The Petroleum Shipping Industry – Volume I

The Petroleum Shipping Industry – Volume I
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Michael D. Tusiani
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7 مارس 2022
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The Petroleum Shipping Industry – Volume I
Operations and Practices-Pennwell Corp
ANontechnical Overview
Michael D. Tusiani
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi
l. OIL: AN INTRODUCTION TO SHIPPING 1
1973 oil crisis and the war on oil 3
Renewable energy sources 3
Nonrenewable energy sources 8
Government energy policies 12
Energy conservation 13
Developing technologies 18
Unconventional sources of oil 18
Severing the link between economic activity and energy 19
The verdict 23

  1. WHY TANKER OWNERS? 25
    Advantages of chartering 26
    Long-term rate setting mechanism 31
    Short-term rate setting mechanism 33
    Worldscale rates 37
  2. PRE-ONASSIS ERA 41
    Early history of oil and tankers 41
    Paving the way for shipping fortunes 50
  3. ONASSIS ERA 55
    Siting of oil refineries 55
    Growth of an energy-intensive economy 57
    The dethroning of “King Coal” 58
    The United States becomes energy dependent 59
    Economy of scale 62
    Crude carrier size classes 64
    Fortuitous closing of the Suez Canal 68
    The invention of the VLCC 72
    Climax of an era 74
    vii5. POST-ONASSIS ERA (CREATING THE SURPLUS) 83
    Aftermath of the crisis 87
    Loss of large crude carrier demand in North America and Europe 93
    Loss of large crude carrier demand in Europe 99
    Gain of large crude carrier demand in the Far East 112
  4. POST-ONASSIS ERA (DEALING WITH THE SURPLUS) 117
    Scrapping 117
    Structural shifts in large crude carrier ownership
    between the 1970s and 1990s 124
    Organizational structure of tanker-owning companies 134
    Strategic alliances 136
  5. REFINERY OPERATION AND TANKER DEMAND 139
    White products l40
    Black products l41
    Refiner’s margin 142
    Refinery operations determines tanker demand 143
    Product carrier employment l49
  6. TANKER DESIGN AND EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS 163
    Tank cleaning 165
    Tank coating 167
    Product carrier rates and employment patterns 168
    Aframax and Suezmax tankers 173
    VLCCs 181
  7. FORECASTING TANKER RATES 193
    Necessity to forecast 194
    The logical approach to freight rate forecasting 196
    Product carrier demand forecast 197
    Elements of a VLCC supply-demand forecast 198
    Naive, predestined, and chaotic approaches 212
    vIIi10. OIL POLLUTION LIABILITY
    International conventions
    Civil liability convention
    Fund convention
    TOVALOP and CRISTAL
    Oil spill claims
    Oil Pollution Act of 1990
    Manning standards for foreign flag tankers
    Double-hull vs. mid-deck design
    Environmentalists
    Oil spill prevention is better than cure
    OPRC convention
  8. LPG CARRIERS
    Liquefied petroleum gas
    Snapshot of the U. S. LPG market
    Snapshot of the Japanese LPG market
    World LPG demand
    Impact of liquefied gas pricing on demand
    Forecasting seaborne demand
    LPG shipping costs
    Netback values affect trading patterns
    International LPG trading pattern
    LPG carriers
  9. LNG CARRIERS
    Nature of LNG projects
    Volume II – A Look At Practices And Operations
    INDEX
    A
    AFRA rates 64-66
    API degree 145, 254
    Abadan refinery 49, 56
