3.2.2.2 The torch 68
3.2.2.3 Hand 68
3.2.2.4 Sliding pipe 68
3.2.2.5 Welding torch 68
Chapter 4 : Programming Logic Control ( PLC ) ( 69 – 104 )
4.1 What is a PLC? 70
4.1.1 Advantages of plc 71
4.1.2 PLC compared with other control systems 71
4.1.3 Plc applications 72
4.1.4 Plc structure 74
4.1.4.1 CPU 74
4.1.4.2 Power Supply 74
4.1.4.3 Communication Port 75
4.1.4.4 Input modules and out put modules 75
* Discrete Inputs / outputs 76
* Analog Inputs / Outputs 77
4.2 programming 78
4.3 PLC Ladder Diagram 78
4.4 The Operation Principle of Ladder Diagram 78
4.4.1 Combination Logic 79
4.4.1 Sequential Logic 80
4.5 Differences Between Conventional and PLC Diagram 81
4.6 Ladder Diagram Structure and Terminology 82
4.7 Contact 83
4.8 BASIC INSTRUCTIONS 84
4.8.1 LOAD 84
4.8.2 LOAD NOT 84
4.8.3 AND 85
4.8.4 OR Gate 85
4.9 Some Kinds of PLC`S 86
4.10 ZELIO PLC 86
4.11 Function 88
4.12 Characteristics of Zelio 88
4.13 Limit Switches 90
4.14 photoelectric Sensor 92
4.15 Goal of project 93
4.16 Machine Parts 93
4.17 Machine Motion 94
4.18 Control Unit 97
4.19 PLC New Machine Ladder Diagram 100
4.20 Calculation the new cycle time 104
Chapter 5 : Safety and Maintenance ( 105 – 113 )
5.1 M / C maintenance instruction 106
5.1.1 Daily maintenance 106
5.1.2 Weekly maintenance 106
5.1.3 Quarter year maintenance 106
5.1.4 Yearly maintenance 107
5.2 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 107
5.2.1 Fire 107
5.2.2 Burns 108
5.2.3 Fumes 108
5.2.4 Explosions 109
5.2.5 Radiation 111
5.2.6 Electric Shock 111
5.2.7 Pace Maker 113
5.2.8 Noise 113
Chapter 6 : Conclusion and Recommendation ( 114 – 118 )
6.1 Conclusion 115
6.2 Recommendation 118
References 119
Content of Figures
Chapter 1
No Figure Description Page No
1 Figure ( 1.1 ) exhaust system 13
2 Figure ( 1.2 ) exhaust system 13
3 Figure ( 1.3 ) exhaust system 13
4 Figure ( 1.4 ) Components of the exhaust system 14
5 Figure ( 1.5 ) Exhaust Manifold 15
6 Figure ( 1.6 ) Exhaust Manifold 15
7 Figure ( 1.7 ) Exhaust Manifold Description 15
8 Figure ( 1.8 ) Engine Pipe
9 Figure ( 1.9 ) Engine Pipe
10 Figure ( 1.10 ) Catalytic Converter 17
11 Figure ( 1.11 ) Catalytic Converter 17
12 Figure ( 1.12 ) Catalytic Converter 18
13 Figure ( 1.13 ) Resonator 19
14 Figure ( 1.14 ) Resonator 19
15 Figure ( 1.15 ) Resonator 19
16 Figure ( 1.16 ) Front Muffler 20
17 Figure ( 1.17 ) Front Muffler 20
18 Figure ( 1.18 ) Rear Muffler 20
19 Figure ( 1.19 ) Tail Pipe 21
20 Figure ( 1.20 ) Tail Pipe 21
21 Figure ( 1.21 ) Extractors 21
22 Figure ( 1.22 ) Exhaust brackets 23
Chapter 2
23 Figure ( 2.1 ) The cycle time of the manual welding 25
24 Figure ( 2.2 ) Manual welding 26
25 Figure ( 2.3 ) Automatic welding 27
26 Figure ( 2.4 ) Gas metal arc welding 28
27 Figure ( 2.5 ) Basic GMAW Equipment 29
28 Figure ( 2.6 ) Short circuits transfer (SCMT) 30
29 Figure ( 2.7 ) Short circuits transfer (SCMT) 30
30 Figure ( 2.8 ) Short circuits transfer (SCMT) 31
31 Figure ( 2.9 ) Spray Transfer 33
32 Figure ( 2.10 ) Voltage – Bead Changes 42
33 Figure ( 2.11 ) Inductor – Arc On Relationship 45
34 Figure ( 2.12 ) GMAW Gun And Weld Area 50
35 Figure ( 2.13 ) GMAW Torch Cutaway 51
36 Figure ( 2.14 ) GMAW Torch Cutaway 52
Chapter 3
