The Project MANAGER’S GUIDE TO MASTERING AGILE – Principles and Practices for an Adaptive Approach

The Project MANAGER’S GUIDE TO MASTERING AGILE – Principles and Practices for an Adaptive Approach
اسم المؤلف
Charles G. Cobb
التاريخ
23 ديسمبر 2023
المشاهدات
213
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The Project MANAGER’S GUIDE TO MASTERING AGILE – Principles and Practices for an Adaptive Approach
Second Edition
Charles G. Cobb
Agile Project Management Academy
CONTENTS
P R E FA C E xvii
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S xxiii
Introduction to Agile Project
Management 1
The Chasm in Project Management
Philosophies 2
What’s Driving These Changes? 3
The Impact on the Project
Management Profession 4
The Evolution of Agile and
Waterfall 6
Definition of Waterfall 7
Definition of Agile 7
Comparison of Predictive
(Plan-Driven) and Adaptive
(Value-Driven) Approaches 8
Which Approach Is Better? 10
The Evolution of the Project
Management Profession 11
The Early History of Project
Management 12
Transformation of the Project
Management Profession 13
What’s Driving This Change, and
Why Now? 14
Agile Project Management Benefits 17
Summary of Key Points 19
Discussion Topics 20
Notes 21
Part 1 Fundamentals of Agile
Agile History and the
Agile Manifesto 25
Agile Early History 25
Dr. Winston Royce and
the Waterfall Model (1970) 26
Early Iterative and Incremental
Development Methods
(Early 1970s) 28
Further Evolution of Iterative
and Incremental Development
(Mid-to-Late 1970s) 28
Early Agile Development
Methods (1980s and 1990s) 29
Agile Manifesto (2001) 30
Agile Manifesto Values 30
Agile Manifesto Principles 33
Summary of Key Points 39
Discussion Topics 40
Notes 41
1
2vi C O N T E N T S
Scrum Overview 43
Scrum Framework 44
Sprints 45
Product Backlog 45
Scrum Meetings 47
Scrum Roles 50
Product Owner Role 50
Scrum Master Role 51
Team Role 53
Scrum Values 54
Commitment and Focus 55
Openness 56
Respect 57
Courage 58
General Scrum/Agile Principles 58
Variability and Uncertainty 59
Prediction and Adaptation 60
Validated Learning 61
Work in Progress 62
Progress 63
Performance 64
Summary of Key Points 66
Discussion Topics 66
Notes 67
Agile Planning,
Requirements, and
Product Backlog 69
Agile Planning Practices 69
Planning Strategies 70
Capacity-Based Planning 72
Spikes 73
Progressive Elaboration 74
Value-Based Functional
Decomposition 74
Agile Requirements Practices 75
The Role of a Business Analyst
in an Agile Project 75
“Just Barely Good Enough” 77
Differentiating Wants from Needs
and the “Five Whys” 77
MoSCoW Technique 78
User Personas and User Stories 79
User Personas 79
User Stories 80
Epics 82
Product Backlog 83
What Is a Product Backlog? 83
Product Backlog Grooming
(Refinement) 84
Summary of Key Points 86
Discussion Topics 88
Notes 89
Part 2 Agile Project Management
Overview
Agile Development,
Quality, and Testing
Practices 95
Agile Software Development
Practices 96
Code Refactoring 96
Continuous Integration 97
3 4
5C O N T E N T S vii
Pair Programming 98
Test-Driven Development 99
Extreme Programming (XP) 100
Agile Quality Management
Practices 100
Key Differences in Agile Quality
Management Practices 100
Definition of “Done” 101
The Role of Quality Assurance
(QA) Testing in an Agile
Project 102
Agile Testing Practices 103
Concurrent Testing 103
Acceptance Test-Driven
Development 103
Repeatable Tests and Automated
Regression Testing 104
Value-Driven and Risk-Based
Testing 104
Summary of Key Points 104
Discussion Topics 107
Time-Boxing, Kanban, and
Theory of Constraints 109
The Importance of Flow 111
Small Batch Sizes 111
Just-In-Time Production 111
Concurrent Processing 111
Time-Boxing 112
Time-Boxing Advantages 112
Additional Time-Boxing
Productivity Advantages 113
The Kanban Process 113
Push and Pull Processes 114
What Is a Kanban Process? 115
Differences Between Scrum
and Kanban 116
Work-In-Process (WIP) Limits
in Kanban 117
Kanban Boards 118
Theory of Constraints 119
Summary of Key Points 122
Discussion Topics 123
Notes 123
Agile Estimation 125
Agile Estimation Overview 125
What’s Different about Agile
Estimation? 125
Developing an Estimation
Strategy 127
Management of Uncertainty 127
Agile Estimation Practices 129
Levels of Estimation 129
Story Points 130
Other Relative Sizing Techniques 133
What Is Planning Poker? 134
More Sophisticated Agile
Estimation Techniques 134
Velocity and Burn-Down/Burn-Up
Charts 135
Velocity 135
Burn-Down Charts 135