    acid rain 8-9, 142
    Adam Smith 34, 37, 182-183
    Aframax tanker 27, 64-68, 92 , 101,172-175,177-178,186,194,210
    air draft 156
    Algeria 10, 158, 273, 283, 293 , 295
    Amoco Cadiz 225-227
    Arab Israeli War 2, 71
    Aswan dam 7
    B
    barges 155
    Bergesen 74, 125,281,284
    biomass 3-5
    black products 16, 141 , 166
    Brazil 4, 6, 16, 158-159, 186-187, 189,273
    British Petroleum 49, 56
    brokers 34
    bunkers l4, 31,58, l41, 147
    c
    CAFE 16-17
    CERCLA 230
    CLC 222-223, 229-230, 251
    COFR 235-238
    COW 166-167
    CRISTAL 224-225
    303THE PETROLEUM SHIPPIN6 INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
    cabotage 96-99
    Canada 5-7, 9, 12, 19,260
    canal dues 31, 188
    cargo handling 163-165, 258, 275-276
    cargo preference 97, 99
    centerline bulkhead 42,49-50, 165
    chartering 25-32,84-85, 121,201
    chartering managers 25-27, 29, 31, 83-84, 86, 189
    ChernobylU-12
    Chevron 112, 150
    China 6-7, 13, 18,23,31,42, 123, 150-151, 175
    Churchill, Winston 49
    Clarkson Research 199-200
    classification society 119, 279
    clean products see white products
    Coast Guard 237-238, 244-245, 280
    coaI4,8-11, 18,21,47,55,58,90,153,208
    cogeneration 16
    Colombia 19, 178, 184
    combination carriers U8, 175-177, 180-181, 186-187
    conservation 3, 13-18,20-21,90,96
    cost containment 25-26
    crude carrier 63, 92-93, 167-168, 170, 194
    crude oil, sweet and sour 145,197
    cubing out 62, 165
    cycles 212-214
    D
    deadweight ton 62,67
    design draft 164
    diesel engines 50, 64
    diesel fuel 16, 40, 154
    dirty products, see black products
    distillation 16, 42, 139-140
    3016diversion costs 188-189
    Double Eagle tanker 164-168
    double hulls 199, 242-243
    Drake, Edwin 41-42
    dry bulk carriers 34
    E
    economic activity 1-2, 19-20,57-58,206-207
    economic risk 28-29
    economy of scale 62-64, 66-68
    electricity 5-9, 11-12, 15-16,58, 145, 153, 161,208
    energy 1, 19-23,57-59
    energy dependence 55, 59-62, 90
    energy efficiency 14-16, 21, 29, 50, 90,177-178,280
    energy policies 2, 10, 12
    environment 5-9,18,42,142,147,166,256
    environmentalists 11,95-96, 197,245-246
    Exxon (Esso) 49
    Exxon Valdez 93,227-229
    F
    FOB/CIF 281
    FPSO 10, 118, 198
    Fairplay 201-202
    Finland 7, 12
    flags 48, 51,96-97,202
    floating storage 120-121, 183,269,280
    forecasting 8,83-85, 151, 193-216,259-261,265-269
    France 4, 11-12,20, 158, 160
    fuel consumption 67
    fuel oil 16,47-48, 58,141,147,153,166
    Fund Convention 223-224,229-230,251
    INDEX
    305THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
    G
    gasoline 4,16-18,140,153-154,166
    gasoline taxes 4, 16-17
    geothermal energy 5, 16,208
    Germany 11-12, 18,20, 158
    global warming 8-9
    Gluckauf 43-44
    goldplating 30-31
    government policies 3-4, 12-13, 16, 18,94-96,99,220-222,246-247
    gross tons 202
    Gulf Oil 48, 74
    H
    hire 67-68, 107
    history (tankers) 41-52
    hydro power 3,5-7,21,90,208
    hydrogasification 18
    I
    lEA 9, 12,207-209
    IPe pipeline 63, 75-76
    independent tanker owners 25-26, 124-128
    India 37, 42, 124
    Indonesia 5, 273, 292-293, 296
    insurance 31,63, 119,235-238
    integrated oil company 25-26, 31-32
    international conventions 220-222, 229-230
    Intertanko 201, 219-220, 232
    Iran 134
    Iran-Iraq War 99, 278
    Iraq 75,77, 109-111
