The Theory of Machines Through Solved Problems

The Theory of Machines Through Solved Problems
اسم المؤلف
J.S. RAO
التاريخ
3 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
384
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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The Theory of Machines Through Solved Problems
J.S. RAO
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
BHEL Chair
Indian Institute of Technology
New Delhi 110016
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Aeolipile (Steam Reaction Turbine) 1
1.2 Apparatus Described by Hero of Alexandria /
1.3 Savery’s Pumping Engine 1
1.4 Papin’s Modification 2
1.5 Newcomen’s “Atmospheric” Engine 2
1.6 James Watt and His Steam Engine 3
Chapter 2 Planar Mechanisms
2.1 Basic Kinematic Concepts 4
2.2 Elementary Mechanisms 6
2.3 Gr U bier’s Criterion for Planar Mechanisms 7
2.4 Four Link Chains 8
2.5 Kinematic Inversion 9
2.6 Computer Aided Learning and Analysis of Planar Linkages 12
2.7 Additional Problems 12
Chapter 3 Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms 15
3.1 Velocities by Centro Method 16
3.2 Relative Velocity Equation 18
3.3 Relative Acceleration Equation 23
3.4 Acceleration Analysis of Reciprocating Engine Mechanism 30
3.5 Analytical Determination of Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston 31
3.6 Solved Problems 32
3.7 Additional Problems 46
Chapter 4 Kinematic Synthesis of Mechanisms 50
4.1 Graphical Methods of Synthesis 50
4.2 Analytical Methods of Synthesis 53
4.3 Solved Problems 57
4.4 Additional Problems 60viii Contents
Chapter 5 Simple Mechanisms and Coupler Curves 61
5.1 Condition for Exact Straight Line Motion 61
5.2 Exact Straight Line Motion Mechanisms 61
5.3 Approximate Straight Line Motion Mechanisms 62
5.4 Steering Gear Mechanism 64
5.5 Davis Steering Gear Mechanism 65
5.6 Ackermann Steering Gear Mechanism 65
5.7 Hooke’s (Cardan, Universal) Joint [Universal Coupling] 65
5.8 Four-Bar Mechanism Coupler Curve Equation 67
5.9 Geometrical Properties of Coupler Curves 68
5.10 Robert’s Law 69
5.11 Solved Problems 70
5.12 Additional Problems 76
Chapter 6 Cams 78
6.1 Types of Cams and Followers 78
6.2 Displacement Diagrams 79
6.3 Disk Cain With Knife-edge Follower 85
6.4 Translating Roller Follower 88
6.5 Translating Flat Follower 92
6.6 Oscillating Flat Follower 94
6.7 Cams of Specified Contour 94
6.8 Solved Problems 98
6.9 Computer Program “Camsoft” 112
6.10 Additional Problems 112
Chapter 7 Spur Gears 114
7.1 Classification of Gears 114
7.2 Types of Motion 115
7.3 Nomenclature 116
7.4 Law of Gear Tooth Action 118
7.5 Involute as a Gear Tooth Profile 118
7.6 Layout of an Involute Gear Set 119
7.7 Producing Gear Teeth 121
7.8 Interference of Involute Gears 122
7.9 Minimum Number of Teeth to Avoid Interference 123
7.10 Contact Ratio 124
7.11 Cycloidal tooth Profiles 125
7.12 Cycloidal and Involute Tooth Forms 127
7.13 Solved Problems 127
7.14 Additional Problems 132
Chapter 8 Helical, Spiral, orm and Bevel Gears 133
8.1 Involute Hek.coid 133
8.2 Helical Gear Tooth Relations 133Contents ix
8.3 Contact of Helical Gear Teeth 134
8.4 Helical Gear Calculations 135
8.5 Spiral [Crossed Helical] Gears 135
8.6 Worm Gearing 135
8.7 Bevel Gears 136
8.8 Formation of Bevel Gears 137
8.9 Solved Problems 138
8.10 Additional Problems 140
Chapter 9 Gear Trains 141
9.1 Classification of Gear Trains 141
9.2 Simple Gear Trains 141
9.3 Compound Gear Trains 141
9.4 Synthesis of Gear Trains 142
9.5 Gear Train Applications to Machine Tools 142
9.6 Epicyclic Trains 144
9.7 Inversions of Epicyclic Trains 145
9.8 Differential Trains 147