Burn-Up Charts 137
Summary of Key Points 138
Discussion Topics 139
Notes 141
6
7viii C O N T E N T S
Agile Project
Management Role 143
Agile Project Management Shifts
in Thinking 145
Emphasis on Maximizing Value
Versus Control 145
Emphasis on Empowerment and
Self-Organization 147
Limited Emphasis
on Documentation 148
Managing Flow Instead
of Structure 149
Potential Agile Project
Management Roles 149
Making Agile Work at a Team Level 150
Hybrid Agile Project Role 151
Enterprise-Level Implementation 152
Using Agile Concepts in Non-Agile
Projects 155
AGILE, PMI®, AND PMBOK® 156
Prior PMBOK® Versions 156
What’s Different about
PMBOK® Version 7? 157
The Difference Between Explicit
and Tacit Knowledge 159
Summary of Key Points 160
Discussion Topics 161
Notes 161
Agile Communications
and Tools 163
Agile Communications Practices 163
Information Radiators 163
Face-to-Face Communications 165
Daily Scrum Meetings 166
Distributed Teams 166
Agile Project Management Tools 167
Benefits of Agile Project
Management Tools 168
Characteristics of Enterprise-Level
Agile Project Management Tools 169
Summary of Key Points 172
Discussion Topics 173
Notes 173
Learning to See the
Big Picture 175
Systems Thinking 175
What Is Systems Thinking? 175
How Is Systems Thinking Used
in Organizations? 176
Complex Adaptive Systems 177
What Are Complex Adaptive
Systems? 177
Characteristics of Complex
Adaptive Systems 179
Summary of Key Points 182
Discussion Topics 183
Notes 184
The Roots of Agile 185
Influence of Total Quality
Management (TQM) 185
Cease Dependence on Inspection 186
Emphasis on the Human Aspect
of Quality 188
The Need for Cross-functional
Collaboration and Transformation 189
8 9
10
11C O N T E N T S ix
Importance of Leadership 190
Ongoing Continuous Improvement 191
Influence of Lean Manufacturing 192
Customer Value 195
Map the Value Stream 196
Pull 196
Flow 200
Respect for People 203
Perfection 204
Principles of Product Development
Flow 205

  1. Economics 205
  2. Queues: Actively Manage Queues 205
  3. Variability: Understand and
    Exploit Variability 206
  4. Batch Size: Reduce Batch Size 206
  5. WIP Constraints: Apply WIP
    Constraints 206
  6. Control Flow Under Uncertainty:
    Cadence and Synchronization 207
  7. Fast Feedback: Get Feedback
    as Fast as Possible 207
  8. Decentralize Control 207
    Summary of Key Points 208
    Discussion Topics 209
    Notes 210
    Part 3 Agile Project Management
    Planning and Management
    Hybrid Agile Models 217
    Why Would You Use a Hybrid Agile
    Approach? 218
    Fit for Purpose 218
    As a Transition to a Full Agile
    Approach 218
    What Are the Benefits of a Hybrid
    Agile Approach? 219
    General Benefits of a Hybrid Agile
    Approach 219
    Other Benefits of a Hybrid Agile
    Approach 219
    What’s Different About a Hybrid Agile
    Approach? 220
    Key Differences from a Plan-driven
    (Waterfall) Approach 221
    Key Differences from an Agile
    Approach 222
    Choosing the Right Approach 223
    Most Important Factors
    to Consider 223
    Other Factors to Consider 224
    Summary of Key Points 224
    Discussion Topics 225
    Notes 225
    Value-Driven Delivery 227
    Value-Driven Delivery Overview 227
    What’s Different about ValueDriven Delivery? 228
    What Are the Advantages of ValueDriven Delivery? 229
    Principles of Value-Driven Delivery 230
    Focus on Customer Needs Rather
    Than Solutions 231
    The Pareto Rule 232
    Customer-Value Prioritization
    Overview 233
    12
    13x C O N T E N T S
    Levels of Prioritization 233
    Factors to Consider in Prioritization 234
    MoSCoW Prioritization 234
    Value-Driven Delivery Tools 235
    Minimum Viable Product 235
    Minimum Marketable Feature 235
    Summary of Key Points 236
    Discussion Topics 238
    Notes 239
    Adaptive Planning 241
    Rolling-Wave Planning 242
    Overview of Rolling-Wave Planning 242
    Comparison of Planning
    Approaches 244
    Progressive Elaboration and
    Multilevel Planning 247
    Progressive Elaboration 247
    Multilevel Planning 248
    Summary of Key Points 251
    Discussion Topics 253
    Notes 253
    Agile Planning Practices
    and Tools 255
    Product/Project Vision 255
    What Is a Product/Project Vision? 255
    Product/Project Vision Examples 256
    Tips for Creating a Compelling
    Vision 257
    Product Roadmaps 258
    What Are the Benefits of a Product