37 Figure ( 3.1 ) Description for machine parts 59
38 Figure ( 3.2 ) Main motor 60
39 Figure ( 3.3 ) Variable Frequency Drive / Inverter 61
40 Figure ( 3.4 ) Wiring of AC drive 62
41 Figure ( 3.5 ) Thermal switch 63
42 Figure ( 3.6 ) Contactor 63
43 Figure ( 3.7 ) Circuit symbol for relay 65
44 Figure ( 3.8 ) Symbol and shape of push button(N.C) 65
45 Figure ( 3.9 ) Symbol and shape of push button(N.O) 65
46 Figure ( 3.10 ) Solenoid valve 66
47 Figure ( 3.11 ) A Solenoid Controlled 5 Ported, 4 Way 2 66
48 Figure ( 3.12 ) Mechanical timer 67
Chapter 4
49 Figure ( 4.1 ) PLC System 70
50 Figure ( 4.2 ) PLC Structure 74
51 Figure ( 4.3 ) PLC Power Supply 75
52 Figure ( 4.4 ) discrete input module 76
53 Figure ( 4.5 ) discrete output module 77
54 Figure ( 4.6 ) Analog Inputs module 77
55 Figure ( 4.7 ) Analog output module 77
56 Figure ( 4.8 ) PLC Programming 78
57 Figure ( 4.9 ) Combination Logic using actual wiring diagram 79
58 Figure ( 4.10 ) Sequential logic of motor operation 80
59 Figure ( 4.11 ) Scanning process of PLC 81
60 Figure ( 4.12 ) Conventional ladder flows bi – directional 82
61 Figure ( 4.13 ) Example shows cells &rungs 82
62 Figure ( 4.14 ) PLC internal relay 83
63 Figure ( 4.15 ) Load Symbol 84
64 Figure ( 4.16 ) Load Example 84
65 Figure ( 4.17 ) Load not 84
66 Figure ( 4.18 ) Load NOT Example 84
67 Figure ( 4.19 ) AND Symbol 85
68 Figure ( 4.20 ) AND Logic Example 85
69 Figure ( 4.21 ) OR Logic symbol 85
70 Figure ( 4.22 ) OR Logic Example 85
71 Figure ( 4.23 ) Zelio PLC 86
72 Figure ( 4.24 ) Zelio PLC ( 8 outputs 12 inputs ) 87
73 Figure ( 4.25 ) Limit Switches 90
74 Figure ( 4.26 ) Principle of Operation 91
75 Figure ( 4.27 ) Types of Actuators 91
76 Figure ( 4.28 ) A photoelectric sensor 92
77 Figure ( 4.29 ) Reflective Scan 92
78 Figure ( 4.30 ) Description new machine 93
79 Figure ( 4.31 ) Control Panel 97
80 Figure ( 4.32 ) Control Circuit 97
81 Figure ( 4.33 ) wiring of AC drive 98
82 Figure ( 4.34 ) Variable Frequency Drive / Inverter 98
83 Figure ( 4.35 ) Inverter 98
84 Figure ( 4.36 ) PLC Cycle 99
List of Tables
Chapter 2
No Table Description Page No
1 Table ( 2.1 ) Minimum Currents – Spray Transfer vs. Pulsed – Spray Transfer
2 Table ( 2.2 ) Rule of Thumb Metal Thickness-Amperage Needed
3 Table ( 2.3 ) Wire Size – Amperage Range – WFS Range Relationships For Short Circuit Transfer On Steel.
4 Table ( 2.4 ) Troubleshooting for welding machines
Chapter 4
5 Table ( 4.1 ) Show difference between ladder symbols electric symbols
6 Table ( 4.2 ) Characteristics of Zelio
7 Table ( 4.3 ) Discrete 24V DC Input
8 Table ( 4.4 ) Relay output
9 Table ( 4.5 ) Transistor output characteristic
10 Table ( 4.6 ) The control of the new machine component
11 Table ( 4.7 ) Inputs
12 Table ( 4.8 ) Outputs
13 Table ( 4.9 ) INVERTER PROGRAM
List Of Symbols
Chapter 2
No Symbol Description Page No
1 GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding
2 GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
3 SCMT Short circuits Metal transfer
4 WFS Wire Feed Speed
5 IPM Inches Per Minute
6 CC CONSTANT CURRENT
7 CV CONSTANT VOLTAGE
8 OCV OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE  
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