9.9 Torque Distribution in Epicyclic Trains 147
9.10 Example of an Epicyclic Train 147
9.11 Coupled Epicyclic Trains 148
9.12 Wilson Four Speed Automobile Gear Box 149
9.13 Solved Problems 149
9.14 Additional Problems 156
Chapter 10 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 157
10.1 Types of Lubrication 157
10.2 Viscosity 157
10.3 Lightly Loaded Journal Bearings [Petroff Equation] 158
10.4 Pressure Development in the Oil Film 159
10.5 Two Dimensional Reynolds’ Equation 160
10.6 Idealized Plane Slider Bearing [Fixed Shoe] 162
10.7 Plane Slider Bearing [Pivoted Shoe] 165
10.8 Formation of Continuous Film in a Journal Bearing 167
10.9 Pressure Distribution in Idealized Journal Bearing 167
10.10 Characteristics of Journal Bearing 171
10.11 Solved Problems 172
10.12 Additional Problems 180
Chapter 11 Static Force Analysis 181
11.1 Reciprocating Engine Mechanism 182
11.2 Quick Return Mechanism 183
11.3 Four Link Mechanism 184
11.4 Six Link Mechanism Analysis 186
11.5 Effect of Sliding Friction 187x Contents
.1•••••=1,
11.6 Reciprocating Engine Mechanism With Sliding Friction 188
11.7 Friction in Turning Pairs 190
11.8 Reciprocating Engine Mechanism With Friction 190
11.9 Solved Problems 192
11.10 Additional Problems 200
Chapter 12 Inertia Force Analysis 201
12.1 Rectilinear Translation of a Rigid Body 201
12.2 Rotation of a Rigid Body About Fixed Axis 201
12.3 Plane Motion of a Rigid Body 203
12.4 Inertia Forces of a Reciprocating Engine Mechanism 204
12.5 Four Link Mechanism 204
12.6 Quick Return Mechanism 205
12.7 More Details of Reciprocating Engine Mechanism 206
12.8 Solved Problems 208
Chapter 13 Combined Static and Inertia Force Analysis 220
13.1 Twin Cylinder Engine Example 220
13.2 Dynamics of Reciprocating Engine Mechanism 224
13.3 Correction Torque 226
13.4 Bearing Loads of a Reciprocating Engine Example 226
13.5 Solved Problems 230
13.6 Additional Problems 239
Chapter 14 Turning Moment Diagram and Flywheel 241
14.1 Turning Moment Diagram and Fluctuation of the Crankshaft Speed 241
14.2 Flywheel 242
14.3 Flywheel of an Internal Combustion Engine 242
14.4 Flywheel of a Punch Press 242
14.5 Analytical Expressions for the Turning Moment 244
14.6 Flywheel for Reciprocating Machinery 244
14.7 Solved Problems 245
14.8 Additional Problems 247
Chapter 15 Balancing of Rotating Components 249
15.1 Unbalance in One Plane 249
15.2 Unbalance in Several Planes 249
15.3 Balancing Machines 253
15.4 Solved Problems 255
15.5 Additional Problems 260
Chapter 16 Balancing of Linkages 261
16.1 Inertia Force of a Reciprocating Mass 261
16.2 Balancing of Multicylinder In-Line Engine 263
16.3 Firing Order 264Contents
16.4 Balancing of Radial Engines 266
16.5 Balancing of V-type Engine 269
16.6 Balancing of Four-Bar Linkages [Shaking Forces] 270
16.7 Balancing of Four-Bar Linkages [Shaking Moments] 272
16.8 Complete Balancing of Four-Bar Linkages 273
16.9 Solved Problems 276
16.10 Additional Problems 282
16.11 Dyermi – Computer Program 283
Chapter 17 Gear and Cam Forces
17.1 Spur Gears 284
17.2 Helical Gears 285
17.3 Worm Gears 287
17.4 Bevel Gears 288
17.5 Cam Forces 289
17.6 Solved Problems 290
Chapter 18 Mechanisms for Control : Governors and Gyroscopes 2
18.1 Illustration of Mechanisms in Control 297
18:2 Governors 297
18.3 -Watt Governor 298
18.4 Porter Governor 299
18.5 Proell Governor 301
18.6 Performance Parameters 304
18.7 Spring Controlled Flyball Marinelli Governor 305
18.8 Spring Controlled Governor With Auxiliary Spring [Wilson-Hartnell Governor] 308
18.9 Spring Controlled Governor With Bell Crank Attached to the Sleeve 309
18.10 Hartung Governor 310
18.11 Pickering Governor 311