    Roadmap? 258
    Tips for Creating a Product
    Roadmap 258
    Exploratory 360 Assessment 259
    Agile Functional Decomposition 261
    Relationship of Functional
    Decomposition to Agile 261
    Functional Decomposition
    Examples 262
    Project Charter 264
    Summary of Key Points 265
    Discussion Topics 268
    Notes 269
    Agile Stakeholder
    Management and
    Agile Contracts 271
    What Is a Stakeholder? 272
    Internal Stakeholders 272
    External Stakeholders 272
    Why Is Stakeholder Management
    Important? 273
    Stakeholder Management Can
    Be Difficult 273
    What Can Go Wrong? 273
    Common Stakeholder
    Management Mistakes 274
    Stakeholder Management Process 275
    Identify and Analyze Stakeholders 275
    Prioritize Stakeholders 276
    What’s Different About Agile
    Stakeholder Management? 277
    14
    15
    16C O N T E N T S xi
    Advantages of an Agile Stakeholder
    Management Approach 277
    Agile Stakeholders Have Rights
    and Responsibilities 278
    Responsibility for Stakeholder
    Management in an Agile
    Environment 278
    Eight Tips for Agile Stakeholder
    Management 278
    Agile Contracts 280
    How Would an Agile Contract
    Work? 280
    Types of Agile Contracts 280
    An Agile Contracting Example 282
    Summary of Key Points 283
    Discussion Topics 284
    Notes 285
    Distributed Project
    Management in Agile 287
    What Is Distributed Project
    Management? 287
    Distributed Project Management
    Roles 290
    Developer Project Management
    Responsibilities 291
    Product Owner Project
    Management Responsibilities 292
    Scrum Master Project
    Management Responsibilities 295
    Summary of Key Points 295
    Discussion Topics 297
    Note 298
    Part 4 Making Agile Work
    for a Business
    Scaling Agile to an
    Enterprise Level 301
    Enterprise-Level Agile Challenges 302
    Differences in Enterprise-Level
    Agile Practices 302
    Reinterpreting Agile Manifesto
    Values and Principles 303
    Enterprise-Level Obstacles to
    Overcome 307
    Collaborative and Cross-Functional
    Approach 307
    Organizational Commitment 308
    Risk and Regulatory Constraints 309
    Enterprise-Level Implementation
    Considerations 310
    Architectural Planning and Direction 310
    Enterprise-Level Requirements
    Definition and Management 311
    Development Team Integration 313
    Release to Production 314
    Enterprise-Level Management Practices 315
    Project/Program Management
    Approach 316
    The Role of a Project Management
    Office (PMO) 317
    Project/Product Portfolio
    Management 319
    Summary of Key Points 321
    Discussion Topics 323
    Notes 323
    17
    18xii C O N T E N T S
    Scaling Agile for
    Multiple-Team Projects 325
    Scrum-of-Scrums Approach 325
    Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS) 327
    Nexus 328
    Scrum at Scale 329
    Summary of Key Points 330
    Discussion Topics 331
    Notes 331
    Adapting an Agile Approach
    to Fit a Business 333
    The Impact of Different Business
    Environments on Agile 334
    Product-Oriented Companies 334
    Technology-Enabled Businesses 335
    Project-Oriented Businesses 336
    Hybrid Business Model 337
    Adapting an Agile Approach to a
    Business 337
    Typical Levels of Management 338
    Overall Business Management Level 338
    Enterprise Product/Project
    Portfolio Management Level 342
    Product Management Level 344
    Project Management Level 344
    Corporate Culture and Values 345
    The Importance of Corporate
    Culture and Values 345
    Value Disciplines 347
    Summary of Key Points 352
    Discussion Topics 353
    Notes 353
    Enterprise-Level Agile
    Transformations 355
    Planning an Agile Transformation 355
    Define the Goals You Want to Achieve 355
    Becoming Agile Is a Journey, Not
    a Destination 356
    Develop a Culture That Is
    Conducive to Agile 357
    Manage Change 359
    Don’t Throw the Baby Out with the
    Bathwater 361
    Tools Can Be Very Important 362
    Adaptive Project Governance
    Model 364
    Executive Steering Group 365
    Project Governance Group 366
    Working Group Forums 366
    Project Teams 366
    Summary of Key Points 366
    Discussion Topics 368
    Notes 369
    Part 5 Enterprise-Level Agile
    Frameworks
    Scaled Agile Framework® 373
    SAFe® Competency Areas 373