    Iraq-Turkey pipeline 110-112, 178, 184
    306Ireland 7, 12
    Islamic Revolution 2
    Itaipu Dam 6-7
    Italy 5, 10, 12,20, 151-153, 158-161, 187
    J
    JAMRI 202-203
    Japan 5, 12, 16,20, 123, 150,261-263,291,293
    jet fuel 16, 140, 166
    Jones Act 96-99
    K
    KPC 32, 172, 189
    kerosene 5, 16,42-44,49,56
    kerogen 18-19
    Korea 12, 16, 123, 150,202,208,262,291
    Kuwait 32,77,109, III
    Kuwait War 99, 109-ll0, 120, 170, 183,266
    L
    LOOP 104-106, 187, 199,243
    LNG 261, 266, 287-288
    LNG carriers 16, 288-293
    LNG projects 294-299
    LPG 253-268
    LPG carriers 253, 273-284
    latent heat 15, 276
    lay-up 26-27, ll8-120, 198
    Libya 76, 78, 158-160,283
    light displacement 123
    lightering 105-106, 175,243
    link (energy/economy) 3, 19-23,57-58,208
    Lloyd’s Maritime Services 150-151,268-269
    INDEX
    307THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
    logistics 1,27-28,44,47,56-58,99, 172, 186-189
    long-term charters 28, 71,84, 135
    long-term rates 31-33
    longitudinel bulkheads 49-50, 181,274
    Ludwig, D.K. 50-52,69,74,87, 125
    M
    MARPOL Regulations 189, 199,203,243
    maintenance 31, 50, 63-64
    manning 29,31,63-64,96-97,241-242,280
    maritime regulation 51-52
    Marshall Plan 57-58
    medium-term charters 28,7 1, 135
    merchant refiner 143-148
    methane 4, 18, 140,254
    Mexico 9, 27, 94, 101, 149, 187-189,207,216,273
    Middle East 3, 12,23,2 7,42,49,55,62,70-72,84,86,90-91, 100-101,
    105, Ill, 120, 149, 159, 172, 178, 181-189, 194,259,265-267,
    271,273,280,283,291
    mortgages 69, 86, 119-120
    N
    NAFTA 9,
    Naess, E. 83
    Nasser 70
    national oil companies 32, 132
    natural gas 8-11, 16, 18,21,58,90,94-95, 100,208,253-254,261,287
    nautical mile 60
    netback values 271-272
    Netherlands 2, 5, 10, 12, 79, 85
    New Zealand 5-6, 12
    Niarchos, S. 70, 72, 87
    Nigeria 158-159, 179,295-296
    Nobel brothers 47-49
    308nonrenewable energy 8-11
    North Sea 9-10, 100-101, 113, 178, 184-186, 194,271,284
    Norway 6, 10, 12
    Norwegian Guarantee Institute 87
    nuclear power 7, 11-12,21,23,90, 100, 153,208
    a
    OCIMF 106
    OECD 1, 12-13
    OPEC 1, 78
    OPA 90 199,220,229-247
    OPRC Convention 248-250
    oil 1, 8, 21-23, 55, 58,145-146
    oil crisis (1973) 2-3, 20, 23, 35, 55, 62, 85-89, 135
    oil pollution liability 32,201,219-251
    oil prices 1-3, 13,20,23 ,44-45, 71 ,74,84-86,89,91-94,145-148,
    153-154, 206
    oil shale 18-19
    oil traders 154, 160
    Onassis, A. 50-52,68-72,84,87, 125
    operating costs 29-31,35, 63-64, 67, 169,282
    organizational structures 124-126, 134-137
    Orimulsion 19
    overhead 29-31
    ownership, nature of 124-136
    p
    P&’I Clubs 222, 235-238
    Panama Canal 62, 98
    parcel tankers 163-164
    Peter the Great 42
    petroleum coke 141-142
    Petroline pipeline 109-110, 184
    Plimsoll marks 65
    INDEX
    309THE PETROLEUM SHIPPING INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
    pooling 37, 117,281-284
    ports 31, 72, 104-108, 156, 169
    port charges 31
    preemption 231-232
    product carrier 28,63,75-76,92-93, 102-103, 148-161, 163-165,
    167-173, 196-197
    productivity 183-184, 210-211
    Q
    Quebec Hydro 6
    R
    rates ofreturn 30-32,34-35,67,211
    rationalization, see pooling
    Reagen, R. 97
    refiner’s margin 142-145
    refinery operations 27-28, 42,55-57,98, 102-103, 139-149, 157-158,