18.12 Governor Effort and Power 311
18.13 Controlling Force 314
18.14 Friction and Insensitiveness 317
18.15 Centrifugal Effect of the Revolving Arms 318
18.16 Gyroscopes 319
18.17 Gyroscopic Forces and Couple 320
18.21 Thin Rod Rotating About Its Centroidal Axis 321
18.18 Gyroscopic Stabilization 324
18.19 Stability of a Four Wheel Vehicle Moving on a Curved Path 325
18.20 Stability of a Two Wheel Vehicle 326
18.21 Solved Problems 327
18.22 Additional Problems 335
Chapter 19 Vibration Characteristics of Simple Systems
19.1 Natural Frequency 337
19.2 Equivalent Systems 339xii Contents
19.3 Energy Method 342
19.4 Response to Initial Disturbance 343
19.5 Damping 345
19.6 Single Degree of Freedom System With Viscous Damping 347
19.7 Logarithmic Decrement 349
19.8 Forced Vibrations 350
19.9 Support Motion — Absolute Response 354
19.10 Support Motion Relative Motion Response 356
19.11 Vibration Isolation 358
19.12 Solved Problems 358
19.13 Additional Problems 368
Chapter 20 Critical Speeds
20.1 Bending Critical Speeds of Simple Shafts 369
369
20.2 Bending Critical Speeds of Multimass Systems 370
20.3 Holzer Method for Torsional Systems 373
20.4 Solved Problems 375
20.5 Additional Problems 382
Index 385
Index
Absolute acceleration 15
Absolute motion 15
Absolute velocity 15
Acceleration 15
Accelerometer 357
Ackerman steering gear 65
Active force 181
Addendum 1117
Addendum circle 117
Aeolipile 1
All geared headstock 143
Amplitude 337
Analytical design of cams 89
Analytical methods of synthesis 53
Angular acceleration 15
Angular displacement 15
Angular velocity ratio 116
Applied force 181
Approximate straight line motion mechanism 61
Arc of action 124
Arc of approach 124
Arc of recess 124
Asymptote (coupler curve) 67
Atmospheric engine 2
Automobile steering gear 64
Average energy principle 342
Axial force 181
Axial pitch 134
Backlash 118
Backward synchronous whirl 70
Balancing 249
dynamic 249
four bar linkages 270
shaking forces 270
shaking Moments 272
influence coefficient method 254
linkages 261
machines 253
multicylinder in-line engine 263
radial engines 266
reciprocating engine 262
reciprocating mass 261
by revolving mass 263
rotating parts 249
analytical method 251
graphical method 251
static 249
V engines 269
Bar 4
Barrel cam 78
Base circle 85
Basic ratio 144
Beam engine 64
Bearing force 181
Beat 337
Bending criticrd speed 269
Multimass systems 370
Bennet’s cthistruction 31
Bevel gears 114, 136
force analysis 288
formation 137
Bonary link 7
Block’s method 53
Body force 181
Bottom land 117
Boundary lubrication 157
Branching condition 9
CALOPL 12
Cam angle 80
Cam follower 79
Cam forces 289
Campbell diagram 373
Cams 78
analytical design 89, 92
circular arc 95
eccentric circle 94
equivalent mechanism 95
force analysis 289
tangent :97
triple curve 95386 Index
with
flat follower 92
knife-edge follower 85
oscillating follower 94
roller follower 88
specified contour 94
translating follower 88
Cardan joint 65
Center of percussion 203
Center of pressure 163
Centipoise 158
Centrifugal effect of revolving arms 318
Centrifugal force 201
Centrifugal governor 298
gravity controlled 298
spring controlled 298
Centripetal acceleration 15
Centro 16
Change gear trains 142
Change point condition 9
Chebyshev precision points 50
Circle of singular focii 68
Circular arc cam 95
flat follower 95
roller follower 96
Circular diametral pitch 134
Circular pitch 118
Circular pressure angle 134
Clearance 117
Closure 5
C motion 84
Coefficient of fluctuation of speed 241
Coefficient of friction 163, 172
Coefficient of insensitiveness 318
Cognate linkages 70
Combination motion 85