    SAFe® Core Values 377
    Lean Agile Mindset in SAFe® 378
    SAFe® Lean Agile Principles 379
    SAFe® Artifacts and Supporting
    Capabilities 380
    Summary of Key Points 380
    19
    20
    21
    22C O N T E N T S xiii
    Discussion Topics 382
    Notes 383
    Disciplined Agile
    Delivery (DAD®) 385
    DA® Life Cycles 386
    Life Cycle Summary 387
    DA® Roles 387
    Primary DA® Roles 387
    Supporting DA® Roles 390
    DA® Mindset 391
    DA® Principles 391
    DA® Promises 392
    DA® Guidelines 392
    DA® Tool Kit 392
    Summary of Key Points 393
    Discussion Topics 395
    Notes 395
    Managed Agile Development
    Framework 397
    Managed Agile Development
    Overview 398
    The Macro-Level 399
    The Micro-Level 399
    Objectives of Managed Agile
    Development 399
    Plan-Driven Benefits 399
    Agile Benefits 400
    Key Differences from a Typical
    Waterfall Approach 400
    Framework Description 403
    Project Organization and Work
    Streams 403
    High-Level Process Overview 403
    Requirements Management
    Approach 408
    Project Scheduling Approach 411
    Project Management Approach 411
    Communications Approach 412
    Roles and Responsibilities 414
    Summary of Key Points 418
    Discussion Topics 422
    Summary of EnterpriseLevel Frameworks 423
    High-Level Comparison 423
    How These Frameworks Have Evolved 424
    Discussion Topics 424
    Part 6 Case Studies
    “Not-So-Successful”
    Case Studies 427
    Company A 428
    Background 428
    The Approach 428
    What Went Wrong 428
    Overall Conclusions 428
    Company B 430
    Background 430
    The Approach 431
    What Went Wrong 431
    23
    24
    25
    26xiv C O N T E N T S
    Overall Conclusions 432
    Company C 436
    Background 436
    The Approach 436
    What Went Wrong 436
    Overall Conclusions 441
    Discussion Topics 441
    Notes 441
    Case Study: Valpak 443
    Background 443
    Valpak Stakeholders 443
    Valpak Franchisees 444
    Consumers 444
    Merchants 444
    Corporate 444
    The Role of Technology at Valpak 445
    Overview 445
    Scaled Agile Framework
    Implementation 445
    Project Management Approach 451
    Tools, Communication, and
    Reporting 452
    Challenges 453
    Cultural and Organizational
    Challenges 453
    Technical Challenges 457
    Other Challenges 459
    Overall Summary 461
    Key Success Factors 461
    Results and Conclusions 463
    More Strategic Management Focus 463
    Management of IT Resources 464
    Time-to-Market 464
    Alignment and Collaboration 465
    Employee Productivity and Morale 465
    Delivering More Frequent Value
    to Customers 465
    Openness and Transparency 465
    Responsiveness and Adaptivity 465
    Software Quality 465
    Lessons Learned 466
    Forming Projects Around Teams 466
    Planning Team Capacity and
    Developing a Sustainable Pace 466
    Using Sprint Reviews and
    “Science Fairs” 467
    Discussion Topics 467
    Notes 467
    Case Study: Harvard
    Pilgrim Health Care 469
    Background 469
    Overview 470
    Impact of Outsourcing and Vendor
    Partnering 472
    Role of the PMO 473
    Project Governance 474
    Role of Tools 476
    Project Methodology Mix 476
    Project Portfolio Management 477
    Project Management Approach 478
    Project Methodology 478
    Implementation Package
    Development 480
    27
    28C O N T E N T S xv
    Implementation Package
    Refinement 480
    Project Reporting 481
    Contractual Relationship with Dell
    Services 482
    Challenges 483
    Cultural and Organizational
    Challenges 483
    Contractual Challenges 486
    Technical Challenges 489
    Other Challenges 491
    Key Success Factors 493
    Conclusions 494
    Lessons Learned 494
    Discussion Topics 497
    Notes 497
    Case Study: General
    Dynamics, UK 499
    Background 499
    Overview 500
    Requirements Prioritization and
    Management Approach 500
    Contract Negotiation and Payment
    Terms 501
    Planning Approach 501
    Personnel Management 502
    Communication 502
    Management and Leadership
    Approach 503
    Project Management Approach 503
    DSDM Overview 504
    DSDM Principles 505
    Challenges 507
    Cultural and Organizational
    Challenges 507
    Contractual Challenges 507
    Technical Challenges 508
    Overall Summary 509
    Key Success Factors 509
