Welding Inspection and Metallurgy

Welding Inspection and Metallurgy
اسم المؤلف
Downstream Segment
التاريخ
19 أغسطس 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Welding Inspection and Metallurgy
Downstream Segment
CONTENTS
Page
1 SCOPE . 1
2 REFERENCES 1
2.1 Codes and Standards . 1
2.2 Other References 1
3 DEFINITIONS . 2
4 WELDING INSPECTION . 4
4.1 General 4
4.2 Tasks Prior to Welding 4
4.3 Tasks during Welding Operations . 6
4.4 Tasks Upon Completion of Welding . 7
4.5 Non-conformances and Defects 8
4.6 NDE Examiner Certification . 8
4.7 Safety Precautions . 9
5 WELDING PROCESSES 9
5.1 General 9
5.2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) . 9
5.3 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) . 9
5.4 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) 11
5.5 Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 11
5.6 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) . 14
5.7 Stud Arc Welding (SW) 14
6 WELDING PROCEDURE 14
6.1 General . 14
6.2 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) 17
6.3 Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) 17
6.4 Reviewing a WPS and PQR . 18
7 WELDING MATERIALS 19
7.1 General . 19
7.2 P-number Assignment to Base Metals 19
7.3 F-number Assignment to Filler Metals 19
7.4 AWS Classification of Filler Metals 19
7.5 A-number . 19
7.6 Filler Metal Selection 20
7.7 Consumable Storage and Handling . 20
8 WELDER QUALIFICATION . 20
8.1 General . 20
8.2 Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ) . 20
8.3 Reviewing a WPQ 20
9 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION 21
9.1 Discontinuities . 21
9.2 Materials Identification 26
9.3 Visual Examination (VT) . 26
9.4 Magnetic Particle Examination (MT) . 27
9.5 Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) . 36
9.6 Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT) 36
9.7 Eddy Current Inspection (ET) . 37
9.8 Radiographic Inspection (RT) . 37
9.9 Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) . 49
9.10 Hardness Testing . 54
9.11 Pressure and Leak Testing (LT) 54
9.12 Weld Inspection Data Recording . 54
10 METALLURGY 55
10.1 General 55
10.2 The Structure of Metals and Alloys 55
10.3 Physical Properties . 58
10.4 Mechanical Properties 59
10.5 Preheating 61
10.6 Post-weld Heat Treatment . 61
10.7 Hardening 62
10.8 Material Test Reports . 63
10.9 Weldability of Steels 63
10.10 Weldability of High-alloys . 65
11 REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANT WELDING ISSUES . 66
11.1 General . 66
11.2 Hot Tapping and In-service Welding 67
11.3 Lack of Fusion with GMAW-S Welding Process 69
APPENDIX A TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS 71
APPENDIX B ACTIONS TO ADDRESS IMPROPERLY MADE
PRODUCTION WELDS . 77
APPENDIX C WELDING PROCEDURE REVIEW . 79
APPENDIX D GUIDE TO COMMON FILLER METAL SELECTION 95
APPENDIX E EXAMPLE REPORT OF RT RESULTS 99
Figures
1 SMAW Welding . 10
2 SMAW Welding Electrode during Welding 10
3 GTAW Welding Equipment 12
4 GTAW Welding . 12
5 GMAW Equipment 13
6 GMAW Welding . 13
7 FCAW Equipment . 15
8 FCAW Welding . 15
9 FCAW Welding, Self-shielded 16
10 SAW Welding . 16
11 Typical Discontinuities Present in a Single Bevel Groove Weld in a Butt Joint 23
12 Direct Visual Examination Requirements . 26
13 Inspectors Kit . 28
14 Bridge Cam Gauge . 28
15 Adjustable Fillet Weld Gauge 29
16 Skew—T Fillet Weld Gauge . 29
17 Weld Fillet Gauge 30
18 Weld Fillet Gauge 30
19 Weld Size Gauge 31
20 Hi-lo Gauge 31
21 Surface-breaking Discontinuity . 32
22 Sub-surface Discontinuity . 32
23 Weld Discontinuity . 33
24 Flux Lines 33
25 Detecting Discontinuities Transverse to Weld 34
26 Detecting Discontinuities Parallel to the Weld 34
27 Pie Gauge 35
28 Florescent Penetrant Technique . 36
29 IQI (Penetrameter) Common Hole Diameters 39
30 IQI (Penetrameter) . 39
31 Single-wall Techniques . 40
32 Double-wall Techniques . 41
33 Incomplete or Lack of Penetration (LOP) . 43
34 Interpass Slag Inclusions 43
35 Cluster Porosity . 44
36 Lack of Side Wall Fusion 44
37 Elongated Slag (Wagon Tracks) . 45
38 Burn-through . 45
39 Offset or Mismatch with Lack of Penetration (LOP) 46
40 Excessive Penetration (Icicles, Drop-through) . 46
41 Internal (Root) Undercut 47
42 Transverse Crack 47
43 Tungsten Inclusions 48
44 Root Pass Aligned Porosity 48
45 A-scan . 50
46 B-scan . 50
47 C-scan . 51
48 DAC Curve for a Specified Reference Reflector 52
49 DAC Curve for an Unknown Reflector . 52
A-1 Joint Types and Applicable Welds . 72
A-2 Symbols for Various Weld Joint . 73
A-3 Supplementary Symbols for Welds 73
A-4 Standard Weld Symbols . 74
A-5 Groove Weld Nomenclature 74
A-6 SMAW Welding Electrode Identification System . 75
A-7 GMAW/GTAW Welding Electrode Identification System 75
A-8 FCAW Welding Electrode Identification System . 75
A-9 SAW Welding Electrode Identification System . 76
B-1 Suggested Actions for Welds Made by an Incorrect Welder . 77
B-2 Steps to Address Production Welds Made by an Improper Welding Procedure 78
C-1 Sample WPS #CS-1 80
C-2 Sample PQR #CS-1 . 82
C-3 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Checklist . 85
C-4 Example of Completed Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Checklist 88
Tables
1 P-number Assignments 19
2 Common Types of Discontinuities . 22
3 Commonly Used NDE Methods . 22
4 Capability of the Applicable Inspection Method for Weld Type Joints . 23
5 Capability of the Applicable Inspection Method vs. Discontinuity 24
6 Discontinuities Commonly Encountered with Welding Processes 25
7 ASTM E 142 IQIs (Penetrameters) 38
8 Conditions that May Exist in a Material or Product 56
9 Results of Non-destructive Examination 56
10 Results of Application of Acceptance/Rejection Criteria 56
11 Brinell Hardness Limits for Steels in Refining Services 63
12 Weld Crack Tests . 65
13 Hot Tapping/In-service Welding Hazards Associated with Some
Particular Substances 68
D-1 Common Welding Consumables for SMAW of Carbon and Low-alloy Steel . 95
D-2 Common Welding Consumables for SMAW of Stainless Steels 96
D-3 Copper-nickel and Nickel-based Alloys . 97
D-4 Classification Changes in Low-alloy Filler Metal Designations

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