Combined rolling and sliding 115
Combined static and inertia force analysis 220
Common normal 117
Common tangent 117
Comparison of follower displacement curves 86
Complete balancing four bar linkage 273
Compound gear train 141
Compound pendulum 202
Compressive force 181
Concentrated force 181
Conservation energy principle 342
Concurrent force system 181
Conical gear 114
Conjugate profile 118
Connecting rod 9
analytical method 208
correction torque
equivalent system 207
inertia force 208
analytical method 208
lumped mass model 208
translatory & rotatory motion 208
Connectivity 5
Constant acceleration motion 80
Constant velocity motion 80
Constraint 5
Contact ratio 124
helical gears 134
Continuous film formation 167
Continuous force 181
Control system 297
Controlling force 314
Converging oil film 160
Coplanar force system 181
Coriolis acceleration 15
component 28
force 201
Correction mass 249
Correction torque 226
Cosine acceleration 82
Couple 181
Coupled epicyclic gear train 141, 148
Coupler curve 61
asymptote 67
equation for four bar 67
geometrical properties 68
points at infinity 68
Coupler link 9
Cradle balancing machine 253
Crank 9
Crank arrangement 265
four stroke engines 265
two stroke engines 265
Crank-lever mechanism 9
Crank-rocker mechanism 9
Cranks 266
direct 266
primary 266
secondary 266
Critical damping 345, 348
Critical speed 350
bending 369
torsion 373
Crosby indicator 64
Crossed double chain 8
Crossed helical gears 135
Crosshead 9
Crown wheel 114
Cusp (cams) 93
Cusp points (coupler curve) 69
CV motion 80Index 387
Cycle 337
Cycloid (gears) 125
Cycloidal motion (cams) 83
Cycloidal and involute tooth profile comparison 127
Cycloidal tooth profile 125
Cylindrical cam 78
Cylindrical gear 114
Cylindrical pair 6
D’Alembert couple 201
D’Alembert force 201
D’Alembert principle 201
Damping 345
Damping coefficient 345
Damping ratio 345
Davis steering gear 65
Dedendum 117
Dedendum circle 117
Degrees of freedom 5
Diametral pitch 118, 134
Diesel locomotive torsional vibration 373
Differential gear train 141, 147
Direct crank 266
Disk cam 78
Displacement 15
Displacement diagram 79
Distributed force 181
Distributed mass of governor arms 318
Distributed unbalance 250
Dobbie-Mclnnes indicator 64
Double crank mechanism 9
Double helical gear 114
Double Hooke’s joint 66
Double lever mechanism 9
Double points 68
Double rocker mechanism 9
Double slider chain 8
Drag link mechanism 9
Driven link 9
Driving link 9
Dunkerley’s method 371
Dynamic balancing of a rotating body 249
Dynamic equilibrium 201
Dynamic magnifier 351
Dynamics 201
DYREMI 283
Dwell motion 80
Eccentric circle cam 94
flat follower 94
roller follower 94
Eight bar linkage 7
Eighth power polynomial 85
Elastic force 181
Element 4
Elementary mechanisms 6
Elliptical Trainmel 11
Energy method :342
Enveloping worm 114
Epicyclic gear train 141, 144
equivalent trains 149
inversions 145
torque distribution 147
Epicycloid 123
Equilibrium 182
primary-forces 264
secondary forces 264
Equilibrium speed 302
Equivalent system of connecting rod 207
Equivalent systems — vibrations 339
Equivalent viscous damping 345
Exact straight line motion 61
External bevel gear 114
External force 181
Face 117
Face cam 78
Face width 117
Fall motion 80
Firing order 264
two stroke engines 264
four stroke engines 264
Five bar linkage 8
Fixed shoe bearing 162
Flank 117
Flat follower 79
, Floating link 9
Fluctuation of energy 241
Fluctuation of speed 241
Fluid film lubrication 157
Fly press 7
Flywheel 241
internal combustion engine 242
punch press 242
reciprocating machinery 244
Force 181
Force analysis
bevel gears 288
cams 289
combined static and inertia 220