    Conclusions 510
    Lessons Learned 512
    Tailor the Agile Delivery Technique
    as Part of Early Project Planning 512
    Agile Techniques Can Be
    Applied to New Project
    Environments 512
    Discussion Topics 512
    Notes 512
    Agile Hardware
    Development 513
    Agile Hardware Development
    Overview 514
    Hardware Development
    Challenges 514
    The Speed of Change Is What Is
    Important 515
    How to Put This Into Practice 516
    How It’s Done at Tesla 518
    The Tesla Approach 519
    Overall Summary 522
    The Trade-Off Associated
    with Creativity and Innovation 522
    29
    30xvi C O N T E N T S
    Does the Tesla Agile Hardware
    Development Model Work
    for All Companies? 522
    Discussion Topics 523
    Notes 523
    Non-Software Case
    Studies 525
    Agile Home Remodeling 525
    Background 525
    Why Was This Project So Difficult? 526
    Project Planning and Inception 526
    Project Scope 526
    Contractor Selection 527
    How Did the Project Work Out? 529
    What Were the Results? 529
    Overall Conclusions and Lessons
    Learned 529
    Agile Book Publishing 530
    How Was the Agile Approach
    Different? 530
    Lessons Learned 531
    Why Do People Have Trouble
    with This? 532
    Discussion Topics 533
    Overall Summary 535
    Evolution of the Project Management
    Profession 535
    The Future of Project Management 535
    What Does It Take to Become
    a Good Agile Project Manager
    in This New Environment? 537
    What to Do Differently 538
    General Recommendations 540
    Appendices
    Appendix A Additional Reading
    and Resources 545
    Appendix B Glossary of Terms 547
    Appendix C Example Project/
    Program Charter
    Template 557
    Appendix D Suggested Course
    Outline 563
    INDEX 571
    INDEX
    A
    Acceptance test driven development,
    103, 106
    Accountability, 54, 55, 454, 463, 493, 520
    Adapting an agile approach to fit your
    business, 333–353
    Adapting the methodology to fit the
    business, 495
    Adaptive project management, 17, 155, 564
    Adaptivity, 213, 229–230, 237, 242, 280,
    288, 371, 402, 419, 465,
    527–529, 539
    Agile
    aligning with a business, 335
    communications practices, 163–167, 172
    development practices, 98–100, 302, 321
    documentation, 31–32, 65, 79, 148–149,
    155, 160, 264, 277, 279, 305
    estimation, 92, 112, 125–141
    planning practices, 69–75, 86, 88, 214,
    241, 255–269
    QA testing, 102–103, 106, 120, 121,
    210, 307, 496, 551–552
    scaling to an enterprise level, 300–324,
    564
    team-level implementation, 6, 150–151,
    274, 299, 428
    testing practices, 91, 95–107
    Agile contracts, 152, 214, 271–285
    Agile culture shift, 456, 462
    Agile estimation, 92, 112, 125–141
    levels of estimation, 129–130
    Agile Manifesto
    principles, 7, 23, 33–40, 164, 303–306,
    342, 473, 547
    values, 7, 23, 30–33, 40, 168,
    303–306, 342
    Agile project leaders, 445, 451, 461
    Agile Project Management
    benefits, 17–20, 168–169
    enterprise-level role, 152–155, 160,
    315–320, 323, 564
    hybrid Agile project role, 151–152
    potential roles, 149–156, 160
    role, 143–161
    shifts in thinking, 145–149, 160
    team-level role, 150–151
    tools, 92, 164, 167–172
    Agile Project Management stereotypes, 2,
    5, 19, 144
    Agile Project Management tools
    benefits, 168–169
    characteristics, 169–171
    Agile transformation, 153, 300, 345,
    355–369, 371, 441, 444, 445, 462,
    466, 472, 473, 497, 563, 564
    Alignment and collaboration (Valpak), 465
    Appelo, Jurgen, 339572 I n d e x
    Architectural design planning, 495
    Architectural Kanban, 446, 448–449
    Architectural Kanban board, 449
    Architectural planning, 311, 439
    Architectural planning and direction,
    310–311
    Architecture planning, 310, 311, 439
    Architecture role/involvement, 458
    Assigning projects to teams, 495
    Automated regression testing, 104,
    106, 490, 496
    B
    Batch sizes, 62, 111, 200, 201, 206, 379
    Becoming Agile is a journey, 356–357, 367
    Build process (Valpak), 458
    Burn-down Charts. See VersionOne
    Business analyst, 46, 51, 54, 290–292,
    296, 344, 430, 431, 474
    Agile project role, 75–77, 86–87
    Business environments, 40, 58, 59, 66, 153,
    176, 179, 183, 204, 299, 300, 302,
    309, 333–338, 343–345, 347–349,