    196-197,265
    Reksten, H. 83-84, 86
    reletting 33
    renewable energy sources 3-8
    rock oil 41
    Rockefeller, J.D. 44-48
    Roosevelt, Theodore 8, 46
    Russia 10-13, 18,21-22,47-48,56, 1.11-112, 160-161, 184,283,296
    5
    SPM 104-105, 108, 187-189
    Salvage Association 200-201
    Saudi Arabia 69-70,79,85,94, 134,265-267
    Saudi-Med pipeline 109-110
    Samuel, Marcus 48
    Scandinavia 6-7, 11
    310INDEX
    scantling draft 164-165
    scenario planning 214-215
    scrapping 117-119, 121-124, 198-200
    seaborne trade 59-62, 90-93, 272-273
    segregated tanks 63, 165, 170, 181,242-243
    seismic exploration 9-10, 96
    segregated ballast tanks 181, 199, 274
    Shell Oil 48-49, 74, 214, 273, 288, 291, 297
    ship operations/management 31, 69
    short-term charters 28,71, 135
    short-term rates 33-37, 120-121
    shuttle vessels 105-106
    single voyage: see spot fixtures and market
    Spain 10, 12, 123, 187
    special survey 198-200
    spot fixtures 28, 33
    spot market 33-37, 68-71, 74-79, 87, 120-121, 169-170, 182-183,273
    Standard Oil 45-49
    strategic alliances 136-137
    Suez Canal 48, 55, 62, 66, 68-72, 74,87, 100-109, 113, 184, 187-188
    Suezmax tanker 62-64,66-68, 72-74, 92, 101, 103, 173-174, 179-181, 186
    Sumed pipeline 74, 77, 108-110, 184
    super tanker 28-29
    supplies 31, 64
    synthetic crude 19
    T
    T-2 tanker 31, 41,50-52,57,62-64
    TOVALOP 224-225
    tank cleaning 165-167
    tank coatings 49-50, 164, 167-168, 181,200
    tank design 43-44, 163-165,273-275,278-279,287-293
    Tanker Advisory Center 200-201
    tanker owners 25-26
    311THE PETROLEUM SHIPPIN& INDUSTRY • VOLUME I
    tanker ownership 32-33, 36-37
    tar sand 19
    tax benefits 13, 18, 86
    taxes 51-52,64-66, 69, 86, 96
    techological obsolescence 28-29, 177-178
    terminals 155-157, 168-169,258-259,270,275,277
    Three Gorges dam 7
    Three Mile Island 11
    tidal energy 3, 5-6
    ton-mile demand 90-93
    Trans-Alaska pipeline 77, 3-96
    Trans-Arabian pipeline 79, 110, 178
    TransCanada pipeline 9
    Trans-Israel pipeline 79, 110
    trans-Mediterranean pipelines 10
    trans-Panama pipeline 98
    transportation 16-18, 42-44
    transportation cost 31, 56, 63-64, 66-68, 269-270
    transshipment 105, 150, 175, 186, 199
    transverse bulkheads 43, 165, 181,274
    Turkey 12,111-112
    U
    ULCC 64, 66, 74, 87-89, 103-104, 120-121
    UK-Continent Interconnector 10
    United Kingdom 10, 12,20,37, 158
    United States 2,5,6-9, 11-12, 16, 18,56-62,64,79,85,93-99, 113, l49,
    175,180,255-260,271,295
    uranium 8, 11
    v
    VLCC 14,27,32,35,64,66-68,72-79,85,87-89,92,100-101,103-114,
    120-121, 124-134, 174, 177, 179-189, 193-194, 199-204
    VLPC 171-173, 194
    312VRP 239-241
    VTS 248
    Venezuela 19, 175, 178, 184,273,296
    vessel operating costs 67-68
    vessel safety 43-44,47-50,250-251,269-270,276-278,291,297
    vessel stability 43-44,49-50, 274
    vessel tracking 150-151
    voyage calculations 60-62,67-68, 100-101, 103-104, 106, 183-184,
    187-189
    voyages, piston 98, 170
    voyages, triangulation 98, 170, 186-187
    w
    waste heat 15-16,21
    whale oil 5, 42
    white products 16,140,146-148
    World Energy Outlook 13
    Worldscale 35,37-39,68, 187-188
    X-Y-Z
    yards 70-71, 85, 87-88, 93, 96-97, 181, 189, 194,202-203,278-280,
    291,295
    Young, James 42

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