helical gears 285
inertia 201
spur gears 284
static 181
worm gears 287
Force-closed pair 5
Forced vibration 350
Form-closed pair 5388 Index
Forming process 121
Forward synchronous whirl 370
Four bar coupler curve 67
Four bar linkage 9
Four bar mechanism 9
acceleration analysis 25
balancing 270
shaking forces 270
shaking moments 272
complete balancing 273
inertia force analysis 204
static force analysis 184
velocity analysis 20
Fourier component 337
Four link chain
Four wheel vehicle stability 325
Frame 7
Free body diagram 184
Free vibration 337
Frequency 337
Frequency response 351
Friction force 163, 171
Friction in governors 317
Friction in turning pairs 190
Freudenstein’s method 54
Function generating mechanism 50
Fundamental frequency 337
Fundamental vibration 337
Hartung 310
hunting 305
isochronous 304
Pickering 311
Porter 299
Proell 301
Watt 298
Wilson-Hartnell 308
Graphical methods of synthesis 50
Grass- hopper mechanism 62
Gravity controlled governor 298
Porter 299
Proell 301
Watt 298
Grtibler’s criterion 7
Guidance mechanism 50
Guide 9
Gyroscopes 319
electric locomotive motors 322
four wheeled vehicle 325
locomotive wheels 322
thin rod 321
three bladed airscrew 323
two bladed airscrew 322
two wheeled vehicle 326
Gyroscopic couple 319
Gyroscopic stabilization 324
ships 324
Gas forces 224
Geai• box 143
Geared torsional system 340
Gears 114
Gear sector 114
Gear segment 114
Gear trains 141
application to machine tools 142
kinematic layout 143
ray diagram 143
synthesis 142
Generating process 121
by pinion cutter 121
by rack cutter 122
GoN%ernor arms centrifugal effect 318
Governor controlling foce 314
Governor effort 311
Governor friction 317
Governor insensitiveness 318
Governor power 312
Governor stability 304, 315
Governors 297
Auxiliary spring 308
Bell Crank 309
Hartnell 305
Half cycloid 85
Half harmonic 85
Harmonic 337
Harmonic analysis of piston acceleration 32
Harmonic vibration 337
Hart mechanism 61
Hartnell governor 305
Hartung governor 310
Helical gear 114, 133
axial thrust 285
force analysis 285
Helical gear contact ratio 134
Helical pair 6
Helical rack 134
Helix angle 133
Herring-Bone gear 114
Hero’s apparatus 1
Higher pair 6
Hinge 6
H motion 83
Hobbing process 121
Holzer’s method 373
Hooke’s joint 65
Hunting 305
Hunting tooth 142Index 389
Hydrodynamic lubrication 157
‘rlypocycloid 125
Hypoid gear 115
Hysteresis loop 346
Idler 115
Idealized journal hearing 1 67
Idealized plane slider beating 162
Impending motion 188
Inclined spring 339
Inertia couple 201
Inertia force 201
pi-Unary 261
secondary 261
Inertia force analysis 201
four li ik mechanism 204
plane motion 203
quick return mechanism 205
reciprocating engine 204
reciprocating mass 261
rectilinear translation 201
rotation about fixed axis
Input Ilnk 9
Insensitiveness 318
Instantaneous center 15
Interference 120. 122
Internal bevel gear 114
Internal force 181
Internal spur gear 114
MverNion 9
Inversion of epicyclic trains
Involute 1 I b
Involute gear H9
influence of center distance
Involute heltcoid 133
Involute profile-internal gear
Isochronous governor 304
Isolation of vibration 358
Jerk 82
Joint 5
Journal bearing 158, 167
pressure distribution 167
Kennedy’s theorem 16
Kinematic chain 5
Kinematic concepts 4
Kinematic inversion 9
Kinematic pair 5
Kinetically equivalent system 206
Kinetic energy 342
Klein’s construction 30
Knife edge follower 79
Mass moment of inertia 202
Maximum pressure angle 90
Mechanical energy 342
Mechanism 4
Mechanisms for control 297
Minimum number of teeth 123
Minimum radius of curvature 90
Minimum size of cam 85
Mitre gear 115
Mode of vibration 337.