    352, 356, 357, 364, 365, 371, 397,
    428, 530, 543, 557, 563, 564
    Business involvement, 147, 485
    Business management, 299, 334, 339, 352
    Business ownership, 463
    Business process owner, 414
    Business sponsor, 35, 51, 154, 163, 172,
    221, 222, 227, 272, 397,
    400–402, 419
    C
    Change is essential, 430
    Change Management, 222–223, 309, 361,
    365, 367, 410
    Charter, 261, 264–265, 268, 399, 404,
    411, 420, 421, 543, 557–561
    CIO retrospective, 496–497
    Coaching and mentoring, 150, 509
    Code refactoring, 96–97, 105, 548
    Collaboration, 1, 32, 35, 38, 58, 77, 86,
    163, 165, 169–170, 172, 189–190,
    277, 289, 305, 325, 363, 450, 451,
    454–455, 460, 464, 465, 472–474,
    478, 483, 487, 515, 528
    Collaborative approach to contract management, 510–511
    Commit resources to teams, 429
    Communication, 31, 36, 38, 48, 134, 163,
    165–167, 264, 275, 277, 326, 402,
    431, 452–453, 472, 497, 502–503,
    549, 552
    Compensation, billing, and multidisciplinary
    roles, 489
    Concurrent processing, 111–112, 203
    Conflict management, 510
    Continuous integration, 97–99, 105, 363,
    445, 457, 515–517, 521
    Continuous integration (Valpak), 445
    Contracting approach, 32, 280, 284,
    308, 488, 494
    Contract management, 499, 510–511
    Contract negotiation, 32, 305, 472, 501
    Contracts, Agile, 152, 214, 271–284, 494
    Contractual challenges, 486–489, 507–508
    Cooks and Chefs analogy, 17, 538
    Covey, Stephen, 345, 350
    CPM, 12
    Cross-functional, 39, 52–54, 57, 66, 91,
    95, 100, 102, 104, 154, 179,
    189–190, 203, 208, 220, 222, 307,
    322, 339, 346, 355, 365, 401–402,
    419, 487I n d e x 573
    Cross-team dependencies, 452, 453,
    473, 474
    Cultural change, 308, 322, 428,
    484, 493, 496
    Culture, 113, 153, 154, 159, 176, 177,
    279, 300, 308, 309, 319, 334, 338,
    339, 345–352, 356–359, 361, 367,
    373, 377, 380, 393, 394, 440, 445,
    456, 462, 493, 502, 505, 510, 514,
    516, 518, 539, 541
    Customer intimacy, 349, 350
    Customer value, 193–196, 208, 214,
    227, 232–238
    D
    Daily Standup, 48, 164, 167, 250, 325, 549
    Decomposing stories, 459
    Definition of “Done,” 101–102, 106, 137,
    408, 421, 554
    Deming, W. Edwards, 14, 15, 25,
    185, 186, 358
    Differentiating wants from needs, 77–78, 87
    Disciplined Agile Delivery Framework (DAD),
    371, 385–396
    Distributed teams, 36, 48, 164, 166–167,
    172, 316, 541, 669
    DSDM. See Dynamic Systems Development
    Method (DSDM)
    DSDM Atern, 504, 505
    DSDM Principles, 501, 505–506
    Dynamic Systems Development Method
    (DSDM), 426, 500–505, 509–512, 549
    E
    Employee productivity (Valpak), 465
    Empowerment and self-organization,
    147, 160, 536
    Enterprise level Agile, 153, 154, 156, 168,
    169, 300, 302–306, 311, 321–323,
    345, 355–369
    Enterprise-level architecture planning, 490
    Epics, 75, 76, 82, 83, 86, 88, 233, 243,
    246, 249, 261–263, 266, 267, 313,
    320, 449–453, 480
    Epics (SAFe), 448
    Estimating project schedules, 495–496
    Explicit and tacit knowledge, 159
    Extreme Programming (XP), 7, 100, 105,
    279, 548, 549, 554
    F
    Face-to-face communications, 36, 75, 81,
    165–166, 172, 400, 506
    Five Why’s, 239
    Flow, 62, 73, 76, 81, 84–86, 92, 104, 109,
    111–113, 116, 118–122, 139, 149,
    160, 163, 168, 172, 199–203,
    205–209, 377, 379, 398, 449,
    518, 536, 550
    Forming projects around teams, 466
    G
    General Dynamics UK, 78, 152, 426, 499,
    500, 507–509, 512
    Government contracting, 32, 426, 499, 501
    Government regulatory requirements, 492
    H
    Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, 153, 312, 314,
    336, 426, 469–498
    High-performance teams, 57, 209, 378, 541
    History of Project Management, 12–13
    Hybrid Business Model, 337, 342574 I n d e x
    I
    Information Radiators, 163–165,
    168, 172
    Investment Themes (SAFe), 379
    Iterative approach, 27, 29, 34, 38, 70, 159,
    222, 231, 357, 387, 398, 399,
    402–403, 419, 530, 532
    J
    Just barely good enough,
    38, 77, 87
    Just-in-time, 25, 61, 85, 111, 117, 198,
    202–203, 208
    K
    Kanban
    definition, 113, 115–116
    Scrum differences, 116–117
    work-in-process limits, 117–118
    Kanban Boards, 116, 118–119, 122, 155
    Kanban systems (SAFe), 117
