Titanium, 2nd Edition – Engineering Materials and Processes

Titanium, 2nd Edition – Engineering Materials and Processes
اسم المؤلف
Gerd Lutjering, James C. Williams
التاريخ
17 ديسمبر 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Titanium, 2nd Edition – Engineering Materials and Processes
Gerd Lutjering, James C. Williams
Contents
1 Introduction . 1
1.1 Purpose of the Book 1
1.2 History of Titanium 2
1.3 Emergence as Commercial Material 2
1.4 Titanium Industry Status 4
1.5 Traditional and Emerging Applications 8
1.6 Recent Developments since the First Edition –
Market Dynamics
2 Fundamental Aspects 15
2.1 Basic Properties 15
2.2 Crystal Structure 16
2.3 Elastic Properties . 16
2.4 Deformation Modes 19
2.4.1 Slip Modes . 19
2.4.2 Deformation Twinning . 22
2.5 Phase Diagrams 23
2.6 Phase Transformations . 29
2.6.1 Martensite Transformation . 29
2.6.2 Nucleation and Diffusional Growth 32
2.7 Alloy Classification 33
2.8 Basic Hardening Mechanisms 36
2.8.1 Hardening of the Alpha Phase 37
2.8.2 Hardening of the Beta Phase . 38
2.9 Basic Physical and Chemical Properties 42
2.9.1 Diffusion 45
2.9.2 Corrosion Behavior 47
2.9.3 Oxidation 50
3 Technological Aspects 53
3.1 Sponge Production . 53
3.2 Melting . 59
3.2.1 Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) 60
3.2.2 Cold Hearth Melting (CHM) . 64
3.2.3 Melt Related Defects 68X Contents
3.3 Primary Processing . 72
3.4 Shaping into Components 79
3.4.1 Forging . 79
3.4.2 Ring Rolling . 83
3.4.3 Metal Removal (Machining) . 85
3.5 Near Net Shape Processes 86
3.5.1 Casting . 87
3.5.2 Powder Metallurgy 91
3.5.3 Laser Forming . 95
3.5.4 Conventional Sheet Forming 97
3.5.5 Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding 99
3.6 Conventional Joining Methods 104
3.6.1 Fusion Welding 104
3.6.2 Friction Welding . 111
3.7 Surface Treatment . 115
3.7.1 Shot Peening . 116
3.7.2 Laser Shock Processing . 120
3.7.3 Chemical Milling . 123
3.7.4 Electrochemical Machining . 125
3.8 Inspection Methods . 125
3.8.1 Ultrasonic Inspection 126
3.8.2 Radiographic Inspection 131
3.8.3 Surface Etching Inspection . 131
3.8.4 Eddy Current Inspection 134
3.8.5 Dye Penetrant Inspection 135
3.8.6 Surface Replication 136
3.9 Characterization Methods 136
3.9.1 Light Microscopy . 137
3.9.2 Electron Microscopy 141
3.9.2.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy . 141
3.9.2.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy . 145
3.9.3 X-ray Diffraction . 148
3.9.4 Mechanical Testing 149
3.10 Recent Developments since the First Edition 150
3.10.1 New Titanium Production Methods 150
3.10.2 Friction Stir Processing 153
3.10.3 Low Plasticity Burnishing . 157
3.10.4 Focused Ion Beam Device Applications 161
3.10.5 Neural Networks for Structure/Property Correlations . 167
4 Commercially Pure (CP) Titanium and Alpha Alloys . 175
4.1 Processing and Microstructure 177
4.1.1 Material Processing 177
4.1.2 Processing into Components . 183
4.2 Microstructure, Composition, and Properties . 185Contents XI
4.3 Properties and Applications . 198
5. Alpha + Beta Alloys . 203
5.1 Processing and Microstructure 203
5.1.1 Fully Lamellar Microstructures 203
5.1.2 Bi-Modal Microstructures 208
5.1.3 Fully Equiaxed Microstructures . 212
5.2 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties 216
5.2.1 Fully Lamellar Microstructures 218
5.2.2 Bi-Modal Microstructures 227
5.2.3 Fully Equiaxed Microstructures . 234
5.2.4 Effect of Aging and Oxygen Content . 238
5.2.5 Effect of Secondary Alpha in Beta Phase 243
5.2.6 Effect of Crystallographic Texture 246
5.3 Properties and Applications . 250
6 High Temperature Alloys . 259
6.1 Processing and Microstructure 260
6.2 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties 261
6.3 Properties and Applications . 270
6.4 Recent Developments since the First Edition . 272
6.4.1 Dwell Fatigue 272
6.4.2 Effect of Ni Impurities on Creep Strength 279
7 Beta Alloys . 283
7.1 Processing and Microstructure 283
7.1.1 Beta Annealed Microstructures 284
7.1.2 Beta Processed Microstructures 290
7.1.3 Through-Transus Processed Microstructures 292
7.1.4 Bi-Modal Microstructures 295
7.2 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties 297
7.2.1 Effect of Processing Route . 299
7.2.1.1 Tensile Properties 299
7.2.1.2 Fatigue Properties 302
7.2.1.3 Fracture Toughness . 308
7.2.2 Effect of Age-Hardening 310
7.2.3 Effect of Beta Grain Size 315
7.3 Properties and Applications 317
7.4 Recent Developments since the First Edition . 323
7.4.1 Effect of Yield Stress Level on Properties of Ti-6246 . 323
7.4.2 Optimization of Properties of Ti-5553 . 330
7.4.3 Distribution of Alpha Precipitates in Beta 21S 332XII Contents
8 Titanium Based Intermetallics 337
8.1 Alloying and Microstructure . 338
8.2 Microstructure and Properties 348
8.2.1 Alpha 2 and Orthorhombic Alloys 349
8.2.2 Gamma Alloys 354
8.3 Applications 356
8.4. Recent Developments since the First Edition ?
Gamma LPT Blades . 360
9 Titanium Matrix Composites . 367
9.1 Processing 367
9.2 Properties 372
9.2.1 Tensile Properties . 372
9.2.2 Fatigue Properties . 375
9.2.3 Creep Properties 377
9.3 Applications . 379
10 Special Properties and Applications of Titanium 383
10.1 Superconductivity . 383
10.2 Burn Resistance 388
10.2.1 Phenomenology of Titanium Fires 389
10.2.2 Alloy Selection for Fire Risk Mitigation . 390
10.3 Hydrogen Storage . 391
10.4 Shape Memory Effect 393
10.4.1 Phenomenology of the Shape Memory Effect . 393
10.4.2 Applications of Shape Memory Alloys 397
10.5 Biomedical Applications 399
10.6 Automotive Applications 403
10.7 Sports Related Applications . 406
10.8 Appearance Related Applications . 408
10.9 Recent Developments since the First Edition . 410
10.9.1 Biomedical Materials . 410
10.9.2 Appearance Related Problems 413
References . 417
Index
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