Modified circule arc motion 80
Module 118
Moment arm 181
Moment of a couple 182
Moment of a force
about an axis 181
about a point 181
Motion 15
Multicylinder in-line engine balancing 263
Natural frequency 337
Negative pressure in oil film 170
Newcomen’s engine 2
Newtonian fluid 157
Newton’s low-viscous flow 157
Newton’s second law 201
Normal acceleration 15
Node 337
Normal diametral pitch 134
Normal pitch 133
Normal reaction 181
121
201
145
120
Law of gear tooth action 118
Lead angle 133, 136
Lett handed gear 133
Lever 9
Lift 80
Lightly loaded journal bearing 158
Linear interpolaticn 375
Line of action of force 181
Line of centers method 18
Link •1
Linkage 5
Link to Link method 17
load 182
Load carrying capacity 163, 171
Logarithmic decrement 349
Longitudinal vibration. 337
Longitudinal force 181
Loss coefficient 347
Lower bound approximation. 371
Lower pair 6
Lumped mass inouel 208390 Index
Oldham’s coupling 11
Offset follower 79
Open pair 5
Oscillating cylinder engine 11
Oscillating flat follower 94
Oscillating follower 79
Oscillating roller follower 94
Oscillation 337
Output link 9
Overdamped system 347
Overlay method 53
Pantograph 63
Papin’s engine 2
Parabolic motion 80
Parallel crank mechanism 9
Parallel force system 181
Parallel springs 340
Path generating mechanism 50
Path of approach 124
Path of contact 124
Path of recess 124
Paucellier mechanism 61
PB motion 82
Percussion center 203
Period 337
Petroff equation 158
Phase angle 351
Physical pendulum 274
Pickering governor 311
Pinion 114
Piston acceleration 31
harmonic analysis 32
Pitch 133
Pitch circle (cams) 88
Pitch circle (ears) 116
Pitch cones 1,36
Pitch curve 88
Pitch diameter 117
Pitch point (cams) 89
Pitch point (gears) 117
Pivoted shoe bearing 165
Planar contact 6
Planare mechanisms 4
Planar motion 15
Plane motion of a rigid body 203
Plane slider bearing 162
pivoted shoe 165
Planetary gear 115
Planet gear 115
P motion 85
Pointing 89
Poise 157
Polynomial motion 84
3-4-5 85
Porter governor 299
Potential energy 342
Precision points 50
Pressure angle (cams) 89
Pressure angle (gears) 118, 134
Pressure development in oil film 159
Pressure distribution
journal bearing 167
slider beating 162
Pressure induced flow 159
Primary Centro 16
Prime circle 88
Primary crank 266
Principle of conservation of energy 342
Prismatic pair 6
Proell governor 302
Pure rolling 115
Pure sliding 115
Quadric cycle chain 8
Quality factor 350
Quick return mechanism 10
acceleration analysis 28
inertia force analysis 205
static force analysis 184
velocity analysis 22
Rack 114
Radial engine balancing 266
Radial roller follower 89
Radius of curvature (cam) 89
Radius of gyration 202
Rayleigh’s maximum energy principle 342
Rayleigh’s method 371
Reaction 181
Reciprocating engine 10
acceleration analysis 30
bearing loads 225
correction torque 226
dynamic analysis 224
effect of sliding friction 188
friction in turning pairs 190
gas forces 224
inertia force analysis 204
inertia forces 224
kinetically equivalent system 206
static force analysis 182
Rectilinear translation 15, 201
Relative acceleration 15
equation 23
two coincident points 27
Relative displacement 15Index 391
Relative motion 15
Relative velocity 15
equation 18
two coincident points 21
Resonance 350
Resonance frequency 350
Response to initial disturbance 343
Resultant force 181
Resliltant moment 182
Return motion 80
Reverse crank 266
Reverted gear train 141
Revolute pair 6
Reyn 158
Reynolds equation 160
Richards indicator 64
Right handed gear 133
Rise motion 80
Ritterhaus construction 31
Robert’s law 69
Robert’s linkage 69
Robert’s mechanism 63
Rocker 9
Roller follower 79
Root circle 117