    Kotter, John, 360, 369
    L
    Leadership, 14, 15, 31, 36, 53, 95, 148,
    149, 151, 153, 158, 186, 190–191,
    208, 279, 291, 307–309, 338, 340,
    348–351, 355, 357, 376, 378, 445,
    446, 450, 452, 462, 478, 493, 499,
    502, 503, 514, 522, 540
    Lean
    customer value, 195, 196, 208
    flow, 200–203, 208
    Lean manufacturing, 25, 37, 93, 111,
    122, 185, 192–195, 198, 204, 205,
    208–210, 550
    pull, 196–200, 208
    value stream, 196, 208
    Lean Startup, 320–321, 340–342, 387
    Lean systems engineering, 193
    Learning organization, 176, 177, 358, 373
    Leffingwell, Dean, 301, 310, 312,
    371, 448, 449
    Levels of management, 299, 315, 333,
    338–345, 374, 441
    M
    Managed Agile Development Framework, 343,
    371, 372, 397–421
    Management of IT resources, 464
    Management of uncertainty, 70,
    127–128, 138
    Managing stakeholders, 456
    Morale (Valpak), 465
    MoSCoW, 78–79, 87, 234–235, 237,
    500, 504
    O
    Office Space, 492
    Openness, 56–57, 163, 164, 172, 378, 465
    Operational excellence, 339, 348,
    350, 376
    Outsourcing, 472–473
    P
    Pair programming, 98–99, 105, 551
    Partnership, 11, 18, 32, 34, 35, 77, 92,
    126, 138, 163–165, 172, 221, 223,
    264, 277, 278, 280, 283, 284, 289,
    290, 308, 378, 381, 400–401, 419,
    432, 434, 435, 443, 464, 470, 494,
    499, 528, 530, 540, 541I n d e x 575
    Perfection, 179, 195, 204–205,
    209, 526, 529
    Personnel management, 502
    PERT, 12, 109, 110, 143, 149, 167, 551
    Pipelining, 202
    Pivotal tracker, 452, 453, 455, 460
    Planning an agile transformation,
    355–363
    Planning poker, 134
    PMBOK®, 70, 156–161, 264, 536
    PMO, 155, 301, 312, 316–320, 323, 362,
    368, 433, 456, 473, 474, 477, 478,
    483, 488, 492, 497
    Portfolio Kanban, 446, 449–452, 454, 551
    Portfolio layer (SAFe), 446
    Portfolio management, 155, 160, 258, 299,
    300, 304, 318–321, 335–338,
    342–344, 352, 363, 376, 385, 386,
    397, 476–478, 551
    Portfolio Management Team (SAFe), 376
    Predicting release dates, 461
    Product backlog
    definition, 45–47
    grooming, 46, 47, 76, 84–85, 88, 132
    Product leadership, 348–350
    Product management, 197, 202, 344,
    386, 396, 430
    Product Owner, 4, 35, 46–51, 76, 81, 84,
    86, 87, 102, 117, 131, 132, 135,
    143, 147–149, 151, 164, 214, 222,
    261, 271, 278, 290–298, 302, 312,
    316, 326, 328–330, 375. 387–390,
    411, 412, 416, 417, 421, 436,
    451–456, 459, 461–466, 474, 475,
    477, 481, 488, 489, 497, 513,
    518, 520, 551
    Program layer (SAFe), 446
    Program management, 153–154, 171,
    316–317, 445
    Progressive elaboration, 74, 86, 241, 242,
    247–248, 251–252, 402, 408, 421
    Project Communications Management, 157
    Project Cost Management, 157
    Project governance, 364–366, 368, 432,
    433, 437, 474–475, 541
    Project Human Resource Management,
    157
    Project methodology, 95, 318–319, 435,
    476–479, 488
    Project metrics, 503–504
    Project negotiations, 504
    Project portfolio management, 299, 300,
    303, 304, 321, 336–338, 342–345,
    352, 397, 477–478, 485
    Project Procurement Management, 157
    Project Quality Management, 157
    Project Risk Management, 157, 293
    Project scheduling, 411, 421, 422
    Project Scope Management, 157
    Project Stakeholder Management, 157
    Project startup, 11, 503
    Project Time Management, 157
    Pull, 114–115, 117, 122, 194, 196–200,
    208, 444, 451, 518
    Q
    QA testing, 102–103, 106, 120, 121, 307,
    438, 496, 551–552
    Quality assurance, 10, 18, 120, 307, 540
    R
    Real-time decision-making, 8, 504, 552
    Regression testing, 104, 106, 490576 I n d e x
    Regulatory requirements, 152,
    193, 309, 492
    Release management, 202, 446, 473
    Repeatable tests, 104, 106
    Reporting, 150, 164, 168–171, 296, 317,
    318, 336, 363, 452–453, 473,
    476–478, 481–482
    Requirements management, 79, 202, 363,
    408, 410–411, 421
    Requirements prioritization and
    management, 500
    Respect for people, 18, 203–205,
    209, 345
    Ries, Eric, 235, 340
    Risk management, 220, 224, 293–294, 297,
    510, 530, 550
    Roadmap, 243, 249, 250, 258–259, 266,
    293, 297, 380, 382, 386,
    451, 514, 552
    Rolling wave planning, 69–70, 72, 74, 84,
    86, 222, 241–248, 252, 402,
    411, 419, 421
    S
    Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe), 171,
    371, 373–384, 397, 418,
    424, 445–451
    Scaling Agile, 155, 224, 299–331, 564
    Scrum, 8, 23, 31, 34, 35, 39, 43–67, 100,
    105, 113, 116–118, 122, 151, 159,
    166, 167, 177, 180, 199, 200, 220,
    221, 242, 282, 300, 301, 314,
    329–330, 362, 375, 381, 386, 387,
    389, 390, 397, 423, 426, 445, 446,
    449–453, 470, 472–477, 482, 513,
    514, 518–521, 525, 531,
    533, 541, 552
    Scrum/Agile principles
    prediction and adaptation, 60–61
    validated learning, 61
    variability and uncertainty, 59–60
    work in progress, 62–63
    Scrum Master, 4, 46–48, 51–53, 84, 148,
    151, 290, 295, 297, 326, 329, 375,
    389, 403, 453, 467, 474, 478,
    486, 513, 520
    Scrum-of-Scrums, 316, 325–327, 330
    Scrum roles
    Product Owner role, 50–51, 387
    Scrum Master role, 51–53
    team role, 53–54
    Senior management engagement, 461, 463
    Service-oriented architecture, 426, 471, 489
    Software quality, 465
    Software release process, 491
    Spikes, 73–74, 86, 260
    Sprint planning, 47–48, 55, 132, 291, 327,
    330, 451, 452, 466, 520
    Sprint Retrospective, 49–50, 61,
    291, 330, 520
    Sprint Review, 48–49, 61, 291, 296, 327,
    330, 453, 467, 520
    Sprints, 10, 18, 34, 44–46, 50, 73, 83,
    85, 88, 112, 117, 122, 133, 135,
    139, 262, 431, 450–452,
    459, 481, 521
    Stakeholder, 35, 47, 49, 51, 52, 77, 102,
    154, 158, 164, 180, 214, 223, 224,
    233, 236, 259–261, 264, 266, 268,
    271–285, 312, 316, 317, 322, 357,
    362–365, 368, 390, 393, 408, 412,
    431, 443–444, 446, 448, 450, 451,
    453, 456, 462, 463, 465, 467, 480,
    482, 504–506, 511, 526, 529,
    554, 558, 559I n d e x 577
    Stereotypes. See Agile Project Management
    stereotypes
    Story pipelining, 202
    Story point, 47, 81, 130–137, 139, 252,
    404, 420, 460, 553
    Strategic management focus, 463–464
    Sustainable pace, 459, 466, 532
    Systems thinking, 93, 175–177, 182–183,
    376, 378, 379, 381
    T
    Team assignments and resource
    sharing, 487
    Team capacity, 47, 466
    Team collaboration, 460
    Team layer (SAFe), 445, 446
    Teams
    co-located teams, 163, 166, 167, 224,
    316, 363, 502
    distributed teams, 36, 48, 164, 166–167,
    169, 172, 316, 363, 368, 377, 541
    Team structure, 392, 503, 504
    Teamwork, 31, 54, 98, 102, 154, 164, 169,
    172, 314, 346, 366, 509–510
    Test-driven development (TDD), 99–100,
    103, 105, 106, 445, 465, 553
    Testing
    risk-based, 104, 106
    value-driven, 104, 106
    Theme, 169, 233, 249, 259, 261, 262, 267
    Theory of constraints, 92, 109–123, 339
    Time-Boxing, 74, 92, 109–123, 503, 511
    Time-to-market (Valpak), 464–465
    Tools, 4, 12, 17, 31, 60, 79, 92, 96, 98,
    104, 109, 118, 149, 151, 163–173,
    199, 214, 235–236, 238, 255–269,
    303, 304, 309, 313, 318, 319, 343,
    362–363, 368, 432, 435, 440, 444,
    445, 452–453, 460, 473, 474, 476,
    481, 493, 541, 551, 563, 564
    Total Quality Management (TQM)
    continuous improvement, 191,
    205, 208, 553
    cross-functional collaboration,
    189–190
    dependence on inspection, 186–187
    human aspect of quality, 188–189
    leadership, 15, 190–191, 208
    Traceability, 152, 262, 309, 363
    Treacy, Michael, 347–349
    U
    User personas, 79–80, 87, 554
    User stories, 45, 46, 49, 65, 75, 76, 80–83,
    86–88, 100, 133, 139, 166, 198,
    199, 201, 206, 221, 234, 255, 256,
    262, 263, 279, 291, 313, 363, 368,
    401, 404, 405, 408, 420, 431, 476,
    482, 549, 554, 558
    V
    Valpak, 320, 338, 425–426, 443–467
    Value-based functional decomposition,
    74–75, 86, 89
    Value disciplines, 347–351
    Vendor partnering, 472–473
    VersionOne, 169
    Vision, 5, 19, 39, 69, 74–75, 86, 91, 92,
    143–145, 208, 243, 246, 249,
    255–259, 265–266, 277, 329, 357,
    361, 380, 382, 386, 390, 410, 411,
    421, 445, 480, 511, 519, 557–558578 I n d e x
    W
    Waste, 38, 62, 85, 111, 113, 131, 193,
    196, 200, 201, 204, 205, 208–210,
    241, 251, 539, 550
    Waterfall, 2, 6–11, 18–20, 26–27, 31, 33,
    36, 70, 86, 114, 117, 125, 144, 151,
    197, 217, 221–222, 244, 277, 346,
    362, 398, 400–403, 419, 430, 431,
    441, 451, 452, 471, 473, 504, 515,
    520, 528, 552, 554–555
    Work-in-process limits. See Kanban,
    work-in-process limits

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