Rotary engine 10
Rotation 15
Rotation about fixed axis 18, 23, 201
Sandwich pair 6
Savery’s pumping engine 1
Scale factor 51
Scotch Yoke Mechanism 11
Scott-Russel mechanism 62
modified 62
Screw pair 6
Secondary Centro 16
Secondary crank 266
Seismometer 356
Self-closed pair 5
Series springs 340
Seven bar linkage 7
Shaking force 262
Shaking moment 263
Shaping machine 4
Shear force 181
Ship motions 324
Ship stabilization 324
Simple gear train 141
Simple harmonic motion 82
Simple harrumic quantity 337
Sine acceleration motion 83
modified 84
Single degree of freedom system 338
Single slider chain 8
Singular focii 68
Sinusoidal vibration 337
Six bar linkage 7
velocity analysis 20
acceleration analysis 26
static force analysis 186
Slider 9
Sliding Klock 9
Sliding pair 6
Sommerfeld number 171
Spatial force system 181
Specific damping coefficient 347
Spectrum 337
Spherical cam 78
Spherical faced follower 79
Spherical pair 6
Spiral bevel gear 115
Spiral gears 114, 135
Spiral rack 114
Spring controlled governor 298
Auxiliary spring 308
Bell crank 309
Hartnell 305
Hartung 310
Pickering 311
Wilson-Hartnell 305
Spur gear 114
force analysis 284
Spur rack 114
Stability of a four wheel vehicle 325
Stability of a governor 304, 315
Stability of a two wheel vehicle 326
Static balancing of a rotating body 249
Static force 181
Static force analysis
effect of sliding friction 187
four bar mechanism 184
friction in turning pairs 190
quick return mechanism 183
reciprocating engine 182
six link mechanism 186
Statics 181
Steady state vibration 337
Steering gear mechanism 64
Straight bevel gear 115
Straight line motion 61
Strain energy 342
Structural error 50
Structure 6
Support motion 354
absolute response 354
relative motion 356
Surface force 181392 Index
Synthesis 50
analytical methods 53
graphical methods 50
Synthesis of gear trains 142
Tangent cam 97
Tangential acceleration 15
Tangential reaction 181
Tchebicheff mechanism 63
Tensile force 181
Ternary link 7
Three position synthesis 52
Thrust bearing 166
Tooth space 118
Tooth thickness 117
Top land 117
Torsional critical speeds 373
Torsional moment 182
Torsional vibration 337
Torque 182
TP motion 82
Trace point 88
Traction force 181
Transient vibration 337
Translation 15
Translation cam 78
Translating flat follower 92
analytical design 92
graphical layout 92
Translating roller follower 88
analytical design 89
graphical layout 88
Translatory and Rotatory motion 208
Translatory follower 79
Transportation force 201
Transverse circular pitch 133
Transverse diametral pitch 134
Transverse force 181
Transverse pitch 133
Transverse pressure angle 134
Transverse vibration 337
Trapezoidal acceleration 82
modified 82
Triple curve cam 95
flat follower 95
roller follower 96
Turning moment 242
analytical expressions 244
Turning pair 6
Twin cylinder engine analysis 220
Twisting moment 182
Two plane balancing 254
Two position synthesis 51
Two wheel vehicle stability 326
Unbalance 249
distributed 250
in one plane 249
in several planes 249
Undercutting (cams) 89
Undercutting (gears) 121
Underdamped system 348
Uniform motion 80
modified 80
Universal coupling 65
Universal joint 65
Upper bound approximation 371
Varnum’s nomogram 91
Velocity 15
Velocity induced flow 159
V engine balancing 269
Vibration 337
Vibration isolation 358
Viscosity 157
Visco. damper 345
Viscous damping 345
Watt governor 298
Watt’s engine 3
Watt mechanism 62
Wedge flow 159
Whitworth mechanism 1.1
Wilson gear box 149
Wilson-Hartnell governor 308
Worm and wheel right angled 136
Worm gear 115.135
force analysis 287
Worm wheel 115
Yoke cam 79

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